Pacem in Terris Pacem in Terris is an encyclical letter written by Pope John XXIII.

It was issued in the midst of the Nuclear Arms Race and the Cold War. This was the time when the two superpowers, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, had political and military conflicts. These conflicts arose because the two possessed nuclear weapons and threatened mutual assured destruction. One of the events during the Cold War was the Cuban Missile Crisis. This was a 13-day stand-off due to the installment of Soviet missiles in Cuba which was just 90-miles from US shores. Because of such conflicts, about a year after, Pope John XXIII wrote the Encyclical of Pacem in Terris to address the Cold War. Pope John XXIII stated that peace on earth can never be established except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order in human beings. The Encyclical is divided into five sections: Order Between Men, Relations Between Individuals and the Public Authorities, Relations Between States, Relationship of Men and of Political Communities with the World Community, and Pastoral Exhortations. What differs this encyclical from the others is that this was written not only to the Catholics but to all men of good will. God created man in his own image and likeness that is why each individual is endowed with intelligence and free will and as such we have rights and duties. These rights and duties are universal, inviolable, and inalienable. The rights being pertained by Pope John XXIII are those found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. All these rights entail a social obligation or duties. The Pope stated that claiming one's rights and ignoring one's duties or only half fulfilling them is like building a house with one hand and tearing it down with the other. Peace on Earth can never be established except by observing order. The order in human beings is the recognition of each individuals rights and duties. What Pope John XXIII wants to tell us is that: if there is order in human beings and if there is order in society, there will be peace on earth.

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