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# Contoh soal Heat Exchanger

A manufacturer is to design a heat exchanger in which the specification calls for steam at 4 bar g to heat secondary water from 10C to 60C. The water flow is to be constant at all loads at 1.5 L/s. It is assumed that 1 litre of water has a mass of 1 kg, so the mass flowrate = 1.5 L/s x 1 kg/L = 1.5 kg/s. The manufacturer uses a heat transfer coefficient 'U' for the heat exchanger of 2500 W/m2C. Take the specific heat of water as 4.19 kJ/kgC. Determine: (A) The design heat load. (B) The corresponding steam flowrate. (C) The minimum heating area required. Also, if the customer's minimum heat load occurs when the inlet water temperature rises to 30C, determine: (D) The minimum heat load. (E) The corresponding steam pressure in the heat exchanger. (F) The corresponding steam flowrate.

Calculations
(A) Find the design heat load using the heat transfer flowrate equation (Equation 2.6.5): Equation 2.6.5 Where: = Mean heat transfer rate (kW) = Mean secondary fluid flowrate (kg) cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg K) or (kJ/kgC) T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (K or C)

(B) Find the corresponding steam flowrate at 4 bar g, saturation temperature (T s) is 152C, and hfg = 2108.1 kJ/kg (from steam tables). Calculate the required steam flow at the design condition using Equation 2.8.1:

Equation 2.8.1

(C) Find the minimum heating area to meet the requirement using Equation 2.5.5. Note; the manufacturer uses the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (T LM) to calculate the minimum amount of heating area to satisfy the design rating:

Equation 2.5.5 Where : T LM = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) T s = Steam temperature (C) T 1 = Secondary fluid in temperature (C) T 2 = Secondary fluid out temperature (C) ln = The mathematical function known as 'natural logarithm'

By re-arranging the general heat transfer equation (Equation 2.5.3: = U x A x T) Equation 13.2.1 can be formulated, where T can be represented by the mean value T M.

## Equation 13.2.1 Where : A

= Heating area (m) = Mean heat transfer rate (W) U = Heat transfer coefficient (W/mC) T M = Mean Temperature Difference. Note: T M may be either T LM (LMTD) or T AM (AMTD).

For the purpose of this example it will be assumed that the heat exchanger is designed to have exactly this area of 1.09 m.

(D) Find the minimum heat load, when the inlet water temperature is 30C, using the heat transfer flowrate equation (Equation 2.6.5) as used in Part 'A' of these calculations: Equation 2.6.5

To calculate the corresponding steam flowrate, it is first necessary to determine the steam temperature at the minimum load condition. It is possible to use the T LM design figures to accurately predict the steam temperature for any load condition, but this requires the use of logarithmic calculations. However, once the exchanger size is fixed and the design temperatures are known, it is much easier to predict operating temperatures using what could be termed a heat exchanger Temperature Design Constant (TDC). The TDC method does not require logarithmic calculations. Please note: TDC cannot be used on those applications where the secondary flowrate varies or where control is achieved by varying the condensate level in the steam space. Note: When sizing a heat exchanger it is normal for heat exchanger manufacturers to use the T LM method. Once sized, by knowing the heating area and the full-load operating temperatures, TDC can be used to accurately predict all operating temperatures resulting from changes in load, as can be seen in the following text. Operating temperatures can also be predicted graphically by using what is termed a 'Stall Chart'. This method is discussed in Tutorials 13.5, 13.6, and 13.7. Temperature Design Constant (TDC) For any type of steam-heated exchanger with the secondary liquid flowing at a constant rate, TDC can be calculated from the test figures quoted by the manufacturer for full-load. If these data sets are not available and the heat exchanger is already installed in service, TDC can be calculated by observing the steam pressure (and finding the steam temperature from steam tables) and the corresponding secondary inlet and outlet temperatures at any load. TDC is the ratio of the steam to water temperatures at the inlet and outlet; and is shown in Equation 13.2.2.

Equation 13.2.2

Where : TDC = Temperature Design Constant T s = Steam temperature T 1 = Secondary fluid inlet temperature T 2 = Secondary fluid outlet temperature

## In Example 13.2.1 at full-load conditions:

The TDC equation can be transposed to find any one variable as long as the other three variables are known. The following equations are derived from the TDC equation (Equation 13.2.2). To find the steam temperature at any load use Equation 13.2.3:

Equation 13.2.3 To find the secondary fluid inlet temperature at any load use Equation 13.2.4: Equation 13.2.4 To find the secondary fluid outlet temperature at any load use Equation 13.2.5:

Equation 13.2.5 For any heat exchanger with a constant secondary flowrate, the operating steam temperature can be calculated for any combination of inlet temperature and outlet temperature. In Example 13.2.1 the secondary outlet temperature remains at 60C, and minimum load occurs when the inlet temperature is 30C. What is the steam temperature at minimum load? Inlet temperature = 30C Outlet temperature = 60C Using Equation 13.2.3:

(E) Find the corresponding heat exchanger steam pressure and enthalpy at minimum load From steam tables: A steam temperature of 115.2C corresponds with a steam pressure of 0.7 bar g. The specific enthalpy of evaporation at 0.7 bar g (hfg) = 2 215 kJ/kg. (F) Find the steam flowrate at minimum load: From (D) the minimum heat load is 188.5 kW. From (E) the hfg is 2 215 kJ/kg.

Equation 2.8.1

## Contoh Soal Cooling Tower

A cooling tower is to cool 20000 lb/h of water from 120 F to 80 F. Inlet air will have a dry bulb temperature of 60 F and a wet bulb temperature of 50 F. A mass transfer coefficient of 80 lb/(hftmol ratio) is expected. Gy = 800 lb/(hft2). Cross sectional area of the tower is 20 ft2. Use Merkel design equation to estimate the height of the tower.

Solution: Gy = 800 lb/(hft2), m = 20000 lb/h, water temperature inlet, t1 = 80 F, Water temperature outlet, t2 = 120 F Assume specific heat of water, c = 1 Btu/(lbF) Enthalpy of inlet air (60 F dry bulb, 50 F wet bulb), h1 = 20.35 - 0.05 = 20.3 Btu/lb Enthalpy of air at any temperature t in the tower, H = m/(AGy)(t - t1) + h1 Enthalpy of outlet air, h2 = 70.3 Btu/lb Temp, t 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 H*/(Btu/lb) 43.7 49 56 63.3 72 81.3 92.3 105 119.3 H/(Btu/lb) 20.3 26.55 32.8 39.05 45.3 51.55 57.8 64.05 70.3 Mean 1/(H* - H) 0.0427 0.0445 0.0431 0.0412 0.0375 0.0336 0.029 0.0244 0.0204 0.0316

## Use Equation 11.4 given below to calculate number of transfer units

NTU = (h2 - h1)(1/(H* - H)av) = 1.582 Height of transfer unit can be found by using Equation 11.5 given below. HTU = Gy/Kya = 10 Height of Cooling Tower can be calculated through Equation 11.6 given below. Z = HTUNTU = 101.582 = 15.82 ft