This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

Mathematical Olympiads 19951996 Olympiad Around TheWorld3.5

|Views: 1,757|Likes: 27Published by Rahul Gupta

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/18136042/Mathematical-Olympiads-19951996-Olympiad-Around-TheWorld

10/30/2012

text

original

1. Let O and G be the circumcenter and centroid, respectively, of tri-

angle ABC. If R is the circumradius and r the inradius of ABC,

show that

OG*≤
*

R(R*−*2r).

Solution: Using vectors with origin at O, we note that

OG2

= 1

9(A+B +C)2

= 1

3R2

+ 2

9R2

(cos2A+ cos2B + cos2C).

Hence R2

*−* OG2

= (a2

+ b2

+ c2

)/9. On the other hand, by the

standard area formula K = rs = abc/4R, we have 2rR = abc/(a +

b+c). We now note that

(a2

+b2

+c2

)(a+b+c)* ≥* 9abc

by two applications of the AM-GM inequality, so 2rR* ≤* R2

*−*OG2

,

proving the claim.

2. Let p > 5 be a prime number and X =* {*p* −* n2

*|*n* ∈ N*,n2

< p*}*.

Prove that X contains two distinct elements x,y such that x* *= 1

and x divides y.

Solution: Write p = m2

+ k with k* ≤* 2m. If 1 < k < 2m and

k is either odd or a multiple of 4, we can write k = a(2m*−*a) =

m2

*−* (m*−* a)2

, and then k*|*p2

*−* (m*−* a)2

. If k is even but not a

multiple of 4, write 2k = a(2m*−* a) and proceed as above, which

still works because 2k < m2

for p > 5.

We can’t have k = 2m since m2

+ 2m = m(m + 2) is composite, so

the only case left is p = m2

+1. In this case let t = 2m = p*−*(m*−*1)2

and write either t or 2t as a diﬀerence of squares (m*−*1)2

*−*(m*−*a)2

;

this still works because 2t < (m*−*1)2

for p*≥* 7.

3. Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon, and let M,N,P,Q,R be the

midpoints of sides AB,BC,CD,DE,EA, respectively. If the seg-

ments AP,BQ,CR,DM have a common point, show that this point

also lies on EN.

108

Solution: Let T be the common point, which we take as the origin

of a vector system. Then A*×*P = 0, or equivalently A*×*(C+D) = 0,

which we may write A*×*C = D*×*A. Similarly, we have B* ×*D =

E* ×*B, C* ×*E = A*×*C, D*×*A = B* ×*D. Putting these equalities

together gives E* ×*B = C* ×*E, or E* ×*(B + C) = 0, which means

the line EN also passes through the origin T.

4. Show that there exists a subset A of the set* {*1,2,...,1996*}* having

the following properties:

(a) 1,21996

*−*1*∈* A;

(b) every element of A, except 1, is the sum of two (not necessarily

distinct) elements of A;

(c) A contains at most 2012 elements.

Solution: We state the problem a bit diﬀerently: we want to

write down at most 2012 numbers, starting with 1 and ending with

21996

*−*1, such that every number written is the sum of two numbers

previously written. If 2n

*−* 1 has been written, then 2n

(2n

*−* 1)

can be obtained by n doublings, and 22n

*−* 1 can be obtained in

one more step. Hence we can obtain 22

*−* 1,24

*−* 1,...,2256

*−* 1

in (1 + 1) + (2 + 1) +* ···* + (128 + 1) = 263 steps. In 243 steps,

we turn 2256

*−* 1 into 2499

*−* 2243

. Now notice that the numbers

2243

*−*2115

,2115

*−*251

,251

*−*219

,219

*−*23

,23

*−*21

,21

*−*1 have all been

written down; in 6 steps, we now obtain 2499

*−*1. We make this into

2998

*−*1 in 500 steps, and make 21996

*−*1 in 999 steps. Adding 1 for

the initial 1, we count

1 + 263 + 243 + 6 + 500 + 999 = 2012

numbers written down, as desired.

109

QuantumMF Factsheets February-2014

Titu Andreescu - Contests Around the World 2000-2001

Titu Andreescu - Contests Around the World 1999-2000

3 Introductory

Olympiad Phase II

Olympiad Phase I

Mild or Fine Qualities

Basic Course

Pythagorean Theorem-The Crown Jewel of Mathematics

CombinatoricsBylal

List of Books

The Language of Mathematics

Solving Mathematical Problems a Personal Perspective

Mathematical Olympiads 19971998 Olympiad Around TheWorld

The Ussrolympiad Problem Booi(

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

50261677 an Introduction to Inequalities

Solving Mathematical Problems a Personal Perspective

The Ussrolympiad Problem Booi(

Mathematical Olympiads 19971998 Olympiad Around TheWorld

Math Circle 1

Mathematics, Trigonometry

The Language of Mathematics

Chinese Maths Olympiad

math olympiad

Circles(form3)

IMOMATH - Equations in polynomials

IMOMATH - Classical inequalities

IMOMATH - Arithmetic in quadratic fields

Math Olympiad Tutorials

Mathematical Olympiads - Problems and Solutions From Around the World [2000-2001] - T. Andreescu, Z. Feng WW

Selected Problems of the Vietnamese Mathematical Olympiad

Hojoo Lee & Peter Vandendriessche - Problems in Elementary Number Theory

IMOMATH - Generating Functions

Problem primer for olympiad

IMOMATH - Functional Equations

A Friendly Mathematics Competition - 35 Years of Teamwork in Indiana

Singapore Mathematical Olympiads (2011)

Selected Problems of the Vietnamese Mathematical Olympiad

Olympiads Problem

american olympiad

Math Olympiad All

The Art and Craft of Problem Solving

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->