# Homework lecture 6

Assignment 1 Consider a collimated beam of light with wavelength λ and amplitude A incident on a lens with focal length F and entrance pupil radius R (and hence Numerical Aperture NA = R/F). The Strehl-ratio as a function of defocus z (peak intensity of the focal spot at defocus z relative to the peak intensity at zero defocus) is calculated to lowest (2nd) order in z in the lecture slides. It turns out that a simple exact expression can be derived for an arbitrary value of the defocus z. Starting point is the aberration function π z ( x2 + y 2 ) W= λF 2 where (x,y) is the position in the entrance pupil. The complex amplitude on the optical axis at a defocus position z then follows as U ( z ) = A ∫∫ dxdy exp ( iW )
x2 + y2 ≤ R2

and the intensity as I ( z ) = U ( z ) , and finally the Strehl-ratio as S ( z ) = I ( z ) I ( 0 ) .
2

(a) Calculate the Strehl-ratio as a function of z by evaluating the integral over the pupil plane coordinates. Hint: Make a transformation to polar coordinates. (b) For which value of the defocus z do we have S ( z ) = 1/ 2 ? And for which value do we have S ( z ) = 0 ? How do these values compare to the defocus value z for which the Marechal's diffraction limit is transgressed?

Assignment 2 Consider an optical imaging system with an aberration function given by: W = (λ/2π)×(0.132+0.456ρ2-1.321ρ4). (a) Which of the primary aberrations are present in this system? (b) Find the Zernike aberration coefficients for these aberrations. Do this by writing W= ∑ AkWk
aberrationtypes k

where the Wk are the standard expressions for the Zernike aberration functions and where the Ak are the to-be-determined aberration coefficients. Show that this results in a linear set of equations for the Ak. Solve these. (c) Calculate the RMS wavefront aberration. Is the imaging system “diffraction-limited” according to Maréchal?