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Lectured by
K. Petcharaks
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Insulation Coordination:
Ch 6. Backflashover
2 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Contents 1/2
Introduction
Backflashover rate, BFR, estimation
The influences on BFR
Strokes within the span
Impulse footing resistance of tower, R
T
DC footing resistance of tower, R
0
Power frequency voltage U
50Hz
Nonstandard waveform CFO, CFO
NS
Time to front of surge, t
f
Corona
3 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Contents 2/2
The CIGRE method
The simplified method
Sensitivity analysis
Line design
4 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Introduction 1/5
As we protect the TL with OHGW, a vast
majority of stroke will terminate on the
OHGW.
The current flows in the tower will cause a
voltage across line insulation. If this voltage
exceed the line CFO, flashover occurs.
This event is called backflash.
Here, is the review of a stroke to tower top.
Stroke to tower: a revisit
5 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Z
T
R
T
Z
G
I, t
f
U
TT
t
f
I
Introduction 2/5
Stroke to tower: a revisit (cont.)
cU
TT
U
TA
U
I
U
I
( )
( )
TT sp TT
TA sp TA
F e
e
R
T
U K K I
U K K I
U R I
R
I I
R
=
=
=
=
6 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Introduction 3/5
where
G T
e
G T
G T G T T
T R
T T G T G T
2
2
2 2
Z R
R
Z R
Z R Z Z R
Z R Z R Z R
o o
=
+
÷ ÷
= ~ =
+ + +
Stroke to tower: a revisit (cont.)
( ) ( )
T A
TT e T T TA e T T
f f
1
s
sp R T R T
1
f
1 1 1 2
n
n
K R Z K R Z
t t
K n
t
t t
o o
t
o o o o
·
÷
=
= + = +
(
 
= ÷ ÷ · ÷
(

\ .
¸ ¸
¿
t
A
t
T
R
T
Z
G
/2
Z
T
 o
T
¸ = 1  = 0
t
A
t
T
R
T
Z
G
/2
Z
T
R
T
Z
G
/2
Z
T
R
T
R
T
Z
G
/2 Z
G
/2
Z
T
Z
T
 o
T
¸ = 1  = 0 ¸ = 1  = 0
7 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Introduction 4/5
The tail of voltage wave has an approximate
time constant of
The equation for tail of voltage wave becomes
Stroke to tower: a revisit (cont.)
G
s
T
Z
R
t t =
( )
F
TT F
t t
u U e
t
÷
÷
= ·
8 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Introduction 5/5
Stroke to tower: a revisit (cont.)
t
f
= time to peak of current [µs] c = coupling factor
Z
T
= surge impedance of tower [O] Z
G
= surge impedance of OHGW [O]
t
T
= tower travelling time [µs]
t
A
= travelling time to any point on tower [µs]
t
s
= travelling time between span [µs] I = stroke current [kA]
I
R
= current through tower footing resistance [kA]
R
0
= measured DC footing resistance [O]
R
T
= impulse footing resistance [O] t = tail time constant [µs]
t
f
2t
T
µs
kV
U
IF
U
I
t
e
t
÷
kV
µs 2t
T
t
f
cU
TT
cU
F
U
F
U
TA
t
e
t
÷
9 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 1/8
Approximation:
Z
T
R
T
Z
G
I, t
f
U
TT
cU
TT
U
TA
U
I
U
I
( )
I TA TT
sp TA TT
U U cU
I K K cK
= ÷
= · ÷
The voltage across insulation
caused by the footing resistance is
( )
IF e
1 U c R I = ÷
This is also the voltage if the
tower voltage is neglected.
10 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 2/8
From studies, the voltage U
I
across air gap is
approximately equal to the voltage across
insulator string.
Thus, a backflashover occurs when U
I
≥ CFO
of the insulator string.
BUT, the above CFO is differed from the CFO
that has been tested with 1.2/50 µs waveform.
Let’s call the above CFO as a nonstandard
CFO, CFO
NS
.
Approximation: (cont.)
11 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 3/8
By replacing U
I
with CFO
NS
, the critical stroke
current, I
C
, that will cause a flashover is
And as in many cases K
TT
is approximately
equal to K
TA
, then
Approximation: (cont.)
( )
NS
c
sp TA TT
CFO
I
K K cK
=
÷
( )
NS
c
sp TT
CFO
1
I
K K c
=
÷
12 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 4/8
Thus, the probability of flashover is a function
of the stroke current that ≥ I
c
, or
The BFR is equal to the above probability
multiply by the number of strokes N
L
that struck
on OHGW, which is
Approximation: (cont.)
( ) ( ) ( )
c
c c
I
P I I P I f I dI
·
> = =
}
( )
L c
BFR N P I = ·
13 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 5/8
The N
L
can be determined by using the
following equation
But this is a simple estimation of BFR, there
are some effects that needed to be considered:
Approximation: (cont.)
( )
0.6
g
L g
28
flashes/100km
10 year
h S
N N
· +
=
Distance between OHGW [m]
14 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 6/8
Strokes within the span: Here, strokes can
terminate on any points on OHGW. Mid span
should be considered.
Footing resistance: The footing resistance to
be used should be the impulse resistance R
T
,
not the measured DC resistance R
0
.
Approximation: (cont.)
15 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 7/8
Number of  and 50 Hz line voltage: The
magnitude of surges depend on the time instant
of stroke that terminated on the line. It can be
added or subtracted to the 50 Hz line voltage.
CFO
NS
: Estimation of the affect of this CFO
NS
is needed.
The t
f
: As the time to crest of current is a
statistic value, which value of t
f
should be
used?
Approximation: (cont.)
16 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Backflashover rate 8/8
Corona: The corona tends to decrease the
OHGW Z
0
, thus increasing the coupling c. The
BFR is then decreased.
Approximation: (cont.)
But, in some cases, some effects may be ignored
which lead to a simple equation.
17 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 1/6
Scenario:
Strength of OHGWL in air is
normally > line insulation strength
L
OHGW
Voltage across span insulation >
across insulator string
18 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 2/6
Flashover can occur either across the span or
the insulator string.
The voltage at striking point try to reach Z
G
I/2,
but the reflection from the adjacent tower will
reduce this voltage if t
f
> 2(t
S
– t
ST
).
Assume that the CFO
NS
is a linear function of
gap spacing.
Scenario: (cont.)
19 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 3/6
The figure shows a 500 kV TL, the spacing
between OHGWTL varies between 9.2 m at
tower to 11.6 m at mid span.
Scenario: (cont.)
Max voltage,
Max strength
u
3.35 m
11.6 m
u
t
S
t
ST
G
2
Z
u I =
20 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 4/6
Thus, the ratio of strength is
If t
S
/t
ST
= 0.2, for t
f
=2 µs and R
T
= 20 O the
ratio of mid span voltage to tower voltage is
2.4. see appendix in Hileman book.
Here the flashover occur at insulator.
If all striking points are considered, 16% of
stroke will cause flashover in span.
Scenario: (cont.)
11.6
3.5
3.35
=
21 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 5/6
Moreover, stroke in span causes a voltage on
line conductor that decreases the voltage
across the span insulation.
In conclusion, the within span flashover is
negligible compared to the flashover at tower.
Scenario: (cont.)
22 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Strokes within span 6/6
The voltage at tower produced by a strike
within span is usually lower than a strike
directly at tower top.
The actual BFR, when considered a possibility
of strike within span is
Voltage at tower top:
( )
L c
BFR 0.6 N P I = · ·
23 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
1/21
Concentrated grounds are defined as ground
rods or counterpoises within about 15 m from
the tower base.
When lightning current pass through ground
rod, the grounding resistance of tower
decreased from DC resistance R
0
to impulse
resistance R
T
if the soil is breakdown.
The soil is breakdown when the gradient
exceeds the critical gradient E
0
.
Concentrated ground:
24 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
2/21
As lightning current increases, streamer are
generated that evaporate the moisture in soil,
which in turn produces arc.
Within the arcing zone, the resistance
decreased and in the limit approaches zero.
This can be view as an increasing diameter and
length of rod as shown.
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
25 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Rod becomes a hemisphere
at high lightning current
Rod, r
0
µ = 0
Ground surface
I
R
r
Initial
Final
Impulse footing resistance R
T
3/21
Shape becomes
hemisphere.
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
I
R
Multi rods act as a hemisphere
26 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
4/21
The current I
g
that required to cause soil
breakdown can be computed from
the E
0
is about 400 kV/m.
At any lightning current I
R
> I
g
, the footing
resistance is
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
0
g
2
0
1
2
E
I
R
µ
t
=
0
T
R g
R
R
I I
=
27 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
5/21
A plot is shown below
For a rod, the dimension of rod allow the
critical gradient E
0
suddenly occur, thus the
resistance is suddenly decreased.
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
Ln R
0
L
n
R
T
I
g
Ln I
R
28 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
6/21
For a rod or rods – or
any concentrated ground,
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
( )
0
T
R g
1
R
R
I I
=
+
Ln R
0
L
n
R
T
I
g
Ln I
R
H
i
g
h
I
R
L
o
w
I
R
29 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
7/21
Ex. E
0
= 400 kV/m, R
0
= 40 O, I
R
= 100 kA and
µ = 800 Om. Determine the R
T
.
A reduction of about 50%.
Concentrated ground: (cont.)
0
g
2 2
0
1 1 800 400
31.8 kA
2 2 40
E
I
R
µ
t t
·
= = =
( )
( )
0
T
R g
40
19.6
1 100 31.8
1
R
R
I I
= = = O
+
+
30 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
8/21
Counterpoises are horizontal conductors buried
at a depth of ~ 1 m and connected to the base
of tower.
The following figure shows the lowcurrent
phenomenon.
Counterpoises:
31 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
9/21
Counterpoises: (cont.)
The footing resistance decreases with time
Ground surface
u, i
Z
T
R
L
R
T
R
L
R
L
R
L
u
c
, i
c
Counterpoise
C L
R R =
¿
Wave travel along the counterpoise at the speed
of c/3. The wave meet and reflect from R
L
along
the counterpoise, the total footing resistance is
therefore decreased with time.
32 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
10/21
The major impedance of counterpoise are
The counterpoise surge impedance is Z
C
, at time
zero. It has a value of about 120 – 220 O, usually
assumed to be 150 O.
At time equal to twice the travelling time of the
counterpoise t
C
, the impedance of counterpoise
reduces to R
C
.
The equivalent circuit of a single counterpoise
is shown in the following figure.
Counterpoises: (cont.)
33 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
11/21
The step response is
where
Counterpoises: (cont.)
( )
C
c C C C
t
T
u
Z R Z R e
i
÷
'
= = + ÷
( )
C
C C
C C C C
2
3 3
L
T
Z R
L Z R
c
t t
=
÷
= ÷ =
L
R
C
(Z
C
– R
C
)
34 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
12/21
Ex. Counterpoise length = 300 m, R
C
= 10 O,
Z
C
= 150 O. Plot Z
C
’ = f(t).
Counterpoises: (cont.)
( )
( )
C
6
c C C C
210
10 150 10
t
T
t
Z R Z R e
e
÷
÷
÷
·
'
= + ÷
= + ÷
C
8
2 2 300
2 μs
3 10
T
c
·
= = =
·
35 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
13/21
Counterpoises: (cont.)
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Z
C
’
,
T
r
a
n
s
i
e
n
t
i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
[
O
]
1 counterpoise, each = 300 m
2 counterpoises, each = 150 m
3 counterpoises, each = 100 m
4 counterpoises, each = 75 m
µs
36 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
14/21
The advantage to break counterpoise to many
section are
The surge impedance is reduced.
Approach the final resistance R
C
very quickly.
NOTE that the conclusion is for low current.
The suggestion for high current are:
Subdivided the counterpoise to ~ 30 m section
Used the equation for concentrated electrode
Take into account the t between the section
Counterpoises: (cont.)
37 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
15/21
If we can not achieve the desired footing
resistance, supplement ground in the form of
rods or counterpoises can be used.
Ground rods are usually used for lowµ soil,
while the counterpoises are usually used for
high µ soil.
Grounding considerations: Rod VS Counterpoise
38 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
16/21
Depended on the water content in soil and
resistivity of water which varies with location
and the period of the year.
For the thunderstorm that follow dry season,
the footing resistance is high until the soil
absorb the water.
In this situation, high BFR is expected at the
beginning of the rainy season.
Grounding considerations: Soil resistivity
39 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
17/21
In planning stage, the first assumption is that
the µ is constant.
The actual number of rods or length of
counterpoises to be installed are decided
during the installation and field measurement.
The crew is usually given an objective of
Achieve the target footing resistance.
Used a certain number of rods or length of
counterpoises.
Grounding considerations: Real life
40 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
18/21
Ground rods:
As be seen later, the length of rods should be
2 – 6 m.
By using multiple rods, be aware of mutual
effect between rods. Thus, 3 – 5 rods, spaced
≥ 3 m apart, is normally the limit. If soil is
breakdown, the spacing should be increased to
about 5 m.
Any rods diameter is acceptable as long as it’s
mechanical properties are acceptable.
Grounding considerations: Real life (cont.)
41 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
19/21
Counterpoises:
As be seen later, the length of counterpoises
should be < 50 m.
Many counterpoises decrease the resistance,
but the spacing should be about 10 m.
Typical arrangements are shown in the
following figure.
Grounding considerations: Real life (cont.)
42 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
20/21
Here, the counterpoises are brought out the
RoW edge to decrease the mutual effect. (but
the step voltages?)
On each side of the tower, the number of
parallel counterpoises should be limited to ~ 3.
Grounding considerations: Real life (cont.)
2leg counterpoise
RoW
Counterpoise
Tower
4leg counterpoise
43 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Impulse footing resistance R
T
21/21
The buried depth of counterpoise is about 1 m,
so that a farmer’s plow is not in contact with
the counterpoises.
Grounding considerations: Real life (cont.)
44 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
1/21
The following formula comes from Ch 10 
Appendix 3 of Hileman book.
Definitions:
General:
r = conductor or ground rod radius [m]
d = burial depth of counterpoise [m]
= counterpoise or ground rod length [m]
n = number of counterpoises or ground rods in parallel
µ = soil resistivity [Om]
R
0
= resistance of 1 counterpoise or 1 ground rod
R
n
= resistance of n counterpoises or n ground rods
a
ij
= hor. distance between counterpoises i and j or be between
ground rod I and j [m]
R
ij
= mutual resistance between counterpoises i and j or be between
ground rod I and j [m]
45 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
2/21
General:
1 Counterpoise:
Counterpoises:
( )
( )
2
2
ij ij
2 2 2 2
2
ln
a a d
x x x
f x
x
'
= +
 
+ + ÷ +
= + 

\ .
( ) ( )
0
0
2
2
if and
2
ln 1
2
R f r f d
d r
R
rd
µ
t
µ
t
( = +
¸ ¸
(
 
= ÷
(

\ .
¸ ¸
46 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
3/21
≥ 2 Counterpoises:
Counterpoises: (cont.)
( )
( )
1
0
2
1 1
1 2
where
2
n n
n ij
i j i
ij ij ij
R R R
n n
R f a f a
µ
t
÷
= = +
= +
(
'
= +
(
¸ ¸
¿¿
( )
( ) ( )
n
1
1
2
2 2
eq
1 1
2
ln 1
2 '
eq
n n
n
n
ij ij
i j i
R
a
a rd a a
µ
t
÷
= = +
(
 
= ÷
( 

(
\ .
¸ ¸
(
=
(
¸ ¸
¿¿
if and d r
47 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
4/21
General:
1 Ground rod:
Ground rods:
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
ln
2
x x x
f x
x
 
+ + ÷ +

= +


\ .
( )
0
0
2
if
4
ln 1
2
R f r
r
R
r
µ
t
µ
t
=
(
 
= ÷
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
48 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
5/21
≥ 2 Ground rods
and if the distance between adjacent rod >
Ground rods: (cont.)
( )
1
0
2
1 1
1 2
where
2
n n
n ij
i j i
ij ij
R R R
n n
R f a
µ
t
÷
= = +
= +
=
¿¿
( )
ij
sin a j i
n
t

(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
if rods are in circle of diameter , then 
( )
1
1
1 4 1
ln 1
2 sin
n
n
i
R
n r i n
µ
t  t
÷
=
(
 
= ÷ +
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
¿
49 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
6/21
The resistance of rod and counterpoise are
approximately equal.
General note:
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
[m]
R
0
[
O
]
 = 13 mm
µ = 1000 Om
Counterpoise,
buried depth = 1 m
Rod
See Excel practice
50 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
7/21
For rod, the resistance decreases only slightly
beyond the depth of 6 m. But, if µ of soil
decreases with depth, deep rod is OK.
General note: (cont.)
0
30
60
90
120
150
0 2 4 6 8 10
R
0
[
O
]
 = 13 mm
µ = 200 Om
[m]
51 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
8/21
Rods in parallel decrease the resistance.
However, increasing the number > 4 show a
small improvement.
General note: (cont.)
52 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
9/21
Effect of spacing between counterpoises is
significant at the distance below 20 m.
Usually, the separation is governed by the
width of RoW. Thus, the separation of 20 m
may be difficult to achieve in DL.
General note: (cont.)
53 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
10/21
General note: (cont.)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20
R
0
[
O
]
 = 13 mm
µ = 1000 Om
= 50 m
Spacing between counterpoises [m]
2 counterpoises,
buried depth = 1 m
No mutual effect
54 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
11/21
Equation from Taggs: Rod
0
4
ln 1
2
R
a
µ
t
(
 
= ÷
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
µ
2r
55 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
12/21
Equation from Taggs: Rod (cont.)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 5 10 15 20
Rod length, m
2.5 cm rod diameter
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
O
10 cm rod diameter
5 cm rod diameter
µ = 100 Om
56 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
13/21
Equation from Taggs: Buried straight wire
0
2
ln 1
2
R
rd
µ
t
(
 
= ÷
( 
\ .
¸ ¸
µ
d
2r
For strip (or tape)
t
w
When t << w,
~ 0.22 r w
57 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
14/21
Equation from Taggs: Buried straight wire (cont.)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 5 10 15 20
Wire length, m
50 mm
2
, d = 50 cm
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
O
5 cm strip, d = 50 cm
50 mm
2
, d = 1m
µ = 100 Om
58 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
15/21
Equation from Taggs: Buried radial wire
( )
0,
2
ln 1
2
n
R N n
n
rd
µ
t
(
 
= ÷ +
( 
\ .
¸ ¸
where
( )
1
1
1 sin
ln
sin
n
m
m
n
N n
m
n
t
t
÷
=
(
 
+

(
\ .
(
=
 
(

(
\ .
¸ ¸
¿
n = 2 n =3 n = 4 n = 6 n = 8
2r
59 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
16/21
Equation from Taggs: Buried radial wire (cont.)
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 5 10 15 20
Wire length, m
n = 2
µ = 100 Om, d = 50 cm, 50 mm
2
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
O
n = 4
n = 3
n = 6
n = 8
60 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
17/21
Equation from Taggs: Ring wire
0
1 8
ln
2
2
R
R
R
rd
µ
t t
 
= · ·

\ .
2r
R
61 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
18/21
Equation from Taggs: Ring wire (cont.)
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20
Ring radius, m
d = 50 cm
µ = 100 Om, 50 mm
2
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
O
d = 2 m
d = 1 m
62 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
19/21
Equation from Taggs: Hollow square 4rods
( )
0
4
ln 1 0.25 0.677
2
R
r
µ
o
t
(
 
= ÷ · + ·
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
4
ln 1 w
r
o =
(
 
÷

(
\ .
¸ ¸
µ
w
2r
63 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
20/21
Equation from Taggs: Hollow square 4rods (cont.)
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20
Rod distance, m
Rod length = 3 m
µ = 100 Om, 2.5 cm rod diameter
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
O
Rod length = 10 m
Rod length = 5 m
64 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
DC footing resistance R
0
21/21
When rods are connected by wire, the total
resistance is reduced by 10  15 %.
When a long buried wire is connected to rods,
the total resistance is reduced by 25  30 %.
Equation from Taggs: Rod + Wire
65 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
1/14
In this case, we
have 3 coupling
factor, c
A
, c
B
, c
C
,
as shown.
For 3:
U
TT
c
C
U
TT
c
B
U
TT
c
A
U
TT
U
TA
U
TB
U
TC
The voltage on
the tower to each
phase is U
TA
, U
TB
,
U
TC
.
66 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
2/14
Thus, the surge voltage across line insulation
of each phase, i.e. U
IA
, U
IB
and U
IC
, are given by
For 3: (cont.)
( )
( )
( )
A
IA TA A TT sp TA e T T
f
B
IB TB B TT sp TB e T T
f
C
IC TC C TT sp TC e T T
f
U K c K K I K R Z
t
U K c K K I K R Z
t
U K c K K I K R Z
t
t
o
t
o
t
o
= ÷ : = +
= ÷ : = +
= ÷ : = +
67 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
3/14
As the crest LN voltage is
then
For 3: (cont.)
LL
LN
2
3
U
U =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
IA TA A TT sp LN
IB TB B TT sp LN
IC TC C TT sp LN
sin
sin 120
sin 120
U K c K K I U t
U K c K K I U t
U K c K K I U t
e
e
e
= ÷ +
= ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + +
68 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
4/14
Assuming that the CFO of all phases are equal
and setting to CFO
NS
. The critical current for
each phase are
For 3: (cont.)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
NS LN NS LN
CA
TA A TT sp IA
NS LN NS LN
CB
TB B TT sp IB
NS LN NS LN
CC
TC C TT sp IC
CFO sin CFO sin
CFO sin 120 CFO sin 120
CFO sin 120 CFO sin 120
U t U t
I
K c K K K
U t U t
I
K c K K K
U t U t
I
K c K K K
e e
e e
e e
÷ ÷
= =
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷
÷ + ÷ +
= =
÷
69 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
5/14
Obviously, the smallest among I
CA
, I
CB
and I
CC
,
is a control factor. If a phase flashover, this is
counted as a backflashover.
For 3: (cont.)
70 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
6/14
Ex. A 115 kV, 1 circuit, horizontal configuration
line has the following characteristics:
For 3: (cont.)
N
g
= 6 flashes/km
2
/year
Max U
LL
= 132 kV
Surge impedance: Z
G
= 339 O Z
T
= 170 O
Coupling factor: c
A
= 0.331 c
B
= 0.386 c
C
= 0.331
Height: h
T
= 17.4 m h
All 
= 14 m
Separation of OHGW = 3.81 m
Span length = 228.6 m
CFO = 1095 kV
Footing resistance R
0
= 20 O
Soil resistivity µ = 400 Om
Surge front time t
f
= 0.6 µs
71 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
7/14
The common parameters are
For 3: (cont.)
G 0
G 0
T 0
T 0
G
G 0
T
8 8
al
e
T
R
T
l
8
s
TA TB TC
339 20
17.89
2 339 2 20
170 20
0.7895
170 20
339
0.8945
2 339 2 20
17.4 span 228.6
0.058 μs 0.762 μs
3 10 3 10
14
0.0467 μs
3 10
Z R
Z R
Z R
Z R
Z
Z R
h
c c
c
R
h

o
o
t t
t t t
·
= = = O
+ + ·
÷ ÷
= = =
+ +
= = =
+ + ·
= = = = = =
· ·
= = = = =
·
72 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
8/14
Then
For 3: (cont.)
TT
TA TB TC
T
e T T
f
A
e T T
f
0.058
17.89 0.7895 170
0.6
0.0467
17.89 0.7895 1
4.92
7.4 0
6
5 7
0.
K
K K
R
t
R Z
t
K
Z
t
o
t
o
=
=
= + = ÷ ·
= +
= ÷ ·
=
=
sp
1 (assumed) K =
73 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
9/14
Thus at et = 0,
For 3: (cont.)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
NS LN
CA
TA A TT sp
NS LN
CB
TB B TT sp
NS LN
CC
TC C TT sp
2
1095 123 sin 0
CFO sin 3
4.92 0.331 7.45 1
188
2
1095 123 sin 0 120
CFO sin 120 3
4.92 0.386 7.45 1
213
2
1095
CFO sin 120 3
U t
I
K c K K
U t
I
K c K K
U t
I
K c K K
e
e
e
 
÷ ·


÷
\ .
= =
÷ ÷ · ·
=
 
÷ · ÷


÷ ÷
\ .
= =
÷ ÷ · ·
=
÷
÷ +
= =
÷
( )
( )
123 sin 0 120
4.92 0.331 7.45 1
173
 
· +


\ .
÷ · ·
=
74 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
10/14
The BFR is,
here we need to know the probability function
of the lightning current. The following table
came from Hileman book.
For 3: (cont.)
CA
CB
CC
A L CA L
B L CB L
C L CC L
BFR ( ) ( )
BFR ( ) ( )
BFR ( ) ( )
I
I
I
N P I N f I dI
N P I N f I dI
N P I N f I dI



·
·
·
= · = ·
= · = ·
= · = ·
}
}
}
75 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
11/14
For 3: (cont.)
I CA I CB I CC A B C
0 188 243 166 0.119 0.029 0.225 C 0.225
30 175 247 175 0.172 0.026 0.172 A&C 0.172
60 166 243 188 0.225 0.029 0.119 A 0.225
90 163 230 202 0.249 0.039 0.083 A 0.249
120 166 216 211 0.225 0.058 0.064 A 0.225
150 175 201 215 0.172 0.086 0.058 A 0.172
180 188 190 212 0.119 0.114 0.064 A 0.119
210 202 186 202 0.083 0.127 0.083 B 0.127
240 212 190 188 0.064 0.114 0.119 C 0.119
270 215 201 275 0.580 0.086 0.172 C 0.172
300 212 216 166 0.064 0.580 0.225 C 0.225
330 202 231 163 0.083 0.039 0.249 C 0.249
Average = 0.190
Line BFR
Critcal current [kA] BFR [flashes/100km/year]
ωt [degrees] Flashover phase
The BFR of 1 circuit 115 kV line
76 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
12/14
The number of flashovers on A and C are
5.5 (45.8%) and B is 1 (8.4%).
Thus, the high coupling factor of 0.386 of B
does not causes the flashover of B. It also
depends on the line voltage at the instant of
lightning strike.
For 3: (cont.)
77 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
13/14
The approximate critical current I
C
is
For vertical phase configuration, representing the
2circuit, K
50Hz
is about 0.25 – 0.55. The
recommended values is 0.4. For horizontal phase
configuration, representing the 1circuit, K
50Hz
is
about 0.65 – 0.76. The recommended values is 0.7.
For 3: Approximate equation
( )
NS 50Hz LN
C
SP TA x TT
CFO K U
I
K K c K
÷
=
÷
78 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The U
50Hz
14/14
The c
x
is the lowest coupling factor
The K
TA
is set to the same phase as that of the c
x
.
The U
LN
is
For 3: Approximate equation (cont.)
LL
LN
2
3
U
U =
79 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
1/7
The voltage at the tower is shown below
Approximation of the CFO
NS
:
U
IF
= Voltage produced by
footing resistance
U
I
U
50HZ
AU = Voltage produced by tower
f
IF 50Hz
t t
U e U
t
÷
÷
+
0
µs
t
f
2t
T
t
f
+ 2t
T
A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
U
50HZ
+ AU
80 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
2/7
Here, we have
The waveform is far from the 1.2/50 µs that
we are used in test the of insulation strength.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
I IF I
SP TA TT
T T
A T SP
f
F
SP e
1
1
U U U U c
K K cK I c
Z
c K I
t
U
K R I
o
t t
A = ÷ = ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
( ) ( )
IF F SP e
1 1 U c U c K R I = ÷ = ÷
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
81 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
3/7
A method to determine CFO
NS
, based on
breakdown process, is called the leader
progression model, LPM, as shown
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
d
v
Leader
x
Proceed when E > E
0
At distance x, the E is increased
(as the gap spacing is reduced.
The v increases
82 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
4/7
From CIGRE WG33.01, the leader velocity is
where u(t) is the
voltage shown in
page 1, k
L
is a constant,
x is unbridged gap, E
0
is
the critical inception field.
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
u(t)
µs
µs
v
x
d
E
C
E
0
( ) ( )
( )
L 0
u t
t k u t E
x
v
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
83 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
5/7
The insulation strength, from Ch2,
The CFO gradient is 560 kV/m
For a 3 µs chopped wave, the U
b
= 1.38CFO
The equation for 1.2/50 µs waveform is
where U
c
is the peak voltage.
The values of constant are
when x in m and u(t) in kV
( )
( )
0.0146591 2.46893
c
1.03725
t t
u t U e e
÷ ÷
= · ÷
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
7
0 L
535 kV/m 7.875 10 E k
÷
= = ·
84 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
6/7
The CFO
NS
is
the conditions are
f
IF
NS 50Hz
IF IF
13
IF
CFO 2.82
0.977 1 1 0.2 1
CFO CFO
10
1 0.09 1
t U
U
U U U
U U
U
e
U
t
t
A
÷
(
(  
A A
(
= + + ÷ +
(

(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ \ .
¸ ¸
(
A
 
÷ +
( 
\ .
¸ ¸
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
IF
f
10 s 100 s 0 1
0.5 s 5 s
U
U
t
µ t µ
µ µ
s s s s
s s
g
s
T
Z
R
t t =
85 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Nonstandard CFO, CFO
NS
7/7
If the voltage drop across tower AU = 0, then
NS 50Hz
CFO 2.82
0.977 1 0.2
CFO CFO
U
t
( (
= + ÷
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Approximation of the CFO
NS
: (cont.)
86 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
The effect: Actual VS linear approximation t
f
Time to front of surge, t
f
1/7
Actual voltage
Linear front
t
f
= 6.0 µs
3 6 9 12 µs
0
20
15
10
5
Linear front
t
f
= 2.7 µs
K
T
T
[
V
/
I
s
t
r
o
k
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
]
Peak for 100 kA stroke
87 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Time to front of surge, t
f
2/7
Note that the actual peak line between 6 µs
linear front and the minimum 2.7 µs linear
front.
Thus, the 2.7 µs linear front is a conservative
value and will be used in the following
discussions.
The effect: (cont.)
88 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Time to front of surge, t
f
3/7
We can note that as t
f
+, the voltage across
tower K
TT
 and insulation K
I
.
Thus, the critical current I
C
 as t
f
, as shown
in the following figure.
The effect: (cont.)
( )
( )
T
e T T
N
TT
f
CA
TA
S N
A sp T
L
T
CFO sin
R Z
U t
c
K
t
I
K K K
t
o
e
= +
÷
=
÷
89 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Time to front of surge, t
f
4/7
The effect: (cont.)
200
160
120
80
40
0
500 kV
4 8 12 µs
230 kV
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
I
C
[
k
A
]
t
f
90 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Time to front of surge, t
f
5/7
To consider all t
f
, thus the general BFR
changes from
to a BFR assuming a specific t
f
and for all t
f
The effect: (cont.)
( ) ( )
C
f L f L C f
BFR 0.6  0.6 
I
t N f I t dI N P I t
·
= = ·
}
( )
L C
BFR 0.6N P I = ·
( ) ( )
f f f
0
BFR BFR t f t dt
·
=
}
91 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Time to front of surge, t
f
6/7
In the double integration form
The f(It
f
) has parameters
and at minimum time of 2.7 µs
The effect: (cont.)
( ) ( )
C
L f f f
0
BFR 0.6 
I
N f I t f t dIdt
· ·
=
} }
f
0.53

0.207 0.554
t I
M I  = =
f f
1.28 0.611
t t
M  = =
Median Log standard deviation
92 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Repeat and to produce a curve
BFR = 0.6*area
At a given t
f
, find the probability
that I > I
C
, BFRt
f
BFRt
f
f(t
f
)
I
C
t
f
f(It
f
)
I
Time to front of surge, t
f
7/7
The effect: (cont.)
Use I – t
f
curve
Determine (BFRt
f
)f(t
f
)
(BFRt
f
)f(t
f
)
93 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Corona 1/4
Assumption
Non corona coupling
factor c
0
= 0.3, corona
coupling factor c = 0.5
The U
TT
= U
TA
= 10, and
U
F
= 6
The voltage produced
from footing resistance
U
IF
= 4.2
Example:
U
TT
c
C
U
TT
c
B
U
TT
c
A
U
TT
U
TA
U
TB
U
TC
U
TT
c
C
U
TT
c
B
U
TT
c
A
U
TT
U
TT
c
C
U
TT
c
B
U
TT
c
A
U
TT
U
TA
U
TB
U
TC
94 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Corona 2/4
No corona effect:
Example: (cont.)
kV
U
F
= 6
U
TA
= 10
1.8
c
0
U
TT
= 10*0.3 = 3
kV
U
IF
= 4.2
U
TA
 c
0
U
TT
= 7
AU = 2.8
95 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Corona 3/4
With corona effect:
Example: (cont.)
kV
U
TA
 c
0
U
TT
= 5
U
IF
= 4.2
AU = 0.8
kV
U
F
= 6
U
TA
= 10
1.8
c
0
U
TT
= 10*0.5 = 5
Corona has no effect on tail
96 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Corona 4/4
The corona effect only reduced the AU from
2.8 to 0.8.
Thus, for a conservative calculation we neglect
the corona effect.
Example: (cont.)
97 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Used two DO loops
Outer loop, select t
f
of I
Inner loop, select
impulse resistance R
T
.
For 115 and 230 kV
line, use t
f
= 2.5 µs,
for > 345 kV line use
t
f
= 4 µs.
Select R
T
~ 0.5R
0
CIGRE method 1/1
Determine BFR
How to?:
Select t
f
Select R
T
( )
NS 50Hz
C
SP TA TA TT
CFO U
I
K K c K
÷
=
÷
e
R C
T
R
I I
R
=
0
T
R g
1
R
R
I I
=
+
0.53
f C
0.207 t I = ·
98 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 1/6
If the voltage across tower AU is neglected, the
t
f
is no longer a parameter. Thus, outer loop is
eliminated.
Here, we have
How to?:
( )
( )
NS 50Hz
C
SP TA TT
NS 50Hz
e
CFO
CFO
1
U
I
K K cK
U
R c
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
( ) ( )
T
TT e T T e
f
A
TA e T T e
f
T T
T
T T
1
s
sp R T R T
1
f
0
1 1 1 2
1
n
n
K R Z R
t
K R Z R
t
Z R
Z R
K n
t
t
o
t
o
o
t
o o o o
·
÷
=
= + =
= + =
÷
= =
+
(
 
= ÷ ÷ · ÷
( 
\ .
¸ ¸
=
¿
0
0
0
99 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 2/6
How to?: (cont.)
( )
( )
T g g
e s
g T T
50Hz
NS
e 0 0
R C T g
2
T 0
R g
g
0.6
L g L C
2
2.82
CFO 0.977 1 0.2 CFO
CFO
1
2
1
28 BFR 0.6
10
R Z Z
R
Z R R
U
R R E
I I R I
R R
I I
N
N h s N P I I
t t
t
µ
t
= =
+
( (
= + ÷ ·
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= = =
+
= + = · >
400 kV/m
100 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 3/6
Ex. A 230 kV 1circuit horizontal line: Z
g
= 400 O,
CFO = 960 kV, c = 0.3745, R
0
= 50 O, µ =1000
Om, K
50Hz
= 0.7, h
T
= 30 m, h

= 24 m, span s
= 336 m, N
g
= 4. Spacing between OHGW s
g
= 5. Calculated the required R
T
.
Example:
See Excel practice
101 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 4/6
The I
g
is
The N
L
is
The ratio of U
50Hz
/CFO is
Example: (cont.)
0
g
2 2
0
1 1 1000 400
25.5 kA
2 2 50
E
I
R
µ
t t
·
= = =
( ) ( )
g
0.6 0.6
L g
4
28 28 30 5 88.2
10 10
N
N h s = + = · + =
50Hz
131
0.136
CFO 960
U
= =
102 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 5/6
Example: (cont.)
RT Re
τ CFONS I C I R RT
25.0 22.22 17.9 1059 59.6 53.0 28.5
28.5 24.93 15.7 1080 53.2 46.5 29.7
29.7 25.89 15.1 1087 51.2 44.6 30.1
30.1 26.20 14.9 1090 50.6 44.0 30.3
30.3 26.30 14.8 1090 50.4 43.8 30.3
T g
e
g T
2
R Z
R
Z R
=
+
0
T
R g
1
R
R
I I
=
+ g
s
T
Z
R
t t =
( )
NS 50Hz
C
e
CFO
1
U
I
R c
÷
=
÷
50Hz
NS
2.82
CFO 0.977 1 0.2 CFO
CFO
U
t
( (
= + ÷ ·
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
e
R C
T
R
I I
R
=
103 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Simplified method 6/6
From iterating
Note that,
which mean that 15% of stroke only result in
flashovers.
Example: (cont.)
( )
( )
C
L C
0.2481
BFR 0.6 0.6 88.2 0.2481
flashes/100 km
13.13
year
P I I
N P I I
> =
= · > = · ·
=
L
BFR 13.1
15%
88.2 N
= =
104 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Sensitivity analysis 1/3
HV line in the study:
S
B
h
y
A
y
B
C
y
C
A
B B’
C’
A’
S
A
S
g
y
A
= y
B
= y
C
S
g
h
S
A
A B C
1 circuit
2 circuits
105 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Sensitivity analysis 2/3
HV line in the study: (cont.)
h y A y B y C Sg SA SB Zg ZT c A c B c C
230 35 29.5 24.1 18.7 5 8.5 11.0 379 190 0.350 0.248 0.183
230 a 35 29.5 24.1 18.7 0 8.5 11.0 600 190 0.223 0.158 0.116
230 70 64.5 59.1 53.1 5 8.5 11.0 421 210 0.420 0.335 0.283
230 b 35 29.5 24.1 18.7 5 8.5 11.0 239 190 0.441 0.347 0.307
230 20 15.6 15.6 15.6 6 5.5 5.5 340 170 0.264 0.301 0.264
500 25 17.0 17.0 17.0 14 9.0 9.0 329 165 0.232 0.253 0.232
Distance [m] Surge impedance [Ω] Coupling factor
a single OHGW b Underbuilt OHGW h = 12 m at center of tower
Double circuit TL
Single circuit TL
height [m]
kVLL
Characteristics of TL:
span s = 300 m, CFO = 1200 kV, N
g
= 4 flashes/km
2
/year
106 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Sensitivity analysis 3/3
How good is the CFO
NS
regression equation?:
8
6
4
2
0
h = 70 m
B
F
R
[
f
l
a
s
h
e
s
/
k
m
2
/
y
e
a
r
]
R
0
[O] 0 10 20 30 40 50
h = 35 m
LPM model
Regression equation
The CFO
NS
of 230 kV TL, 2circuit, with 2 OHGW
Close together, that OK
107 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Line design 1/4
To have a required BFR, the control parameters
are:
Insulation length, i.e. length of insulation string and
striking distance.
Footing resistance
Number of OHGW
The application of LA
In case of double circuit, the insulation specification
and phase arrangement.
Designing:
108 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Line design 2/4
Depended on
Economics and the system design: customer
reliability requirements.
Voltage level of the system: the higher the system
voltage a greater the reliability is required.
BFR value:
109 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Line design 3/4
Tower on hilltops are exposed to lightning
strike and normally have high footing
resistance.
The BFR of this tower is higher than the rest of
the line.
Thus, it must be improved by good grounding
or the application of LA.
Rogue tower:
110 of 110
Insulation coordination: 2010
CH6: Back flashover
T V H
Organized by PEA
Presented by: K. Petcharaks EECU
Line design 4/4
In the area of high soil resistivity.
River crossing tower.
Lines serving critical loads
To achieve the desired BFR.
Use of LA:
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