OVERVIEW OF PORTFOLIO AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN EFL

Oleh Widiatmoko E.: moko.geong@gmail.com W.: http://widiatmoko.blog.com

Introduction In recent years, there has been an emergent interest in the application of assessment procedures that are radically different from traditional forms of assessment. This is an alternative assessment. Alternative assessment is described as an alternative to standardized testing and all the problems found with such testing. This assessment is focusing on students in all dimensions. The students are evaluated on what they integrate and produce rather than on what they are able to recall and reproduce. García and Pearson (1994) quoted by Macías (2002) states that its main goal is to gather evidence about how students are approaching, processing, and completing real life tasks in a particular domain. In addition, alternative assessment provides alternatives to traditional testing in that it (a) does not intrude on regular classroom activities, (b) reflects the curriculum that is actually being implemented in the classroom, (c) provides information on the strengths and weaknesses of each individual student, (d) provides multiple indices that can be used to gauge student progress, and (e) is more multiculturally sensitive and free of norm, linguistic, and cultural biases found in traditional testing. Alternative assessment includes a variety of instruments that can be adapted to varying situations. These instruments reflect the goals of the class and the activities being implemented in that classroom to meet those goals. Seeing on the procedures, this assessment includes the use of checklist of student behaviors or products, journals, reading logs, videos of role-plays, audiotapes of discussions, self-evaluation questionnaires, work samples, and teacher

observations or anecdotal records (Macías, 2002). Since a collection of student’s work is evaluated, such alternative assessment is named as portfolio assessment. Portfolio is defined as a purposeful collection of student’s work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas. The collection includes student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student self-reflection (Widiatmoko, 2005). In this way, a portfolio is a living, growing collection of a student’s work. The overall purpose of the portfolio is to enable the student to demonstrate learning and progress to others. The greatest value of portfolio is that students become active participants in the learning process and its assessment. According to Abd Hafiz, portfolio is an example of authentic assessment. Assessment using the portfolio method means gathering important information about the learning process and content over a period of time. Evaluation using the portfolio method means making judgments about the amount and kind of progress shown by the collected artifacts and the associated narrative comments. Both of these uses depend on seeing the portfolio as a philosophy and impact the ways in which teachers decide on grades (Abd Hafiz, 2005). In addition, portfolios are collections of student work representing a selection of performance. Portfolios in classrooms today are derived from the visual and performing arts tradition in which they serve to showcase artists' accomplishments and personally favored works. A portfolio may be a folder containing a student's best pieces and the student's evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the pieces. It may also contain one or more works-in-progress that illustrate the creation of a product, such as an essay, evolving through various stages of conception, drafting, and revision (Sweet, 1993). To make sure the portfolio assessment is one of the alternative assessments useful in a current study of EFL assessment, the question formulated then ‘is it true that portfolio assessment is better than traditional assessment’? Traditional versus Alternative Assessment in EFL Prior to justifying the uses of portfolio assessment, brief flashbacks of traditional assessment are provided to notify some drawbacks of it. Traditional assessment is the term widely used and keeps going on today. In some practices, it is dealt with some characteristics, as follows. In the case of assessing writing, the teacher is the only reader for whom the students write and that the teacher’s role is to assume responsibility for reading through errors and editing the paper for grammatical and mechanical mistakes (Peñaflorida, 2002). In terms of requirements, the terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity are commonly used and not relevant to qualitative data

of student’s works (Macías, 2002). It refers to the snapshot of student’s achievement that single-occasion tests provide (Gómez, 1999). It is traditional standardized objective achievement test, consisting primarily of multiple choice and matching items (Lynch, 2005). It has been generally criticized as inappropriate, invalid measures of students' academic competencies (O'Malley and Pierce, 1996; Michael, 1993) as quoted by Lynch (idem). Performance on discrete point items does not resemble the way students will have to use language in the real world, the students produce negative wash-back. It is claimed that they give the test takers the mistaken idea that language is made up of individual and independent parts that can be learned separately, and such items are claimed to be unnatural because of the reduced level of context (Thrasher, 2000). Assessment instruments include multiple-choice, true-false, and fill-in-the-blank items and focus on accuracy, grammar, and lower-order thinking (Goodman, Goodman, and Hood, 1989; Stiggins, 1997; Wiggins, 1998 as quoted by Jacobs & Farrell, 2003). In contrast, alternative assessment in EFL is the term currently used in today’s paradigm. It has however some characteristics, as follows. a. Assessment and evaluation are not the sole responsibility of the teacher. In writing classes, teachers need to make their students realize that their paper is their own property (Peñaflorida, 2002); b. An instrument is deemed to be trustworthy if it has credibility (i.e., truthvalue) and audibility (i.e., consistency). Alternative assessment represents the best of all worlds in that it looks at actual performance on real life tasks. In the case of reliability, triangulation is ensured (Macías, 2002); c. Multiple drafts of student work showing improvements are included (Gómez, 1999); d. Students are assessed for a variety of purposes (Lynch, 2005); e. Assessment instruments including fluency, social appropriacy, and accuracy, attempt to more closely mirror real-life conditions and involve thinking skills (Jacobs & Farrell, 2003). Alternative Assessment in CLT Paradigm Alternative assessment is then as the chosen assessment in the new paradigm in EFL setting. This paradigm is actually the swift switch of well known CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) paradigm in EFL teaching. The CLT paradigm flows from the positivism to post-positivism shift and involves a move away from the tenets of behaviorist psychology and structural linguistics and toward cognitive and later, socio-cognitive psychology and more contextualized, meaning-based views of language (Jacobs & Farrell, 2003). Key components on this shift concern: (a) focusing greater attention on the role of

students rather than the external stimuli students receive from their environment (from teacher-centered instruction to student-centered or learning-centered instruction); (b) focusing greater attention on the learning process rather than on the products that students produce (from product-oriented instruction to process-oriented instruction); (c) focusing greater attention on the social nature of learning rather than on students as separate, decontextualized individuals; (d) focusing greater attention on diversity among students and viewing these differences not as impediments to learning but as resources to be recognized, catered to and appreciated (known as the study of individual differences); (e) focusing greater attention on the views of those internal to the classroom rather than solely valuing the views of those who come from outside to study classrooms, investigate and evaluate what goes on there, and engage in theorizing about it (qualitative research, which highlights the subjective and affective, the participants' insider views, and the uniqueness of each context); (f) connecting the school with the world beyond as a means of promoting holistic, learning; (g) helping students to understand the purpose of learning and develop their own purposes; (h) a whole-to-part orientation instead of a part-to-whole approach; (i) an emphasis on the importance of meaning rather than drills and other forms of rote learning; and (j) a view of learning as a lifelong process rather than something done to prepare for an exam. Such paradigm accordingly changes in how EFL teaching is conducted. EFL assessment is a part of EFL teaching process playing a pivotal role in determining the success of students’ learning. However, the alternative assessment is a part of implications in EFL classroom practices. And the current issue of alternative assessment EFL teachers adopt is portfolio assessment. Key Characteristics of Portfolio in EFL Assessment According to George (1995), portfolio assessment is a multi-faceted process characterized by the following recurrent qualities. It is continuous and ongoing, providing both formative (i.e., ongoing) and summative (i.e., culminating) opportunities for monitoring students' progress toward achieving essential outcomes. It is multidimensional, i.e., reflecting a wide variety of artifacts and processes reflecting various aspects of students' learning process(es). It provides for collaborative reflection, including ways for students to reflect about their own thinking processes and metacognitive introspection as they monitor their own comprehension, reflect upon their approaches to problem-solving and decision-making, and observe their emerging understanding of subjects and skills. Although approaches to portfolio development vary, the major research on portfolios reinforces the following characteristics: a portfolio reflects stated

student outcomes identified in the core or essential curriculum that students are expected to study; a portfolio focuses upon students' performance-based learning experiences as well as their acquisition of key knowledge, skills, and attitudes; a portfolio contains samples of work that stretch over an entire marking period, rather than single points in time; a portfolio contains works that represent a variety of different assessment tools; a portfolio contains a variety of work samples and evaluations of that work by the student, peers, and teachers, possible even parents' reactions; a portfolio is a form of assessment that students do together with their teachers; a portfolio is not just a collection of student work, but a selection - the student must be involved in choosing and justifying the pieces to be included; a portfolio provides samples of the student’s work which show growth over time. By reflecting on their own learning (self-assessment), students begin to identify the strengths and weaknesses in their work. These weaknesses then become improvement goals: (a) The criteria for selecting and assessing the portfolio contents are clear to the teacher and the students at the outset of the process, (b) The entries in an EFL portfolio demonstrate learning and growth in all language domains/skills, or focus on a specific skill such as appreciation of literature, writing, etc. Reasons for Using Portfolio in EFL Assessment Portfolios take advantage of students' natural tendency to save work and become an effective way to get them to take a second look and think about how they could improve future work. As any teacher or student confirms, this method is a clear departure from the old write, hand in, and forget mentality, where first drafts are considered final products. In the era of performance assessment related to the monitoring of students' mastery of a core curriculum, portfolios enhance the assessment process by revealing a range of skills and understandings; support instructional goals; reflect change and growth over a period of time; encourage student, EFL teacher, and parent reflection; and provide for continuity in education from one year to the next. EFL teachers use them for various purposes (Paulson, Paulson, and Meyer, 1991), which include: (a) encouraging self-directed learning, (b) enlarging the view of what is learned, (c) fostering learning about learning, (d) demonstrating progress toward identified outcomes, (e) creating an intersection for instruction and assessment, (f) providing a way for students to value themselves as students, (g) offering opportunities for peer-supported growth. Kemp and Toperoff add some reasons: (h) matching assessment to teaching, (i) having clear goals at the beginning of instruction, (j) giving a profile of student abilities, (k) enabling students to show quality work, which is done without pressure and time constraints, and with the help of resources, reference

materials, and collaboration with others, (l) demonstrating a wide range of skills, (m) showing efforts to improve and develop, and demonstrating progress over time, (n) as a tool for assessing various skills such as written, oral and graphic products, (o) developing awareness of learning, and (p) catering to individuals in the heterogeneous class. Since it is open-ended, students show work on their own level. Since there is choice, it caters to different learning styles and allows expression of different strengths. In developing social skills, students are assessed on work done together, in pairs or groups, on projects and assignments. In developing independent and active students, students select and justify portfolio choices; monitor progress and set learning goals. In improving motivation for learning and thus achievement, empowerment of students to prove achievement is found to be motivating. In demonstrating learning, different kinds of products and records of progress fit conveniently into one package; changes over time are clearly shown. In providing opportunity for student-teacher dialogue, it enables the teacher to get to know each student. It also promotes joint goal-setting and negotiation of grades. Types of Portfolio in EFL Assessment There are many different types of portfolios, each of which serves one or more specific purposes as part of an overall school or EFL classroom assessment program. The following is a list of the types most often cited in the literature. a. Documentation Portfolio. This is also known as the working portfolio. Specifically, this approach involves a collection of work over time showing growth and improvement reflecting students' learning of identified outcomes. This includes everything from brainstorming activities to drafts to finished products. And it includes the best and weakest of student work. b. Process Portfolio. This approach documents all facets or phases of the learning process. They are particularly useful in documenting students' overall learning process. It shows how students integrate specific knowledge or skills and progress towards both basic and advanced mastery. Additionally, the process portfolio emphasizes students' reflection on their learning process, including the use of reflective journals, logs, and related forms of metacognitive processing. c. Showcase Portfolio. This type of portfolio is best used for summative evaluation of students' mastery of curriculum outcomes. It includes students' best work, determined through a combination of student and EFL teacher selection. Only completed work is included. In addition, this type of portfolio is compatible with audio-visual artifact development, including photographs, videotapes, and electronic records of students' completed work. This

portfolio also includes written analysis and reflections by the student upon the decision-making process(es) used to determine which works are included. Phases of Portfolio Development Although there is no single correct way to develop portfolio programs, students are expected to collect, select, and reflect. In building a portfolio of selected pieces and explaining the basis for their choices, students generate criteria for good work, with teacher and peer input. Students need specifics with clear guidelines and examples to get started on their work, so these discussions need to be well guided and structured (Sweet, 1993). The first phase is organization and planning. This initial phase of portfolio development entails decision-making on the part of students and teachers. By exploring essential questions at the beginning of the process, students understand the purpose of the portfolio and its status as a means of monitoring and evaluating their own progress. Key questions for the teacher and the student include: ‘How do I select items, materials, etc. to reflect what I am learning in this class?’ ‘How do I organize and present the items, materials, etc. that I have collected?’ and ‘How will portfolios be maintained and stored?’ The second phase is collection. This involves the collection of meaningful artifacts and products reflecting students' educational experiences and goals. Decisions are made at this phase about the context and contents of the portfolio based on the intent and purposes identified for it. The selection and collection of artifacts and products are based upon a variety of factors that include: particular subject matter; a learning process; or special projects, themes, and/or units. All selections included in the collection clearly reflect the criteria and standards identified for evaluation. The third phase is reflection. Wherever possible, there are evidence of students' metacognitive reflections on the learning process and their monitoring of their evolving comprehension of key knowledge and skills. These reflections take the form of learning logs, reflective journals, and other forms of reflections upon their experiences, the thinking processes they use, and the habits of mind they employ at given points in time and across time periods. In addition, teacher and/or parent reflections upon the products, processes, and thinking articulated in the portfolio are also included wherever appropriate. Advantages of Portfolio Assessment for EFL Students According to Gómez (2000) the advantages of portfolio assessment comprise some results. The first is inclusion of EFL students. Unlike other assessment programs, portfolio assessment does not exclude certain student populations. In contrast, all students are included in a portfolio system.

The second is increased school accountability for all students. Assessment information is often collected to ensure that the educational system addresses the needs of all students. Inclusion of EFL students is critical to accountability and to providing accurate data about the achievement of these students. By providing systems with a richer source of information about school learning, portfolio assessment can help school systems identify and meet the needs of diverse students. The third is a shared vision of student goals and learning. By developing a portfolio system that includes students, EFL teachers, administrators, and parents, EFL students shape a common vision of what students should know and be able to do as a result of their course work. By articulating expectations and the criteria on which to assess attainment of these expectations, school systems help create a vision of the purpose of education based on the values of the community. The fourth is authentic picture of learning. Portfolio assessment can be designed to measure nearly any observable skill or process or content-area knowledge needed for system-wide assessment purposes. A wide range of student products is included in portfolio assessment as long as predetermined scoring criteria are in place. Portfolio is designed to be inclusive of all students and to provide an authentic description of what students do. The fifth is improved teaching and student learning. Using portfolio assessment that includes students not only provides improved information about student achievement but also makes a positive impact on teaching and student learning. It is known that when teachers are trained to use and score portfolios based on agreed-upon criteria, they tend to move toward a more studentcentered teaching model. Through such training, EFL teachers develop an understanding of the quality of student work that meets specific achievement levels according to the scoring criteria. The sixth is reflection of assessment reform. Advocates of assessment reform call for new measures that provide a better understanding of EFL students’ achievement. By using portfolio assessment that includes students, school systems reduce the number of students excluded from system-wide assessment and possibly increase the number of teachers participating in professional development activities. Stages in Implementing Portfolio Assessment of EFL a. Identifying teaching goals to assess through the portfolio The first and most important part of organizing portfolio assessment is to decide the teaching goals. It involves stakeholders within the school. These goals will guide the selection and assessment of students’ work for the portfolio. To do this, EFL teacher asks him/herself ‘What do I want the students to learn?’ and

chooses several goals to focus on; for example, general goals such as improvement in fluency of speech or independent reading, and specific goals such as scanning a text or telling a story. This stage is so important because EFL teachers need to know what their goals are in terms of what the students will be able to do. Moreover, students have to know what they need to show in their portfolios. It is even better if EFL teachers do this fixing of goals together with the students, asking them, for example, what they need and want to achieve in the different language domains and skills. They usually show good understanding of goals (‘We need to understand the news.’ ‘We should be able to correct our written mistakes.’) and hopefully these then become common goals for EFL teachers and class. Or EFL teachers give a list of goals for the students to rank, and use the results for establishing the criteria for assessment. b. Introducing the idea of portfolios to the class EFL teachers need to present the idea of a portfolio to his/her class. He/she can start by explaining the word form portare (carry) and foglio (sheet of paper). It is also a good idea to show the students examples of English portfolios prepared by other classes, and ideally, a portfolio of his/her own (e.g., the development of his/her work with the class). It is worth directing students’ attention at this stage to the main aspect of portfolios, which is their use as an assessment tool. EFL teachers try asking his/her students how they feel about tests, whether they always feel the test truly represents what they know and do with the language. Then EFL teachers tell them that he/she is going to assess them in a fairer way, which will show the many different skills, knowledge and ideas they have acquired. In addition, EFL teachers inform the students how much weight the portfolio will have in their final grade and what it is going to replace (one or more of their tests, quizzes and/or projects). Other demands are reduced accordingly. However, EFL teachers do not take on more than he/she can handle start with one class, or even a few students in the class, then expand when he/she feels ready. And he/she does not encourage the students to put extra items into the portfolio - it is quality that counts, not quantity, and the main point of portfolio assessment is the thoughtful selection of evidence of learning. c. Specifying portfolio content The lead group of EFL teachers, administrators, and parents decide on the range of products included in the portfolio program. The first is specifying what and how much have to be included in the portfolio - both core and options (it is important to include options as these enable self-expression and independence).

Then, specifying for each entry how it will be assessed. The students are acquainted with the scoring guides/rating scales that are used before performing the task. Next, portfolio entries take many forms - written, audio and videorecorded items, artifacts (e.g., a T-shirt, an annotated drawing, a model), dialogue journals, etc. Finally, it is recommended to request a limited number of portfolio entries. d. Giving clear and detailed guidelines for portfolio presentation EFL teacher decides upon common goals for student learning and performance. He/she also explains the need for clear and attractive presentation, dated drafts, and attached reflections or comment cards. Then, EFL teacher explains how the portfolio will be graded and when it needs to be ready. He/she develops scoring rubrics and checklists, and agrees upon standards of performance to be attained. If possible, benchmarks that exemplify levels of student achievement are articulated, including benchmarks for EFL students. Additionally, EFL teacher remembers unfamiliar ways of teaching and assessment which are potentially threatening and confusing to students. It is important to present the portfolio guidelines clearly, and to go over the guidelines periodically. Although all the guidelines - goals, content, timetable, etc. are presented to the class orally, there are also written guidelines to back-up the points discussed and for reference while preparing the portfolio. It is helpful to prepare these guidelines in question-and-answer form. These are written in the student’s mother tongue if necessary. e. Notifying other interested parties It is necessary to make sure that the school principal is aware of the new assessment procedures. It is also a good idea to inform parents about the portfolio assessment and allow them to comment on the work. f. Doing with preparation period Support and encouragement are required by both teacher and students at this stage. The students will get it from the understanding teacher. Teachers will get it by doing portfolio assessment as teamwork in their staff or joining or initiating a support group to discuss questions with colleagues as they arise. Devoting class-time to student-teacher conferences, to practicing reflection and self-assessment and to portfolio preparation is important since these are skills for most students. Reflection and self-assessment do not come naturally to people who have little practice in it, and require student training. For example, EFL teachers encourage the students to ask themselves: What did I learn from that activity? Which is my best piece? How can I improve this? This can be done

by class brainstorming or in pairs - portfolio partners - who help each other select samples of their work. EFL teachers start with more structured forms of reflection and slowly proceed to more open reflective comments. This is training in a life-skill, and is well worth the time and effort spent in class. The finished portfolio may be due only at the end of the semester, but it is a good idea to set regular dates at which time several portfolio-ready items (i.e. with drafts and reflections) will be handed in, so that students know whether they are on the right track. Alternatively, EFL teachers have a portfolio project on a single unit of material so that both teacher and students will acquire experience in this kind of assessment over a shorter period of time. To ensure that the portfolio represents the student’s own work, some items are done completely in class. EFL teachers also decide to have a test included as a core item together with reflection on what the student learns from doing the test and revising it. Furthermore, he/she asks the students to explain in their reflections who help them to improve their work (a peer, a parent, a spellchecker) and what they learn from revising their work. g. Assessing the portfolios and giving feedback Each portfolio entry needs to be assessed with reference to its specific goal(s). Since the goals and weighting of the various portfolio components are clearly fixed in advance based upon predetermined criteria, assessing the portfolios is not difficult. This is typically done over several days by teachers who have been trained. EFL teachers who practice scoring student work using the portfolio scoring criteria and benchmarks are mainly involved. The training includes discussion of foreign-language proficiency and its impact on student achievement. Self and peer-assessment can be used too as a tool for formative evaluation, with the students having to justify their grade with reference to the goals and to specific pages in the portfolio. This actually makes the teacher’s job of assessing the portfolio much simpler, because the student does the groundwork of proving how far each goal is met in the portfolio. It takes some of the burden off the teacher and helps students to internalize criteria for quality work. Students can even generate their own report cards based on their portfolios. After all the efforts that the students invest in their portfolios, it is recommended that the teacher provides feedback on the portfolios that is more than just a grade. One possibility is to write a letter about the portfolio, which details strengths and weaknesses and generates a profile of a student’s ability, which is then added to the portfolio. Another option is to prepare certificates which comment on the portfolio strengths and suggest future goals.

h. Holding student-teacher conferences An important element of the portfolio philosophy of shared and active assessment is that the teacher has short individual meetings with each student, in which progress is discussed and goals are set for a future meeting. Students and teachers document these meetings and keep the goals in mind when choosing topics for future meetings. In this way student-teacher conferences play an important role in the formative evaluation of a student’s progress. They can also be used for summative evaluation purposes when the student presents his final portfolio product and together with the teacher decides on a final grade. i. Doing follow-up After the portfolios are complete, it is a good idea to have an exhibition of portfolios and/or student-led parent-teacher conferences. All stakeholders receive information about the results of the portfolio in ways that make the results meaningful to all, including teachers, students, parents, and other community members. After one year, EFL teachers evaluate the effectiveness of the portfolio program and make necessary judgments. Once the portfolio program has been piloted and found to be effective, EFL teachers implement the program at all sites. Accordingly, portfolio program is effective when it needs piloting in a certain area. This is as a way of portfolio assessment implementation in EFL setting. Evaluating Portfolio According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer (1991), a portfolio offers a way of assessing student learning that is different from traditional methods. Portfolio assessment provides the EFL teacher and students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks, developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments about their own performances. In order for thoughtful evaluation to take place, EFL teachers must have multiple scoring strategies to evaluate students' progress. Criteria for a finished portfolio include several of the following. a. Thoughtfulness (including evidence of students' monitoring of their own comprehension, reflection, and productive habits of mind), b. Growth and development in relationship to curriculum expectancies and indicators, c. Understanding and application of processes, d. Completeness, correctness, and appropriateness of products and processes presented in the portfolio,

e. Diversity of entries (e.g., use of multiple formats to demonstrate achievement of designated performance standards). It is especially important for EFL teachers and students to work together to prioritize those criteria that are used as a basis for assessing and evaluating student progress, both formatively (i.e., throughout an instructional time period) and summatively (i.e., as part of a culminating project, activity, or related assessment to determine the extent to which identified curricular expectancies, indicators, and standards are achieved). As the school year progress, students and EFL teacher work together to identify especially significant or important artifacts and processes to be captured in the portfolio. Additionally, they work collaboratively to determine grades or scores to be assigned. Rubrics, rules, and scoring keys are designed for a variety of portfolio components. In addition, letter grades are also assigned. Finally, some of oral discussion or investigation are included as part of the summative evaluation process. This component involves the student, EFL teacher, and if possible, a panel of reviewers in a thoughtful exploration of the portfolio components, students' decision-making and evaluation processes related to artifact selection, and other relevant issues. Closing Assessment is a part of teaching and learning process in the classroom. The assessment is commonly in the forms of multiple-choice, matching, or essay tests. It is actually not measuring students’ factual abilities. Additionally, such assessment is not deeply concerned with affective and psycho-sensoric domains. It is then considered as its drawback. In order that the assessment does with all domains, alternative assessment is continuously discussed. One of the alternative assessments is portfolio assessment. In EFL instruction, portfolio assessment is a currently-issued authentic assessment. Portfolio assessment is considered as solution to the traditional assessment. It deals with all students’ works in a certain period of learning. Due to its continuity, multidimensionality, and ways to reflect about students’ thinking process and metacognitive introspection, the portfolio assessment is factually appropriate for the alternative assessment in EFL. References George, Paul S. (1995). What is portfolio assessment really and how can I use it in my classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources. Available: http://www.pgcps.org/% 7Eelc/portfolio7/html.

Gómez, Emily Lynch. (1999). Assessment portfolios and English language learners: Frequently asked questions and a case study of the Brooklyn International High School. http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs. Gómez, Emily Lynch. (2000). Assessment portfolios: Including English language learners in large-scale assessments. ERIC Digest. http://www.ericdigests.org/2001/3/large.htm. Jacobs, George M. and Thomas S.C. Farrell. (2003). Understanding and implementing the CLT (communicative language teaching) paradigm. RELC Journal, 34(1), 5-30. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Kemp, Judy and Debby Toperoff. (2005). Guidelines for portfolio assessment in teaching English. http://www.anglit.net/main/portfolio/default.html. Lynch, Richard. (2005). Authentic, performance-based assessment in ESL/EFL instruction. http://asian/efl/journal.com/dec_03_rl. Macías, Ana Huerta. (2002). Alternative assessment: Responses to commonly asked questions. In Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya (Eds.). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 339343). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Paulson, F.L. Paulson, P.R. and Meyer, CA. (1991). What makes a portfolio a portfolio? Educational Leadership, 60-63. http://www.pgcps.org/%7Eelc/portfolio7.html. Peñaflorida, Andrea H. (2002). Nontraditional forms of assessment and response to student writing: A step towards learner autonomy. In Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya (Eds.). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 344-353). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sweet, David. (1993). Student portfolios: Classroom uses. Education Research Consumer Guide, 8. Office of Research, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) of the U.S. Department of Education: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/classuse.html. Thrasher, Randy. (2000). Test theory and test design. http://subsite.icu.ac.jp/people/randy/Test%20text%20grammar%20mcw. Widiatmoko. (2005). Authentic assessment in EFL. Jakarta: Pusat Pengembangan Penataran Guru Bahasa. Zahedah, Abd Hafiz. (2005). Types of alternative assessment: Portfolio assessment. In paper Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme Course. Testing and evaluation in second language teaching. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Perguruan Bahasa-bahasa Antarabangsa.

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