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IS 883 : 1994

Indian Standard

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER IN BUILDING - CODE OF PRACTICE


(Fourth Revisioti / m
First Reprint JULY 1995

UDC

691.11 : 624.011-l

: 624.04

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN

STANDARDS
MAR0
Price Group 7

9 BAHADUR SHAH, WAR NEW DELHI 110002

August 1994

Building

Construction

Practices Sectional

Committee,

CED 13

FOREWORD This Inditin Standard ( Fourth Revision finalized by the Building Construction Engineering Division Clouncil. ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after thedraft Practices Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil

This Indian Standard was first published as code of practice for use of structural timber in building ( material, grading and design ) in 1957 and was first revised in 1961. In the second revision in 1966, clauses relating to specification and grouping of structural timber were deleted and these aspects were covered in detail in a separate standard, namely IS 3629 : 1966 Specification for structural timber in building which was subsequently revised in 1986. The third revision of this standard took place in 1970. This is the fourth revision of the standard. In this revision besides taking into account the revised version of IS 3ci29: 1986 Specification for structural timber in building (Jirst revision ) and strr ngth data on additional species, the experience gained during the past years in using the standard, has also been considered. The different species of timber available in the country which have been tested so far and found suitable for construction purpjsea have been classified into three main groups based on modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture. The design of deep and built-up beams and spaced columns are covered in detail. Safe working stresses of recommended species and their relevant pertinent data given in this standard have largely been derived from publications of Forest Research institute, Dehra Dun. In the formulation of this standard due weightage the standards and practices prevailing in different the field in this country.
being

has been countries

given to international co-ordination among in addition to relating it to the practices in timber in building.
The other standard

This standard is one of the two Indian IS 3629 : 1986.

Standards

on slructural

For the purpose ofdeciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or/analysts, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical VaheS ( revised ). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

Indian Standard

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER IN BUILDING -CODE OF PRACTICE


(Fourth Revision)
1 SCOPE Ii1 This involved buildings. standard covers the general principles in the design of structural timber in aspects are not covered in 3.1.5
Solid Column

Solid columns are formed solid core throughout. 3.1.6


Saced Column

of any-section

having

1.2 The following this standard: a) Timber b) Structural


C)

pile foundations; use of plywood; structural timber and construction. joints and

Spaced columns are formed of two or more members jointed at their ends and intermediate points by block pieces 3.1.7
Working Stress

Design of fastenings;

d) Lamclla

arch roofing;

Stress obtained after applying ment factors ( according to the to the permissible stress. 4 SYMBOLS

necessary particular

adjustdesign )

e) Timber-concrete 2 REFERENCES

composite

2.1 The Indian Standards listed in Annex necessary adjuncts to this standard. 3 TERMINOLOGY

A are

For the purpose of this code, the letter symbols shall have the meaning against each: A
b

following indicated in mm

~3 area of cross-section
=

of column

breadth

of beam

in mm

3.1 For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 707 : 1976 and IS 3629 : 1986, and the following shall apply. 3.1.1
Box Column

c
D

= concentrated
s

load in N

depth depth

of beam in mm of beam of notch at notch in mm side of column in in mm

DI -

A column

formed of four members hollow core. Members are joined another forming a box and provided block at ends and intermediate points. 3.1.2
The Fundamental or Ultimate Stress

having a with one with solid

D, d dl do E
e

= depth

= dimensions

of least width

mm
= s =

the least overall in mm

of box column of,core bending in in

stress which is determined on small clear with standard specimen of timber, in accordance practice and does not take into account the effect of naturally occurring characteristics and other factors. 3.1.3
Stress Permissible Slress

the least overall dimension box column in mm modulus N/mm of elasticity in

obtained after the ultimate stress. 3.1.4


Purlin

applying

factor of safety to

= length of the notch measured along the beam span from the inner edge of the support to the farthest edge. of the notch in mm
=

f ab
rOOf Covering

calculated bending fibre in N/mms average stress in N/mms

stress axial

in

extreme

A roof member directly.supporting or rafter and roof battens.

fso = calculated
1

compressive

IS 883 : 1994 calculated axial tensile stress in N/mm*

u
V w= ; r 6 8

= the permissible bending stress on the extreme fibre in N/mm*

fo = f cnf OP
=

permissible stress in axial compression in N/mm* permissible stress in compression normal ( perpendicular ) to grain in N/mm* compression permissible stress in parallel to grain in N/mm -permissible compressive stress in the direction of the line of action of the load in N/mms permissible stress in tension parallel to grain in N/mm*

= constant for a particular thickness of plank = vertical end reaction or shear at a section in N total uniform load = distance in mm from reaction to load = section modulus of beam in mms = a factor determining the value of form factor K, = angle of load to grain direction deflection at middle of beam

foe = ft =
H ; X,

5 MATERIAL 5.1 Species of Timber The species of timber recommended for constructional purposes are given in Table 1. 5.1.1 Grouping Species of timber recommended for constructional purposes are classified in three groups on the basis of their strength properties, namely, modulus of elasticity ( E ) and extreme fibre stress in bending and tension (fb ). The characteristics of these groups are given below: Group A - E above 12.6 x 1GsN/mms; fb above 18 0 N/mms Group B - E above 9.8 x 10s N/mm* and up to 12.6 x 10s N/mms; fa above 12.0 N/mm* and up to 18.0 N/mm Group C - E above 5.6 x 10s N/mm* and up to 9.8 x 1Cs N/mm; ,fb above 8.5 N/mm and up to 12.0 N/mm 5.1.2 Safe permissible stresses for the species of timber (classified into there groups in 5.1.1 ) are given in Table 1. 5.1.3 Timber species may be accordance with good practice. identified in

= horizontal shear stress in N/mm* = moment of inertia of a section in mm4 - coefficient in deflection depending upon type, criticality of loading on beam modification factor for change in of grain
~10~

Ks c modification factor for change in duration of loadings &I, x;, A-6 and Ks = form factors XT - modification factor for bearing stress KS K.

= =

constant equal to O-584 constant equal to +

ffp

UxE _
WOP

KIO=
1 -

constant equal to 0.584 span of beam or truss in mm

_!%

f CP

Mn

Maximum bending moment in beam in N [mm = shank diameter of the nail ratio of the thickness of the compression flange to the depth of the beam

p1 -

Q=
Q
Ql

S t

statical moment of area above or below the neutral axis about neutral axis in nuns = a constant for particular thickness of plank = ratio of the total thickness of web or webs to the overall width of the beam = unsupported overall length of column in mm w nominal thickness of planks used in forming box type column in mm

5.2 Other general characteristics like durability, treatability of the species are given in Table 1, as far as these are known. The species of timber other than those given in Table 1 may be used provided the basic strength properties are determined and found in accordance with 5.1.1. Other species can be used at the risk of larger sections and economy. NOTE - For obtaining basic stress figures of the unlisted species, a reference may be made to the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. 5.3 Moisture Content in Timber Unless otherwise specified the moisture content of the timber shall conform to the requirements given in IS 287 : 1993 ( ste also Tablt 2 for rtcommendtd moisturt conttnt bawd on tht zonaf division of the country ). 2

1s JJs3t 1994
Table 1 Safe Permissible Stresses for the Species of Timber 6.4.2, 6.4.2.2, 7.5.8.4 (b) ]
PrmerV8tIe --p-----T ComDrewan Perpeodicular r------.---y
Cburcterm

[ Clou~ar 5.1, 5.12, 5.2, 5.7.1, 5.7.2 (b) 6.2, 6.3,6.4.1,


Spedes _______-_-------~ Trade Name LocsUty Where Prom Tested Aversge Unit Mssm at 12 PerCell M&rue

Modo? Eluticit~ A~~r$s Loe.don~

(3)

Pcrmisssiblc She. I* N mm ror Grrdt , -_---______h-____-_Shear Along drain, Extreme Ail Loc.slions Comprt uion c---*--T Fi bre Srren Parallel co Gram Horizon91onw .----.--*--_-----1 --_*_---_ Grain Inside Outride Wer LOCaLO==LOCZiLOCalion tmn lion -__ -__ ._ !13) (81 (6) (7) r----_-_
Bendina and Tension

to Grain Wet LOCSt,on

--_A____ tDurability Cti

R=fnct0rimenuA& :Treunbiliry Grade

_ -- (16) 77 109 7.3 55 6.0 93 99 92 5.7 5-y 113 87 118 53 40 95 44 47


6'0

(17)

(18)

(19)

Kbaw I&u@ch Blrck sirir ) Bruguiera ( Mangrove Dbaman Karng Hopea HOptl Ping Mnua Bullet-wood Ballagi Red saodtr; Cboai Padri Milla Kakko Dbrura. Axle wood ( Bakli ) Aim Babul Saled Aglaia Yen Juegli-nimbu Jut1li Amari Pip11 khair Mundoni

u.

P.

I 009

13*4 1679 1354 176 8 1482 1691 1479 1303 1320 1630 1739 1629 1273 1506 1294 1301 1117 1055

201 265 187 219 183 25.1 21.3 186 I91 233 227 224 25.0 215 190 182 134 Itil

168 220 156 183 152 209 17.3 155 15.3 194 189 la.7 209 179 158 15.2 1 I2 134

131 Ii6 125 146 122 167 112 124 127 155 151 150 !67 143 127 121 90 107

I.55 224 I .53 118 131 151 153 129 128 I.23 I 47 153 174 105 112 117 I 08 111

2.21 320 219 I 69 187 216 2.19 184 184 I76 210 218 240 150 160 167 1.54 159

13tl 179 I3 3 143 120 164 145 132 117 155 112 147 I&l 125 119 126 90 91

123 15.9 118 12.7 107 116 129 11.8 104 138 127 L3l 161 II1 106 112 80 81

101 130 96 104 87 Il.9 106 96 85 113 104 107 13.2 91 87 92 65 66

49 89 46 35 3.8 59 63 6.0 36 3.7 72 55 75 34 26 6.1 2.8 30 I

M. P. Madras AndrnPnr M adra, Madras .Madras Madrar Assam A.U=lll S. Andaman Madras Madras .4odaman Madras .Mah.washtra Andaman u. P.

I 086
737 897 788 987 ,081 923 903 965 I 103

84 56 43 *7 73 7.7 73 4.4 46 88 68 92 4.1 31 74 34 37

e -

A
A

III II I I III I I I -

B B A

e b e _ c -

A A

I 139 I 121
869 731 937 642 a92

111 I I I

e e

B A

Yadr.u Il. P. Mahar=htra Madras .\nlm Oriw4 Orissa .&am Ueogal W. Bengal

6110 797 993 690 815 Pt4 897 iYi 1025 671

1045 1228 l25Y 125-6 1167 1031 1137 105 989

150 230 161 It)2 17% 16.7 17.1 134 128

12 5 129 19.2 134 152 147 139 143 11 107

100 lo3 153 108 121 117 II.1 II.4 92 86

014 144 165 123 I.41 127 147 117 090 I 05

I.05 206 935 176 202 180 210 181 I 30 I49

104 89 139 IO5 101 108 113 II0 t14 79

92 79 124 94 89 96 100 98 7.4 70

75 64 101 7.7 73 7.9 82 80 60 57

33 52 99 46 +4 51 61 68 3.7 35

2% 40 77 36 34 40 49 53 2.9 27

21 33 63 29 28 33 40 44 24 12

1 II III

II II A B C

.Amalrn~ Maninwaga Dhup &sod Cawarma Peon Srrm I<xan, wond

II.

P.

865 748 655 820 769 657 865 Ii15

1 In0 126.0 118% 10511 1144 97.7 1169 12*3

I92 184 133 154 146 134 182 147

160 153 II1 l2R 122 112 151 123

128 123 8.9 109 98 90 121 9H

I.43 123 086 0.98 127 079 137 ~64

Lo+ 174 I23 139 181 112 196 091

123 II.4 81 108 82 86 109 30

109 IO1 72 9% 73 77 97 80

89 83 59 79 59 63 80 6.6

72 59 28 55 40 28 6.3 27

56 46 2.2 4.3 31 22 49 2.1

46 3.8 18 35 r5 I8 40 I7

I III III II 111 111

e b

A C A B . A C

hsnm Yadrrs M. P. Orissa Maharashtra M, P. Yl.dras

I
3

table

1 ( Codmuif )

,_-_____~_______~ Boraaicsl Name

Spedem
Tnde Name

LmaugFrrom Av;ye
Wbarc Temed M/z .* 12 Per. CCIf

Modnlms of Ehd&, (All Grrd.. md All

c------~----Bending and Tension Along Grain, Fzwcme Fibm Strcu

Prrmlmibl. Strems In N/mm for Crsdc 1 ---A-----ComprmiOn Sbesr P~nllel to Grain All laations ---*-, __.__ ___--_

--,-

-_ - - ---Comprrvwn Pcrpendrculw 10 Grain r-l--h----_ Wet Lots

Prtmrti* Ch-r-ct*m ,---*--_ tDurabi$Trestlity C%w ability Gnde

Scuoriq

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6) 128 lo2 88 a.4 96 100 I03 099 077 075 Ill 148 I.41 110 I06 159 99 80 7.9 88 99 IJTJ 71 71 79 88 7.2 5.8 58 64 72 66 31 27 35 4.7 52 24 21 27 37

(16) 12 19 I7 22 30

(17)

(18)

(19)

I III

745 758 726 Tnli 734

1092 1171 1334 1124

132 125 145 14.9

110 105 I26 124

B B B B

Pali

606

1186

139

II6

93

072

103

85

75

62

2.9

22

18

II

Ebony Ebony Gurjun Eucalyptus ( Blue gum )

776 043 699 912 053 952 778 726 758 a72 617 813 617 734 885 692 715

1215 993 1271 1483 1147 1194 1094 1273 1200 1337 106.2 1088 1076 1097 l23Y loo0 1106

142 135 156 159 164 118 160 135 15.4 179 132 168 127 I)3 173 124 118

119 112 113 13.2 136 123 139 113 126 149 110 14.0 lo6 II9 I44 lo3 123

95 90 90 IO.6 I(r9 98 IO 6 90 IO3 119 88 112 85 95 Il.5 83 99

091 098 071 103 122 114 121 091 137 I27 0.88 110 0 84 109 I.27 I03 0 93

129 I40 I02 I48 I74 I62 I73 130 195 IBl 126 157 I20 I.55 I81 I47 I32

*3 79 78 90 1 I3 92 97 90 91 II0 82 101 82 87 110 82 97

73 70 69 80 100 82 86 80 81 98 73 9.0 73 77 98 73 86

60 5.7 57 65 82 67 71 66 6.6 80 60 73 59 63 8.0 60 70

33 40 25 34 76 58 4.7 40 41 65 29 4.4 34 37 56 35 35

26 31 I9 26 59 4.5 37 31 32 50 2.2 34 26 29 43 27 27

21 25 1.6 21 4.8 37 30 25 26 (I I8 28 22 24 36 22 22 III Ill I II I e e


l

A II! I Ill I II I d d A B A B B A A B/G B A e B A -

788 721 a42 SO3 712 719 Planchonia odido ( Syn P. o*donmtuc, Qynrw lomrllor. Qwcur gqfilh:, Qprrrtu inrona Red bombwe Oak Oak Oak Andmmt, w. Bengal Meghalaya Punjab 913 87.0 974 I 008

1290 1124 1283 1025 Ice9 104.1 131.0 1244 100.6 1082

I(3 17.1 174 14.9 15.0 14.8 161 14.5 131 158

119 143 14.5 124 125 123 134 121 109 131

95 II4 II6 99 100 9S 107 97 88 lo5

I 09 I02 097 094 122 117 095 115 I.1 I 122

156 I.46 I38 I .34 I74 167 I 36 I65 I59 176

91 120 117 91 85 81 108 87 80 87

80 IO7 lo4 81 76 72 96 78 71 7.8

66 87 85 66 62 58 79 64 58 63

40 55 53 41 4.3 33 4.9 38 4.6 50

31 43 41 32 3.3 26 38 29 36 39

25 35 3.3 26 27 21 31 24 29 32

I II I Ill Ill 111 11 -

c c e -

B B B B c A A

( Cmrimd

IS 883 t 1994 Table


Sptde. ~_---_-_--~ Trade LaCllity Prom Where Tared Name Av;zp Mass at 12 Per. cent M,,dmI.m of ElUdCIty (All Grrdc, and All

1 ( tonlinurd

r--_--Batamcal

c----

Name

--__----Bending and Tension Along Grain, Extreme Fihre Strep

Pcrmiwslble Shear All Locations r---*-_y

Stress ia N/mm ___-._ _-_

for Grsdc I _________~______~ Compreumo Perpendicular to Gram c----*----_ In,ide Ourrid<: Wet LUC& LOCaL0ca rion tmn tion

~-_--_-*_--_-~
Ioride Loca.
lion

Camprrrswo Parallel to Grain Outride LfXarion

PrrscrNtic Cb.rret... r-_*-_ tDur=bi&Treatlitv Clam ability Grade

glcfr~ctod-. to Air sauonimg

Wet Locatmn (13) 70 60 77 109 9: 60 6.5 61 83 79 75 6.8 63 68 il 82 7.9 69 73 71 80 63 71 62 3.8 68 5.8 63 43 62 54 55 44 40 64 38 39 71

_.

(2)
Oak Sal Robini Nar,kel Jaman Babera Mymbalan Black-cbuglam Teak Kindal Lallrel, Sain White-cbuglam Bhendi IrUl Mullilam Cbe,tnut Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Eucalyptus White Lakoocb Jack, Pitraj Adinn cordif&* Anlhocepl&u chinrnrir ( Syn. A. Codomba Haldu Lathal siris

(3) W. Bengal Punjab M. P. Madras Mabnrasbtra Assam Assam u. Aslllll S. Andamao Il. P. Mabarashtra Madras S. Aodaman Mabarasbtra Mtlbarmbtra W. Bengal ArUtlXbd Megbalaya Nilgiri ooty Madras u. u. P. P. P.

(4) 874 834 805 I II6 721 5Y3 841 729 918 733 822 660 765 906 690 766 839 387 715 688 831 725 777 643 6+7 617 668 663 485 515 737 630 669 U. P 551 890 705 404 Y29

(5)
1263 115.8 1267 1222 1220 1093 1033 IO1 9 1237 1189 126% 99.7 105.7 1054 1238 1036 1163 1063 Ill7 125.4 1212 935 1103 902 614 946 H9.8 854 188 91.1 78.5 945 til0 735 88.1 91.6 794 975

(6) 132 158 169 215 168 134 148 136 171 171 168 IS5 13 I 151 153 la.9 162 147 152 148 173 15.t 167 134 IO.0 139 123 133 97 13.2 134 130 104 99 135 132 83 170

17) 127 131 140 179 140 II8 124 II3 142 143 140 129 109 125 130 158 135 122 12.7 123 144 129 139 II2 83 II6 102 III 81 110 II2 10 R 66 82 II2 II.0 69 142

(81
101 103 I I? 141 II.2 89 99 90 Ilt II.4 :I2 IO.1 8: 100 IO4 126 108 98 IO1 99 II 3 103 111 89 67 92 82 89 64 X.8 90 a.7 69 63 90 88 55 I I;

(9)
I11 1?7 094 162 110 0 84 Ill 096 Il? Ill I.12 115 092 I10 087 I 32 I28 087 120 098 I38 099 096 098 098 104 108 096 069 0.86 I03 I 05 II.83 088 I.40 I 08 058 I28

(IO)
173 I81 I34 232 I56 I20 158 137 I60 159 160 164 132 I.58 124 I.88 183 124 170 140 I.96 I41 I.38 140 141 148 154 I.36 fl.98 I.21 147 150 I.18 125 2cm I 54 082 I84

(11) 96 83 IO6 150 12% 82 9.0 84 117 108 lo3 94 86 94 98 II3 109 93 IO.3 98 II0 86 97 85 53 93 80 t3i 39 a.5 75 76 60 59 8.8 7.9 53 98

(12)
86 i3 94 133 112 7.3 80 73 104 96 92 83 7.7 84 87 100 97 84 92 87 98 76 86 76 47 tJ3 7.1 77 3.3 75 67 68 54 49 78 71 47 87

(14) 33 38 46 129 68 27 69 37 67 50 51 45 36 6.2 36 44 78 34 40 34 42 3.0 3.4 43 28 45 40 44 19 36 45 32 23 21 68 40 11 65

(15, 41 29 35 100 53 ?I 3.4 28 52 39 40 35 28 48 28 34 60 2.6 31 27 33 24 26 33 22 35 31 34 I5 28 35 25 I8 17 53 31 0.9 51

(16)
34 24 29 82 43 17 44 23 43 32 32 28 23 40 23 28 49 21 24 22 27 20 22 27 I8 29 26 1.8 I.! 23 28 20 I5 I4 43 ?6 07 42 -

!I71 II I I III II III II

(18)
E -

(19)
A

A
e -

A A -C A B A B B A A

II I I I 111 I I e e e -

* B A B B

I I I I III III II

Madras W. Bengal u. P. Assam M. P. Madras Madrar Punjab, u. P.

_ a = d B B C A ( * B A

Kadam Cbaplash Hiwnr Black wood wattle Black Maple Bael

Arlocorpur

rhoploshn

Acaclo lrucophlocn Acorio mclanoxylons Acncio mrwnrti ( Syn. A. mollirsimn Aar pp. Aqb m.rmrlor ( Sya. fntrtn btjueo 1

III III

Andamu, Gokul Kardbal W. Bengal u. P.

III III

Cmtmwd ,

IS 889 t 1994 Table 1 ( Conhued )

,-------_A.-

OpCd-

_--_--\ Trulc

Locrlity Where Name

From Tested

Avemgr Lhit nlus .t 12 PczCCDL M&y.r; sl kg/m*

Modmlue Of Eh.&ity (All Grsdcs md All I,ocrtioa~)

N/mm

_---________--~___*. Bending and Tenwon Along Grain, Extreme Fibre Strer, ,------*---Iorsde Wet Outride LOCC LOCh LOC*rion tion tion (71 127 8) 12.1 79 97 80 82 133 109 87 7.6 88 98 II2 84 85 77 lo8 IO.7 100 99 91 82 81 85 77 97 82 117 I I8 IO.0 IO.2 83 lo1

Pcrmis.iblc

Sbc..

Shear All lwatiom ,-_--*---_. H.XlZ0U Along 1.1 Gr*Ul

is. N/mm for Grade 1 -------_--_ Compression Pusllcl 10 Grain c.--_*---_ Wet Inside Outride LocaLOC&. Locatioo tion tmn

-_---_ Comprrrrion Perpendicular to Grain ,_-----*__--Wet Inside Outride Lo.==LOCaLOCSlion rioo lion

thrability Cllsr

__-*-_-_

PrcS.Z.V8tiVc Ch*.X!te*. fTrcatahlily Grade

gRcfr8ctoriDCS. *o Air Sc8modmg

_ -

---(II) 108 73 100 55 71 57 5.9 101 77 7.8 69 64 71 87 6.2 64 95 80 82 7.3 71 70 b4 63 73 69 72 57 84 90 67 79 58 77 (12) 96 65 89 49 6.3 50 53 90 68 69 62 57 w3 78 55 56 84 71 73 65 63 62 5.7 56 6-5 61 64 50 7.4 80 60 7.0 52 68 113) 78 53 73 40 51 21 43 74 56 57 50 46 5.2 64 45 46 69 58 6.0 53 52 51 47 46 5.3 50 53 *I 61 65 4-9 57 42 56 (14) 73 23 50 21 40 22 36 53 53 27 24 27 39 40 21 20 39 42 42 27 35 33 I8 20 40 40 34 42 46 74 28 34 22 34 (15) 5.7 I8 39 16 31 17 2.8 41 41 21 18 21 31 31 16 16 30 33 33 21 27 2.6 14 I5 31 31 26 32 36 56 22 26 17 26

-.~
(16) 47 I5 32 13 26 I4 23 34 34 17 15 17 25 25 13 I3 2.5 27 27 I7 22 21 I1 13 25 2-6 21 27 30 17 18 21 I4 22

-(17)

-(18) -__
._ I I III II I I I II II III III I I 111 III II III e C I I I III III II
l

(1)
dnranul AlbiZin lrn~ S&i Kaui Birch -

(2)
Keral.

(3)

(4) 833 A. I. 566 836 551 584 625 769 756 889 557 506 624 666 689 569 471 761 884 799 647 622 818 485 466 753 687 571 501 705 852 592 616. 565 622

(5) 94% 851 852 721 942 92.3 884 117 837 94.8 84.1 985 835 868 1054 65.7 734 839 714 861 756 769 83.8 87.4 60.0 648 758 702 71.3 664 74.6 869 900 853

(6) 152 107 146 94 116 96 96 155 131 102 88 106 II8 135 101 IO.2 92 129 128 12.1 118 109 98 97 102 92 Il.7 98 14.1 141 120 123 99 121

(8) 102 il 97 63 77 64 &5 105 88 72 62 70 iY 90 67 6a 61 86 a.5 80 79 73 6.5 64 68 61 7.8 66 94 94 8.0 82 66 81

(9) 122 082 129 073 088 076 079 O?Ul 103 0.70 057 082 105 095 074 049 074 ID8 125 083 094 085 06Jl 070 085 070 101 084 I.20 I29 089 067 085 082

(IO) I59 I18 184 105

(1% -___ -

Aruonehal,

NeMll

u.
Bibu

P.

C
B 8 A

Llihnr W. Bcngsl Msdru A. P. u. P. H. P. u. P. w. Bengal

126
108 112 I.30 148 100 082 117 I 50 136 106 070 105 1-55 179 118 I.34 122 085 099 120

e c

IJrkm BihOpWOOd

A c e b c e c a d c C B B B c

ckukruti odurin~ ( Syn. C. T&&is

W. Bengal ) MalUnhtra Wbitc dhup Assam Mdru KenIs M. P. Punjab W. Bengal

w . Bengal
Mah.r*1btra W. Bengal Madru MUhI Madru Is. P. Il. P. M. P. M. P. u. P. M. P. u. P. N. Andamsn

I00
145 121 I70 I 84

B B

e e b

120
096 I22 117

B Is B

,
6

( Cmtiwd

18 883 I 1394 Table 1 ( conlinucd


)

spcciem
y--P-

-----Y Name Trsde Nmne

Lacdlty Wbae

Prom Tut-d

Botanical

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

Jbingan

u.

P.

557

563

85 .

71

57

064

0 91

4.9

4.4

36

22

I.7

I4

III

673 460 936

632 73.3 882

116 85 130

97 75 IO8

7.8 56 87

104 053 101

149 083 I44

74 53 75

66 *7 67

54 10 55

38 I8 63

30 I4 )9

2 *4 11 40 1iI 1
e

.C
A C B B B B

M.&go, Mxhilru Raini Cbmnp KGm

Aam

Orissa Madru u. A_ w. u. Bengal P. P.

661 521 662 449 512 651

912 763 751 1037 82.5 78.2

122 lo2 108 lo9 109 126

101 85 9.0 9.1 91 IO5

82 G8 72 i.3 7.3 84

0.9G 071 096 068 072 I 04

137 I 02 136 0% I02 I49

73 63 60 80 66 79

65 56 5.4 7l59 7.0

53 46 44 58 48 57

3.1 24 29 3.4 28 37

24 19 23 26 22 29

20 I5 I.9 21 18 24

III III III

. *

I IlE

ChUlp Domul Mulberry MUlb=lY BOls S8OdUl Bowurn ChiI Kail nonrum Rohu Purotia Kbri Kikw Thirmin pine rioghi

W. Bengal u. P. u. P. Ii. P. And8llun M. P. Asum u. P.

513 747 743 657 588 784 566 525 515

lOI 792 820 703 861 854 95% 902 680 765 57.7 73.8 73.2 941 915 929 94 I 95.5 I165 852

98 II7

82 97 98 85 lo2 II.1 110 73 56 81 104 74 lo9 lo4 99 110 87 113 95 I I0

65 78 79 68 82 09 88 60 50 65 83 59 87 83 79 88 696 90 76 88

072 I14 100 091 102 121 084 062 060 070 115 057 I20 061 083 097 086 085 084 106

I03 163 I43 I.30 146 172 121 088 080 101 I.65 074 I71 086 119 139 123 122 119 152

61 70 66 56 72 85 88 60 52 66 68 58 80 80 67 71 67 07 67 90

55 63 5-a SO 64 7.5 78 53 46 59 61 52 7.1 71 60 63 60 7.7 59 80

45 51 48 4.1 53 62 64 4.4 38 4.8 50 )3 58 58 19 52 4.9 63 K8 66

I6 32 38 26 33 51 28 20 17 22 40 15 43 26 30 32 24 3.2 20 43

13 29 29 20 25 3.9 21 I5 13 17 31 12 34 20 23 25 I9 25 16 33

I0 24 24 16 21 32 18 I3 10 I4 25 I0 2.8 I6 I9 20 16 20 I3 27

II III III III I II III II II III -

B B B B B

I I8
102 123 133 132 85 66 97 125 89 131 125 119 132 1044 135 II4 132

e b 5 c

B C c B B B

Asum H. P. North Eut

511 761 513 881 533 752 700 548 687 657 696

J. & K. S. Andamm

II III B

III II II -

B B

( Conrtid)
I

IS 883

t 1994

Table 1

( conchdcd

,_____---*_-__---T Botanical Name

Sp2iM I-rade Name

Locality From Where Tested

Avenge IJoit Mua .t 12 Percent Moianre Goatctlt

Modolus of Elnaticity (All G-d-s *ad All Locatioa~)

r__------------_---_Bending and Tension Along Gram, Extreme Fibre btrrsr C----h____ _ Instide Outride We,

Ptrmissiblc

Shea, All locations ,-__-n--~ HO,U.OIl Along ,a, G,al

Stress in N/mm for Grndc 1 A________________ Camprerrmn Parallel 10 Gram ;~d, __h_____~ \Vet OU,ll& LOC& L0caLCXa-

____ --_~ Comprrtrmn Pe,pend,cula, to Cram ,_-_-.-_h-__-_~ Outside WC1 Inride LocaLocaLoca-

Prcscrv*tivc Cbrr.ctrr. c_-*---_ tDu,abifT,ratabdity lay Clru Grade

gnefr*ctori-

(8)
Kucum Chilauni Makai KC0r.i Padri Teak Arjun Hollock White wae Yew lmli TOOti Vellnpins Ho,,ecbntnut Tad (Palmyra) Eucalyptur Eucalyptut Eucrlyptw Euulyptu~ Eucalyptur *Species rhur muked and tetted bombBihar W. Bengal Astam W. u. Bengal P.

! IG)

(17) II IIL III II III 1 II III 111 -

(18) J d c -

(19,
A

1032
693 548 617 721 617 794 615 616 705 913 487 535 484 838 804 781 713 584 819 thaw higher rtrengtb

1212 957 927 863 886 84 9 771 96 2 899 779 563 640 1095 75-5 879 953 703 922 793 824 to enable at Group their

15.5 Il.1 II.1 128 133 128 122 II9 I I8 143 II4 87 Il.5 85 lo5 128 124 148 128 II5

130 Y3 92 107 I I.1 IO7 102 99 98 II9 95 73 96 71 68 lo6 104 123 IO7 96

IO4 7.4 74 85 89 85 82 80 79 95 76 58 i.6 57 70 85 83 111 8j 7.6 ia higher group.

1.4; 08Y 091 092 098 OS4 112 085 089 I 22 122 0 70 073 WE 067 078 112 099 080 I46

211 I.28 IZY I.32 I29 130 I60 I21 127 I74 I.71 100 I 05 Ill 096 Ill I 60 I41 I-15 208

IOY 66 71 74 73 79 74 7.6 72 87 70 54 i5 48 IO.0 72 i9 85 80 82

9.7 5Y 63 66 70 70 6.6 67 64 i8 62 48 67 42 88 r4 70 76 54 73

79 48 5.L 54 57 57 54 5.5 53 64 51 39 55 35 7.2 52 57 62 44 60

bi

4.: I8 21 37 27 31 41 22 z3 3.7 41 I8 I8 I4 36 27 28 22 I9 48

_I!, it I8 30 22 26 33 18 I9 30 34 I5 I4 11 27 22 23 18 16 4.0

3 2Y q8 35 40 52 2.!J 30 47 5.3 24 23 I8 4.7 35 35 2H 25 62

D
LI

n
B H u 8

M. P. Bihar ASsam N. Andaman W. Bengal Madras 0. P. Madras U. P. A. P. Kamataka u. P. T. N. T. N. U. P. localitier

e b a b -

B II 111 c e A A A A A B C B

from other Bihar,

categorization

Fer Exam+ i) Sal tested ii) iii) Hnldu Morut

from Went Bengal, fmm Biba,

U. P. and Awarn can be clan&d at Group be clnuitied B rpeclet; in Group

A tpeciet:

tested

can be clurified based 011 durability

la&gate

( Bole ) of Asaam can

B rpecin.

fllat&ication CIOSS I-Average II-Average III-Average

for preservation

test), etc.

life more than 120 mooch>; life 60 months ad above but lerr than 120 montbt; and life Iem tban 60 mootha. euily t,catrble; treatable but complete penetration nor alwws obtained, only part\ally treatable; refractory to t,e.t,twttt; and very refractory to t,catmem, penetntion of prerervative at three bcbaviou, yea,, of age of Ilee. of ttmbc, nod ,cf,arra,ioetr to Keaton free from rurface frrc fmm turfare

* Irwfability Cradu a- Heartrood b Heartwood c- Heartwood d- Henrtvood C- Heanvood in cae where the lcut dimension it mo,e than 60 mm;

being w.,.t.

practically rncking, wIthin

nil even tpliting ): reamnnblv

from the ends. rate: given a little protectloo agaiott rapid drying conditioot ): and

OData bucd cm ttrengtb pmpcrtiet $Clattinicationt bated on teatoning A BCHighly rrf,acto,y Moderately Non-refractory refractory

rod drying

( tlow and difficulty may be npidly reamned

and end cracking

j may berenmoned free from surface and

end cracking

short periodt,

and tnd-cracking

even in the open al, and sun.

If not rrpidlv

dried,

they dovelop

blue tlain

and mould

on the turface.

IS 663 : 1994 Table 2 Recommended hfois~ Content Valqes ( Percent ) ( Clause5.3 )


Sl No. 1. 2. Use Z&s ( see Note #-----_*--ll-_~ I II III ele12 10 I4 12 17 14 ) IV 20 16

or with, respect to nailing edge distance and the general appearance.

b)

Structural ments

Worm holes other than those due to po&der post bee&s; reduction in stqength to be evaluated in the same way ias for knots depending upon location and grouping of such holes.

Joinery ( doors and windows )

c) All other defects unlikely to affect any of the mechanical strength properties. permissible deSects 5.6.2.3 Besides the under 5.6.2.2, for knots, and checks and shakes provisions given in 8.2.2 and 8.2.3 of IS 3629 : 1986 shall apply. 5.6.2.4 Location of deftct

NOTE - The country haa the following four zonea variations: Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV

been broadly divided into based on the humidity relative relative relative relative humidity humidity humidity humidity less 40 to 50 to more

Average annual than 40 percent, Average annual 50 perctnt, Average annual 67 percent, and Average annual than 67 percent.

The influence of defects in timber is different for different locations in a structural element. Therefore, these should be so placed during construction in accordance with good practices that they do not have any adverse effect on the member. 5.7 hitability

5.4 Requirements
The various other timber for use in IS 3629 : 1986. 5.5 Sawn Timber

of Structural Timber
requirements of structural. budding shall conform to

Treatability 5.7.1 There

in Respect of Durability and

are two choices fbr normal good structures as given below and listed in Table 1 ( see also Table 1 of IS 3629 : 1986 ). 5.7.1.1 First choice The species of timber following Categories: shall be any one of the

The cut sizes of timber stock for structural purpcses shall be in accordance with IS 4891 : 1988. .5.6 Grading of StructnraX Timber timber shall be graded, after seasoning, in accordance with IS 1331 : 1975 into the following three grades: a) Select grade, b) Grade c) Grade I, and II.

5.6.1 The cut sizes of structural

Untreated heartwood of high durability. Heartwood if containing more than 15 may need chemical percent sap wood, treatment for protection; Treated heartwood of moderate and low durability and class a and class b treatability; Heartwood of moderate durability and class c treatability after pressure impregnation; and Sapwdod of all classes of durability after thorough treatment with prgervatives.

b)

5.6.2 The prohibited defects given in 5.6.2.1 and permissible defects given in 5.6.2.2 and 5.6.2.3 shall apply to structural timber in accordance with IS 3629 : 1986. 5.6.2.1 Prohibited defects All grades of timber with the following shall not be used for structural purposes: defects

cl

5.7.1.2 Second choice The species of timber shall be of heartwood moderate durability and class d treatability. of

a) Loose grain, splits, compression wood in coniferous species, heartwood rot, sap rot, and crookedness; and b) Worm holes made by powder post beetles and pitch pockets. 5.6.2.2 Permissible defects The following of timber: defects are permitted for all grades

5.7.2 Choice for load-bearing temporary structures or semi-structurals at construction sitea) Heartwood of low durability treatability; or and class e

a) Wanes, provided (i) they are not combined with knots and reduction in strength due to this is not more than reduction with the maximupl allowable knots* and (ii) there is no objection to its use as bezring area 9

b) The species whose durability and/or treatability is yet to be established, as listed in Table 1. 5.7.3-Storing of Timber This shall be in accordance with IS 3629 : 1986.

IS 883 : 1994 6 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES 6.4 Modification Stresses 6.4.1 Factors for Permissible

6.1 Fundamental stress values of different species of timber are determintd on small specimen in accordance with standard practice laid in IS 1708 ( Parts 1 to 18 ) : 1986. In these values are then applied appropriate reduction factors given in the relevant table of IS 3629 : 1986 to obtain the permissible stresses. 6.2 The permissible stresses for Groups A, B and C for different locations of use and applicable to Grade I of structural timbers shall be as given in Table 1; and the corresponding minimum permissible stress limits shall be as given in Table 3, provided that the following conditions are met:

Due to Change in Slope of Grain

When the timber has not been graded and has major defects such as slope of the grain, knots and checks or shakes ( but not beyond permissible values ), the permissible stresses given in Table 1 shall be multiplied by the modification factor X1 for different slopes of grain as given in Table 4.
6.4.2 For

Due to Duration of the Load

4 b)

The timber should be of high or moderate durability and be given suitable treatment where necessary, Timber of low durability shall be used after proper preservative treatment in accordance with IS 401 : 1982, and loads should permanent type. be of continuous and

different durations of design load, the permissible stresses given in Table 1 shall be multiplied by the modification factor Ks given in Table 5. 6.4.2.1 The factor Xs is applicable to modulus of elasticity when used to design timber columns, otherwise they do not apply thereto. 6.4.2.2 If there are several durations of loads ( in addition to continuous ) to be considered, the modification factor shall be based on the shortest duration load in the combination, that is, the one yielding the largest increase in the permissible stresses, provided the designed section is found adequate for a combination of other longer duration loads. [ Explanation : In any structural timber design for dead loads, snow loads and wind or earthquake forces, members may be designed on the basis of total of stresses due to dead, snow and wind loads using Ks = 1.33, factor for the permissible stress ( of Table 1 ) to accomodate the wind load, that is, the shortest of duration and giving the largest increase in the permissible Groups of

Cl The

6.3 For permissible stresses ( excepting E ) of other grades of timber, values given in Table 1 and Table 3 shall be multiplied by the following factors, provided that the conditions laid down in 6.2 are satisfied: a) For Select Grade b) For Grade Timber 1.16 0.84 II Timber

6.3.1 When low durability timbers are to be used on outside location, the permissible stresses for all grades of timber, arrived at by 6.2 and 6.3 shall be multiplied by 0.80. Table

3 Minimum Permissible Stress Limits ( N/mma ) in Three Structural Timbers ( For Grade I Material ) ( Clauses 6.2 and 6.3 )

Strength 2. 9

Character
along

Location Use

of

Group

Group

Group

Bending grain Shear r) Horizontal Along

and tension

Inside

1)

180 105

12-o 064

85 0.49

ii)

All locations All locations parallel perpendicular elasticity ) to Inside Inside *) s) 15 11.7 40 126 091 7.8 25 98 070 49 11 56

grain

iii) iv) y)

Compression grain Compression to grain

Modulus of ( x 103 N/mm* The values For working applied.

All locations and grade

1) 2)

of horizontal stresses

shear to be used only for beams. locations

In all other and

cases shear along generally

grain to be used. of 5/6 and 213 are

for other

of use, that is, outside

wet,

factors

10

IS 883 : 1994 stresses. The section thus found is checked to meet the requirements based on dead loads alone with modification X, = 1.00. J Table 4 Modification Factor K1 to Allow for Change in Slope of Grain ( Clause 6.4.1
Slope ~-~---~--h_ Strength of Beams. Joists and Ties (2) 080 090 0.98

projected area of all material removed by boring, grooving or other means at critical plane. In case of nailing, the area of the prebored hole shall not be taken into account for this purpose. 7.4.2 The net section used in calculating loadcarrying capacity of a member shall be the least net section determined as above by passing a plane or a series of connected planes transversely through the members. 7.4.3 Notches shall in no case, than one quarter of the section. remove more

)
Kl Strength of Posts or Columns (3) 0.74 0.82 0.87 100

(1) 1 in 10 1 in 12 1 in 14 1 in 15 and flatter

7.4.4 In the design of an intermediate or a long column, gross section shall be used in calculating load-carrying capacity of the column. 7.5 Flexural Member members shall be investiga-

I *co

Table 5 Modification Change in Duration

Factor KS for of Loading )


Modification Factor, Kc

7.5.1 Such structural ted for the following: a) Bending b) Maximum c) Stress 7.5.2 d) Deflection. Effective Span

( Clause 6.4.2

strength, horizontal shear, and T

Ii:.
(1) 9
ii)
iii) iv) v)

Duration of Loading

at the bearings,

(2)
Continuous Two Wind months days aud earthquake or impact Seven ( Normal )

(3) 1.00 115

I *25
133 200

Instantaneous

6.4.2.3 Modification factor KZ shall also be applied to allowable loads for mechanical fasteners in design of joints, when the wood and not the strength of metal determines the load capacity. 7 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The effective span of beams and other flexural members shpll be taken as the distance from of supports plus one-half ?f the required length of bearing at each end except that for continuous beams and joists the span may be measured from centre of bearing at tbse supports over which the beam is continuous. 7.5.3 apply :
fab =

Usual

formula

for

flexural

strength

shall

<fb
Members

7.1 All structural members, assemblies or framework in a building, in combination with the floors, walls and other structural parts of the building shall be capable of sustaining, with due stability and stiffness the whole dead and imposed loadings as specifird in appropriate codes [ IS 875 ( Parts 1 to 5 ) : 1987 1, without exceeding the limits of relevant stresses specified in this standard. The worst combination and location of loads shall be considered for designs. Wind and seismic be considered to act not forces shall simultaneously.
7.2

7.5.4

Jorm Faclors for Flexural

The following form factors bending stress:

shall be applied to the

section For rectangular a) Rectangular sections, for different depths of beams, the form factor Ks shall be taken as: Xs = 0.81 D + 89 400 D= + 55 000

NOTE - Form factor ( Ks ) shall not be applied for beams having depth less than or equal to 300 mm.

7.3 The design requirements may be satisfied either by calculation using laws of mechanics or by prototype testing. 7.4 Net Section

b) Box beams and I-beams - For and I-beams the form factor obtained by using the formula: X1 = 0.8 + where Y = PI ( 6 11 8 ~1 + 0.8~

box beams Ic, shall be

Ds + 89 400 - 1 D -j- 55 OOO- > 3 P? ) ( l q1) + q1

7.4.1 The net section shall be obtained by deducting from the gross sectional area of timber the

IS 883 : 1994

4 4

cross-sections - For solid Solid circular circular cross-sections, the form factor Ks shall be taken as 1.18. square crossSquare cross-section - For sections, where the load is in the direction of diagonal, the form factor Ks shall be taken as 1.414. Width

e) Notched at upper where e < D

( compression )

face,

H= 7.5.7.2

Pb[D-;$:)a

1 1OC ( 1-x ) ( x/D ) 91[ 2 + ( x/D )* ]

7.5.5

For concentrated loads, V

The minimum width of the beam or any llexural member shall not be less than 50 mm or l/50 of the span, whichever is greater. 7.5.6 Depth

and for uniformly distributed loads,

v=- F ( 1-E
After arriving at the value of substituted in the formula:

>

V, its value will be

The depth of beam or any flexural member shall not be taken more than three times of its width without lateral stiffening. 7.5.6.1 Stfining

H+
H should be within the allowable safe permissible stress in horizontal shear recommended for the species. 7.5.7.3 In determining the vertical reaction V, the following deductions in loads may be made:

All flexural members having a depth exceeding three times its width and or a span exceeding fifty times its width or bothshall be laterally restrained from twisting or buckling and the dist.ance between such restraints shall not exceed 50 times its width. 7.5.7 7.5.7.1 Shear The following formulae shall apply:

4 b)

Consideration shall be given to the possible distribution of load to adjacent parallel beams, if any; All uniformly distributed loads within a distance equal to the depth of the beam from the edge of the nearest support may be neglected except in case of beam hanging downwards from a particular support; and concentrated loads in the vicinity of the supports may be reduced by the reduction factor applicable according to Table 6. 6 Reduction
Factor for Concentrated in the Vicinity of Support

a) The maximum horizontal shear, when the load on a beam moves from the support towards the centre of the span, and the load is at a distance of three to four times the depth of the beam from the support, shall be calculated from the following general formula:

Cl All

*__Q - Ib
b) For rectangular beam:

Table

Loads

Q =+bxDx$-+bDz
and I, =& That is, H bD3 VQ Ib = 3V 260 notch at the

Distance of Load
from the Nearest

support

15 D or Less

2D

2.5D

3D or More No reduction

Reduction FActor

060

040

020

NOTE - For intermediate distance, the reduction factor may be obtained by linear interpolation.

c) Notched beams, with tension supports: 3 VD HE2 1 d) Notched at upper where e > D: H+
1

( compression )

face,

7.5.7.4 Unless the local stress is calculated and found to be within the permissible stress, flexural member shall not be cut, notched or bored except as follows:

a) Notches may be cut in the top or bottom neither deeper than one fifth of the depth of the beam nor farther from the edge of the support than one-sixth of-the span;12

IS 889 : 1994

b)

Holes not larger in diameter than onequarter of the depth may be bored in the middle third of the depth and length; and holes or notches occur at a distance greater than three times the depth of the member from the edge of the nearest support, the net remaining depth shall be used in determining the bending strength.

C>If

g)

bearing with a length equal to the diameter of the washer or the width of the small plate; and When the direction of stress is at an angie to the direction of the grain in any structural member, then the permissible bearing stress in that member shall be calculated by the following formula:

7.5.8 Beanng 7.5.8.1 The ends of Rexural members shall be supported in recesses which provide adequate ventilation to prevent dry rot and shall not be enclosed. Flexural members except roof timbers which are supported directly on masonry or concrete shall have a length of bearing of not less than 75 mm. Members supported on corbels, offsets and roof timbers on a wall shall bear immediately on and be fixed to wall-plate not less than 75 mm x 40 mm. 7.5.8.2 Timber joists or floor planks shall not be supported on the top flange of steel beams unless the bearing stress, calculated on the net bearing as shaped to fit the beam, is less than the permissible compressive stress perpendicular to the grain. 7.5.8.3 7.5.8.3.1 Bearing stress Length and position of bearing

foe =

fcp x fen faD sins 6 +fcn toss B

Table 7 Modification Factor K7 for Bearing Stresses [ Clause 7.5.8.3.1,


Length of Bearing in mm 15 25 40

( c ) and ( f ) ]
50 75 loo 150 MZC

Modification factor, K-j

I.67

140

1.25

120

113 110

1.00

7.5.9

Deflection

7.5.9.1 The deflection in the case of all flexural members supporting brittle materials like gypsum ceilings, slates, tales and asbestos sheets shall not exceed l/360 of the span. The deflection in the case of other flexural members shall not exceed l/240 of the span, and l/150 of the freely hanging length in the case of cantilevers. 7.5.9.2 Usual formula for deflection shall apply: a= K-values q ( ignoring deflection due to shear strain ) for cantilevers free end, with load at

a) At any bearing on the side grain of timber,

the permissible stress in compression perpendicular to the grain, fen is dependent on the length and position of the bearing;

= $ $

b) The permissiblestresses

given in Table 1 for compression perpendicular to the grain are also the permissible stresses for any length at the ends of members and for bearing 150 mm or more in length at any other position;

for cantilevers with uniformly distributed load,

--& for beams supported at both ends with point load at centre, and & fdoth Ez; distributed w;pp,;;;mfs load.

For bearings less than 150 mm in length and located 75 mm or more from the end of a member the permissible stress perpendicular to the grain may be multiplied by the modification factor K, given in Table 7; No allowance need be made for the difference in intensity of the bearing stress due to bending of a beam; area should be calculated as after allowance for the amount of wane as permitted in IS 1331 : 1975; stress under a washer or a the same coefficient reconfin Table 7 may be taken for a 13

7.5.9.3 In order to allow the effect of long duration loading on E, for checking deflection in case of beams and joists the effective loads shall be twice the dead load if the timber is initially dry. 7.5.9.4 Self weight of beam in design. 7.6 Columns 7.6.1 Solid Columns Solid columns shall be classified into short, intermediate and long columns depending upon their slenderness ratio ( S/d ) as follows: shall be considered

The bearing e> the net area

bearing f1 For small plate, mended

IS 883 : 1994 a) Short columns - where S/d does not exceed 11, b) Intermediate columns - where S/d is between 11 and Xs, and
C)

7.6.2.3 For intermediate columns, the permissible compressive stress shall be obtained using the following formula:

Long columns than Ks.

where

S,d

is

greater com-

fc = qfcrl
7.6.2.4 For compressive the formula:

_---

7.6.1.1 For short columns, the pressive stress shall be calculated fc

permissible as follows:

L columns, the long stress shall be calculated

Kg 1/ d12 + d,=

permissible by using

=fcLl
the permissible by using the

7.6.1.2 For intermediate columns compressive stress is calculated following formula:

fo=fw[ 1 --$( &)]


7.6.1.3 For long columns, the permissible compressive stress shall be calculated by using the following formula:

f c = o.329E ( 3/d Y
7.6.1.4 In case of solid columns ratio shall not exceed 50. of timber, S/d

0 329 UE a S ___( s/ d18 + dz J 7.6.2.5 The following values of U and q depending upon plank thickness (t) in 7.6.2.3 and 7.6.2.4 shall be used: CT t Q mm 1.00 0.80 25 0.60 1.00 50

fc =

7.6.1.5 The formulae given are for columns with pin end conditions and length shall be suitably modified with other end conditions 7.6.1.6 The permissible load on a column of cross-section shall not circular exceed that permitted for a square cc!umn of an equivalent cross-sectional area. 7.6.1.7 For determining S/d ratio of a tapered column, its least dimension. shall be taken as the sum of the corresponding least dimensions at the small end of the column and one-third of the difference between this least dimension at the small end and the corresponding least dimension at the large end, but in no case shall the least dimension for the column be taken as more than one and a half times the least dimension at the small end. The induced stress at the small end of the taperedcolumn shall not exceed the permissible compressive stress in the direction of grain. 7.6.2 Box and Built-up Columns 7.6.2.1 Box columns shall be classified into short, intermediate and long columns as follows:

7.6.3 Spaced Columns The formulae for solid columns as specified in 7.6.1 are applicable to spaced columns with a restraint factor of 2.5 or 3, depending upon distance of end connectors in the column,
NOTE - A restrained factor of 2.5 for location of centroid group of fasteners at S/20 from rnd and 3 for location at S/IO to S/20 from end shall be taken. 7.6.3.1 For intermediate spaced column the permissible compressive stress shall be:

fc =fcl, [ 1 7.6.3.2 be: For long spaced

+(&,I
columns the formula shall

( S!d ) 7.6.3.3 For individual member S/d ratio shall not exceed GO.

fc =

0,329 E x 2.5 of spaced column

Short columns than 8,

-where

S 4Xa

7.6;4 Compression members shall not he notched. When it is necessary to pass services through such a member, this shall be effected by mean2 of a bored hole provided that the local stress is calculated and found to be within the permissible stress specified. The distance from the edge of the hole to the edge of the member shall not be less than one-quarter of width of the face. 7.7 Structural Members and Axial Stresses Subject to Bending

is less

b) Intermediate
is

columns

-where

7.7.1 Structural members subjected both to bending and axial compression shall be designed to 4 dP + dp2 comply with the following formula: S s .
fab . fb IS not greater than 1. 0 7.7.2 Structural members subjected both to bending and axial tension shall be designed to comply with the following formula: --

between

8 and x^,, and where -

fat f +

Cl

Long greater

columns

than Ks. com-

7.6.2.2 For short cc;lumns, the permissible pressive stress shall be calculated as follows:

fc = QfCP

is not greater

than

1.

1, 14

IS 883 : 1994

ANNEX

( Clause 2 )
LIST OF REFERRED IS Jfo. 287 : 1993 Title Recommendations for permissible moisture content for used for different timber purposes ( third rcoision ) Code of practice for preservation of timber ( third revision ) Glossary of terms applicable to timber technology and utilization ( second revision) Code of practice loads ( other than for buildings ( second revision) for design earthquake strtictures ) INDIAN STANDARDS Title Specification for cut sizes of timber ( second revision )

IS No. 1331: 1975

401 : 1982 707 : 1976

Methods of testing of small 1708 of timber ( second ( Parts 1 to 18 ) : specimens revision) 1986 3629 : 1986 Specification timber in revision ) for structural buildings ( first

875 ( Parts 1987

1 to 5 ) :

4891 : 1988

Specification for preferred out sizes of structural timbers ( jirst revision )

15

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