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Landfi Contractors recently completed the final steps of the corrective measure at the old depot landfill, known as Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUS) 12 and 15. The final ste closure reports are currently being prepared for submittal tothe Utah Department of Environmental Quality. ‘The corrective measure action, which began August 1, 2005, was designed ro protect people and wildlife from being exposed to the landfill ma which were not adequately covered. Instead of covering the entire landiil, che exposed debris was consolidated Js, some of to just a few locations within che landfill. In several areas it was found that the exposed debris consisted only Of surface liter. Ar these locations, the debris was picked up and relocated, leaving behind a debris-free ground surface. In other areas, exposed debris was a result of inadequate cover over the disposal sice. These ‘were the areas used for debris consolidation. Those areas ‘were covered with at least ewo feet of clean soil “The final step in the process was to plant native vegetation ro prevent the soil covering from washing away. The seeding took place in early October 2005. The final remedy is considerably different and less costly than the remedy initially considered. Concern ‘har che landfill was a source of groundwater contami: zation, led (o a recommendation to cover the encite QOEL 1D ae Sts Sa © sake landfill with a cap. This cap would have consisted of ayers of soil, clay and a plas- tic liner, designed to prevent rainwater and snowmelt from seeping chrough the landfil, and catry- fing contaminants to the groundwater The cap was es: sated to cost more than $30 million. Because contaminated groundwater emanating fiom beneath the landfill co-mingles withthe contami- nated groundwater coming from SWMU 2, the Army and UDEQ have agreed thatthe groundwater issues of SWMU 2, SWMU 12/15, and SWMU 58 should all be evaluated in a unified manner. This will provide for moze consistent investigation and cleanup ofall these co-mingled plumes, As a resule ofthis agreement, the ‘groundwater issue was separated fiom the SWMU 12/ 15 conective measures evaluation. The selected cortective measure allowed the Army to address the risk to human health and the environment atthe ground surface ina timely and cost-effective manner, while not Consolidating a landfill ‘which s cmplestod and very expens are ie) | ey LEE Step ently ana ‘Step 2: Move materials to onaoidation pointe ‘Gros the mate have been ‘donted, hey are moved to. predctormined estore, re Find ofthe sweeping up oor Into sever smal pice Ins step, wocters determine ana debts noeds tobe ‘verfhing tom chunks at ‘concrete tn cane Consolation is a technique used to make lands safe without having to cover he entire anil, ling the ongoing groundwater investigation. ‘consoldation — points ro eet of eaan soe spread ‘verte conection poms 20 Pople won't come ta contact ‘ante mater Te sols ‘evegotated wah av plants Landfil debris abo is ted mete inn designated fee Ths pce called ‘consoldation. One somlidated, ‘he mati enced ‘oh lea sit (abo) 0 comple the proces, Soil gas testing a valuable tool for finding contamination Monitoring wells ae an imporcant tool to find and define groundwater contamination. They provide a ‘wealth of information, such asthe depth of the contamination, che types of chemical in the water, and Which direction the contaminated groundwater is flowing, But one ofthe mose difficult challenges geologist fae is knowing where to place these ‘monitoring wells. Once a wel location is determined, ‘he composition of underlying sols and the depth to groundwater around Tooele Army Depot can make drilling very dificult, and consequently, expensive, Because ofthis, alternate methods of information- gathering are often employed. Finding the source of the contamination is one of ‘the most important objectives of any environmental investigation. Scientists know that eliminating the source is the most imporcant step in cleaning up a site. Unfortunately, source areas are often very small areas and are dificult co locate with monitoring wells, So scientists at the Tooele Army Depot are using a method that “snifs" out contaminated areas and provides information to help identify a source area where a well can subsequently be installed. ‘The method is known as soil gas testing, Soil gas testing provides a cost-effective method to detect and ‘measure the levels of chemical vapors in the sol Active Shallow Sol Gas Monitoring well FOncetne sot go ets nave determines the ity loves at chemical ne lrcundwater What is soil gas? Salis not a ste mass of mate- ‘a uti of smal pares. Botveon tate paris ar ny Spacos. Above the wate tbl, St isthe spaces between the Darles: Geological is a fat eas Cchaical vapors tat have evap Sale tom contaminating Sowawater or sortaraton “ours wi wre erway no ‘he's gns and canbe detected insat gas tains SS; ‘There are three basic methods of testing sol gas. Passive soil gas testing is useful when the location of sources is not well known. A grid pattern of several samples is lid out to cover an area where scientists suspect the source might be. While pasive soil gas texting does not provide measurements of concentration, comparing the relative value of samples allows scientists to more accurately locate a contamination source. Active shallow soil gas testing i a more precise _method that often follows a passive soil gs survey atthe identified source areas. Scientists use the passive est results, «oe them optimally determine active soll gas simple locations, which yields more useful results ‘This method is ‘often used in place ofa passive testing in conjunction with a field laboratory. The field laboratory provides scientists ‘with real-time data, which helps them know where to place the next sample points Sometimes high detections of chemicals in shallow soil gas samples might not actully indicate that ‘contamination has reached the groundwater. So in ateas where the water table is deep, such as Tooele, deep soil gas resting is used to determine if contamination feom the sources found with the shallow testing methods actually pose a threat to groundwater. Since the cost of drilling nearly to the water cable makes deep soil gas sampling almost as expensive as installing a monitoring wall, clear source identification using shallow methods is a necessary first step. When drilling a deep boring for soil gas testing, itis beneficial to collet samples at several depths, which gives scientists a good picture of the distribution and depths of chemicals through the soil Soil gas testing is only effective at finding chemicals that evaporate exily, such as tichloroethene, the primary ‘groundwater contaminant at Tooele Army Depot. Soil gas testing cannot replace monitoring wells, but i can help to control the costs ofan investigation by ensuring that che monitoring wels that ate installed will provide valuable dara Geologic investigation takes to the skies If you're wondering what ic was you saw dangling from a helicopter near the Tooele Army Depot in October, it's probably not whae you thoughe it was. And while it may have looked strange, its purpose was purely scientific, That hexagonal, metal framework suspended from the helicopter was, in fact, a device designed to pulse clectromagnetic energy into the ground, It may help the Army refine its knowledge of the complex geology in the earth beneath the depot. The whole idea is to determine the rypes of earth smaterials—soil, rock and water—beneath the depot and surrounding area so geologists can determine whe sgroundwacer is flowing and how fast ic is moving. With this information, the Army can develop the proper remedies for contaminated areas. Conventionally, geologists would use wells and soil borings ro detetmine things like the rype of soil and the depth of the groundwater. However, this new technol- ‘py, called SkyTEM, uses electromagnetic enetgy to explore the subsurface In simple terms, this highly technical process uses electromagnetic pulses to excite” the particles of earth matril under- ground. Different eypes ‘of macerial respond diffecently to the pulses and these differences can be measured, Sensors at the til ofthe framework record the responses and feed the information to a computer for future analysis, Once scientists incerpeee the daca, chey hope the resales will produce a better under standing of the subsur- face geology, especially the depth and configura tion of bedrock forma- tions in the area The Army Environ- imental Center is sponsor ing the ini tive as part of its effort to determine if this acral geophysical rol wl be useful at Army insalla- tions like Tooele ro map subsurface features. While relatively new ro the United States, this Danish developed technology has been succesfll used for numerous geophysical surveys in Europe The survey, which covered five mile-square area, took about two days to complete, and dhe daca will take another several months to analyze. The depot i ‘optimistic that it will produce useful information. 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