positive charges (protons) from the positive terminal of a power supply (such as a battery) to its negative terminal.

Which way does electric charge really flow? Later on, scientists discovered that electric current is in fact a flow of negative charges (electrons) from the negative terminal of a power supply to its positive terminal. But by the time the real direction of current flow was discovered, a flow of positive charges (protons) from the positive terminal of a power supply to its negative terminal had already been well established and used commonly in electrical circuitry. Currently, there are two methods to express the direction of electric current. One is known as the conventional current flow version, in which the current is defined as a flow of positive charges (protons) from the positive terminal of a power supply to its negative terminal. The other is called electrons flow version, in which the current is defined as a flow of negative charges (electrons) from the negative terminal of a power supply unit to its positive terminal. These two methods are shown in Figure 1.6. Because the charge or current cannot be seen in electric c

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