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10/30/2012

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1. Let O and G be the circumcenter and centroid, respectively, of tri-
angle ABC. If R is the circumradius and r the inradius of ABC,
show that

OG

R(R2r).
Solution: Using vectors with origin at O, we note that

OG2

= 1

9(A+B +C)2

= 1

3R2

+ 2

9R2

(cos2A+ cos2B + cos2C).

Hence R2

OG2

= (a2

+ b2

+ c2

)/9. On the other hand, by the
standard area formula K = rs = abc/4R, we have 2rR = abc/(a +
b+c). We now note that

(a2

+b2

+c2

)(a+b+c) 9abc

by two applications of the AM-GM inequality, so 2rR R2

OG2

,

proving the claim.

2. Let p > 5 be a prime number and X = {p n2

|n ∈ N,n2

< p}.
Prove that X contains two distinct elements x,y such that x = 1
and x divides y.

Solution: Write p = m2

+ k with k 2m. If 1 < k < 2m and
k is either odd or a multiple of 4, we can write k = a(2ma) =

m2

(m a)2

, and then k|p2

(m a)2

. If k is even but not a
multiple of 4, write 2k = a(2m a) and proceed as above, which
still works because 2k < m2

for p > 5.

We can’t have k = 2m since m2

+ 2m = m(m + 2) is composite, so

the only case left is p = m2

+1. In this case let t = 2m = p(m1)2
and write either t or 2t as a diﬀerence of squares (m1)2

(ma)2
;

this still works because 2t < (m1)2

for p 7.

3. Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon, and let M,N,P,Q,R be the
midpoints of sides AB,BC,CD,DE,EA, respectively. If the seg-
ments AP,BQ,CR,DM have a common point, show that this point
also lies on EN.

108

Solution: Let T be the common point, which we take as the origin
of a vector system. Then A×P = 0, or equivalently A×(C+D) = 0,
which we may write A×C = D×A. Similarly, we have B ×D =
E ×B, C ×E = A×C, D×A = B ×D. Putting these equalities
together gives E ×B = C ×E, or E ×(B + C) = 0, which means
the line EN also passes through the origin T.

4. Show that there exists a subset A of the set {1,2,...,1996} having
the following properties:

(a) 1,21996

1 A;
(b) every element of A, except 1, is the sum of two (not necessarily
distinct) elements of A;

(c) A contains at most 2012 elements.

Solution: We state the problem a bit diﬀerently: we want to
write down at most 2012 numbers, starting with 1 and ending with
21996

1, such that every number written is the sum of two numbers
previously written. If 2n

1 has been written, then 2n

(2n

1)

can be obtained by n doublings, and 22n

1 can be obtained in

one more step. Hence we can obtain 22

1,24

1,...,2256

1
in (1 + 1) + (2 + 1) + ··· + (128 + 1) = 263 steps. In 243 steps,
we turn 2256

1 into 2499

2243

. Now notice that the numbers

2243

2115

,2115

251

,251

219

,219

23

,23

21

,21

1 have all been

written down; in 6 steps, we now obtain 2499

1. We make this into

2998

1 in 500 steps, and make 21996

1 in 999 steps. Adding 1 for

the initial 1, we count

1 + 263 + 243 + 6 + 500 + 999 = 2012

numbers written down, as desired.

109

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