New Madrid Seismic Zone

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New Madrid Seismic Zone
Coordinates: 36.58245€N 89.58801€W [1]

Reelfoot Rift and the New Madrid Seismic Zone in a 3D topographic image

Magnetic potential map of the Reelfoot Rift The New Madrid Seismic Zone (pronounced /nu€Help:IPA for English#Key•m•dr‚d/), sometimes called the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone and a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes (earthquakes within a tectonic plate) in the southern and midwestern United States, stretching to the southwest from New Madrid, Missouri. The New Madrid fault system was responsible for the 1811ƒ1812 New Madrid earthquakes and may have the potential to produce large earthquakes in the future. Since 1812, frequent smaller earthquakes have been recorded in the area. Earthquakes that occur in the New Madrid Seismic Zone potentially threaten parts of seven American states: Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi.[2]

and 4800 B. with moment magnitudes estimated to be as large as 8. near Marianna.C. through Hayti. Most of the seismicity is located between 3 and 15 miles (4. Based on artifacts found buried by sand blow deposits and from carbon-14 studies. which extends into five states. Magnitude estimates and epicenters are based on interpretations of historical accounts and may vary.0. or earthquakes and the associated uplift migrate around the area over time.C. near Reelfoot Lake. Archeological studies have found from studies of sand blows and soil horizons that previous series of very large earthquakes have occurred in the NMSZ in recent prehistory. Earthquake history The zone had four of the largest North American earthquakes in recorded history. Van Arsdale et al. Arkansas. extending southeast into Dyersburg.000 years. studies have concluded that the seismic activity there cannot have gone on for longer than 64. through Blytheville into Marked Tree in Arkansas. Prehistoric earthquakes Because uplift rates associated with large New Madrid earthquakes could not have occurred continuously over geological timescales without dramatically altering the local topography. stretches southward from Cairo. Illinois. 1682 and A. or that the NMSZ has short periods of activity interspersed with long periods of quiet. Because the tree ring record in Reelfoot Lake and the St.D. respectively. previous large earthquakes like those of 1811ƒ1812 appear to have happened around AD 1450 and around AD 900. all occurring within a three-month period between December 1811 and February 1812. whereas cores taken from old bald cypress trees in the St. 1321. making the NMSZ a young feature. It also covers a part of West Tennessee. These features were interpreted to have been caused by groups of large earthquakes timed closely together. Francis sunklands showed slowed growth in the half century that followed 1812. two sets of liquefaction features indicative of large earthquakes have been tentatively identified and dated to 3500 B. Many of the published accounts describe the cumulative effects of all the earthquakes (known as the New Madrid Sequence).New Madrid Seismic Zone 2 Geographic extent The 150-mile (240‚km) long fault system. interpreted the lack of similar signals elsewhere in the chronology as evidence against large New Madrid earthquakes between those years and 1811. as well as approximately AD 300.D. Caruthersville and New Madrid in Missouri. About 80‚km southwest of the presently-defined NMSZ but close enough to be associated with the Reelfoot Rift. Francis sunklands extend back to A. Evidence has been found for an apparent series of large earthquakes around 2350 BC. . These were interpreted as clear signals of the 1811ƒ1812 earthquake series in tree rings.8 and 24 km) beneath the Earth's surface. Dendrochronology (tree ring) studies conducted on the oldest bald cypress trees growing in Reelfoot Lake found evidence of the 1811ƒ1812 series in the form of fractures followed by rapid growth after their inundation. thus finding the individual effects of each quake can be difficult.

6) epicenter near New Madrid. which was of the same intensity as the first. Observers in Herculaneum.). 1811. (M ~7. 0815 UTC (2:15 a.[5] The Great Earthquake at New Madrid. Indiana. Missouri.m. D. Many of these were also felt throughout the eastern US. . This may have placed strain on the Reelfoot Fault. Missouri.). In Jefferson.0 ƒ 8. A seismic seiche propagated upriver and Little Prairie was destroyed by liquefaction. ƒ January 23.m. disrupted the Mississippi River at Kentucky Bend. Tennessee was shaken at Mercalli level nine intensity. trees were knocked down and riverbanks collapsed. This event shook windows and furniture in Washington.0) epicenter in the Missouri Bootheel. Virginia. 1812. ejections. 1811€1812 earthquake series ƒ December 16. At St.2 ƒ 8. in New Madrid until what was called the Daylight Shock. rang bells in Richmond. sloshed well water and shook houses in Charleston. the Daylight Shock. New Madrid was destroyed. at a site near the present-day location of Memphis. in this event. and their chimneys were toppled. though with less intensity than the initial earthquake.C.2[3]) epicenter in northeast Arkansas. residents fled their homes.).2 ƒ 8. created a wave that propagated upstream and caused the formation of Reelfoot Lake. and knocked plaster off of houses in Columbia. At 1 PM. South Carolina. a total of 27. severe landslides. many houses were severely damaged.New Madrid Seismic Zone 3 December 25. on Christmas Day 1699. (M ~7. furniture moved and in Lebanon.[4] Local uplifts of the ground and water waves moving upstream gave the illusion that the river was flowing backwards. A nineteenth-century woodcut from Devens' Our First Century (1877) At New Madrid. Missouri.[6] Aftershocks were felt every six to ten minutes.m. This shock was definitively attributed to the Reelfoot Fault by Johnston and Schweig. ƒ February 7. 1811. The future location of Memphis.m.).4 ƒ 8. Louis. It was uplift along this reverse fault segment. Johnston and Schweig attributed this earthquake to a rupture on the New Madrid North Fault. 1812. 0945 UTC (4:45 a. that created waterfalls on the Mississippi River.2) epicenter in northeast Arkansas.. South Carolina. This shock followed the first earthquake by six hours and was similar in intensity. and caving of stream banks. (M ~7. 1699 The first known written record of an earthquake felt in the NMSZ was from a French missionary traveling up the Mississippi with a party of explorers. called it "severe" and claimed it had a duration of 10ƒ12 minutes. mainly because of the sparse population in the epicentral area. fissuring.[7] ƒ December 16. the party was startled by a short period of ground shaking. Ohio. 1415 UTC (8:15 a. (M ~7. 1500 UTC (9 a. it caused only slight damage to man-made structures. The meizoseismal area was characterized by general ground warping.

The quake damaged the civic building at Henderson. Faults were created along the rift and igneous rocks formed from magma that was being pushed towards the surface. more than 4.6-magnitude quake on October 31. and have since been deeply buried by younger sediments. 1968.5 at the time) on November 9. Kentucky and was felt in 23 states. where ground motion caused church bells to ring.[8] Hundreds of aftershocks followed over a period of several years. Louis. Memphis. 1895. near Dale. The largest earthquakes to have occurred since then were on January 4. cracked a pier on the Cairo Rail Bridge and toppled chimneys in St. one earthquake per year is large enough to be felt in the area.000 earthquakes have been recorded. Modern activity The biggest quake since 1811ƒ1812 was a 6. creating sand volcanoes by the city. which made the area weaker. most of which were too small to be felt. 1843. Instruments were installed in and around the area in 1974 to closely monitor seismic activity. Aftershocks strong enough to be felt occurred until the year 1817.0 and 6. with an epicenter at Charleston. More than 4000 earthquake reports since 1974 The next biggest quake was a 5. with magnitude estimates of 6. The resulting rift system failed but has remained as an aulacogen (a scar or zone of weakness) deep underground. Geology The New Madrid Seismic Zone is made up of reactivated faults that formed when what is now North America began to split or rift apart during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic Era (about 750 million years ago). It is the biggest recorded quake with an epicenter in Illinois in that state's recorded history. Illinois. 1895. Since then. Alabama and Evansville. Massachusetts.New Madrid Seismic Zone 4 The earthquakes were felt as far away as New York City and Boston. Tennessee. People in Boston said their buildings swayed. Another unsuccessful attempt at rifting 200 million years ago created additional faults. Missouri. Gadsden. The Geological structure of Reelfoot Rift resulting geological structures make up the Reelfoot Rift. Missouri. But the ancient faults appear to have made . On average. The quake damaged virtually all buildings in Charleston.6 respectively.4-magnitude quake (although it was reported as a 5. Indiana. and October 31.

at around forty degrees. making the area prone to earthquakes. Since other rifts are known to occur in North America's stress environment but not all are associated with modern earthquakes. caused by the sinking Farallon Plate. Mississippi. has been considered to play a role. Missouri. Indiana.000 of the fatalities expected in Memphis alone. and other vital [9] infrastructure. which concentrates compressive stress in the shallower subsurface area where the faulting occurs. transportation systems. Slip is towards the northeast. 5 Potential for future earthquakes In a report filed in November 2008. Kentucky. Oklahoma.New Madrid Seismic Zone the rocks deep in the Earth's crust in the New Madrid area mechanically weaker than much of the rest of North America." further predicting "widespread and catastrophic" damage across Alabama. allows the relatively small east-west compressive forces that exist in the North American plate to reactivate old faults. This is a right-lateral strike-slip fault system parallel to the Reelfoot Rift. This trend is a stepover thrust fault known as the Reelfoot Fault. The third trend. This weakness. other processes could be at work to locally increase mechanical stress on the New Madrid faults. First is the general northeast-southwest trend paralleling the trend of the Reelfoot Rift. When epicenters of modern earthquakes are plotted on a map. in Arkansas. Motion on this fault in the 1811ƒ1812 series created waterfalls on the Mississippi. The second is the southeast to northwest trend that occurs just southwest of New Madrid. It has also been suggested that some form of heating in the lithosphere below the area may be making deep rocks more plastic. Texas.S. with more than 4. towards the south. the U. Earthquakes in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones . possibly combined with focusing effects from mechanically stronger igneous rocks nearby. Kansas. Illinois. three trends become apparent. according to one model. south of where the epicenters turn northwest. associated with the Tiptonville dome and the impoundment of Reelfoot Lake. Stress changes associated with bending of the lithosphere caused by the melting of continental glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age. Arkansas. extending northeast from the northwestern end of the Reelfoot Fault is another right-lateral strike-slip fault known as New Madrid North. Federal Emergency Management Agency warned that a serious earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone could result in "the highest economic losses due to a natural disaster in the United States.7 magnitude quake or greater would cause damage to tens of thousands of structures affecting water distribution. (for example the Midcontinent Rift System that stretches from Minnesota to Kansas). and particularly Tennessee. Epicenter locations on this fault are more spread out because the fault surface is inclined and dips into the ground. as well as downward pull from sinking igneous rock bodies below the fault. where a 7. The earthquake is expected to also result in many thousands of fatalities. There may be local stress from a change in the flow of the mantle beneath the NMSZ.

Although some of these ideas have gained some amount of acceptance among researchers. scientists attempt to understand their causes and recurrence intervals. One concern is that there is no evidence of reduced earthquake frequency over time.5 to 7.[13] In the November 5. and Missouri would be most severely impacted. In 2009 two studies based on eight years of GPS measurements indicated that the faults were moving at no more than 0. Tennessee and St. Arkansas.2 millimeters (0. Disaster Deferred. funded by the United States Geological Survey. Uncertainty over potential for recurrence The lack of apparent land movement along the New Madrid fault system has long puzzled scientists. a research group based out of Northwestern University and Purdue University. Indiana. would be at least $300 billion. Missouri and Tennessee ƒ with the probability of additional damage in states farther from the NMSZ. and 7. climatologist Iben Browning ƒ who claimed to have predicted the 1980 eruption of Mount St. The report estimated 86. according to the report. who concluded that "the prediction does not have scientific validity. Researchers say aftershocks on the San Andreas can continue for a period of up to about ten years. and that the GPS data do not provide a compelling case for lessening perceived earthquake hazards in the region.000 damaged buildings. the quakes along the faults may only be aftershocks of the 1811ƒ1812 earthquakes. 2009. the leader of the research group. or the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).5‚in) a year across California.[10] 6 Iben Browning's 1990 prediction Beginning in February 1989. Elnashai. published these views in a book. reported in the journal Science and in other journals that the New Madrid system may be "shutting down" and that tectonic stress may now be accumulating elsewhere.000 casualties.0079‚in) a year. and a greater chance of .[14] According to the USGS. primarily due to the lack of utility services. The period passed with no major earthquake activity in New Madrid or along the 120-mile (190‚km) fault line. On March 13. there is a broad consensus that the possibility of major earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone remains a concern. issue of Nature.5‚in) a year across California.5 earthquake in the New Madrid area sometime between December 1 and December 5. Arkansas.New Madrid Seismic Zone The potential for the recurrence of large earthquakes and their impact today on densely populated cities in and around the seismic zone has generated much research devoted to understanding in the New Madrid Seismic Zone.[11] This contrasts to the rate of slip on the San Andreas Fault which averages up to 37‚mm (1. Louis. Direct economic losses.500 year archeological record of large earthquakes in the region is more significant than ten years of direct strain measurement.[12] Seth Stein. another is that the 4. a team composed of University of Illinois and Virginia Tech researchers headed by Amr S. Kentucky. and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake a week in advance predicted that there was a 50 percent probability of a magnitude 6. Browning's prediction was widely reported in international media. funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2009. in 2008. they have not been accepted by the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council. Mississippi. Tennessee. The United States Geological Survey requested an evaluation of the prediction by an advisory board of earth scientists. In October 2009.2 million people displaced. including 3. where fault movement averages up to 37‚mm (1. as would be expected if all present-day activity were caused by aftershocks of the 1811ƒ1812 events. By studying evidence of past quakes and closely monitoring ground motion and current earthquake activity. 1990. 715. with 2 million of those seeking shelter. The USGS recently issued a fact sheet reiterating the estimate of a 10% chance of a New Madrid earthquake of magnitude comparable to those of 1811ƒ1812 within the next 50 years. considered a scenario where all three segments of the New Madrid fault ruptured simultaneously. The report found that there would be significant damage in the eight states studied ƒ Alabama. which advises the USGS.500 fatalities. and the cities of Memphis. researchers from Northwestern University and the University of Missouri said that due to the lack of fault movement. causing public alarm. Missouri would be severely damaged." Despite the lack of scientific support. Helens. Illinois.

58801_W_source:placeopedia [2] Stelzer.D. usgs.usgs. 1999) [3] Historic Earthquakes New Madrid Earthquakes 1811ƒ1812 (http:/ / earthquake. (http://quake. er. php#december_16 United States Geological Survey USGS [6] The New Madrid Earthquake. Robert E. quake" ƒ Reuters [10] https:/ / www. southern Illinois. harvard. Missouri.100 years ago. djvu) [7] The New Madrid Earthquake. C. 1 and 2 [11] New Madrid fault system may be shutting down ƒ physorg.gov/prepare/ factsheets/NewMadrid/) ƒ Uncovering Hidden Hazards in the Mississippi Valley (http://quake. there was a 5. com/ articles/ 2009/ 03/ 13/ new. Geologic Survey site discusses the New Madrid seismic zone. Illinois. gov/ california/ pp1515/ chapter7.5 to 7.usgs. Available on SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) [5] http:/ / earthquake. php) USGS [4] The Enigma of the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811ƒ1812 (http:/ / adsabs.wr. and Posey County.S.000 years. 24. edu/ full/ 1996AREPS.S. usgs.2 earthquake with an epicenter 7‚km (4. com/ content/ printVersion/ 108402/ ) Riverfront Times (December 15.com ƒ April 18. pkcM1pDbSKQ7ePCNGu2s0NUE "Government warns of 'catastrophic' U. usgs. be. and Kentucky. felt by thousands in Michiana ƒ wndu. fault. C. The fault zone is considered an aulacogen related to the New Madrid fault line.[16][17] The earthquake highlighted activity on the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone fault system that extends from Gallatin County. pp. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 339J). madrid.html) ƒ U. Illinois. 2009 (http:/ / earthquake. com/ news/ 2011/ 111109/ full/ 479166a. riverfronttimes. usgs. . [15] http:/ / pubs.[citation needed] A major earthquake in this zone now could cause major damage and loss of life in Evansville and surrounding areas of southern Indiana.3‚mi) north northeast of Bellmont. Myron Fuller (1912) (LizardTech online document) (http:/ / pubs.com ƒ March 13. . Illinois. which covers parts of Indiana. org/ geohack/ geohack. 2009 (http:/ / www. djvu) [8] http:/ / quake. com/ s/ nm/ 20081120/ us_nm/ us_earthquake_study. Indiana. down "New Madrid Fault System May Be Shutting Down" Eureka! Science News [13] Monastersky. edu/ handle/ 2142/ 14810 "Impact of New Madrid Seismic Zone Earthquakes on the Central USA. php?pagename=New_Madrid_Seismic_Zone& params=36. "Nature News: Seth Stein: The Quake Killer" (http:/ / www.usgs. gov/ earthquakes/ states/ events/ 1811-1812. and White County. shutting. "Present-Day Crustal Movements and the Mechanics of Cyclic Deformation".gov ƒ Retrieved January 21.New Madrid Seismic Zone a magnitude 6. A. usgs. gov/ djvu/ B/ bull_494. usgs.gov/prepare/factsheets/ HiddenHazs/) .5 have occurred in the last 20. northeast 97‚km (60‚mi) and spans an area that is about 48‚km (30‚mi) in the Ozark dome region. system. html) [12] http:/ / esciencenews. Myron Fuller (1912) (requires LizardTech online document viewer) (http:/ / pubs. wmflabs. usgs. & Schweig.0 earthquake in the same time frame.wr. and Arkansas. Johnston. The San Andreas Fault System. html) Bibliography ƒ USGS New Madrid (http://neic. Retrieved 2007-10-26. illinois.gov/neis/new_madrid/new_madrid.[15] 7 Other Midwestern earthquake zones On April 18. html. gov/ fs/ 2009/ 3071/ Retrieved 2010-5-2 [16] Magnitude 5. yahoo. wr. about 6. USGS Professional Bulletin 494. html) Nature (9 November 2011) [14] ^ Wallace. http:/ / education. com/ home/ headlines/ 17906674. USGS Professional Bulletin 494. 339ƒ384.4 ƒ ILLINOIS ƒ USGS. gov/ djvu/ B/ bull_494. Illinois. References Notes [1] http:/ / tools. 2008 (http:/ / www. nature. E. S. Richard. Volume 24. The earthquake was about 160 miles (260‚km) northeast of New Madrid._ylt=AkY. California. Vol. gov/ regional/ states/ events/ 1811-1812. "The earthquake hazard here may be greater than you think. gov/ prepare/ factsheets/ NewMadrid/ United States Geological Survey USGS [9] http:/ / news. com/ news156169464. 2008. gov/ eqcenter/ eqinthenews/ 2008/ us2008qza6/ #summary) [17] Earthquake hits Indiana. wndu. usgs. Indiana. Researchers say that at least eight earthquakes with estimated magnitude 6. The largest of the quakes was centered about 25‚km (16‚mi) west of Vincennes. ideals. And planning for it is less than you'd expect" (http:/ / www. 58245_N_89. physorg. er. Kentucky. may.

Washington. Shedlock.S.K.E. Geological Survey. Department of the Interior. ƒ Valencius. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1995). Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-L]. (http://hsv. ƒ Stephenson.: U. A. ƒ Langenheim.S. et al.edu/compendium/) ƒ Links to eyewitness descriptions of the three 1811ƒ12 earthquakes.S. U..edu/~rogersda/nmsz/Space geodetic evidence for rapid strain rates in the New Madrid seismic zone of Central USA. D. http://hdl.org) ƒ U.handle. U.S.com/genlintr/newmadrd/) ƒ Space geodetic evidence for rapid strain rates in the New Madrid seismic zone of Central USA (PDF) (http:// web. Urbana. shallow. C.: U.pdf) Further reading ƒ Boyd. ƒ Potter.S. Geological Survey. seismic reflection surveys of the northwest Reelfoot rift boundary near Marston.S. Washington.J. Washington.: U. Washington. B. Department of the Interior. Structure of the Reelfoot-Rough Creek rift system.J.S.ceri. (1995). (2009). Department of the Interior. D. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone : a preliminary study [U. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. earthquakes (http://www.C. Department of the Interior..K. (1995). V.C. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-Q].S.C.S.M.: U. (1995).cusec. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-R]. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-I].S.: U. U. D. (1995).. Washington. Impact of New Madrid Seismic Zone Earthquakes on the Central USA [Mid-American Earthquake Center Report 09-03]. southern Illinois and western Kentucky : new constraints from regional seismic reflection data [U.S. J. Tennessee. D. High-resolution. Recent central U. U.S. Geomorphic evidence of deformation in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone [U. Department of the Interior. Axial structures within the Reelfoot rift delineated with magnetotelluric surveys [U. TN. ƒ Rodriguez. et al.edu/) . ƒ Elnashai. et al. 8 External links ƒ Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis.S. D.S. U.S. K. (1995). W. 2013.C. K.D.S.net/2142/14810. Conevery Bolton.: U. The Lost History of the New Madrid Earthquakes.C.ceri. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-K]. Washington. U. and J.. IL: Mid-America Earthquake Center. Department of the Interior. Characterization of the Cottonwood Grove and Ridgely faults near Reelfoot Lake.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) comprehensive references for the 1811ƒ1812 earthquakes (http://www.F.S. Geological Survey. fluorspar area fault complex and Hicks dome. from high-resolution seismic reflection data [U. ƒ Odum.C. and results of the earthquakes as seen in photographs of 1904. Memphis.New Madrid Seismic Zone ƒ Central US Earthquake Consortium (http://www. Geological Survey. Geological Survey. Geological Survey. Missouri [U. Odum. D. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-P].memphis.mst.S.memphis.S.

php?title=File:NMSZBig. Ground Zero. Jcarkeys. Erebus555. JamesMLane. MONGO. Eddy Editor.James. DavidRF. Egern. Conversion script. Fredrik. Gorotdi. Sigismondo. Librsh. The Thing That Should Not Be. John254. Bobo192. UsefulWikipedia. Gounc. Everyking. Jovianeye. Hmains.urs-o. Alex. Evan Robidoux. Licenses and Contributors file:NMSZBig.delanoy. Austin13. Graham87. Kylu. Goodguy007.php?title=File:New_Madrid_and_Wabash_seizmic_zones-USGS. Cxbrx. Mervyn. Tide rolls. Plasticup. Templar. Emperorbma. Themoodyblue.org/w/index. Beyond My Ken. Mzmadmike. Salvio giuliano.wikipedia. TheslB. Chris. NoNonsenseHumJock. Punkishlyevil. Merovingian. Shouriki. Courcelles.php?title=File:New_Madrid_Seismic_Zone_activity_1974-2011.php?title=File:NMSZ_Erdbeben. Jredmond. WxGopher. Nik42. Sam Vimes. Vsmith. CrazyC83. Xyzzyva. Sshreeve.gif ‚License: Public Domain ‚Contributors: Cmdrjameson. Whatzit2U. ChristopherM. clown will eat me. It Is Me Here. Geogene. Zolo File:New Madrid Seismic Zone activity 1974-2011.svg ‚License: Public Domain ‚Contributors: USGS Image:New Madrid and Wabash seizmic zones-USGS.org/w/index. RexNL. GrittyLobo441.svg ‚Source: http://en. Kbdank71. Emerson7. Timl. 25or6to4. ShowMeOzarks. Glenn.php?title=File:New_Madrid_Erdbeben. DoxTxob. Mattsrevenge. Elonka. Can't sleep.wikipedia. Nitrowolf. Arthur Rubin. Lightmouse. Capitan Obvio. Peter Karlsen. Toshikodo. Ktr101. TCY. WadeSimMiser. Fingers-of-Pyrex.. Piano non troppo. Sceptre.0/ . Scotstout. Zotel. Vicki Rosenzweig. Copeland. Tobias Hoevekamp. Handsomedan. Immunize.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Civil Engineer III. Arcayne.wikipedia. Money44. Geologyguy.org/w/index. Evice. Jamie C. Dalit Llama. Seth Ilys. Aaron north.org/w/index. Jwissick. Miketsu.jpg ‚License: Public Domain ‚Contributors: Chonak.muller. Srich32977.wikipedia. Ahoerstemeier. Nunquam Dormio. Alan Canon.jpg ‚Source: http://en. Kbh3rd. Powerzilla. Alansohn. Stratosphere. Volcanoguy. Plazak. Tsalsbury1. StephenBuxton.png ‚Source: http://en. Khatru2.yangping. Hawsgl. Janlcc. M.org/w/index.gif ‚Source: http://en. Timvasquez. ChrisGualtieri. Juiced lemon. Goltz20707. User2004. Atomicpanda. Chichiluv33. Blackcats. Tohd8BohaithuGh1. Newton21989. SteubenGlass. Czolgolz. RickK. Dcs002.0 ‚Contributors: User:Kbh3rd File:Reelfoot Rift diagram from USGS en. Ratwod. Rsloch. QTxVi4bEMRbrNqOorWBV. Berek Halfhand.wikipedia. Onore Baka Sama. Bluerasberry. Vsmith. Bkell. Nurg. Verne Equinox. Rxnd.April. Hires an editor. BarretB. Lou1986. Webclient101. Ronhjones. Shustov. Kizor. AlexiusHoratius. Tommy2010. 28421u2232nfenfcenc. Notinasnaid. Tawker.org/w/index.org/w/index. A930913. Casey56. Thebusdriver. Elk Salmon. Mark Shaw. Tiyang. KyleAndMelissa22.Article Sources and Contributors 9 Article Sources and Contributors New Madrid Seismic Zone ‚Source: http://en. Snakespeaker. Tjmayerinsf.png ‚License: Public Domain ‚Contributors: USGS/Joan Gomberg and Eugene Schweig License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Rainier Schmidt. Fastfission. HJ Mitchell. Orange Suede Sofa. Bedford. Zeizmic. 399 anonymous edits Image Sources. Kapowza. Wetman. D„ugosz. Danlikebooks.jpg ‚Source: http://en. Americasroof. Yellowdesk. Bullzeye. AstroHurricane001. TJRC. Pinethicket. Excirial. Scoops. Before My Ken. Cmichael.0 //creativecommons. Bobblewik. Tmangray.thoriyan.wikipedia. Shayshay15. Soulpatch. Kate. JaGa. NewEnglandYankee. MickMacNee. Ancheta Wis. MusikAnimal. Curps. Nkayesmith.svg ‚Source: http://en.php?oldid=576595800 ‚Contributors: -. RasputinAXP. Cs-wolves. Leonard G.wikipedia. HarlandQPitt.php?title=File:Reelfoot_Rift_diagram_from_USGS_en.jpg ‚License: GNU Free Documentation License ‚Contributors: User Soronk on de. CrankyScorpion.wikipedia Image:New Madrid Erdbeben. Paris1127. Hall Monitor. Triskaideka. Vrenator. Mygerardromance. Ckatz. Lousyd. EntChickie. Winger84. Monterey Bay. J. Jakealake2k. CubBC. Zh. Shikambu. Isthisthingworking. Leuqarte. Kaldari. Piperh. Greek2. Rjwilmsi. Kwamikagami. Skier Dude. Jtwang. CodeWeasel. Infrogmation. Epbr123. Cubsfreak13. Dale Arnett. SmartBee. Nat2. Caerwine. Brycen. RapidR. Madcoverboy. KSmrq. Geo Swan. Viking10. Shadowlynk. Luckas Blade. N5iln.H. Ninly. Mxn. 14 anonymous edits file:NMSZ Erdbeben. Wai Hong. Philip Trueman. Gilgamesh. Pschlidt. Hike395.svg ‚License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.