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BAHASA INGGRIS BAB I : TENSES A. Pengantar Tenses adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja dalam kalimat yang berhubungan dengan Waktu (saat kejadian). Dalam bahasa inggris secara lengkap terdapat 16 macam tenses, namun yang sering digunakan hanya 12 macam yaitu : B. Present 1. Simple Present Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + V1 +___ I You We They SUBJECT + v +s,es + ___ He She It
They go to work by bus everyday. He earns his living by selling books. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west. 2. Untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang masih berlangsung We watch television in the evening 3. Dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya. When Lisa Reading a novel, the phone rings, she picks it up and listens quietly….. c. Keterangan waktu Every morning/day/week/month/year Once, twice, three times, four times Occasionally, now and then, on and off, nowadays, habitually, frequently Juga sering digunakan keterangan keseringan, seperti : always, ussually, Sometimes, often, never, seldom. 2. Present Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + TO BE + V-ing (is, am, are) Mother is still cooking in the kitchen now. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu sekarang. They are still playing at moment. 2. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung dan belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan dikemukakan. She is studying English and learning French this year. Catatan : Beberapa kata kerja tidak dapat dipakai dalam bentuk continuous antara lain: Kata kerja berhubungan dengan panca indera (feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe) Kata kerja berhubungan dengan perasaan atau emosi (adore, appreciate, care, detest fear, hate, like, love, mind, want, wish)
Kata kerja berkaitan dengan aktivitas mental (agree, believe, expect, forget, mean, perceive ,realize, recall, recognize, remember, understand) c. Keterangan Waktu Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today. Kata kerja seperti : Look !, Listen !, Watch !, Notice !(imperative) 3. Present Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAVE / HAS + V-3 + ____ I have seen the wolves in the forest. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau (waktunya tidak tertentu) John Smith has written a number of short stories. 2. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang. I have gone to Bali. 3. Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan baru saja berakhir waktu bicara. I haven’t met you for a month.(sekarang sudah bertemu) c. Keterangan Waktu Since, for,….,just (baru saja),lately, recently, as yet, (hingga kini), so far (hingga kini) up to the present (hingga sekarang). 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAVE / HAS + BEEN + V-ing We have been studying English for six years. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang dimulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau Sekarang masih berlangsung dan mungkin masih akan dilanjutkan. Mr.Jones has been listening to the radio for an hour. 2. Untuk kata kerja “live” present Perfect Continuous mempunyai arti sama dengan Present Perfect. I have been living in Jakarta for two years = I have lived in Jakarta for two year (I still live in Jakarta now) c. Keterangan Waktu For …,since….,the whole day,all the morning, for the last…., for…now. C. Past 1. Simple Past Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + V-2 + O + ____ He presented his paper at seminar yesterday. Mother bought a new carpet last Sunday. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. He met Lina yesterday. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. He always carried his umbrella last season.
c. Keterangan Waktu Last week/month/year,…ago, this morning, this afternoon, just now, yesterday 2. Past Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + was / were + V-ing She was reading the magazine when he came. While they were talking the guests knocked on the door. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau. His wife was cooking in the kitchen. 2. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau di mana kejadian lain terjadi dan biasanya disertai anak kalimat yang diawali dengan When/While/as. When I was walking to school, I met Ana. As she was having breakfast the phone rang. Dalam contoh diatas dapat kita melihat bahwa “When I was walking to school,as she was having breakfast, while they were playing,” peristiwa-peristiwa tersebut sedang berlangsung peristiwa lain terjadi. c. Bentuk was / were going to dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan keinginan di masa lampau tetapi keinginan tersebut tidak dilaksanakan. I was going to publish my book (but I didn’t). They were going to climb the mountain (but it was cloudy). 3. Past Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAD + V-3 The thief had escaped when police came. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi sebelum peristiwa berikutnya muncul di masa lampau . They went home after they had finished the work. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi selama periode tertentu hingga kedua terjadi pada waktu lampau. The family had waited for an hour when the doctor arrived. 3. Untukmenyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi berulang-ulang sebelum peristiwa kedua muncul di waktu lampau. His mother had given him medicine for three days before she took him to the hospital. c. Keterangan Waktu When + clause (past tenses). 4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense menyatakan suatu kejadian yang berlangsung hingga peristiwa lain muncul di waktu lampau. Perbedaan Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense lebih menekankan pada proses berlangsungnya suatu peristiwa. a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAD + BEEN + V-ing He had been working in that company for two years when the World War II Broke out.
b. Fungsi Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sudah berlangsung terjadi sebelum saat tertentu pada waktu lampau peristiwa itu masih berlangsung atau tepat berhenti sebelum peristiwa lain menyertai. Contoh : 1. John had been working there for five years when the world war II ended. John worked there. He worked there for five years. Then the world war II ended and John was still working there and (we don’t know whether John would still work there or not after the war). D. Future 1. Future Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + V-1 + ____ The examonation will start next week. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan pendapat, anggapan, spekulasi, tentang kejadian yang akan datang, biasanya diikuti probably, possible, perhaps, surely. (I’m sure ) he will pass the exam. 2. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi. I’ll come back the day after tommorow. 3. Untuk menyatakan maksud / kemauan I will not see her again (saya menolak bertemu dia). 4. Untuk mengumumkan suatu rencana formal dalam radio atau surat kabar yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. The Prime Minister will open the museum next week. 5. Untuk menyatakan kehendak Dalam penggunaan ini ‘pronoun’ menggunakan ‘will’. She will study hard. 6. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa yang mendatang bukan karena keinginan atau kehendak subjek (pelaku). I dan We menggunakan shall sedang lainnya menggunakan will. He will be twenty-five next month. 2. Future Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + shall / will + be + V-ing _____ She will be watering the flowers at four tommorow. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang masih berlangsung sesudahnya. This time next week U will be studying hard. 2. Untuk menyatakan dua kegiatan yang sedang terjadi pada preiode waktu yang sama mendatang. Kedua kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi main claus (induk kalimat) yang berbentuk Future Continuous The family will be thinking about farm while they are sitting in the sea shore. c. Keterangan Waktu When + Clause (present), at the usual next week, at this time tommorow, at three o’clock tommorow. 3. Future Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + V-3 + _____
worked 3. Keterangan Waktu By then : menjelang waktu By ……= menjelang. c.t he? A. Before + clause (present).only wearing . He will have run for five hours by the time of finish.had worked B.Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing +_____ We will have been studying English for six years next year. you have finished typing those letters! When did you do it?” STAN-Nusantara 5 . A. ‘Anwar was promoted president of your company last week wasn.have only been wearing. E.STAN-Nusantara By the end of this week she will have finished reading the novel.have been putting B. by next week/month/year By the end of = …= menjelang akhir… Into two weeks/months/years = dalam dua minggu/bulan/tahun.‘What are you looking for?’ ‘My wallet. a. B.am only wearing. A. when + clause (present). b.has been working C. 4. I don’t know where I ____ it’. Future Perfect digunakan untuk kegiatan yang lebih dulu terjadi. D.was putting E. C.have put 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah terjadi sebelum peristiwa berikutnya terjadi yang akan datang. She____the shoes for five minutes when one of the heels came off.had put D. Keterangan Waktu By + keterangan waktu ______ for + keterangan waktu Next + keterangan waktu ____ for + keterangan waktu When + Keterangan waktu ___ for + keterangan waktu SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN 1.am putting C. had only been wearing. 4.would work E. ‘So. b.was working D. The mechanics will have worked on the car before the race starts.was only wearing. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas dalam periode waktu tertentu sebelum aktivitas lain terjadi yang akan datang. 2. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Future Perfect Continuous digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang akan telah berlangsungselama periode waktu tertentu sebelum kegiatan lain muncul di waktu yang akan datang. Fungsi 1.
’ A.was looking C. and I__teaching by then.’ A.will have been finishing 9.were attending B.am looking E. A.harvest B. by the time they get there.’ This means that we___on foot while we were living in Bogor.have finished C. ‘While living in Bogor.looked D. ‘Can I see you tomorrow about the seminar?’ ‘all right.had attended 5.are going to school C. ‘Several hotels in this region are closing down.is declining B. Ridwan : When are the children going to see the rice field? Willy : In June.liked going to school 8. the famers … A.will endangered C.has harvested D.go to school B.will have finished B. I ‘m afraid he____the lives of the passengers’.had declining C.’ ‘That’s because tourism itself____since last year.attend C. come at 10 o’clock.STAN-Nusantara ‘When you ____the meeting.used to go to school D.was declining E. we always went to this school on foot.would endanger 7.’ A.am finishing D. BAB II : ELLIPTIC AND PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION STAN-Nusantara 6 .would have endangered D.are used to going to school E.endangered B.will have harvested.harvested C. after the harvest time. A.had harvested E. I___all over the place for my dictionary when I suddenly remembered that my sister had borrowed. Ridwan : Are they? So.attended E.will be finishing E.declined D.have been looking 10.have attended D.endangers E.has been declining 6. A.had looked B. ‘Don’t you think the bus driver is speeding ?’ ‘Yes.
f. =She has to study regularly and so do we. Contoh : a. She is studying English. I have finished the work. b. B. Rudy is playing football. He has many books. He can speak English well. g. =He has finished the work and so have I. Adapun cara membuat bentuk elip dengan memakai to be auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu). He isn’t studying English. We have to study regularly. e. She passed the final examination. Contoh a. 3. =He isn’t studying English and neither is she.and so… digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat positif yang memiliki kesamaan. 4.and so…(dan….and …. Contoh : a. But (tetapi) But digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang bertentangan. =He didn’t do the exercise and she didn’t either. She had a new bag. He painted the window. =He isn’t studying English but she is. =He work very hard and so does she.and (keduanya). He had bought a dictionary. =He passed the final examination and she did too. =He has finished the work and I have too. Contoh : He isn’t studying English.STAN-Nusantara A. and…too. She has to study regularly. Pengantar Kalimat elip adalah kalimat yang merupakan pemendekkan dari dua kalimat atau lebih dengan cara menghilangkann beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. 2. =She has to study regulrly and we do too.either juga digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat negatif. =Tony is playing football and so is Rudy. Tony is playing football. Both….. =She had bought a dictionary and he had too.. =He can speak English well and so can she. They work very hard. antara lain dengan menggunakan : 1. I have many books. She work very hard. =She had bought a dictionary and so had he. =Tony is playing football and Rudy is too.dan demikian juga …) and …too. and neither…. He had new bag. Cara Membentuk Kalimat Elip Kalimat elip dapat dibentuk dengan cara. he passed the final examination. =She had a new bag and so did he.. =He can speak English well and she can too. =He has many books and so do I. =He work very hard and she does too. He painted the door. She isn’t studying English.and…either (juga) and neither …. =He didn’t do the exercise and neither did she. She had bought a dictionary. She didn’t do the exercise . c. STAN-Nusantara 7 . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam satu kalimat. =He passed the final examination and so did she. =She had a new bag and he did too. d. b. i.juga. =He has many books and I do too. She can speak English well. He didn’t do the exercise. =He isn’t studying English and she isn’t either. h. he has finished the work.
. you always use a hand signal. he always comes on time. Nani washed the dresses and she hang them. she listened to the radio. =While cooking./salahsatu). If you are sleepy. b. g. =Both Heni and Sita are in the thrid year..she listened to the radio.ataupun….STAN-Nusantara =He painted both the door and the window. she was never satisfied. =Isn’t either in living room or in the bedroom. He doesn’t say rude things. =Nani washed and hang the dresses. =When stopping a car. b. He isn’t a teacher. Contoh : Rini forgot where she put her new dictionary. i. Susunan Elliptic Dalam Klausa. Although she was given everything. e. she was never satisfied. =He is neither a teacher nor a doctor. f. =You can go by bus or taxi. Contoh : a. you always use a hand signal. he always comes on time. I saw him when she was crossing the road. And (dan) Contoh : I will write a letter. =However busy. =I will write a letter and short story. =If sleepy. =Before eating the meal. c. While she was cooking. Whether…or not(baik…atau tidak) Contoh : I will give you the money although you need it or you don’t need it. =Mary was poor but honest. 9. I always say a short prayer. 7. You can go by bus. I always say a short prayer. You can go by taxi. Or (atau) Contoh : a. They don’t say the rude things. I will write a short story. 5. =I saw him crossing the road. you may go to sleep. When you stop a car. Contoh : a. =Neither he nor they say the rude things. b. =Neither they nor he says the rude things. Before I eat. Neither ….nor…(baik…maupun…tidak). Susunsn Elliptic biasanya digunakan dalam dependent dan independent clause bila kedua subjeknya sama. C. Does he buy a black and white or does he buy colour film? =Does he buy a black and white or colour film? b. =I will give you the money whether you need it or not.(baik . Sita is in the thrid year. 6. 8. h. However he is busy. SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN STAN-Nusantara 8 . Heni is in the thrid year. Mary was poor but she was honest. d. He isn’t a doctor. you may go to sleep. Either …or. =Although given everything.
does E. 2.STAN-Nusantara 1.so do I D.to renew C. (faktanya : You don’t tell me the news). I think my mother will be interested in reading this novel. kalimat subjunctive yang diperkenalkan dalam bab ini adalah kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan ‘wish’(ingin). B.my father will be 4. (faktanya : He isn’t the owner of the hotel).so do I BAB III : SUBJUNCTIVE A. (faktanya : she isn’t here). He behaves as if he were the owner of the hotel. 7. Kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan ‘wish’.did D. baik Simple Past maupun Past Perfect Tense. (faktanya : I don’t go to the meeting).’would rather’(lebih suka) dan ‘as if’ atau ‘as though’ (seolah-olah). Kata kerja atau ‘to be’ yang digunakan dalam kalimat subjunctive selalu dalam bentuk Past Tense.him 3.my mother is not E.the same I do C.so will my father B.tells C. Sedang kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan ‘as if’ atau ‘as though’ digunakan untuk menyatakan sifat atau keadaan yang tidak benar adanya.renewing E. “Ridwan believes that advertisement on TV is the most effective”. She stares at me as though she didn’t know me.have to renew 2. I think you had better tell her the truth before somebody else___ A.can B. Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam bentuk Simple Past Tense. 3. (faktanya : She knows me) STAN-Nusantara 9 .Bentuk Kalimat Subjunctive Dan Fakta a.I must renew D. Please remind me to return the book and___library card. To be untuk semua kata ganti adalah ‘were’.so does my father D. 5.that I renew B. I would rather you told me the news. He wishes I went to the meeting . If only he didn’t ask me (faktanya : He asks me). Contoh : 1.my father won’t C.hanya jika). (faktanya : They aren’t my friends) 4. I wish she were here. Pengantar Sesuai dengan ruang lingkup materi. A.I do also E. 6. Present Subjunctive Kalimat subjunctive ini menunjukkan pada keadaan sekarang.but ____ A. ‘if only’ (jika.”__” A.as I do B.’if only’ dan ‘would rather’ digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu keinginan. If only they were my friends.
STAN-Nusantara b. (faktanya : She wasn’t here). has told C. D. she will have enough money E. bought D. If only they had been my friends. He behaved as if he had been the owner of the hotel. If only she … me about her problem yesterday. She stared at me as thogh she hadn’t known me. be E. Past Subjunctive Past Subjunctive menunjukkan pada keadaan waktu lampau. B. she has enough money 2. (faktanya : She knew me). (faktanya : he wasn’t the owner of the hotel). Contoh : 1. I wish I was not thirsty. A. He wishes it … a holiday today. I wish I am not thirsty. will have bought B. He wishes I had gone to the meeting. she had had enough money C. 3. A. STAN-Nusantara 10 . (faktanya : You didn’t tell me the news). I wish she had been here. Kata kerja yang digunakan bentuknya Past Perfect Tense. (faktanya : I didn’t go to the meeting). (faktanya : He asked me). The subjunctive is …. My uncle wishes I had not gone to the cinema. had been B. His daughter wished he … a motorcycle. A. She would rather he had been at home with me yesterday. buy E. buys 6. 4. If only he hadn’t asked me. Fatimah wished … to buy the book. is 5. had bought C. told B. she has had enough money D. (faktanya : He wasn’t at home with me yesterday) I would rather you had told me the news. was D. I am thirsty. It means …. C. (faktanya : They were not my friends). 4. I wish I was thirsty. A. SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. was telling 3. 2. I wish I were thirsty E. A. tells E. 5. she had enough money B. were C. I wish I were not thirsty. had told D.
b. will knew C. Finally he realized what happened. 2. 2. have known BAB IV : VOCABULARY AND READING COMPREHENSION A. Contoh : 1.”I am sorry I don’t know the answer . A. were E. E. didn’t D. was 9. Ciri-ciri tersebut antara lain : a. had knew B. has been D. Don’t be afraid. Inflectional Suffixes Akhiran –s. is C. do E. but I really wish I …. A. teaches E. Rita thinks that we are fishing.-ed dalam bentuk lampau. A. tambahan –ing dalam Present Participle serta tambahan –d. don’t do B. is being B.-es pada kata kerja dengan subyek orang ketiga tunggal. I have not gone to the cinema. STAN-Nusantara 11 . had taught D. A. know E. little girl. I did not go to the cinema. didn’t do C. taught 8. I am going to go to the cinema. Let’s or Don’t + V 1. knew D. Please open your dictionary. Position Kata kerja menduduki posisi tertentu dalam kalimat bahasa Inggris. She acts as though she … the manager of the store. Bram would rather his father … at BAC now.-ed pada Past participle. Kata kerja dapat pula terjadi dalam posisi antara dua kata benda atau antara subjek dan objek.STAN-Nusantara A. B.Let’s give the boys a chance to rest. Posisi pada permulaan kalimat dapat berlaku dengan didahului – Please. Contoh : 1. C. is teaching C. 7. 3. I would go to the cinema. D. akhiran –d. Most insurance agents would rather you … anything before an investigation. haven’t done 10. Surely he means something. 3. I went to the cinema. has taught B. Beberapa ciri yang mirip akan membantu kita dalam mengenal kata kerja. Verb Ciri-ciri kata kerja Kita telah melihat bahwa ciri tertentu yang membantu kita untuk mengenal kata Benda.
Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs because of their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural perceptions. Derivational suffixes and prefixes : Kata kerja dapat pula dikenali dengan derivational suffixes and prefixes dalam pembentukan kata kerja. and gestures are very useful. 2. Less adaptable to to the codification of words. A stop sign or a barber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. as. Gestures C. signs. solidify. The men watched the football match. Can / could must May / might dare Shall / should need + V-1 Will / would (had) better/ best Do/does/did 2. Radio. and the telephone are only a few. Speech E. The basic function of a signal is to impinge upon the environment in such a way that it attracts attention. AFFIXS EXAMPLE -en hasten. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain culture messages. applauding in a theatre provides performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Which of the following would be the best tittle for the passage? A. + V-1 d. -ify. strengthen -ze. As a result. c. 1. 1. They usually do not allow ideas to be shared without the sender being directly adjacent to the receiver. signs also contain meaning in and of themselves. Is / am / are / was / were Get / gets / got Keep / keeps / kept Is / am/ are / was / were Get / gets /got Have / has /had Have / has/ had to Ought to Used to Is / am / are / was /were to + V-ing 3. symbols. Although signals. Auxiliary verbs Kata kerja dapat terjadi dalam frase yang disebut auxiliaries (kata kerja bantu). there are many ways of communicating without using speech. -ize apologize.STAN-Nusantara Contoh : 1. Coded to refer to speech. standardize -fy. My friend bought books in the bookstore. they do have a major disadvantage. liquefy enencircle. In some cultures. the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit. and Symbols B. means of communication intended to be used for long distances and extended periods are based upon speech. for example. -efy beautify. and gestures may be found in every known culture. symbols. Communication D. the potential for communication is very great. enjoy SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN Answer questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage! Although speech is the most advanced form of communication. Signs. Signals. signs. + V-3 4. Culture STAN-Nusantara 12 . television. Signals.
4. gulp B. E. A. a signal D. People who drive a car C. Veterinarians usually give dogs an anesthetic so that they do not cry out in pain. waving and handshaking are not related to culture E. divers are often sluggish. A. Because people wanted to communicate across long distances C. confiscated B. yelp D. overloaded 7. and signals B. and symbols D. Same as speech. communication is important Next questions are not related with the passage above. Because of the extreme pressure underwater. discarded C. obligated D. an attitude 3. loaded E. C. and TV invented? A. A. People who work in hospital E. Yet people love them 5. destroyed E. 6. in 8. People who sell his self 9. what is a signal? A. According to the passage. they are often late. Although buses are scheduled to depart at a certain hour. concealed D. a gesture B. Vendors must have a license. It may be concluded from this passage that …. Because people believed that signals. signs. Why were the telephone. requested C. signs. A. A form of communication which may be used across long distances. The form of communication most related to cultural perception. Because people were unable to understand signs.STAN-Nusantara 2. A. D. The Miami port authorities have seized over a million dollars worth of illegal drugs. A. purr E. People engaged in selling D. People employed in food service B. and gestures are forms of communication B. symbols are very easy to define and interpret C. a sign E. A form of communication that interrupts the environment. like 10. The most difficult form of communication to describe. flip C. B. Applauding was citied as an example of …. symbols. a symbol C. Because people wanted new forms of entertainment E. symbols. and symbols are obsolete D. signs. signals. STAN-Nusantara 13 . listed B. only some cultures have signals. radio.
go on BAB V : CONDITIONAL SENTENCES A. (Artinya : They may visit you. 2. If we have enough time. A. worried E. Modal yang paling sering digunakan adalah : “will” atau “shall” an Modal yang lain adalah “can”. Tipe I (Future Conditional Sentences) Kalimat pengandaian tipe I menunjuk pada peristiwa yang diharapkan terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang. Main Clause dalam kalimat pengandaian selalu memiliki modal. hurt C. b. Travel agent will confirm your reservations for you free.STAN-Nusantara A. classify 12. Perbedaan letak main Clause ini sama sekali tidak mempengaruhi arti. the weather may not be bad). add on E. Modal pada Main Clause dan kata kerja pada If Clause semuanya dalm bentuk present. A.”have to” dan “ought to”. Discretionary funds are included in most budgets to cover expenses that the contractor might run into during the work.Tipe II Kalimat pengandaian tipe II untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta pada waktu sekarang sehingga tidak mungkin terjadi atau kemungkinan kecil terjadi pada waktu sekarang.”may”. slow B. careless 11. yaitu Main Clause dan if Clause. Contoh : 1. We shall go together if We have enough time Susunan kalimat di atas bisa diubah dengan memindahkan Main Clause di bagian belakang kalimat. meet unexpectedly D. Sesuai dengan namanya. I will come to the party if Susi invites me 2. I will go to the party 2. Modal ini bisa dalam bentuk present atau past tense sesuai dengan tipe kalimat pengandaiannya. you may meet they). sehingga mungkin terjadi atau tidak. purchase B. (Artinya : I may go for a swim.”must”. akan tetapi kenyataan belum atau tidak terjadi sebagaimana yang diharapakan. verify C. careful D. Tipe-Tipe Kalimat Kondisional a. we shall go together. Sususnan atau letak Main Clause dapat berada di depan dan juga dibelakang. They will visit you if you meet them. Pengantar Setiap kalimat conditional terdiri atas dua klausa. kalimat pengandaian menyatakan suatu hal yang diharapakan terjadi. I can go for a swim the weather is not bad. B. sehingga susunannya menjadi : 1. Contoh : Main Clause If Clause 1. pay for C. obtain E. forget to do B. exchange D. sedang If Clause tidak. If Susi invites me. Modal STAN-Nusantara 14 .
will E. will have 2. would B. would C. has been invited E. They would have visited you if you had met them. I could have gone for a swim if the had not been bad. (Artinya : They don’t visit you because you don’t meet them). we should have gone together. I won’t come if you ___ me. Contoh : 1. she couldn’t do the work. Modal pada Main Clause dalam bentuk Past Tense ditambah dengan ‘have’ dan kata kerja atau ‘to be’ bentuk ketiga. 2. A. To be untuk semua pronoun adalah “were”. Kata-kata lain yang mempunyai makna setara adalah : ‘on condition that’ (dengan syarat bahwa). don’t invite B. Kalimat Kondisional Tanpa If If Clause pada kalimat pengandaian tidak harus selalu dimulai dengan kata if. Tipe III Kalimat pengandaian tipe III menunjuk pada peristiwa yang akan terjadi di waktu lampau. can B. Contoh : 1. did not invite C. Had we had enough time we should gone together. We shall not go unless we have enough time. We shall go provided that we have enough time. would have E. have been invitation D. 2. He ___ come if you call him. (Artinya : I couldn’t go for a swim because the weather was bad). They would visit you if you met them. Bentuk inversi ini hanya bisa digunakan pada kalimat pengadaian tipe II yang memiliki to be ‘were’ dan kalimat pengandaian tipe-III. sedang kata kerja If Clause dalam bentuk Past Perfect Tense. would have been STAN-Nusantara 15 . A. Were she sick. she couldn’t do the work. If we had had enough time. ‘provided that’ (asalkan) dan ‘unless’ (kecuali jika). If juga bisa dihilangkan dengan menggubnakan inversi atau susun balik. would have C. c.STAN-Nusantara pada Main Clause dan kata kerja atau to be dan If Clause semuanya dalam bentuk Past Tense. should D. We shall go if we have enough time. 2. (artinya : I can’t go for a swim because the weather is bad). SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. A. (Artinya : They didn’t visit you because you didn’t meet them). If she were sick. We shall go on condition that we have enough time. I could go for a swim if the weather were not bad. You ___ go this afternoon if you want to. would rather D. digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan kenyataan pada waktu lampau sehingga tidak mungkin terjasi pada waktu sekarang. have invite 3. Contoh : 1. C. 3.
Were the novel is E. has driven C. gave. he won’t be bitten C. I passed the test D. This sentence means __. A. It means . will buy E. had driven E. She arrives at the station on time B. If you don’t have a coat. She came late to the station C. A. Unless he run away. shall C. We won’t be able to go to the football game ___ we can still get tickets. It’s very cold and windy outside. gave. drives D. A. gives. I failed the test C. you ___ borrow mine. if STAN-Nusantara 16 . rain E. would have bought D. A. A. ___. A. he wouldn’t have been bitten B. We can conclude that __. The novel were his 11. I gave the book 10. I was not given the book E. had rained D. would buy 9. rained B. If he hasn’t run away. If he doesn’t run away. She did not miss the train D. I fail the test B.___. he ran away and was bitten. I would have failed the test. rains C. A. I might borrow it from him. had given. When the boy saw the dog. She didn’t go to the station 5. If his the novel D. If he had not run away. he would not have arrived at the station on time. Had I not been given the book. Unless his father ___ him there. If he hasn’t run away. If it ___ today. If the novel him C. She wouldn’t have arrived at the station on time unless her father had driven her there. I would not go to the school. I ___ the book. If his this novel B.STAN-Nusantara 4. A. must 7. gives. could B. would buy B. can D. Her father did not drive her to the station E. he wouldn’t be the bitten E. might E. he shouldn’t be bitten 12. A. he wouldn’t be bitten D. If my mother ___ the money. will rain 6. has drive B. driving 8. shall buy C.
(Ibu menyuruh adik saya merapikan kamarnya). whether C. Causative have dan get dengan objek pasif Dalam susunan ini subjek menghendaki seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu terhadap objek penderita. I deposit all my idle money in the bank. hadn’t lent him E. will spend B. did not lend him C. I ___ it on things that I did not really need. would have spent C. but E. if not. A. Kata kerja lain yang dapat untuk menggantikan “have” adalah kata kerja “get”.STAN-Nusantara B. Had I realized that Tim was a bad driver. Apabila mengunakan “get” susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + GET + O-1 + to V-1 + O-2 Mother gets my sister to tidy up her room. I ___ my car. Jadi “have” ini berarti menyuruh atau memerintah. wouldn’t lent him 14. can spend D. A. (Manajer itu menyuruh surat itu diketik segera). Causative have dan get dengan objek aktif Di sini obyek melakukan kegiatan sesuai dengan keinginan subjek. will not lend him D. Adapun susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + HAVE + O + V-3 Contoh : The manager had the letter typed soon. A. am going to spend BAB VI : CAUSATIVE HAVE AND GET Pengantar Causative “have”adalah sususnan kalimat menggunakan “have” yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dikerjakan orang lain untuk “subject”. Susunan causative Have dan Get a. Adapun susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + HAVE + O-1 + V-1 + O-2 Contoh : I have the mechanic repair my car (Saya menyuruh montir itu memperbaiki mobil saya). b. Dari dua kata kerja tersebut terdapat sedikit perbedaan dalam susunannya. would not have lent him B. could spend E. unless D. Apabila menggunakan “get” pola kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + get + O + V-3 Contoh : STAN-Nusantara 17 . yet 13.
to accompanying E. to read C. I ___ at my brother’s garage. have the car checked C. A. planted D. to have the car checked D. plants C.” A. “Choki is a lazy boy. plant B. read 5. reading B. I’ll get my sister ___ my new dress. made STAN-Nusantara 18 . everything has done 6. to sew E. but I’ve got to have her ___. “Is your car new?” “No. A. sewed C. We are going on a long trip. have had the car checked 8. A. to accompany C. accompanying D. I’ll have my secretary ___ an appointment with Mr. so we must ___. A. sew B.STAN-Nusantara I get my trousers shortened (Saya menyuruh celana panjang saya dipendekkan) SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. only to had it painted E. so he had somebody ___ the announcement. everything having been done C. had the car checked E. to reading D. I can’t accompany my little sister to go to school. he always wants ___ for him. had been asked to paint it D. accompany 2. have everything done D. A. A. sews D. planting E. Salim for next week. just has it painted 7. Rangga forgot to bring his glasses. Lisa had the gardener ___ the grass. reads E. sewing 3. to have everything done B. have checked the car B.” “Yes. to plant 4. had only painted it C. to has everything done E. A. only had it painted B. accompanied B.
it translate BAB VII : INFINITIVE A. to make D. baik yang menggunakan to maupun yang tidak menggunakan to secara khusus. have it done D. I don’t know how to arrange these flowers. translate it B. it has been done 10. Kata tanya atau frase yang dimulai dengan kata tanya (modifier of a WH-Word Or a WH-Phrases). have to do it C. have it translated D. 3. Kata Kerja Yang Harus Diikuti To-infinitive Kata kerja berikut ini harus diikuti to-infinitive Advise force mean want Allow hope need wish Ask intend permit would like Bag invite promise tell Decide instruct propose teach Expect learn warn urge Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : 1. B. 2. Contoh : She was conviced when to start the business. Penggunaan To Infinitive a.” A. S + V + O + TO-INFINITIVE + ____ STAN-Nusantara 19 . you’d better ___. “This English text on Accounting is too difficult for me to read. makes 9. Pembahasan mengenai infinitive dalam bab ini hanya terbatas pada arti dan pemakaian kata kerja.” “ Well. S + V + TO-INFINITIVE + ___ Contoh : The Lady decided to go abroad 2. making E. Kata kerja (modifier of a verb) Contoh : The president was invited to open yhe conference. Sebagai Subjek Contoh : To drive fast needs a lot of pratice. have translate it E. have done it E. Untuk mempermudah pembahasan digunakan istilah ‘to infinitive’ yang menggunakan to dan ‘infinitive tanpa to (bare infinitive)’ untuk infinitive yang tidak menggunakan to. do it B.STAN-Nusantara B. 4. make C. b. Pengantar Pada prinsipnya infinitive adalah kata kerja yang meggunakan to maupun yang tidak menggunakn to. C. Kata sifat (modifier of an adjective) Contoh : She was sad to hear that terrible news. I’d rather ___. Kata benda (modifier of a noun) Contoh : We need a lot of water to drink. Sebagai Modifier (penjelas / pembatas) To-infinitive digunakan sebagai modifier (penjelas) dari : 1. A. to translate C.
dare not (tidak berani). She heard the boy call for help. Setelah Modal (can. Pengunaan Infinitive Tanpa To (Bare Infinitive) a. shall. Contoh : 1. Perbedaan bentuk infinitive tanpa to dan kata kerja bentuk –ing dalam pemakaian ini terletak pada sempurna tidaknya peristiwa yang dilakukan. should. tell B. I saw the thief running away. know. would rather (lebih suka). Setelah kata : need not. Jika digunakan dalam bentuk pasif kata kerja tersebut harus diikuti oleh bto-infinitive (dalam bentuk pasif). They saw the thief run away. must). He was found to smoke in the class KECUALI : let Contoh : 1. could. Contoh : 1.STAN-Nusantara Contoh : The headmaster asked us to wear the uniform every Saturday. Contoh : 1. etc. essential. Contoh : It is important that she take the course Kadang-kadang infinitive tanpa to dalam dependen tclause semacam di atas didahului oleh “should”. presepsi dan causative-have. kecuali : let have. Beberapa katakerja yang bisa diikuti infinitive tanpa to : Feel hear see look at Get make watch let Have notice know listen to Help observe Kata kerja presepsi dan sensasi di atas juga bisa diikuti kata kerja bentuk –ing. 2. kecuali dalam bentuk passive. I suggest that they should take a vacation 2. Birth Control has helped decrease the population growth. would. b. she would rather go than stay at home c. Kata kerja bentuk –ing (V-ing) menunjukkan sedang berlangsungnya peristiwa kapan dimulai dan kapan berakhirnya tidak diketahui. I notice him sleep under the tree. 3. Setelah kata kerja sensasi. sejak dari awal sampai akhir e. had better (sebaiknya) dan would sooner (lebih suka) Contoh : 1. necessary. They let him go Passive : He was let go 2. dan help. She saw the boy steal the money 2. The teacher has his students clean the classroom 3. We had better tell him that you list it. Dalam dependent clause setelah adjective yang mengandung arti penting Misal : important. It is important that we should take a vacation SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. A. will. D. Contoh : 1. 2. He lets Amir enter the room. telling STAN-Nusantara 20 . may. She was heard to leave the house 2. ought to. I called you up this morning ___ you about the news. might. Sedang bentuk infinitive tanpa to menunjukkan lengkapnya peristiwa tersebut. Passive : Amir is let enter the room d.
crying B. kept B. Exhibition D. told E. cried E. A. A. I told the bus driver __. We study B. not to speed B. for keeping D. A. helping C. spelling B. In studying D. To be exhibiting C. “What did Ali promise you yesterday?” “ ___ together in library. don’t take my money C.STAN-Nusantara C. do not speed C. Studied E. to telling 2. “What are you planning to do with all these paintings?” “ ___ them in the cultural center next month. to help 7. It’s difficult ___ to English correctly if you don’t practice. The fact that he was put into prison for something he had not done made his wife __. The girl begged the robber ___. has been cried 6. did not take my money 4. they keep C. I will help D. As the road to Puncak had become very slippery after the rain. To exhibit B. Studying C. not to take her money B. to keep E. salts. to cry C. didn’t speed STAN-Nusantara 21 . to spell E. spell 3.” A. Be exhibiting 8. spells D. cry D. A. I’m helping E. The acids. and vitamins that fruits furnish are very helpful ___ a balanced and healthful. A. to tell D. help B. To study 5. do not take my money D. A. didn’t take my money E. keeping 9. spelled C. A. The reason Why I am here is ___ you fill in the forms for the scholarship. We exhibit E.
Must a. Menyatakan kemampuan (ability) Menyatakan kemampuan pada waktu Contoh : She can speak three languages lampau. don’t speed 10. get B. Can 2. Mrs. she might hve missed the bus. May a. I usually take a walk early in the morning ___ some fresh air. He must speak English fluently B. 3. Contoh : She might be at home today. Contoh : We didn’t go out last night . Menyatakan kemungkinan besar (strong possibility). Could + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan kemampuan (capability) untuk melakukan sesuatu pada waktu lampau tetapi tidak digunakan. Contoh : Lena has an examination today but she saw the film last night.STAN-Nusantara D. b. Might + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan pada waktu lampau (past possibility). Must + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan suatu kepastian atau kesimpulan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. Modal Perfect 1. getting E. Modal 1. (past conclusion). Contoh : Lany came late this morning.Should + have + V-3 = ought to + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan saran yang seharusnya dilakukan pada waktu lampau (past suggestion). Menyatakan kemungkinan (possibility) Contoh : He may come late this morning 4.Nancy was rich. Bentuk lampau dari may Contoh : She said that I might go home early b. Adapun fungsinya memberikan tambahan arti pada kata kerja. It must have been very cold last night. 5. be getting D. A. Menyatakan kesimpulan (conclusion) Contoh : He has been in England for year. STAN-Nusantara 22 . Might a. 4. gets BAB VIII : MODAL AND MODAL PERFECT Modal adalah bagian dari auxiliary (kata kerja bantu) sehingga dapat diperlakukan seperti kata kerja bantu. Menyatakan kebutuhan (necessity) Contoh : We must eat nutrious food. did not speed E. b. we could have gone to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. Contoh : The oil was frozen. Modal selalu diikuti kata kerja bentuk I tanpa to (infinitive without to). 3 . 2. A. Menyatakan ijin (permission) Contoh : May I read this book? b. She should have been studying for her exam. Menyatakan ijin (permission) Contoh : She couldswim well when Contoh : Can I borrow your dictionary? She was young. Could a. she could have bought a motor car if she wanted. to get C.
should C. wasn’t able to E. bring 2. A. can 3. mustn’t have B. have D. might not have D. A. may B. He ___ not paint the whole building in one day. A. would D. must not C. You’ve got a lot of time. shouldn’t 4. You ___ to hurry. may E. had E. were D. should B. I ___ to sit on the bus this morning because it was too crowded. can D. don’t have B. A. been 5. could not E. shall E. couldn’t have E. don’t have to C. may C. We ___ go out. A. A. It’s raining very hard. We ___ have bought them in advance. doesn’t D. wouldn’t B. are B. can 7. wouldn’t have C. might not D. can’t B. couldn’t C. A. had been 6. He ___ gone home so early. should 8. isn’t able to D. There was a lot of work to do. had better not E. ought not B. shouldn’t have 9. They were plenty of tickets left for the concert.STAN-Nusantara SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. The children ___ be sleeping. It’s very quiet here. They ___ discussing the matter when I came. was C. STAN-Nusantara 23 . A. shouldn’t have E. do C. It ___ rain tomorrow.
wait E. Concord of number (persesuaian jumlah) Concord ini meliputi persesuaian antara : 1. The team is good. We go to school by bus (Concord : Betty…goes) Collective nouns dapat berpredikat tunggal atau jamak. John is my brother. They went to the movie last week. Contoh : 1. wait B. frase atau kalimat sesuai dengan kaidah kebahasaan yang berlaku pada suatu bahasa. Subjek dan Predikat : SUBYEK I We. Jenis-Jenis Concord : a. must C. Could. Contoh : 1. Have.STAN-Nusantara A. have waited C. been waiting BAB IX : CONCORD (AGREEMENT) A. Did. The team are playing seriuously. Concord of person (persesuaian kata ganti orang) Concord ini menunjuk pada persesuaian antara kata benda dengan kata ganti orang yang menunjukkan. will 10. STAN-Nusantara 24 . could have E. It to be am are is PREDIKAT to do to have do have do have does has to verb go go goes Contoh : 1. 4. They He. should B. 2. She. (Concord : went…last week) b. The village has been visited by the president. ___ you ___ long when he finally arrived? A. Pengantar Concord atau agreement adalah persesuaian unsur-unsur pembentuk suatu kata. Had. He has finished reading the book (Concord : He…has) 2. Do. Concord of tense (persesuaian tenses) dalam bahasa Inggris bentuk kata kerja senantiasa berubah-ubah sesuai dengan kata keterangan waktu yang mengikutinya. He is a doctor. The Village have worked hard for a week. The girl under the tree waved her hand. (Concord : John … he ) 2. You. B. They go to the movie every week (Concord : go……everyweek) 2. Dianggap tunggal apabila dipandang kesatuannya dan dianggap jamak bilamenunjuk kepada anggota-anggotanya. been waiting D. 3. must have been D. (Concord : went …last week) c. 1.
2. no word added STAN-Nusantara Noun Tunggal v v v v v v - Jamak v v v v v v v v 25 . He is a good student. a lot of v 9. hers B. A number of cards are painted red. A. one 14. film) dan beberapa benda yang disatukan dianggap tunggal. Ukuran jarak. billiards. the v 3. two / three / four Contoh : This man is my brother. Tetapi : 1. mechanics. menggunakan predikat bentuk tunggal tetapi kata gantinya jamak. little v 8. The number of workers takes a rest. much v 6. Contoh : Five hundred miles is quite far for them. Nama judul buku (buku. each / every 12. Everybody was running as fast as they could 2. many 5. Nama bilangan tidak boleh ditulis dalam bentuk jamak. Noun and attributive : No.anybody dan anyone. some v 4. optics. Concord of gender (persesuaian jenis kelamin) Contoh : John is my brother. Contoh : Romeo and Juliet is a good story. kecuali jika menunjukkan kelipatan dari bilangan tersebut. antara lain : cards. Attributive Uncountable 1. cerita. physics. phonetics. dominos. Each girl must contribute ___ share of the expenses. all of v 13. statistics. Contoh : Two hundred two hundred books d. few 7. no one. economics. everyone. waktu dan uang dianggap tunggal. SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1.STAN-Nusantara Everybody. these / those 11. nobody. No one knows where their king puts the crown Beberapa kata benda yang bentuknya jamak tetapi selalu digunakan dengan predikat (to be atau kata kerja) bentuk tunggal. Contoh : Billiards is an easy game. a / an 2. Contoh 1. mathematics. this / that v 10.
our budget plan for 1998/1999 ___. their D. was D. have to earne STAN-Nusantara 26 . it has become D. ours 3. The name of a river passing through some big towns ___ the title of a very popular Indonesian song. confirm B. her B. his C. Siti’s sister and brother have got scholarship to study aboard. A. is confirmed D. needs to be reviewed C. are C. A. Retno’s way of teaching and of dealing with the students ___ her the name of model teacher. will 5. is covered D. have become C. The committee has begun ____ meeting. need to review D. Mrs. needs review 6. confirms 8. Siti and her sister 9. is B. Both of them B. A. Due to the current financial condition. The tree of them D. has earned B. were E. she 2. to have earned C.8 million square miles ____ by glacial ice. had covered E. are covered B. her E. to have become E. Siti and her brother E. has become B. are confirmed E. is needed to be reviewed E. A. having become 4. A. or nearly 5. to be confirmed C. The local radio stations as well as newspapers ___ that riots have spread to other places in the city. herself D. have been earning D. A. have earned E. ___ are studying economies. One of them C. to be covered 7. has covered C. An increase in the number of students ___ expected next year. A. A. it needs reviewing B. its E. About 10 % of the Earth’s land area.STAN-Nusantara C.
b. Derivational Suffixes Derivational suffixes adalah akhiran pada suatu kata hingga mengubah jenis kata yang mendapatkan akhiran. -ant. At the beginning of d semester.’ Contoh : Mother must buy books and pencils for my little brothers and sister. Inflectional Suffixes Inflectional suffixes adalah akhiran pada kata benda. is B. -ture. Contoh : The soldiers found tracks near their camps. c. Suffix Verb Noun -ment improve improvement -er. d. -ent type typist apply applicant serve servant -al approve approval -ure. -ery. each of the students ___ given a new time-table. -es. -tion act action -ation. depart departure mix mixture -ature sign signature -y. Position : Kata benda menduduki posisi tertentu dalam kalimat bahasa Inggris. tetapi tidak mengubah jenis kata benda yang mendapatkan akhiran tersebut seperti pembentukan kata benda jamak (pluralizer) –s. be C.STAN-Nusantara 10. they are E. he is D. Beberapa ciri yang membantu kita untuk mengenalnya antara lain : a. are BAB X : READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY A. -tion apply application compete competition -ance. A.-ence allow allowance -ist. Noun Terdapat beberapa cara untuk mengenal kata benda dalam bahasa Inggris. dan penanda menyatukan kesamaan (possesive marker) ‘s-dan-s. -or play player invent inventor -t complain complaint -ion. Contoh : a its each many more An our every much most The their no few one My this both several two Your that some either ten His these any neither twenty-one Those all Several groups of outlaws lived in those mountains. Salah satu posisi adalah sebelum kata kerja sebagai subyek sedang posisi yang lain adalah sesudah kata kerja sebagai obyek. Deteminers : Deteminers adalah kata yang terletak sebelum kata benda. -ary deliver delivery -age carry carriage STAN-Nusantara 27 .
and energy ____(1) will not be able to support many more people. form follows function STAN-Nusantara 28 . counterpart C. A. then a bank cannot be built to look like a Greek temple. a building should be inspired by nature’s forms and constructed with materials that retain and respect the natural characteristics of the setting to create harmony with its natural environment. opposition E. resulting in D. develop B. demands 2. moreover E. A. Natural architecture B. assets B. Form does not follow function. to developing E. 6. but it is always faithful to principle. Principle architecture D. Aesthetic architecture C. approval 3. due to B. in addition C. otherwise D. development This text for number 6 to 9 Organic architecture—that is. If this natural principle is upheld. and Kenya. which of the following of is true? A. A. What is another name for organic architecture? A. A. natural architecture—may be varied in concept and form. developed C.STAN-Nusantara SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN The text for number 1 to 5. A. and the people who will ultimately use it. we can see how effectively the world population crisis is being dealt with. contribution D. alternatives E. nevertheless 4. consequently B. the materials. Organic architecture rejects rules imposed by individual preference or mere aesthetics in order to remain true to the nature of the site. China. India. water. is often in ____(2) to the traditions and beliefs of many people . agreement B. In organic architecture. the purpose of the structure. regarding C. caused by 5. conditions D. they fell that the world’s land. supplies C. 1. developing D. referring E. Mixed architecture 7. In other words. Many government leaders are coming to realize that population growth is reaching a crisis point. It should maximize people’s contact with and utilization of the outdoors. This view however . Looking at three ____(5) countries. Varied architecture E. ____(3) conflicts often exist between government policies ____(4) birth control people’s practices. form is inseparable from function.
It’s cover is torn. Nature should be broken BAB XI : DEPEDENT AND INDEPENDENT CLAUSES A. c.that : menggantikan subjek kata benda / binatang. A good example of natural principles is a ___. It belongs to Rina. Who. b. He is speaking English with Santi. bank that is built to conform to the natural surrounding D. Adverbial clause of time STAN-Nusantara 29 . the sweaty bank 9. Which. That man whom she introduced to me is manager. Which : menggantikan objek benda / binatang Cth : Linda told me her address. Nature should be respected D. d.Hadi? I talked with him yesterday. Nature should be conquered. no comment 8. Cth : We take a pity to Dina’s father. atau whose sedangkan untuk benda dan binatang which. A. that : menggantikan subjek orang Contoh : That boy is a new student. Which : menggantikan subjek benda binatang Cth : Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. b. bank that is built to be beautiful rather than functional E. e. Adverb Clause Adverb Clause adalah klausa terikat yang berfungsi sebagai adverb (keterangan) dalam kalimat majemuk. Whom : menggantikan objek orang Cth : Do you know Mr. Which of the following statements best describes the architect’s view of nature? A. Klausa ajektif untuk menerangkan orang biasanya daiawali dengan relative clause who. Pengantar Adjective Clause (klausa ajektif) yaitu suatu klausa yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat dalam kalimat majemuk. Nature should be improved E. Which/that : menggantikan objek benda / binatang Contoh : The dictionary belongs to Sita. Who : menggantikan subjek orang Cth : Dila’s father plays tennis twice a week. That man she introduced to me is a manager. Whom. 2. Jadi dapat menggantikan adverb dalam kalimat tunggal. B. 1. Whose : menggntikan possesive adjective orang. d.STAN-Nusantara B. I showed it to Lina yesterday. Whose : menggantikan possesive adjective benda / binatang Cth : The book is mine. form and function are one E. Non-defening Adjective Clause a. function follows form C. c. that atau whose. Adverb Clause mempunyai banyak ragam seperti halnya adverb yaitu : a. Contoh : Jane showed dewi a book. she introduced him to me. function is not important to form D. bank built so that the location is unimportant to the structure C. that : menggantikan objek orang. That man that she introduced to me is manager. B. bank that is built to look like a Greek temple B. whom. f. Defening adjective clause a. Contoh : That man is a manager. Nature should not be considered C.
you grow your own vegetables C. Sebagai objek Contoh : The student have to do what their teacher assigned them. while atau wherleas. I grew my own vegetables E. since. A. b. Adverbial clause of reason Adverbial clause of reason diawali dengan konjungsi because. objek maupun pelengkap. who study E. in order that. He asked me ___ A. he is like by the teachers C.that study C. His supervisor___. A. The above sentences can be joined as follows: The student ___ succeeded in getting a scholarship. whom the techers like B. Noun Clause Noun Clause dalam kalimat menduduki fungsi kata benda. he borrowed a car from him. although. Jadi dapat sebagai subjek. SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN 1. e. Sebagai pelengkap contoh : This is where I work.STAN-Nusantara Adverbial clause of time biasanya diawali dengan konjungsi after. is like by the teacher 5. The teacher like him.If I did grow my own vegetables? 2. as soon as. f. Adverbial clause of place Adverbial clause of place diawali dengan konjungsi where atau wherever c.the teachers like him D. which D. study 3. Adverbial clause. He is only one of my friend___French. unless. as long as. when. who C. Adverbial clause of consession Adverbial of consession diawali dengan konjugsi though. The Businessman___we met at the party yesterday is the general manager of big company. A. C. as. a. eventhough. studies D. on condition that. whose 4.of condition Adverbial clause of condition diawali dengan konjungsi if.before. whom B. did I grow my own vegetables? D. which the teachers like E. c. The student succeeded in getting a scholarship. Sebagai subjek Contoh : What he decided makes the number happy. where he borrowed a car STAN-Nusantara 30 . until. with whom E. is a very genereous person. so that. A. Adverbial clause of purpose Adverbial clause of purpose diawali dengan konjungsi so. as atau for d. whether I grew my own vegetables B. B. b. while. that studies B.
that she has earned her living B. his car he borrowed E. whether B. objek. in fact 7. where the nearest bank is B. that C. from whom he borrowed a car D. dan penjelas kata benda lainnya. This is Mr. It is known ___ solar energy can be used to generate electricity. komplemen. The two chapter are taken 8. does she earn a living BAB XII : GERUND A. These two chapter are taken C. about which I told you 9. that is the nearest bank 10. Tasroni ___. A. ‘ How could July afford to go about at least twice a year?’ ‘I am also wondering___. which the nearest bank is E. how she earns her living E. why does she earn her living? D. It was from them are two chapter are E. . From which these two chapter sre taken B. where is the nearest bank D.Sebagai Objek Contoh : I don’t like smoking Beberapa kata yang mengikuti gerund : Admit (mengakui) fancy (menghayalkan) Appreciate (menghargai) forgive (memnfaatkan) Avoid (menghindari) keep (terus menerus) Anticipate (mengantisipasi) mind (berkeberatan) Consider (mempertimbangkan) neglect (meremehkan) Continue (meneruskan) practise (mempraktekkan) Deny ( menyangkal) postpone (menunda) Delay (menunda) pardon (memaafkan) STAN-Nusantara 31 . which i told you B.STAN-Nusantara C. Where these two chapter are taken from D. A. the nearest bank C. what she was earning a living for C. A. Sebagai Subjek Contoh : Cooking is a good hobby. The tourist asked me___ A. Pengantar Gerund adalah kata kerja dalam bentuk ing yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda gerund bisa digunakan sebagai subjek. B. in case D. The book ___ is only available in the library. what E. A. whom I told you about C. the person he borrowed a car 6. I told you D. that I told you E. Fungsi Gerund 1. 2.
without. of. keduanya memiliki fungsi yang berbeda. Sebagai menyatakan larangan Contoh : No smoking C. from. up. for. under. Preposisi yang paling sulit dikenali adalah : ‘to’ karena di samping ‘infinitive’. Gerund sebagai komplemen selalu diletakkan setelah to be (am. yaitu kata kerja bentuk –ing Sekalipun bentuknya sama.STAN-Nusantara Detest Enjoy Excuse Finish (membenci) (menikmati) (menolak) (menyelesaikan) prevent resist risk understand (mengcegah) (menahan) (mengambil resiko) (memahami) b. I stop smoking. was. on. were) d. Dari segi arti. gerund mengandung makna : “peristiwa yng sedang berlangsung”. (Artinya : berhenti dari perbuatan merokok untuk kemudian melakukan perbuatan yang lain). Objek kata depan (preposisi) Contoh : He gave up drinking beer Beberapa preposisi yang perlu diketahui adalah : at.(gerund) (Sepatu yang digunakan untuk berlari itu sangat mahal) 3. hafalkanlah bentuk ‘to’ yang harus diikuti gerund dalam kelompok kata berikut ini : To be used to To be accustomed to To object to (terbiasa) (terbiasa) (berkeberatan) to take to (menyukai) to look forward to (menanti-nanti) to be averse to (terbiasa) Contoh : 1. 2. are. c. ada kata kerja yang memiliki perbedaan yang sangat kontras apabila diikuti oleh gerund dan to-infinitive. The running boy is anwar. though. The running shoes are very expensive. and to. (Activeparticiple) (orang yang sedang berjalan itu ingin menemuimu) STAN-Nusantara 32 . D. is. in. Karena itu untuk mempermudah memahaminya. (active Participle) (The boy who is running is Anwar= Anak yang sedang berlari itu Anwar) 2. Perbedaan Gerund dan To Infinitive Beberapa kata kerja yang bisa diikuti gerund dan to infinitive : Advise intend Allow love Attempt prefer Begin regret Continue remember Forget start Hate stop Like try Diantara kata kerja diatas. Sebagai penjelas kata benda noun modifier : Contoh : the waiting room is very large. before. Contoh : I stop to smoke (Artinya : berhenti dari melakukan perbuatan tertentu baru kemudian merokok). Perbedaan Gerund dan Active Participle : Gerund dan Active Participle memiliki bentuk yang sama. e. after. Contoh : 1. I am used to drinking coffe. The walking man wants to meet you. about. Sebagai Komplemen Contoh : My hobby is drawing.
sharpens E. had played badminton 3. His wearing earings D. This knife needs___ it is dull. She was very sad because her father did not approve of___too often. played badminton C. to putting C. The old man needs a walking stick. For wearing earings E. puts 2. ___ clothes can often be very time consuming. me to see her C. A. SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN 1. To wearing earings C. to be sharpening B. gerund bisa diletakkan setelah possesive adjective dan pronoun bentuk object. play badminton B. X : “Do you like swimming?” Y : “NO.” A. has played badminton E. to put B. (gerund) (orang tua itu memerlukan tongkt untuk berjalan) E. putting D. Would you mind___your pet snake somewhere else? A. I saw her B. A. his being able to get C. A. that I see her 6. be able to get 5. Contoh : Her coming late makes her mother angry.STAN-Nusantara 4. I prefer___to swimming. being able to get E. Gerund setelah Possesive Adjective : Seperti umumnya kata benda. Why he wears earings B. put E. playing badminton D. We were astonished at ___ a good score for TOEFL in spite of his poor English. In buying STAN-Nusantara 33 . A. my seeing her D. To be buying C. to be able to get D. They buy B. sharpening 4. me seeing her E. to sharpen C. her could get B. A. “What don’t you like about Irwan ?” “____. sharpen D. Waering earings 7.
Setelah kata kerja tertentu (Verb of Perception). the waiting man reads a magazine. Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : S + V + O + Active Participle + …… Contoh : I hear the girl singing a new song. sedang Past Participle adalah kata kerja bentuk ke-3 dan artinya menunjuk kepada aktivitas yang bersifat pasif (dikenai pekerjaan). Contoh : 1. been left 9.’ ‘I think it only needs ___. 2. We are studying English now. b. Active Participle adalah kata kerja dalam bentuk –ing dan artinya menunjuk kepada aktivitas yang bersifat aktif (melakukan pekerjaan). be cleaned 10. people with very low income are looking forward to ___ by the well to do in getting the daily necessities. supported E. support B. to clean B. A. c. to leave C. Pengantar Dalam bahasa Inggris dikenal dua macam participle : * Present Participle (Active Paticiple) dan * Past Participle Active Participle dan Past Participle memiliki bentuk dan arti berbeda. Facing hard times. A. STAN-Nusantara 34 . Buying 8. Litte children are usually afraid of___ by their mother. ‘It’s hot here. Penggunaan Active (Present) Participle a. Past Participle : Poured water = air yang tertumpah / ditumpahkan B. the air conditioner is not working. Untuk membentuk Continuous Tense. Man buys E. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini : 1.’ A. left B.STAN-Nusantara D. cleaning C. Active (Present Participle) : Running water = air yang sedang mengalir 2. You have been dreaming. be supporting BAB XIII : PARTICIPLE A. Sebagai Adjective Contoh : 1. clean E. supporting C. cleaned D. being left D. being supported D. The boiling water is very hot. 2. leaving E.
d.STAN-Nusantara Kata kerja yang bisa digunakan dalam pola seperti ini adalah : See hear feel notice Watch leave find catch Smell observe keep d. Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : S + V + O + PAST PARTICIPLE + …… Contoh : You will see the work finished on time. Untuk menggantikkan subjek + kata kerja pasif apabila subyek tersebut disebutkan secara berulang. he sent her a letter. c. Contoh : He opened the drawer and took out a revolver. He was followed by his wife. =Opening the drawer. e. marched B. Apabila ada dua peristiwa yang terjadi secara simultan (bersamaan) dan dilakukan oleh seorang subyek. are maching 2. Setelah kata kerja tertentu (Verb of Perception) apabila obyeknya pasif. Contoh : She was asked to open the meeting. he sent her a letter. C. I heard him ___ very carefully in order not to wake the others. Apabila ada dua peristiwa yang dilakukan oleh seorang subyek secara berurutan. D.(Permainan itu membosankan). he rode away. He wishtled as he went. Untuk membuat kalimat pasif. STAN-Nusantara 35 . be marching E. f. Contoh : Beny came in. Contoh : He rode away. maka peristiwa yang terjadi lebih dulu bisa dituliskan dengan menggunakan active participle. SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN 1. marching C. followed by his wife. Penggunaan Past Participle a. he took out a revolver. =Beny came in. Present Participle dan Past Participle Sebagai Adjective Contoh : They play was boring. Sebagai Adjective Contoh : The stolen money has been found. Apabila peristiwa yang kedua merupakan bagian atau akibat dari peristiwa yang pertama. peristiwa yang kedua bisa dituliskan dengan menggunakan active participle Contoh : As he knew her address. b. They watched the soldiers ___ down the secret. =He rode away whistling. to march D. A. =Knowing her address. =Whistling.
he tries 7. killed STAN-Nusantara 36 . be beaten D. A. chosen D. we saw a man ___ to get on our roof. killing B. unlocked the door C. were chosen C.STAN-Nusantara A. Situating D. “Having finished her work. choose B. A. to be trying D. unlock the door 3. The underlined words mean ___. when unlocking the door D. tried E. Situation 10. beating B. A. it was beaten 8. to try C. The window pane ___ by Edi has not been repaired yet. was escaped 9. Students ___ to attend a student conference in the United States should be able to speak English fluently. was escaped D. the maid went home”. beat C. She had to finish her work D. escaped C. being beaten E. It is situated E. When we came home last night. have been chosen 5. was broken B. A. escape B. A. The people ___ during the war were mostly young soldiers. be broken D. I saw a dog ___ by a boy. Situates C. Although she had finished her work B. the town soon become a popular tourist resort. is unlocking the door B. broke 6. A. After she had finished her work C. She was finishing her work 4. Situated B. broken C. A. he unlock the door E. Two of the ___ prisoners were caught by the police. trying B. A. On my way home. breaking E. If she had finishing her work E. ___ near a beautiful beach. they choose E. having escaped E.
3.otherwise you’ll fail the exam. Konjungsi dapat dibedakan menjadi dua macam yaitu co-ordinate conjuction (konjungsi setara) dan subordinate conjuction atau konjungsi bertingkat. Hence : karena alasan itu. Dalam bab ini akan dibahas konjungsi bertingkat (subordinate conjuction) karena hal ini sangat penting dan perlu dikuasai bagi para siswa.nor …. but STAN-Nusantara 37 . 6. Moreover = futhermore = lagipula = terlabih lagi Contoh : Desy is beautiful. 11. All the same : namun demikian Contoh : The government has given them a new market places. hence he is named Irianto. dengan demikian. be killed D. or dan nor. Nevertheless : however = namun demikian Contoh : She is poor.in case it rains. 1. all the same some of them keep selling their things at dirty place. were killing E. 4. Accordingly : karena itu Contoh : STAN is famous college in indonesia. neither….nevertheless she is happy. 12. accordingly many students wants to study there. On the contrary = on the other hand = sebaliknya Contoh : He loves rock music. Konjungsi seperti di atas dapat digabungkan dengan kata-kata lain seperti misalnya : both … and. 9. Contoh : I lost my books and my pens. for he is the only person who knows where the keys is. In order that : supaya Contoh : We must study hard. kata kerja dengan kata kerja. Otherwise : jika tidak Contoh : Please study hard. Konjungsi setara (co-ordinate conjuction) seperti misalnya and. 13. 2. moreover she is very bright. Say : taruhlah Contoh : Can you lend me money.in the mean time I’ll take bath. A. consequently all the responsiblities to raise the children fell or his mother. In the meantime : sementara itu. after all our school is the best.in order that we can pass the exam. For = Since = because = as = Karena Contoh : Everyone is looking for him. kata dengan kelompok kata. I was late because I chugat the wrong bus.STAN-Nusantara C. 15. but also. 5. Consequently : akibatnya Contoh : His father died five years ago. In case : kalau-kalau Contoh : You’d better take an umbrella. 7. although B. on the contrary his father hates very much. but. Contoh : He was born when his parents woerked in Irian. were killed BAB IV : CONJUCTION Konjungsi atau kata penghubung ber fungsi menghubungkan kata dengan kelompok kata dalam suatu kalimat. Namely : yaitu Contoh : There is only one student who fails the exam. dalam waktu yang bersamaan. Contoh : Go to the shop and buy me a magazine. After all : bagaimanapun juga Contoh : There are many good school. either …or. 14. SOAL – SOAL LATIHAN 1. Jenis konjungsi ini menghubungkan kata benda dengan kata benda. 10.namely Lena. mulai saat ini. It means I chaught the wrong bus: ___ I was late.say five thousand rupiahs. 8. not only …. klausa dengan klausa dan sebagainya.
hence 6. or C. ___ he can send his children to college. ___ . A. had contacted Kris. in addition C. Smoking can be the cause of many illnesses and respiratory disorders: ___ . Despite 3. but B. as D. however B. therefore D. Unless B. but B. when 2. “How were you doing in your exam ?” “Not very well ___ I studied hard for it. Even though E. and C.” “You’re right. so 9. ___ very few people know which ones are they. a professional in the entertainment business. for E. they were afraid. A. ___. so B. consequently B. whenever D. for E. nevertheless C. he is always nervous when doing exams. My uncle doesn’t eaern much. it may harm non smokers. since C. however STAN-Nusantara 38 . while B. and C. so D. moreover 5. so that D. so that B. A.” A. therefore D. Instead of D. in spite of that E. The murder suspects wanted to tell the police the truth. The government is planning to liquidate several banks soon. I told Tommy to take the recruiting test seriously. moreover E. Although C. since E. A.STAN-Nusantara C.___ he would not be accepted. or 4. otherwise D. in spite of E. A. A. even though 8. “ His two last musical shows were not professionally conducted. ___ his good performance as a student. for his next show. so E.” A. therefore 7.
in addition D. be dan been. although C. Kalimat pasif dari kalimat aktif bentuk Simple Present tense dan simple Past Tense. so that B. Bila objeknya berupa objek pronoun. are.STAN-Nusantara C. All the members of the Parliament applauded ___ the president was walking to his seat. B. was. P : The shoes are being polished now. Contoh : A : The police asked me continuously. 2. while BAB XV : PASSIVE VOICE A. as soon as E. Pola : Am Is Are + V-3 Was Were Contoh : A : Hari kicks the ball over the fence. is. A. Pola : Am Is Are + being – V3 Was Were Contoh : A : He is polishing the shoes now. P : I was asked continuously. were. Kalimat pasif dari pola kalimat continuous. otherwise 10. P2 : a new strategy of marketing is told us. even if D. Contoh : A : The director tell us a new strategy of marketing. P : The ball is kicked over the fence. nevertheless E. P1 : We are told a new strategy of marketing. STAN-Nusantara 39 . Apabila dalam satu kalimat aktif terdapat dua obyek. Pengantar Pola kalimat pasif adalah : To be + Verb-3 Bentuk – bentuk yang mungkin digunakan adalah : am. maka keduanya dapat dijadikan sebagai subyek dalam kalimat pasif. maka dalam kalimat pasifnya harus dikembalikan ke bentuk subjek pronoun (lihat contoh 1). Pembentukan Kalimat Pasif 1.
W-H Question : Contoh : A : When does he write an article. P : the job has been finished already. Kalimat pasif dari kalimat yang menggunakan modal + Perfect Pola : Modal + have + been + Verb-3 Contoh : A : She should not have scolded him in public. Kalimat pasif dari kalimat aktif bentuk present dan past perfect. Pola : Modal + be + Verb-3 Contoh : A : He will paint the doors. P : The doors will be painted. A : Does he write an article? P : Is an article written (by him)? 2. 4.STAN-Nusantara 3. Yes / No question Contoh : 1. Kalimat pasif dari kalimat aktif yang menggunakan modal. Kalimat pasif bentuk pertanyaan (question) a. P : he should not have been scolded in public. A : He can write an article P : Can an article be written (by him)? 4. A : He has written an article P : Has an article been written (by him)? Pola kalimat pasif bentuk pertanyaan adalah sebagai berikut : Pola I : untuk kalimat yang tidak memiliki modal. To be + subject + Verb-3 (lihat contoh 1 dan 2) Pola II : untuk kalimat yang memiliki modal Modal + subject + be + Verb-3 (lihat contoh 3 dan 4) b. Pola : Have / has / had + been + Verb-3 Contoh : A : They have finished the job already. Contoh lain : STAN-Nusantara 40 . A : He is writing an article P : Is an article being written (by him)? 3. P : When is an article written (by him)? Pola dasar kalimat pasif bentuk pertanyaan yang menggunakan kata tanya (W-H Question) dapat dibuat hanya dengan menambahkan kata tanya pada masing-masng pola di atas. 6. 5.
P : Aren’t the dishes being washed (by her)? 7. opened D. Contoh : The garden needs watering = The garden needs to be watering SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. won’t / wouldn’t. A. Contoh : A : People say that Indonesia is a developing country. were been fed E. will look after E.STAN-Nusantara A : Did they kill the famous general in the battle. will make 2. were fed D. think. will be looked after 4. A. makes E. The house ___ by the old gardener. bear mengandung arti pasif. claim. was been fed 3. report. The window ___ by an unseen hand. P : Was the famous general killed in the battle? Apabila subyek pada kalimat pasifnya tidak disebutkan. Lessons should ___ more interesting for children. Kata kerja yang biasa digunakan dalam bentuk ini adalah acknowledge. know. make D. karena mungkin ditanyakan. 8. everybody dan everyone yang diikuti oleh that clause. maka to be pada kalimat tersebut langsung diikuti oleh kata kerja bentuk ketiga. will looking after B. being made C. require. want. consider. will open C. Bentuk gerund yang mengandung arti pasif Gerund yang diletakkan setalah kata kerja : need. be made B. has opened B. had been opened E. were been feed C. say. Contoh : A : What do they do? P : What is done by them ? Alternatif penambahan “not” dalam bentuk negatif adalah sebagai berikut : A : she is not washing the dishes. Atau : Indonesia is said to be a developing country. A. will looked after D. had opened STAN-Nusantara 41 . The chickens ___ this morning.(Verb-3). will bw looking after C. find. believe. Kalimat pasif yang menggunakan impersonal it Impersonal it digunakan untuk membuat kalimat pasif dari kalimat aktif yang menggunakan subyek berupa : people. P : It said that Indonesia is developing country. were feed B. A.
was be made B. was to record* BAB XVI : ADVERB A. has asked B. Some ink ___ on the carpet. Do you usually study last night? 7. to be recorded E. to be recording C. A. being written E. have been split E. A. was been making E. be cooked D. be spiling B. This gun ___ in Birmingham. is writing B. scarcerly never. is write D. has been cooked B. was being make 6.STAN-Nusantara 5. Contoh : 1. make D. cooked E. has cooked C. sometimes Ever. seldom occasionally Adverb of frequency yang termasuk kelompok I penempatannya dalam kalimat adalah sebelum kata kerja utama. They don’t often go to bed late 5. be written 7. being recorded D. asks 10. A. I became quite nervous when I knew that my speech ___. This fish ___ very well. was being recorded B. The student ___ a very difficult question by the teacher. has being cooked 8. A. A. He is never advised by this mother 6. Adverb of frequency (keterangan keseringan) Kelompok I = always rarely hardly. The book ___ beautifully. was made C. was asked D. Have you ever been to Paris? STAN-Nusantara 42 . is being written C. A. The sun always rises in the east 2. ask E. being split C. I can hardly never hear such a song 4. has been split 9. be split D. often Generally. asked C. His wife never goes to the shop 3.
I never do Atau : No. You nearly missed the bus 2. Adverb of frequency bisa diletakkan sebelum ‘used to’ atau antaara ‘used dan to’. Never has she met us 2. Rarely do we eat rice there 3 Hardly will he write love letters Apabila kalimatnya memiliki “have to” (harus). They soon found what they wanted 4. Adverb of degree (keterangan tahapan. rarely. hardly. Leni still hopes to meet him 3. Contoh : He always used to help his mother Kelompok I : every day / week / month / year Once (sekali) a week / month Every other day Now and then Again and again Adverb of frequency yang termasuk dalam kelompok II pada akhir kalimat Contoh : We have English Lessons every week B. 6. Contoh . We are merely waiting for the bus. to do atau modal. Contoh : It was too hot to work. The students quite understand the lessons 5. Contoh : 1. I sometimes do : No. Contoh : I often have to cook my own breakfast. Contoh : 1. Adverb of degree juga bisa digunakan untuk menerangkan kata kerja dan diletakkan sebelum kata kerja utama. kecuali jika sebagai adjective (untuk menerangkan kata benda). akan tetapi kalimatnya bersususnan inversi. ‘Enough’ diletakkan setelah kata yang diterangkan. tingkatan) : Contoh : Almost quite nearly only Enough soon fairly also Just (hanya) rather extremely merely Already too Adverb jenis ini biasa digunakan untuk menerangkan adjective atau yang lain diletakkan di depan kata yang diterangkan. Contoh : X : Do you ussually go to school on foot? Y : Yes. He didn’t work quickly enough. bisa diletakkan di depan kalimat untuk menekankan arti.STAN-Nusantara 8. STAN-Nusantara 43 . adverb of frequency diletakkan di depan suku kata tersebut. H e didn’t only know you. Does she occasionally arrive at night? Untuk memberikan jawaban pendek (short responses) bisa diletakkan sebelum to be. I usually do : Yes. never Adverb of frequency yang mengandung arti negative seperti : never.
E. SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. D. Adverb of time (keterangan waktu). Contoh : He only had an apple (not anything else). I stayed only at home C. The post have already come. Khusus untuk ‘still’ diletakkan sebelum kata kerja atau setelah to be. Keterangan tempat yang spesifik diletakkan sebelum keterangan tempat yang lebih luas. He studies English hard. A. ‘Only’ memiliki posisi yang bervariasi. kata ini diletakkan berdekatan dengan kata yang diterangkan. jika kalimatnya memiliki obyek. Adverb of manner (keterangan cara) Pada umumnya adverb of manner dibentuk dari adjective + ly Contoh : Adjective Adverb Careful carefully Lazy lazily Kecuali : Ada beberapa adjective yang dijadikan sebagai adverb tanpa harus menambahkan akhiran-ly.(adv) Adverb of manner diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan setelah objek. yaitu: Deep early much Far high little Fast low leisurely Hard late near Contoh : It is a fast train.STAN-Nusantara 7. Contoh : They played there They played football there. C.(adj) The train fast. I stayed at only home B. Contoh : They worked in room 10 in the hotel. tetapi jika digunakan untuk menekanakan makna bisa juga pada awal kalimat. Contoh : Then now everyday Still soon at seven Yet last week next week Pada umumnya adverb of time diletakkan pada akhir kalimat. I only stayed at home STAN-Nusantara 44 . Contoh : He will come here tommorow Tommorow he will come here Adverb of time yang lebih pendek jangka waktunya diletakkan sebelum adverb of time yang lebih lama. Adverb of place diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan setelah obyek langsung jika kalimatnya memiliki obyek. Contoh : We arrived at five o’clock yesterday. Contoh : He studies hard. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat). I did not go anywhere last holiday ___.
A. such an odorous E. I stayed only at home. Although D. A. so that C. more young than E. as if D. despite D. young as B. although 8. such sadly D.STAN-Nusantara D. younger than C. whenever B. such sad C. so sadly 4. such odorous C. The flower is ___ that I can’t resist smelling it. please give this letter to her. despite B. so an odorous 7. because E. wherever E. where 6. Unless B. so odorous D. Aisyah looks much ___ she really is. because of E. only I stayed at home 2. So that STAN-Nusantara 45 . The days were short ___ it was December. A. such odour B. A. A. for E. whenever B. so sad E. She brings her umbrella ___ she goes. so that C. If E. He seems ___ that his eyes are red. A. until D. unless 3. young than 5. although 9. ___ you meet Uni. Because C. because B. A. so that D. E. She acts ___ she were the boss of the company. A. in order that C. She doesn’t go to school ___ she is sick. in spite C. as young as D. such a sad B.
most. seem. wealthy friendly.Inflectional suffixes :-er. and his debt began to increase. b. richness D. Setelah linking verb : look. -atic -ish. enrichment STAN-Nusantara 46 . because E. appear. Derivational Suffixes Suffix : -y -ly -ful -less -ous. -ent. are. reddish Suffix : -ed. Lugosi became addicted to drugs. but as he grew older. pleasant reasonable. Forgotten by Hollywood and his fans. his ___(2) and his wealth disappeared. grow. 1. Lugosi was unable to find work. Once the Dracula films were no longer popular. tive -ing Contoh : golden different. rich B. Bela Lugosi was ___(1) and famous. were. -ative. Contoh : He looks taller than his brother. delicious accidental. -tial -ic. Position : a. A.STAN-Nusantara 10. tiring SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN The text for number 1 to 5 As a young man. -est. be. sensible active. A. painful careless. and the last few years of his ___(5) were filled with poverty and bitterness.: Contoh : tall taller tallest beautiful more beautiful most beautiful Tambahan more dan most bisa digunakan dengan adverb (kata keterangan) 2. he left the house early ___ not to be late. imaginative interesting. -ible -ive. enrich E. -en tired. -ant -able. Contoh : Durian are plentiful here B. -tal. Adjective Ciri-ciri adjective Adjective (kata sifat) dalam suatu frase atau kalimat dapat diketahui dengan beberapa cara antara lain : 1. is. more-. Contoh : sandy. feel. although C. as if B. sound. weekly beautiful. -ial. in order D. -etic. worthless dangerous. differential basic.-ious -al. Setelah to be : am. symphathetic childish. so that BAB XVII : VOCABULARY AND READING COMPREHENSION A. richly C. Antara determiner dan kata benda : Contoh : An interesting book c. Audiences had come to associate him so ___(3) with the role of Count Dracula that producers were ___(4) to star him in any other films.
lively E. In 1919. A. furthermore E. established E. A. recovered D. The airship was ____(7) on the principle of the semi-rigid structure. and in 1929. supported D. famously D. succeed C. A. A. famely 3. famous C. strengthen E. In 1900. it is difficult to imagine that at the beginning of the twentieth century. no one had ever flown in an aero plane. ____(6). hesitantly E. hesitate B. in addition B. applied B. strengthened 4. improved 10. lifted STAN-Nusantara 47 . originated 8. an airship first carried passengers across the Atlantic. hesitance 5. successfully 9. strong B. successful E. livelihood This text for number 6 to 10 In an age of supersonic. alive D. A. success B. people were flying in balloons and airships. decided E. consequently 7. A. hesitation C.STAN-Nusantara 2. A. strength D. Ferdinand von Zeppelin fitted a petrol engine to a rigid balloon. famed E. 6. repaired B. located B. A. however D. succeeded D. next C. strongly C. one traveled round the world during this time the design of airship was constantly being ____(9) and up to 1937 they ____(10) thousands of passengers on regular transatlantic services for million of miles. based C. hesitant D. The craft was the first really ____(8) airship. live B. life C. A. encouraged C. fame B.
sent D. carried STAN-Nusantara 48 . delivered E.STAN-Nusantara C.