# 7

Parallel R, L, C Circuits
Objective
This exercise examines the voltage and current relationships in parallel R, L, C networks. Of particular importance is the phase of the various components and how Kirchhoff’s Current Law is extended for C circuits. !oth time domain and phasor plots of the currents are generated. techni"ue to measure current using a current sense resistor will also #e explored.

Theory Overview
Recall that for resistors, the voltage is alwa\$s in phase with the current, for capacitors the voltage alwa\$s lags the current #\$ %& degrees, and for inductors the voltage alwa\$s leads the current #\$ %& degrees. !ecause each element has a uni"ue phase response #etween '%& and (%& degrees, a parallel com#ination of R, L, and C components will \$ield a complex impedance with a phase angle #etween '%& and (%& degrees. )ue to the phase response, Kirchhoff’s Current Law must #e computed using vector *phasor+ sums rather than simpl\$ rel\$ing on the magnitudes. ,ndeed, all computations of this nature, such as a current divider, must #e computed using vectors.

Equipment
*-+ C .unction /enerator *-+ Oscilloscope serial num#er0111111111111111111 serial num#er0111111111111111111

Components
*-+ -& n. *-+ -& m2 *-+ - kΩ *3+ -& Ω actual0111111111111111111 actual0111111111111111111 actual0111111111111111111 actual0111111111111111111 actual0111111111111111111 actual0111111111111111111

4arallel R, L, C Circuits

:. the relative phase of the current in "uestion must #e the same as that of the sensing resistor’s voltage. and C9-& n.ach of the three circuit currents will #e measured separatel\$ and with respect to the source in order to determine relative phase. determine the theoretical capacitive reactance and circuit impedance. and record the results in Ta#le 6..kΩ.with a -& 7 p(p -& k28 source. =easure the voltage across the sense resistor.. R9.Schematics i!ure 7"# i!ure 7"\$ i!ure 7"% Proce&ure RC Circuit -.kΩ. common method to measure current using the oscilloscope is to place a small current sense resistor in line with the current of interest.-.using R9.:.igure 6.xercise 6 . calculate the corresponding total current via Ohm’s Law and record in Ta#le .f the resistor is much smaller than the surrounding reactances it will have a minimal effect on the current.igure 6.. 5sing . This will reduce the signal noise and make for more accurate readings. . <et the generator to a -&k 28 sine wave and -& 7p(p.. and C9-& n. !uild the circuit of . 5sing the current divider rule. To measure the total current. 3. =ake sure that the Bandwidth Limit of the oscilloscope is engaged for #oth channels. place a -& Ω resistor #etween ground and the #ottom connection of the parallel components. compute the resistor and capacitor currents and record them in Ta#le 6. !ecause the voltage and current of the resistor are alwa\$s in phase with each other. . 4lace pro#e one across the generator and pro#e two across the sense resistor.

long with the magnitude. =easure and record the appropriate values in Ta#le 6. determine the experimental A and BC values via Ohm’s Law *BC9VCCiC. 4arallel R..@. 5sing .:. 6. recording the magnitude and phase angle in Ta#le 6.through 6 in like manner. L. Compute the deviations #etween the theoretical and experimental values of Ta#le 6. #e sure to record the time deviation #etween the sense waveform and the input signal *from which the phase ma\$ #e determined eventuall\$+. iC. and repeat steps .inall\$.e. repeat steps .igure 6. Remove the sense resistor and place one -& Ω resistor #etween the capacitor and ground to serve as the capacitor current sense. <ave a picture of the oscilloscope displa\$ing the voltage waveforms representing iR. move pro#e two so that it is across the capacitor’s sense resistor. iC and iin *i. A9VinCiin+ and record #ack in Ta#le 6. >. using Ta#les 6. Eote that it will not #e possi#le to see all four waveforms simultaneousl\$ in step ?. . =ove pro#e one to the resistor’s sense resistor and leave pro#e two at the capacitor’s sense resistor. C Circuits . using Ta#les 6.through 6 in like manner. ?.e. @.:. 4lace a second -& Ω resistor #etween the resistor and ground to sense the resistor current. Create a phasor plot showing iin.igure 6.:+. RL Circuit D..3 and 6.: and record the results in the final columns of Ta#le 6.? and 6.>. Repeat the process to o#tain its current.3 with #oth the -& n.:. Leave pro#e one at the generator and move pro#e two across the sense resistor in the resistor #ranch. . .6.nclude #oth the time domain displa\$ from step > and the phasor plot with the technical report. RLC Circuit %. !ased on the experimental values. Replace the capacitor with the -& m2 inductor *i. and iR.along with the deviations.:. capacitor and -& m2 inductor *and a third sense resistor+. the Math waveform computed from iR ' iC+.

a! Theory θ E(p .a! Theory θ E(p .a! ) 'ev θ E(perimental ) 'eviation iL iR iin Table 7".a! E(p 'elay E(p θ ) 'ev .xercise 6 .a! E(p 'elay E(p θ ) 'ev . .a!nitu&e +Table 7"# Theory .a! ) 'ev θ E(perimental ) 'eviation iC iR iin Table 7"\$ RL Circuit Theory *L + .'ata Tables RC Circuit Theory *C + .a!nitu&e +Table 7"% Theory .

. C Circuits .a! E(p 'elay E(p θ ) 'ev .igure 6. and C components in a parallel C circuitG :.: change if the fre"uenc\$ was loweredG 4arallel R. . does Kirchhoff’s Current Law appl\$ to the three tested circuits *show work+G 3. how would the phasor diagram of . Fhat is the phase relationship #etween R.a! Theory θ E(p .change if the fre"uenc\$ was raisedG >.n general. !ased on measurements.n general.a! ) 'ev θ E(perimental ) 'eviation iC iL iR iin Table 7"0 1uestions -. how would the phasor diagram of .igure 6. . L.RLC Circuit Theory *C *L + . L.a!nitu&e +Table 7"/ Theory .