International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL

)
Adoption: 1973 (Convention), 1978 (1978 Protocol), 1997 (Protocol - Annex VI); Entry into force: 2 October 1983 (Annexes I and II).
The MARPOL Convention is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and updated by amendments through the years. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO and covered pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, sewage and garbage (full text of the Convention and Final Act here). N.B. The question of marine pollution was discussed at the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment; some of the documents of the Conference can be found in the following: Origins of the London Convention- Historic events and documents leading to the 1972 adoption of the London Convention (contains full text of historical documents) The Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol) was adopted at a Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention in February 1978 held in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977. (Measures relating to tanker design and operation were also incorporated into a Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1974 Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974) (full text of Protocol here). As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention. The combined instrument is referred to as the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), and it entered into force on 2 October 1983 (Annexes I and II). The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes:

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
Adoption: 1973 (Convention), 1978 (1978 Protocol), 1997 (Protocol - Annex VI); Entry into force: 2 October 1983 (Annexes I and II).

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. The MARPOL Convention was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO. The Protocol of 1978 was adopted in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977. As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention. The combined instrument entered into force on 2 October 1983. In 1997, a Protocol was adopted to amend the Convention and a new Annex VI was added which entered into force on 19 May 2005. MARPOL has been updated by amendments through the years. Konvensi Marpol mulai ditetapkan pada 2 Nopember 1973 di IMO. Protokol 1978 dimulai sebagai respon terhadap kecelakaan kapal tangker pada tahun 1976-1977. Karena MARPOL 1973 belum diterapkan, maka MARPOL 1978 mengadopsi Konvensi sebelumnya. Kedua instrumen tersebut kemudian mulai dilaksanakan pada 2 Oktober 1983. Pada 1997, ditetapkan protokol yang mengamandemen konvensi dan sebuah annex baru yaitu annex VI yang mulai diterapkan pada 19 Mei 2005. The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes. Special Areas with strict controls on operational discharges are included in most Annexes. Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil (entered into force 2 October 1983)

Covers prevention of pollution by oil from operational measures as well as from accidental discharges; the 1992 amendments to Annex I made it mandatory for new oil tankers to have double hulls and brought in a phase-in schedule for existing tankers to fit double hulls, which was subsequently revised in 2001 and 2003. Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (entered into force 2 October 1983) Details the discharge criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk; some 250 substances were evaluated and included in the list appended to the Convention; the discharge of their residues is allowed only to reception facilities until certain concentrations and conditions (which vary with the category of substances) are complied with. In any case, no discharge of residues containing noxious substances is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land. Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form (entered into force 1 July 1992) Contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, labelling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations, exceptions and notifications. For the purpose of this Annex, “harmful substances” are those substances which are identified as marine pollutants in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) or which meet the criteria in the Appendix of Annex III.

Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships (entered into force 27 September 2003) Contains requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage; the discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or when the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected has to be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. In July 2011, IMO adopted the most recent amendments to MARPOL Annex IV which are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013. The amendments introduce the Baltic Sea as a special area under Annex IV and add new discharge requirements for passenger ships while in a special area. Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships (entered into force 31 December 1988) Deals with different types of garbage and specifies the distances from land and the manner in which they may be disposed of; the most important feature of the Annex is the complete ban imposed on the disposal into the sea of all forms of plastics. In July 2011, IMO adopted extensive amendments to Annex V which are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013. The revised Annex V prohibits the discharge of all garbage into the sea, except as provided otherwise, under specific circumstances.

Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (entered into force 19 May 2005)

Sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances; designated emission control areas set more stringent standards for SOx, NOx and particulate matter. In 2011, after extensive work and debate, IMO adopted ground breaking mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures which will significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships; these measures were included in Annex VI and are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013.

Marpol 73/78 is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978. ("Marpol" is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978.) Marpol 73/78 is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions. It was designed to minimize pollution of the seas, includingdumping, oil and exhaust pollution. Its stated object is to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances.

The original MARPOL was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force due to lack of ratifications. The current convention is a combination of 1973 Convention and the 1978 Protocol. It entered into force on 2 October 1983. As of May 2013, 152 states, representing 99.2 per cent of the world's shipping tonnage, are parties to the convention.[1] All ships flagged under countries that are signatories to MARPOL are subject to its requirements, regardless of where they sail and member nations are responsible for vessels registered under their respective nationalities. [2]

Amendments[edit]
Marpol Annex VI amendments according with MEPC 176(58) came into force 1 July 2010. Amended Regulations 12 concerns control and record keeping of Ozone Depleting Substances. Amended Regulation 14 concerns mandatory fuel oil change over procedures for vessels entering or leaving SECA areas and FO sulphur limits.

Implementation and enforcement[edit]
In order for IMO standards to be binding, they must first be ratified by a total number of member countries whose combined gross tonnage represents at least 50% of the world's gross tonnage, a process that can be lengthy. A system of tacit acceptance has therefore been put into place, whereby if no objections are heard from a member state after a certain period has elapsed, it is assumed they have assented to the treaty. All six Annexes have been ratified by the requisite number of nations; the most recent is Annex VI, which took effect in May 2005. The country where a ship is registered (Flag State) is responsible for certifying the ship's compliance with MARPOL's pollution prevention standards. Each signatory nation is responsible for enacting domestic laws to implement the convention and effectively pledges to comply with the convention, annexes, and related laws of other nations. In the United States, for example, the relevant implementation legislation is the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships.[2] One of the difficulties in implementing MARPOL arises from the very international nature of maritime shipping. The country that the ship visits can conduct its own examination to verify a ship's compliance with international standards and can detain the ship if it finds significant noncompliance. When incidents occur outside such country's jurisdiction or jurisdiction cannot be determined, the country refers cases to flag states, in accordance with MARPOL. A 2000 GAO report documented that even when referrals have been made, the response rate from flag states has been poor.[2]

noun

1. pengesahan suatu dokumen negara oleh parlemen, khususnya pengesahan undang-undang, perjanjian antarnegara, dan persetujuan hukum internasional; me·ra·ti·fi·ka·si v menandatangani dan mengesahkan (perjanjian dsb)

Memahami Isi dari “MARPOL”

Bicara tentang pencemaran di laut, hal yg sangat berhubungan dekat sekali dgn pelaut di keseharianya. jika kita lalai dan terjadi musibah tumpahan minyak di laut, dampaknya sangat luar biasa sekali. bukan hanya lingkungan biota laut yg teracam kitapun sebagai pelaut bisa berhubungan dengan hukum dimana negara perairan yg kita layari. maka dari itu hindari kesalahan gunahkanlah management yg baik di atas kapal. pencatatan oil record book yg up to date dan juga system waste management yg terkontrol. banyak rekan kita pelaut terkadang menganggap sepeleh hal ini. ya. itulah manusia terkadang belum sadar jika sudah dapat musibah penyesalan datang belakangan. untuk menghindari hal tersebut mari sama sama mendalami apa yg di maksud marpol itu. saya akan menguraikan sejelasnya apa yg saya tahu. 1. A. SEJARAH KONVENSI MARPOL

Sejak peluncuran kapal pengangkut minyak yang pertama GLUCKAUF pada tahun 1885 dan penggunaan pertama mesin diesel sebagai penggerak utama kapal tiga tahun kemudian, maka fenomena pencemaran laut oleh minyak mulai muncul.

Baru pada tahun 1954 atas prakarsa dan pengorganisasian yang dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Inggris (UK), lahirlah “Oil Pullution Convention, yang mencari cara untuk mencegah pembuangan campuran minyak dan pengoperasian kapal tanker dan dari kamar mesin kapal lainnya.

Sebagai hasilnya adalah sidang IMO mengenai “international Conference on Marine Pollution” dari tanggal 8 Oktober sampai deng an 2 Nopember 1973 yang menghasilkan “international Convention for the Prevention of Oil Pollution from Ships” tahun 1973, yang kemudian disempurnakan dengan TSPP (Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention) Protocol tahun 1978 dan konvensi ini dikenal dengan nama MARPOL 1973/1978 yang masih berlaku sampai sekarang.

Difinisi mengenai “Ship” dalam MARPOL 73/78 adalah sebagai berikut:

“Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air cushion vehhicles, suvmersibles, ficating Craft and fi xed or floating platform”.

Jadi “Ship” dalam peraturan lindungan lingkungan maritim adalah semua jenis bangunan yang berada di laut apakah bangunan itu mengapung, melayang atau tertanam tetap di dasar laut. 1. B. ISI PERATURAN MARPOL

Peraturan mengenai pencegahan berbagai jenis sumber bahan pencemaran lingkungan maritim yang datangnya dari kapal dan bangunan lepas pantai diatur dalam MARPOL Convention 73/78 Consolidated Edition 1997 yang memuat peraturan :

1. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973.

Mengatur kewajiban dan tanggung jawab Negara-negara anggota yang sudah meratifikasi konvensi tersebut guna mencegah pencemaran dan buangan barang-barang atau campuran cairan beracun dan berbahaya dari kapal. Konvensi-konvensi IMO yang sudah diratifikasi oleh Negara anggotanya seperti Indonesia, memasukkan isi konvensi-konvensi tersebut menjadi bagian dari peraturan dan perundang-undangan Nasional.

2. Protocol of 1978

Merupakan peraturan tambahan “Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention (TSPP)” bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keselamatan kapal tanker dan melaksanakan peraturan pencegahan dan pengontrolan pencemaran laut yang berasal dari kapal terutama kapal tanker dengan melakukan modifikasi dan petunjuk tambahan untuk melaksanakan secepat mungkin peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang dimuat di dalam Annex konvensi.

Karena itu peraturan dalam MARPOL Convention 1973 dan Protocol 1978 harus dibaca dan diinterprestasikan sebagai satu kesatuan peraturan.

Protocol of 1978, juga memuat peraturan mengenai :

- a.

Protocol I

Kewajiban untuk melaporkan kecelakaan yang melibatkan barang beracun dan berbahaya.

Peraturan mengenai kewajiban semua pihak untuk melaporkan kecelakaan kapal yang melibatkan barang-barang beracun dan berbahaya. Pemerintah Negara anggota diminta untuk membuat petunjuk untuk membuat laporan, yang diperlukan sedapat mungkin sesuai dengan petunjuk yang dimuat dalam Annex Protocol I.

Sesuai Article II MARPOL 73/78 Article III “Contents of report” laporan tersebut harus me muat keterangan :

   

Mengenai identifikasi kapal yang terlibat melakukan pencemaran. Waktu, tempat dan jenis kejadian Jumlah dan jenis bahan pencemar yang tumpah Bantuan dan jenis penyelamatan yang dibutuhkan

Nahkoda atau perorangan yang bertanggung jawab terhadap insiden yang terjadi pada kapal wajib untuk segera melaporkan tumpahan atau buangan barang atau campuran cairan beracun dan berbahaya dari kapal karena kecelakaan atau untuk kepentingan menyelamatkan jiwa manusia sesuai petunjuk dalam Protocol dimaksud.

- b.

Protocol II mengenai Arbitrasi

Berdasarkan Article 10”setlement of dispute”. Dalam Protocol II diberikan petunjuk menyelesaikan perselisihan antara dua atau lebih Negara anggota mengenai interprestasi atau pelaksanaan isi konvensi. Apabila perundingan antara pihak-pihak yang berselisih tidak berhasil menyelesaikan masalah tersebut, salah satu dari mereka dapat mengajukan masalah tersebut ke Arbitrasi dan diselesaikan berdasarkan petunjuk dalam Protocol II konvensi.

Selanjutnya peraturan mengenai pencegahan dan penanggulangan pencemaran laut oleh berbagai jenis bahan pencemar dari kapal dibahas daam Annex I s/d V MARPOL 73/78, berdasarkan jenis masing-masing bahan pencemar sebagai berikut :

Annex I Pencemaran oleh minyak Mulai berlaku 2 Oktober 1983

Annex II Pencemaran oleh Cairan Beracun (Nuxious Substances) dalam bentuk Curah

Mulai berlaku 6 April 1987

Annex III Pencemaran oleh barang Berbahaya (Hamful Sub-Stances) dalam bentuk Terbungkus Mulai berlaku 1 Juli 1991

Annex IV Pencemaran dari kotor Manusia /hewan (Sewage)

diberlakukan 27 September 2003

Annex V Pencemaran Sampah Mulai berlaku 31 Desember 1988

Annex VI Pencemaran udara belum diberlakukan

Peraturan MARPOL Convention 73/78 yang sudah diratifikasi oleh Pemerintah Indonesia, baru Annex I dan Annex II, dengan Keppres No. 46 tahun 1986. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. C. TUGAS DAN TANGGUNG JAWAB NEGARA ANGGOTA MARPOL 73/78

Menyetujui MARPOL 73/78 – Pemerintah suatu negara Memberlakukan Annexexes I dan II – Administrasi hukum / maritim Memberlakukan optimal Annexes dan melaksanakan – Administrasi hukum / maritim. Melarang pelanggaran – Administrasi hukum / maritim Membuat sanksi – Administrasi hukum / maritim Membuat petunjuk untuk bekerja – administrasi maritim Memberitahu Negara-negara yang bersangkutan – administrasi maritim. Memberitahu IMO – Administration maritim Memeriksa kapal – Administrasi maritim Memonitor pelaksanaan – Administrasi maritim Menghindari penahanan kapal – Administrasi kapal Laporan kecelakaan – Administrasi maritim / hukum Menyediakan laporan dokumen ke IMO (Article 11) – Administrasi maritim Memeriksa kerusakan kapal yang menyebabkan pencemaran dan melaporkannya – Administrasi maritim. Menyediakan fasilitas penampungan yang sesuai peraturan – Administrasi maritim.

1.

D. YURISDIKSI PEMBERLAKUAN MARPOL 73/78

MARPOL 73/78 memuat tugas dan wewenang sebagai jaminan yang relevan bagi setiap Negara anggota untuk memberlakukan dan melaksanakan peraturan sebagai negara bendera kapal, Negara pelabuhan atau negara pantai.

  

Negara bendera kapal adalah Negara dimana suatu kapal didaftarkan Negara pelabuhan adalah Negara dimana suatu kapal berada di pelabuhan Negara itu. Negara pantai adalah Negara dimana suatu kapal berada di dalam zona maritim Negara pantai tersebut.

MARPOL 73/78 mewajibkan semua Negara berdera kapal, Negara Pantai dan Negara pelabuhan yang menjadi anggota mengetahui bahwa :

“ Pelanggaran terhadap peraturan konvensi yang terjadi di dalam daerah yurisdiksi Negara anggota dilarang dan sanksi atau hukuman bagi yang melanggar dilakukan berdasarkan Undang-Undang Negara anggota itu”. 1. a. Juridiksi legislatif Negara bendera kapal

Berdasarkan hukum Internasional, Negara bendera kapal diharuskan untuk memberlakukan peraturan dan mengontrol kegiatan berbendera Negara tersebut dalam hal administrasi, teknis dan sarana sosial termasuk mencegah terjadi pencemaran perairan.

Negara bendera kapal mengharuskan kapal berbendera Negara itu memenuhi standar Internasional (antara lain MARPOL 73/78).

Tugas utama dari negara bendera kapal adalah untuk menjamin bahwa kapal mereka memnuhi standar teknik di dalam MARPOL 73/78 yakni :

 
1.

memeriksa kapal-kapal secara periodik menerbitkan sertifikat yang diperlukan b. Juridiksi legislatif Negara pantai

Konvensi MARPOL 73/78 meminta Negara pantai memberlakukan peraturan konvensi pada semua kapal yang memasuki teoritialnya dan, tindakan ini dibenarkan oleh peraturan UNCLOS 1982, asalkan memenuhi peraturan konvensi yang berlaku untuk lintas damai (innocent passage) dan ada bukti yang jelas bahwa telah terjadi pelanggaran. 1. c. Juridiksi legislatif Negara pelabuhan

Negara anggota MARPOL 73/78 wajib memberlakukan peraturan mereka bagi semua kapal yang berkunjung ke palabuhannya. Tidak ada lagi perlakuan khusus bagi kapal-kapal yang bukan anggota.

Ini berarti ketaatan pada peraturan MARPOL 73/78 merupakan persyaratan kapal boleh memasuki pelabuhan semua Negara anggota.

Adalah wewenang dari Negara pelabuhan untuk memberlakukan peraturan lebih ketat tentang pencegahan pencemaran sesuai peraturan mereka. Namun demikian sesuai UNCLOS 1982 peraturan seperti itu harus dipublikasikan dan disampaikan ke IMO untuk disebar luaskan. 1. E. CARA-CARA UNTUK MEMENUHI KEWAJIBAN DALAM MARPOL 73/78

Persetujuan suatu Negara anggota untuk melaksanakan MARPOL 73/78 diikuti dengan tindak lanjut dari Negara tersebut di sektorsektor :

    
1.

Pemerintah Administrasi bidang hukum Administrasi bidang maritim Pemilik kapal Syahbandar (port authorities)

a. Pemerintah

Kemauan politik dari suatu Negara untuk meratifikasi MARPOL 73/78 merupakan hal yang fundamental. Dimana kemauan politik itu didasarkan pada pertimbangan karena : 1. 2. 3. 4. Kepentingan lingkungan maritim di bawah yurisdiksi Negara itu. Keuntungan untuk pemilik kapal Negara tersebut (Kapal-kapalnya dapat diterima oleh dunia Internasional). Keuntungan untuk ketertiban di pelabuhan Negara itu (dapat mengontrol pencemaran) atau Negara ikut berpartisipasi menjaga keselamatan lingkungan internasional.

Pertimbangan dan masukan pada Pemerintah untuk meretifikasi konvensi diharapkan datang dari badan administrasi maritim atau badan administrasi lingkungan dan dari industri maritim.

Dalam konteks ini harus diakui bahwa Negara anggota MARPOL 73/78 menerima tanggung jawab tidak membuang bahan pencemar ke laut, namun demikian di lain pihak mendapatkan hak istimewa, perairannya tidak boleh dicemari oleh Kapal Negara anggota lain. Kalau terjadi pencemaran di dalam teritorial mereka, mereka dapat menuntun dan meminta ganti rugi. Negara yang bukan anggota tidak menerima tanggung jawab untuk melaksanakan peraturan atas kapal-kapal mereka, jadi kapal-kapal-kapal mereka tidak dapat dituntut karena tidak memenuhi peraturan (kecuali bila berada di dalam daerah teritorial Negara anggota).

Namun demikian harus diketahui pula bahwa Negara yang tidak menjadi anggota berarti kalau pantainya sendiri dicemari, tidak dapat memperoleh jaminan sesuai MARPOL 73.78 untuk menuntut kapal yang mencemarinya.

b. Administrasi hukum

Tugas utama dari Administrasi hukum adalah bertanggung jawab memberlakukan peraturan yang dapat digunakan untuk melaksanakan peraturan MARPOL 73/78. Untuk memudahkan pekerjaan Administrasi hukum sebaiknya ditempatkan dalam satu badan dengan Administrasi maritim yang diberikan kewenangan meratifikasi, membuat peraturan dan melaksanakannya.

Agar peraturan dalam MARPOL 73/78 mempunyai dasar hukum untuk dilaksanakan, maka peraturan tersebut harus diintegrasikan ke dalam sistim perundang-undangan Nasional. Cara pelaksanaannya sesuai yang digambarkan dalam diagram berikut.

c. Administrasi maritim

Administrasi maritim yang dibentuk pemerintah bertanggung jawab melaksanakan tugas administrasi pemberlakuan peraturan MARPOL 73/78 dan konvensi-konvensi maritim lainnya yang sudah diratifikasi. Badan ini akan memberikan masukan pada Administrasi hukum dan Pemerintah di satu pihak dan membina industri perkapalan dari Syahbandar dipihak lain yang digambarkan dalam diagram berikut.

Tugas dari Administrasi maritim ini adalah melaksanakan MARPOL 73/78 bersama-sama dengan beberapa konvensi maritim lainnya. Disarankan untuk meneliti tugas-tugas tersebut guna identifikasi peraturan-peraturan yang sesuai dan memutuskan bagaimana memberlakukannya.

d. Pemilik Kapal

Pemilik kapal berkewajiban membangun dan melengkapi kapal-kapalnya dan mendiidk pelautnya, perwira laut untuk memenuhi peraturan MARPOL 73/78. Konpetensi dan ketrampilan pelaut harus memenuhi standar minimun yang dimuat dalam STCW-95 Convention.

e. Syahbandar (Port Authorities)

Tugas utama dari Syahbandar adalah menyediakan tempat penampungan buangan yang memadai sisa-sisa bahan pencemar dari kapal yang memadai. Syahbandar juga bertugas untuk memantau dan mengawasi pembuangan bahan pencemar yang asalnya dari kapal berdasarkan peraturan Annexes I, II, IV dan V MARPOL.

F. IMPLEMENTASU PERATURAN MARPOL 7378

Administrasi Maritim dalam melaksanakan tugasnya adalah bertindak sebagai : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. sebagai pelaksanaan IMO Legislation dan Regulations serta Implementation of Regulations Instruction to Surveyor Delegations of surveyor and issue of certificates Records of Certifications, Design Approval, dan Survey Report Equipment Approval, Issue of certificates dan Violations reports Prosecution of offenders, Monitoring receptions facilities dan Informing IMO as required

Pemerikasaan dan Inspeksi yang dilakukan oleh Surveyor dan Inspektor

Garis besar tugas surveyor dan inspektor melakukan pemeriksaan dalam diagram di atas adalah sebagai berikut : 1. 2. 3. Memeriksa kapal untuk penyetujuan rancang bangun. Tugas ini hendaknya dilakukan oleh petugas yang berkualifikasi dan berkualitas sesuai yang ditentukan oleh kantor pusat Administrasi maritim. Inspeksi yang dilakukan oleh Syahbandar adalah bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah prosedur operasi sudah sesuai dengan peraturan. Investigasi dan penuntunan. Surveyor dan Inspector pelabuhan harus mampu melakukan pemeriksaan kasus yang tidak memenuhi peraturan konstruksi, peralatan dan pelanggaran yang terjadi. Berdasarkan petunjuk dari pusat Administrasi maritim, petugas tersebut harus dapat menuntut pihak-pihak yang melanggar.

1. 1. 2. 3. 1.

G. IMPLEMENTASI PERATURAN MARPOL 73/78 Survey & pemeriksaan Sertifikasi Tugas Pemerintah H. DAMPAK PENCEMARAN DI LAUT

Dampak pencemaran barang beracun dan berbahaya terutama minyak berpengaruh terhadap : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. Dampak ekologi Tempat rekreasi Lingkungan Pelabuhan dan Dermaga Instalasi Industri Perikanan Binatang Laut Burung Laut Terumbu Karang dan Ekosistim Tumbuhan di pantai dan Ekosistim Daerah yang dilindung dan taman laut I. DEFINISI-DEFINISI BAHAN PENCEMAR

Bahan-bahan pencemar yang berasal dari kapal terdiri dari muatan yang dimuat oleh kapal, bahan bakar yang digunakan untuk alat propulsi dan alat lain di atas kapal dan hasil atau akibat kegiatan lain di atas kapal seperti sampah dan segera bentuk kotoran.

Definisi bahan-bahan pencemar dimaksud berdasarkan MARPOL 73/78 adalah sebagai berikut : 1. 2. “Minyak” adalah semua jenis minyak bumi seperti minyak mentah (crude oil) bahan bakar (fuel oil), kotoran minyak (sludge) dan minyak hasil penyulingan (refined product) “Naxious liquid substances”. Adalah barang cair yang beracun dan berbahaya hasil produk kimia yang diangkut dengan kapal tanker khusus (chemical tanker)

Bahan kimia dimaksud dibagi dalam 4 kategori (A,B,C, dan D) berdasarkan derajad toxic dan kadar bahayanya.

Kategori A

: Sangat berbahaya (major hazard). Karena itu muatan termasuk bekas pencuci tanki muatan dan air balas dari tanki

muatan tidak boleh dibuang ke laut.

Kategori B

: Cukup berbahaya. Kalau sampai tumpah ke laut memerlukan penanganan khusus (special anti pollution measures).

Kategori C

: Kurang berbahaya (minor hazard) memerlukan bantuan yang agak khusus.

Kategori D 1. 2. 3.

:

Tidak membahayakan, membutuhkan sedikit perhatian dalam menanganinya.

“Hamfull substances” Adalah barang-barang yang dikemas dalam dan membahayakan lingkungan kalau sampai jatuh ke laut. Sewage”. Adalah kotoran-kotoran dari toilet, WC, urinals, ruangan perawatan, kotoran hewan serta campuran dari buangan tersebut. “Garbage” Adalah tempat sampah-sampah dalam bentuk sisa barang atau material hasil dari kegiatan di atas kapal atau kegiatan normal lainnya di atas kapal.

Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran laut diakui sangat kompleks dan sulit dilaksanakan secara serentak, karena itu marpol Convention diberlakukan secara bertahap. Tanggal 2 Oktober 1983 untuk Annex I (oil). Disusul dengan Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk) tanggal 6 April 1987. Disusul kemudian Annex V (Sewage), tanggal 31 31 Desember 1988, dan Annex III (Hamful Substances in Package) tanggal 1 juli 1982. Sisa Annex IV (Garbage) yang belum berlaku Internasional sampai saat ini.

Annex I MARPOL 73/78 yang memuat peraturan untuk mencegah pencemaran oleh tumpahan minyak dari kapal sampai 6 Juli 1993 sudah terdiri dari 23 Regulation.

Peraturan dalam Annex I menjelaskan mengenai konstruksi dan kelengkapan kapal untuk mencegah pencemaran oleh minyak yang bersumber dari kapal, dan kalau terjadi juga tumpahan minyak bagaimana cara supaya tumpahan bisa dibatasi dan bagaimana usaha terbaik untuk menanggulanginya.

Untuk menjamin agar usaha mencegah pencemaran minyak telah dilaksanakan dengan sebaik-baiknya oleh awak kapal, maka kapalkapal diwajibkan untuk mengisi buku laporan (Oil Record Book) yang sudah disediakan menjelaskan bagaimana cara awak kapal menangani muatan minyak, bahan bakar minyak, kotoran minyak dan campuran sisa-sisa minyak dengan cairan lain seperti air, sebagai bahan laporan dan pemeriksaan yang berwajib melakukan kontrol pencegahan pencemaran laut.

Kewajiban untuk menigisi “Oli Record Book” dijelaskan di dalam Reg. 20.

Appendix I

Daftar dari jenis minyak (list of oil) sesuai yang dimaksud dalam MARPOL 73/78 yang akan mencemari apabila

tumpahan ke laut.

Appendix II,

Bentuk sertifikat pencegahan pencemaran oleh minyak atau “IOPP Certificate” dan suplemen mengenai data konstruksi

dan kelengkapan kapal tanker dan kapal selain tanker. Sertifikat ini membuktikan bahwa kapal telah diperiksa dan memenuhi peraturan dalam reg. 4. “Survey and inspection” dimana struktur dan konstruksi kapal, kelengkapannya serta kondisinya memenuhi semua ketentuan dalam Annex I MARPOL 73/78.

Appendix III, Bentuk “Oil Record Book” untuk bagian mesin dan bagian dek yang wajib diisi oleh awak kapal sebagai kelengkapan laporan dan bahan pemeriksaan oleh yang berwajib di Pelabuhan. 1. J. USAHA MENCEGAH DAN MENANGGULANGI PENCEMARAN LAUT

Pada permulaan tahun 1970-an cara pendekatan yang dilakukan oleh IMO dalam membuat peraturan untuk mencegah dan menanggulangi pencemaran laut pada dasarnya sama dengan yang dilakukan sekarang, yakni melakukan kontrol yang ketat pada struktur kapal untuk mencegah jangan sampai terjadi tumpahan minyak atau pembuangan campuran minyak ke laut. Dengan pendekatan demikian MARPOL 73/78 memuat peraturan untuk mencegah seminimum mungkin minyak yang mencemari laut.

Tetapi kemudian pada tahun 1984 dilakukan perubahan penekanan dengan menitik beratkan pencegahan pencemaran pada kegiatan operasi kapal seperti yang dimuat didalam Annex I terutama keharusan kapal untuk dilengkapi dengan “Oily Water Separating Equ ipment dan Oil Discharge Monitoring Systems”.

Karena itu MARPOL 73/78 Consolidated Edition 1997 dibagi dalam 3 (tiga) kategori dengan garis besarnya sebagai berikut :

1. Peraturan untuk mencegah terjadinya Pencemaran.

Kapal dibangun, dilengkapi dengan konstruksi dan peralatan berdasarkan peraturan yang diyakini akan dapat mencegah pencemaran terjadi dari muatan yang diangkut, bahan bakar yang digunakan maupun hasil kegiatan operasi lainnya di atas kapal seperti sampahsampah dan segala bentuk kotoran.

2. Peraturan untuk menanggulangi pencemaran yang terjadi

Kalau sampai terjadi juga pencemaran akibat kecelakaan atau kecerobohan maka diperlukan peraturan untuk usaha mengurangi sekecil mungkin dampak pencemaran, mulai dari penyempurnaan konstruksi dan kelengkapan kapal guna mencegah dan membatasi tumpahan sampai kepada prosedur dari petunjuk yang harus dilaksanakan oleh semua pihak dalam menaggulangi pencemaran yang telah terjadi.

3. Peraturan untuk melaksanakan peraturan tersebut di atas.

Peraturan prosedur dan petunjuk yang sudah dikeluarkan dan sudah menjadi peraturan Nasional negara anggota wajib ditaati dan dilaksanakan oleh semua pihak yang terlibat dalam membangun, memelihara dan mengoperasikan kapal. Pelanggaran terhadap peraturan, prosedur dan petunjuk tersebut harus mendapat hukuman atau denda sesuai peraturan yang berlaku.

Khusus bahan pencemaram minyak bumi, pencegahan dan penanggulanganya secara garis besar dibahas sebagai berikut : 1. a. Peraturan untuk pencegahan pencemaran oleh minyak.

Untuk mencegah pencemaran oleh minyak bumi yang berasal dari kapal terutama tanker dalam Annex I dimuat peraturan pencegahan dengan penekanan sebagai berikut : 1. 1. Regulation 13, Segregated Ballast Tanks, Dedicated Clean Tanks Ballast and Crude Oil Washing (SRT, CBT dan COW)

Menurut hasil evaluasi IMO cara terbaik untuk mengurangi sesedikit mungkin pembuangan minyak karena kegiatan operasi adalah melengkapi tanker yang paling tidak salah satu dari ketiga sistem pencegahan :

Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBT)

Tanki khusus air balas yang sama sekali terpisah dari tanki muatan minyak maupun tanki bahan bakar minyak. Sistem pipa juga harus terpisah, pipa air balas tidak boleh melewati tanki muatan minyak.

Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks (CBT)

Tanki bekas muatan dibersihkan untuk diisi dengan air balas. Air balas dari tanki tersebut, bila dibuang ke laut tidak akan tampak bekas minyak di atas permukaan air dan apabila dibuang melalui alat pengontrol minyak (Oil Dischane Monitoring), minyak dalam air tidak boleh lebih dari 13 ppm.

Crude Oil Washing (COW)

Muatan minyak mentah (Crude Oil) yang disirkulasikan kembali sebagai media pencuci tanki yang sedang dibongkar muatnnya untuk mengurangi endapan minyak tersisa dalam tanki. 1. 2. Pembatasan Pembuangan Minyak

MARPOL 73/78 juga masih melanjutkan ketentuan hasil Konvensi 1954 mengenai Oil Pollution 1954 dengan memperluas pengertian minyak dalam semua bentuk termasuk minyak mentah, minyak hasil olahan, sludge atau campuran minyak dengan kotorn lain dan fuel oil, tetapi tidak termasuk produk petrokimia (Annex II)

Ketentuan Annex I Reg.9. “Control Discharge of Oil” menyebutkan bahwa pembuangan minyak atau campuran minyak hanya
dibolehkan apabila

    
1.

Tidak di dalam “Special Area” seperti Laut Mediteranean, Laut Baltic, Laut Hitam, Laut Merah dan daerah Teluk. Lokasi pembuangan lebih dari 50 mil laut dari daratan Pembuangan Dilakukan Waktu Kapal sedang berlayar Tidak membuang minyak lebih dari 30 liter /natical mile Tidak membuang minyak lebih besar dari 1 : 30.000 dari jumlah muatan. 3. Monitoring dan Kontrol Pembuangan Minyak

Kapal tanker dengan ukuran 150 gross ton atau lebih harus dilengkapi dengan “slop tank” dan kapal tanker ukuran 70.000 tons dead weight (DWT) atau lebih paling kurang dilengkapi “slop tank” tempat menampung campuran dan sisa -sisa minyak di atas kapal.

Untuk mengontrol buangan sisa minyak ke laut maka kapal harus dilengkapi dengan alat kontrol “Oil Dischange Monitoring and

Control System” yang disetujui oleh pemerintah, berdasarkan petunjuk yang ditetapkan oleh IMO. Sistem tersebut dilengkapi dengan
alat untuk mencatat berapa banyak minyak yang ikut terbuang ke laut. Catatan data tersebut harus disertai dengan tanggal dan waktu pencatatan. Monitor pembuangan minyak harus dengan otomatis menghentikan aliran buangan ke laut apabila jumlah minyak yang ikut terbuang sudah melebihi amabang batas sesuai peraturan Reg. 9 (1a) “Control of Discharge of Oil”. 1. 4. Pengumpulan sisa-sisa minyak

Reg. 17 mengenai “Tanks for Oil Residues (Sludge)” ditetapkan bahwa untuk kapal ukuran 400 gross ton atau lebih harus dilengk api dengan tanki penampungan dimana ukurannya disesuaikan dengan tipe mesin yang digunakan dan jarak pelayaran yang ditempuh kapal untuk menampung sisa minyak yang tidak boleh dibuang ke laut seperti hasil pemurnian bunker, minyak pelumas dan bocoran minyak dimakar mesin.

Tanki-tanki penampungan dimaksud disediakan di tempat-tempat seperti :

   
1.

Pelebuhan dan terminal dimana minyak mentah dimuat. Semua pelabuhan dan terminal dimana minyak selain minyak mentah dimuat lebih dari 100 ton per hari. Semua daerah pelabuhan yang memiliki fasilitas galangan kapal dan pembersih tanki. Semua pelabuhan yang bertugas menerima dan memproses sisa minyak dari kapal. b. Peraturan untuk menanggulangi pencemaran oleh minyak

Sesuai Reg. 26 “Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan” untuk menang gulangi pencemaran yng mungkin terjadi maka tanker ukuran 150 gross ton atau lebih dan kapal selain tanker 400 grt atau lebih, harus membuat rencana darurat pananggulangan pencemaran di atas kapal. 1. c. Peraturan pelaksanan dan ketentuan pencegahan dan penanggulangan pencemaran oleh minyak.

Pencegahan dan penaggulangan pencemaran yang datangnya dari kapal tanker, perlu dikontrol melalui pemeriksaan dokumen sebagai bukti bahwa pihak perusahaan pelayaran dan kapal sudah melaksanakannya dengan semestinya.

Salam

Saya sebagai sesama pelaut mengucapkan selamat atas dibuatnya Blog ini, dan turut bangga karena jarang ada pelaut yang menyempatkan diri untuk menulis. ada sedikit koreksi yang ingin saya sampaikan terhadap tulisan tentang MARPOL 73/78 diatas 1. MARPOL 73/78 edisi terbaru adalah Consolidated Edition 2006. 2. MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI telah diberlakukan (entry into force) semenjak 19 May 2005. 3. Categorization untuk bahan cair beracun (noxious liquid substances) bukan lagi dengan istilah A, B, C, D akan tetapi dengan istilah X, Y, Z, dan OS (other substances). 4. Penerapan Regulation 12 A tentang oil fuel tank protection untuk kapal dengan kapasitas tangki bahan bahan bakar 600 M3 dan lebih, yang di delivery pada atau setelah 1 Agustus 2010. 5. Untuk ratifikasi MARPOL 73/78 Annex III, IV, V dan VI saat ini sedang in progress dan semoga cepat disahkan. dan selanjutnya sedang di persiapkan juga untuk ratifikasi bunker convention, anti fouling, dan ballast water mangement. semoga tambahan info dari saya bermanfaat, dan jika ada yang kurang/tidak sesuai mohon koreksi karena semata-mata keterbatasan pengetahuan saya… untuk pelaut-pelaut yang lain, selamat bekerja dan JAYALAH PELAUT INDONESIA

Environmental impact of shipping
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Ship pollution)

A cargo ship discharging ballast water into the sea.

The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions and oil pollution. Carbon dioxide emissions from shipping is estimated to be 4 to 5 percent of the global total, and estimated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to rise by as much as 72 percent by 2020 if no action is taken.[1]

The First Intersessional Meeting of the IMO Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Emissions [2] from Ships took place in Oslo, Norway on 23–27 June 2008. It was tasked with developing the technical basis for the reduction mechanisms that may form part of a future IMO regime to control greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and a draft of the actual reduction mechanisms themselves, for further consideration by IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC).[3]

Ballast water[edit]
Main article: Ballast water discharge and the environment Ballast water discharges by ships can have a negative impact on the marine environment. Cruise ships, large tankers, and bulk cargo carriers use a huge amount of ballast water, which is often taken on in the coastal waters in one region after ships discharge wastewater or unload cargo, and discharged at the next port of call, wherever more cargo is loaded. Ballast water discharge typically contains a variety of biological materials, including plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria. These materials often include non-native, nuisance, invasive, exotic species that can cause extensive ecological and economic damage to aquatic ecosystems.

Sound pollution[edit]
Noise pollution caused by shipping and other human enterprises has increased in recent history.[4] The noise produced by ships can travel long distances, and marine species who may rely on sound for their orientation, communication, and feeding, can be harmed by this sound pollution[5][6] The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species has identified ocean noise as a potential threat to marine life.[7]

Ship impacts[edit]
Marine mammals, such a whales and manatees, risk being struck by ships, causing injury and death. For example, if a ship is traveling at a speed of only 15 knots, there is a 79 percent chance of a collision being lethal to a whale.[8] One notable example of the impact of ship collisions is the endangered North Atlantic right whale, of which 400 or less remain. The greatest danger to the North Atlantic right whale is injury sustained from ship strikes.[8] Between 1970 and 1999, 35.5 percent of recorded deaths were attributed to collisions.[9] During 1999 to 2003, incidents of mortality and serious injury attributed to ship strikes averaged one per year. In 2004 to 2006, that number increased to 2.6.[10] Deaths from collisions has become an extinction threat.[11]

Exhaust emissions[edit]
Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution, with 18 to 30 percent of all nitrogen oxide and 9 percent of sulphur oxide pollution.[12] [13] "By 2010, up to 40 percent of air pollution over land could come from ships."[14] Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. When inhaled the sulfur is known to cause respiratoryproblems and even increase the risk of a heart attack.[14] According to Irene Blooming, a spokeswoman for the European environmental coalition Seas at Risk, the fuel used in oil tankers and container ships is high in sulfur and cheaper to buy compared to the fuel used for domestic land use. "A ship lets out around 50 times more sulfur than a lorry per metric tonne of cargo carried."[14] Cities in the U.S. like Long Beach, Los Angeles, Houston, Galveston, and Pittsburgh see some of the heaviest shipping traffic in the nation and have left local officials desperately trying to clean up the air.[15] Increasing trade between the U.S. and China is helping to increase the number of vessels navigating the Pacific and exacerbating many of the environmental problems. To maintain the level of growth China is experiencing, large amounts of grain are being shipped to China by the boat load. The number of voyages are expected to continue increasing.[16] 3.5 to 4 percent of all climate change emissions are caused by shipping.[13] Air pollution from cruise ships is generated by diesel engines that burn high sulfur content fuel oil, also known as bunker oil, producing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate, in addition to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust has been classified by EPA as a likely human carcinogen. EPA recognizes that these emissions from marine diesel engines contribute to ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment (i.e., failure to meet air quality standards), as well as adverse health effects associated with ambient concentrations of particulate matter and visibility, haze, acid deposition, and eutrophication and nitrification of water.[17] EPA estimates that large marine diesel engines accounted for about 1.6 percent of mobile source nitrogen oxide emissions and 2.8 percent of mobile source particulate emissions in the United States in 2000. Contributions of marine diesel engines can be higher on a port-specific basis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2006, almost all of the petroleumbased diesel fuel available in Europe and North America is of a ULSD type. As one way to reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from shipping, vetting agency RightShip has developed an online “GHG Emissions Rating” as a systematic way for the industry to compare a ship’s CO2 emissions to peer vessels of a similar size and type. Using higher rated ships can deliver significantly lower CO2 emissions across the voyage length.

Cruise ship haze over Juneau, Alaska

One source of environmental pressures on maritime vessels recently has come from states and localities, as they assess the contribution of commercial marine vessels to regional air quality problems when ships are docked in port. [18] For instance, large marine diesel engines are believed to contribute 7 percent of mobile source nitrogen oxide emissions in Baton Rouge/New Orleans. Ships can also have a significant impact in areas without large commercial ports: they contribute about 37 percent of total area nitrogen oxide emissions in the Santa Barbara area, and that percentage is expected to increase to 61 percent by 2015.[17] Again, there is little cruiseindustry specific data on this issue. They comprise only a small fraction of the world shipping fleet, but cruise ship emissions may exert significant impacts on a local scale in specific coastal areas that are visited repeatedly. Shipboard incinerators also burn large volumes of garbage, plastics, and other waste, producing ash that must be disposed of. Incinerators may release toxic emissions as well. In 2005 MARPOL Annex VI came into force to combat this problem. As such cruise ships now employ cctv monitoring on the smoke stacks as well as recorded measuring via opacity meter with some also using clean burning gas turbines for electrical loads and propulsion in sensitive areas.

Oil spills[edit]
Most commonly associated with ship pollution are oil spills. While less frequent than the pollution that occurs from daily operations, oil spills have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil, are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.[19] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles. One of the more widely known spills was the Exxon Valdez incident in Alaska. The ship ran aground and dumped a massive amount of oil into the ocean in March 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers over 400,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed.[19]

International regulation[edit]
Some of the major international efforts in the form of treaties are the Marine Pollution Treaty, Honolulu, which deals with regulating marine pollution from ships, and the UN Convention on Law of the Sea, which deals with marine species and pollution.[20] While plenty of local and international regulations have been introduced throughout maritime history, much of the current regulations are considered inadequate. “In general, the treaties tend to emphasize the technical features of safety and pollution control measures witho ut going to the root causes of sub-standard shipping, the absence of incentives for compliance and the lack of enforceability of measures.”[21] Cruise ships, for example, are exempt from regulation under the US discharge permit system (NPDES, under the Clean Water Act) that requires compliance with technology-based standards.[19] In the Caribbean, many ports lack proper waste disposal facilities, and many ships dump their waste at sea.[22]

Sewage[edit]

Carcass of a whale on a shore in Iceland.

The cruise line industry dumps 255,000 US gallons (970 m3) of greywater and 30,000 US gallons (110 m3) of black water into the sea every day. Blackwater is sewage, wastewater from toilets and medical facilities, which can contain harmful bacteria, pathogens, viruses, intestinal parasites, and harmful nutrients. Discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage can cause bacterial and viral contamination of fisheries and shellfish beds, producing risks to public health. Nutrients in sewage, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, promote excessive algal blooms, which consumes oxygen in the water and can lead to fish kills and destruction of other aquatic life. A large cruise ship (3,000 passengers and crew) generates an estimated 55,000 to 110,000 liters per day of blackwater waste.[23] Due to the environmental impact of shipping, and sewage in particular marpol annex IV was brought into force September 2003 strictly limiting untreated waste discharge. Modern cruise ships are most commonly installed with a membrane bioreactor type treatment plant for all blackwater and greywater, such as Zenon or Rochem which produce near drinkable quality effluent to be re-used in the machinery spaces as technical water.

Cleaning[edit]
Greywater is wastewater from the sinks, showers, galleys, laundry, and cleaning activities aboard a ship. It can contain a variety of pollutant substances, including fecal coliforms, detergents, oiland grease, metals, organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, nutrients, food waste, medical and dental waste. Sampling done by the EPA and the state of Alaska found that untreated greywater from cruise ships can contain pollutants at variable strengths and that it can contain levels of fecal coliform bacteria several times greater than is typically found in untreated domestic wastewater.[24] Greywater has potential to cause adverse environmental effects because of concentrations of nutrients and other oxygen-demanding materials, in particular. Greywater is typically the largest source of liquid waste generated by cruise ships (90 to 95 percent of the total). Estimates of greywater range from 110 to 320 liters per day per person, or 330,000 to 960,000 liters per day for a 3,000-person cruise ship.[25]

Solid waste[edit]
Solid waste generated on a ship includes glass, paper, cardboard, aluminium and steel cans, and plastics. It can be either nonhazardous or hazardous in nature. Solid waste that enters the ocean may become marine debris, and can then pose a threat to marine organisms, humans, coastal communities, and industries that utilize marine waters. Cruise ships typically manage solid waste by a combination of source reduction, waste minimisation, and recycling. However, as much as 75 percent of solid waste is incinerated on board, and the ash typically is discharged at sea, although some is landed ashore for disposal or recycling. Marine mammals, fish, sea turtles, and birds can be injured or killed from entanglement with plastics and other solid waste that may be released or disposed off of cruise ships. On average, each cruise ship passenger generates at least two pounds of non-hazardous solid waste per day.[26] With large cruise ships carrying several thousand passengers, the amount of waste generated in a day can be massive. For a large cruise ship, about 8 tons of solid waste are generated during a one-week cruise.[27] It has been estimated that 24 percent of the solid waste generated by vessels worldwide (by weight) comes from cruise ships.[28] Most cruise ship garbage is treated on board (incinerated, pulped, or ground up) for discharge overboard. When garbage must be off-loaded (for example, because glass and aluminium cannot be incinerated), cruise ships can put a strain on port reception facilities, which are rarely adequate to the task of serving a large passenger vessel.[29]

Bilge water[edit]
On a ship, oil often leaks from engine and machinery spaces or from engine maintenance activities and mixes with water in the bilge, the lowest part of the hull of the ship. Oil, gasoline, and by-products from the biological breakdown of petroleum products can harm fish and wildlife and pose threats to human health if ingested. Oil in even minute concentrations can kill fish or have varioussublethal chronic effects. Bilge water also may contain solid wastes and pollutants containing high amounts of oxygen-demanding material, oil and other chemicals. A typical large cruise ship will generate an average of 8 metric tons of oily bilge water for each 24 hours of operation.[30] To maintain ship stability and eliminate potentially hazardous conditions from oil vapors in these areas, the bilge spaces need to be flushed and periodically pumped dry. However, before a bilge can be cleared out and the water discharged, the oil that has been accumulated needs to be extracted from the bilge water, after which the extracted oil can be reused, incinerated, and/or offloaded in port. If a separator, which is normally used to extract the oil, is faulty or is deliberately bypassed, untreated oily bilge water could be discharged directly into the ocean, where it can damage marine life. A number of cruise lines have been charged with environmental violations related to this issue in recent years.[31][32]

Waste Incinerators - Use on Board Ships
written by: Raunekk • edited by: Lamar Stonecypher • updated: 2/11/2012
Pollution at sea is a matter of grave concern which has compelled concerned authorities to make legislation stricter by banning disposal at sea at many sensitive areas. Accumulating waste till the time ship reaches the next port can be dangerous and unhygienic. So where to put all the ship's waste?

How to handle waste?
Due to Marpol annexures getting stricter day by day, ordeal related to disposing of the ship's waste at sea is at an all time high. So what can be done about this waste? Accumulating it till the next port of call is the only option but what if the voyages are long? Also collecting the waste for a longer time is unhygienic and it also generates an unbearable stench. If it's chemicals or oily toxic substances then it is better to dispose it as soon as possible as it might emit poisonous gases or foul odour. We had already discussed how bilge water is handled but these wastes cannot be pumped overboard. Incinerators are used for this purpose. Incinerators burn the food, sewage and oil waste at high temperatures, reducing the waste to disposable ash. These wastes are present in almost every type of ship and in this article we will see how the incinerator works and what is it importance.

Construction
Incinerator is in the shape of a vertical cylindrical chamber with an inverted funnel shaped chimney at the the top. The cylindrical chamber consists of a burning chamber just as in case of oil fired burners, which are lined with refractorymaterials at the inside. An oil fired burner is provided to initiate the ignition process. It is extremely important that the temperature inside the cylinder is controlled and for this reason thermostats are used. To provide an uninterrupted flow of air for the combustion, forced draft fans are provided. The air supplied is directed upwards in swirls with the help of strategically designed ports.

Waste incinerator plants
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A rotating shaft with blades is attached at the center, which helps for a faster combustion process and also prevents incomplete combustion. The ash and the residue thus generated due to the combustion is forced at the periphery by this rotating shaft. The ash is pushed into an ash hopper and it gets collected there. A door is provided to dump the waste inside the incinerator. This door pneumatically operated and when opened shuts down the fan and the burner automatically. Not all the ash gets collected in the ash hopper. Some of the ash due to the forced air goes up to the chimney with the smoke. To remove this ash from the smoke a char eliminator is used. A char eliminator is similar to a filter paper. A sight glass is provided at the side of the incinerator to keep a watch at the burning process. All the processes are controlled with the help of a control panel that is fitted on or near the incinerator.

Working and disposing
Solid waste is put inside the incinerator through the waste door, in properly arranged stacks so that the chances of incomplete combustion are minimized. The oily sludge or waste oil is not directly put into the combustion chamber neither it is put through the waste door. A separate tank is made which has its outlet into the combustion chamber. The oily sludge is first heated up to a temperature which can facilitate the difficult process of burning oily waste. Once optimum temperature is reached, the oil is passed into the combustion chamber. The burner then burns the mixture at a thermostatically controlled temperature so as to induce a complete combustion. The force draught fan provides continuous supply of air and the rotating shaft creates the required swirling of air. The ash that is created is collected in the ash slide. This ash can be disposed to the sea or stored to dispose it at the next port.

In many ships these incinerators are not used properly and it should be made a practise so that all staff right from thejunior engineer, deck cadet to the chief engineer and master are aware of its use. This would go a long way in improving the quality of sea water as well as reduce stress on their minds in that they are doing everything as per themaritime law.

Reference
Introduction to marine engineering by D A Taylor (1996) Image Credits Incinerator Picture Incinerator Sketch: D A taylor, Introduction to marine engineering 2nd Edition

Cara Kerja Incinerator (Limbah Minyak)
Menurut Lampiran V MARPOL 1973/78 konvensi IMO, pedoman mengenai penyimpanan limbah bahan dan pembuangan limbah di laut harus diikuti dengan ketat. Pembakaran berbagai bahan seperti sampah dapur, sisa makanan, limbah akomodasi, linen, papan kartu, lumpur minyak dari minyak pelumas, minyak bakar, lambung kapal dan alat pembersih, dan sludge limbah, incenerator merupakan salah satu cara yang paling efektif penjualan dan kapasitas penyimpanan tabungan dari tank dan containments limbah penyimpanan pada kapal. Selain itu, residu kiri dari insinerasi dapat dengan mudah dibuang karena terutama terdiri dari abu. Konstruksi dan Cara Kerja Gambar di bawah ini menunjukkan diagram dari insinerator tipe siklon vertikal dengan perangkat lengan berputar untuk memperbaiki sistem pembakaran dan menghapus abu dan kayu bakar bukan dari permukaan.

Suatu burner lumpur ditempatkan dalam insinerator untuk membakar dan membuang kotoran, lumpur dan minyak limbah. Sebuah burner minyak tambahan juga dipasang untuk menyalakan menolak. Otomatis kontrol disediakan untuk sistem yang aman penyala ketika menolak mulai menyala tanpa memerlukan penyala tersebut. Pembakaran udara diberikan dengan bantuan fan forced draft. Sebuah pintu memuat, pneumatis yang dioperasikan, ini disediakan untuk memuat yang menolak. Sebuah pengunci juga dilengkapi dengan burner dan kipas forced draft, yang perjalanan ketika pintu beban dalam kondisi terbuka sebagai bagian dari keselamatan.

Setelah selesainya proses insinerasi, insinerator yang memungkinkan untuk mendinginkan serta residu seperti abu dan bukan bahan yang mudah menyala dikeluarkan dengan menarik pintu slide kadar abu. Gesekan yang memutar arm dari residu padat keseluruhan di dalam kotak abu yang bisa dengan mudah di dibuang. Selama insinerasi sangat penting untuk mengendalikan suhu gas buang, dimana tidak harus sangat tinggi atau terlalu rendah. Suhu yang tinggi dapat menyebabkan logam mencair dan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada mesin, sedangkan suhu terlalu rendah tidak akan dapat membakar residu dan mensterilkan dan menghilangkan bau dari residu. Temperatur kontrol ini dapat dicapai dengan memasukkan udara dingin-diencerkan dalam aliran gas buang pada titik yang dekat dengan debit insinerator.

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Shipboard incineration – Regulation 16

The requirements of the regulation also divide into two sections. Regulations 16.1 – 16.4 cover onboard incineration in general and hence is potentially applicable to all ships whereas regulations 16.6 – 16.9 are specific only to incinerators installed on ships constructed on or after 1 January 2000 or to units installed on existing ships on or after that date.

Regulation 16.1 requires that incineration is only undertaken in equipment designed for that purpose while regulation 16.2 prohibits the incineration of certain listed materials and therefore can be seen as complimentary to the Annex V requirements in respect of the processing of ship generated garbage. The disposal of polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) by incineration is restricted to units which are type approved to either MEPC.76(40) or MEPC.59(33), regulation 16.3. Regulation 16.4 recognizes that, while incineration of ship generated sewage sludge and sludge oil could alternatively be undertaken in main or auxiliary power plant or boilers, it is not to be undertaken within ports, harbours or estuaries.

Regulation 16.6 generally requires that incinerators installed on ships constructed on or after 1 January 2000 or units which are installed on existing ships on or after that date are to Type Approved in accordance with resolution MEPC.76(40) – as modified by resolution MEPC.93(45) – Standard specification for shipboard incinerators. For these incinerators operating manuals are to be maintained onboard, regulation 16.7, and training as to their correct operation is to be given, regulation 16.8. Regulation 16.9 requires that operation is such that the stated temperatures are achieved in order to ensure complete incineration.

Pollution Prevention

In 1973, IMO adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, now known universally as MARPOL, which has been amended by the Protocols of 1978 and 1997 and kept updated with relevant amendments. The MARPOL Convention addresses pollution from ships by oil; by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk; harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form; sewage, garbage; and the prevention of air pollution from ships. MARPOL has greatly contributed to a significant decrease in pollution from international shipping and applies to 99% of the world’s merchant tonnage. Other treaties address anti-fouling systems used on ships, the transfer of alien species by ships’ ballast water and the environmentally sound recycling of ships. Reductions of pollution generated by ships have been achieved by addressing technical, operational and human element issues and are all the more noteworthy when compared with the significant growth in the world’s shipping industry – both in the size of the world fleet and the distances that it travels. IMO is continuously pursuing a pro-active approach to enhance implementation and enforcement, both by flag and port States, including a pro-active action plan to ensure that shore-based reception facilities for ship generated waste keep up with international regulatory requirements.

MARPOL Annex I – Prevention of Pollution by Oil

Oil tankers transport some 2,400 million tonnes of crude oil and oil products around the world by sea. Most of the time, oil is transported quietly and safely. Measures introduced by IMO have helped ensure that the majority of oil tankers are safely built and operated and are constructed to reduce the amount of oil spilled in the event of an accident. Operational pollution, such as from

routine tank cleaning operations, has also been cut. The most important regulations for preventing pollution by oil from ships are contained in Annex I of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL), The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 also includes special requirements for tankers.

Carriage of chemicals by ship

Regulations governing the carriage of chemicals by ship are contained in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78). The regulations cover chemicals carried in bulk, on chemical tankers, and chemicals carried in packaged form. Regulations covering chemicals carried in bulk MARPOL Annex II Transport of vegetable oils Chemicals carried in packaged form Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances Preparedness and response - dealing with pollution incidents involving chemicals

Chemicals carried in bulk
Carriage of chemicals in bulk is covered by regulations in SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods and MARPOL Annex II - Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk. Both Conventions require chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code), which gives international standards for the safe transport by sea in bulk of liquid dangerous chemicals, by prescribing the design and construction standards of ships involved in such transport and the equipment they should carry so as to minimize the risks to the ship, its crew and to the environment, having regard to the nature of the products carried. The basic philosophy is one of ship types related to the hazards of the products covered by the Codes. Each of the products may have one or more hazard properties which include flammability, toxicity, corrosivity and reactivity. The IBC Code lists chemicals and their hazards and gives both the ship type required to carry that product as well as the environmental hazard rating. Chemical tankers constructed before 1 July 1986 should comply with the requirements of the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) – the predecessor of the IBC Code.

MARPOL Annex II
The Annex II Regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk define a four-category categorization system for noxious and liquid substances. The categories are:

Category X: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a major hazard to either marine resources or human health and, therefore, justify the prohibition of the discharge into the marine environment;

Category Y: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a hazard to either marine resources or human health or cause harm to amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea and therefore justify a limitation on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment;

Category Z: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a minor hazard to either marine resources or human health and therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment; and

Other Substances: substances which have been evaluated and found to fall outside Category X, Y or Z because they are considered to present no harm to marine resources, human health, amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea when discharged into the sea from tank cleaning of deballasting operations. The discharge of bilge or ballast water or other residues or mixtures containing these substances are not subject to any requirements of MARPOL Annex II.

The annex also includes a number of other requirements reflecting modern stripping techniques, which specify discharge levels of products which have been incorporated into Annex II. For ships constructed on or after 1 January 2007 the maximum permitted residue in the tank and its associated piping left after discharge is set at a maximum of 75 litres for products in categories X, Y and Z (compared with previous limits which set a maximum of 100 or 300 litres, depending on the product category). The marine pollution hazards of thousands of chemicals have been evaluated by the Evaluation of Hazardous Substances Working Group, giving a resultant GESAMP Hazard Profile which indexes the substance according to its bio-accumulation; bio-degradation; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; long-term health effects; and effects on marine wildlife and on benthic habitats. As a result of the hazard evaluation process and the categorization system, vegetable oils which were previously categorized as being unrestricted are now required to be carried in chemical tankers. The Annex includes, under regulation 4 Exemptions, provision for an Administration to exempt ships certified to carry individually identified vegetable oils, subject to certain provisions relating to the location of the cargo tanks carrying the identified vegetable oil.

Transport of vegetable oils
An MEPC resolution on Guidelines for the transport of vegetable oils in deep tanks or in independent tanks specially designed for the carriage of such vegetable oils on board dry cargo ships was adopted in October 2004. It allows general dry cargo ships that are currently certified to carry vegetable oil in bulk to continue to carry these vegetable oils on specific trades. The guidelines took effect on 1 January 2007.

Consequential amendments to the IBC Code
Consequential amendments to the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code) have been adopted, reflecting the changes to MARPOL Annex II. The amendments incorporate revisions to the categorization of certain products relating to their properties as potential marine pollutants as well as revisions to ship type and carriage requirements following their evaluation by the Evaluation of Hazardous Substances Working Group. Ships constructed after 1986 carrying substances identified in chapter 17 of the IBC Code must follow the requirements for design, construction, equipment and operation of ships contained in the Code.

Chemicals carried in packaged form
Chemicals which are carried in packaged form or in solid form or in bulk are regulated by Part A of SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods which includes provisions for the classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding, documentation and stowage of dangerous goods. Contracting Governments are required to issue instructions at the national level and the Chapter refers to International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, developed by IMO, which is constantly updated to accommodate new dangerous goods and to supplement or revise existing provisions. The IMDG Code was developed as a uniform international code for the transport of dangerous goods by sea covering such matters as packing, container traffic and stowage, with particular reference to the segregation of incompatible substances. The IMDG Code includes products considered to be marine pollutants. IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee decided in principle, at its 73rd session in Nov-Dec 2000, to make some parts of the IMDG Code mandatory. MARPOL Annex III includes regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form and includes general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, labelling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations, exceptions and notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances. For the purpose of Annex III, “harmful substances” are those identified as “marine pollutants” in the IMDG Code.

International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) by Sea 1996
The Convention, when it enters into force, will make it possible for compensation to be paid out in compensation to

victims of accidents involving HNS, such as chemicals. HNS are defined by reference to lists of substances included in various IMO Conventions and Codes. These include oils; other liquid substances defined as noxious or dangerous; liquefied gases; liquid substances with a flashpoint not exceeding 60°C; dangerous, hazardous and harmful materials and substances carried in packaged form; and solid bulk materials defined as possessing chemical hazards. The Convention also covers residues left by the previous carriage of HNS, other than those carried in packaged form. The Convention defines damage as including loss of life or personal injury; loss of or damage to property outside the ship; loss or damage by contamination of the environment; the costs of preventative measures and further loss or damage caused by them. The Convention introduces strict liability for the shipowner and a system of compulsory insurance and insurance certificates.

Preparedness and response - dealing with pollution incidents involving chemicals
The 2000 Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (HNS Protocol) is based on the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC), which was adopted in November 1990 and is designed to help Governments combat major oil pollution incidents. The Convention and Protocol are designed to facilitate international co-operation and mutual assistance in preparing for and responding to a major oil pollution incident and to encourage States to develop and maintain an adequate capability to deal with pollution emergencies.

Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships

Regulations for the Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships are contained in Annex V of MARPOL.

Overview of Annex V
Garbage from ships can be just as deadly to marine life as oil or chemicals. The greatest danger comes from plastic, which can float for years. Fish and marine mammals can in some cases mistake plastics for food and they can also become trapped in plastic ropes, nets, bags and other items - even such innocuous items as the plastic rings used to hold cans of beer and drinks together. It is clear that a good deal of the garbage washed up on beaches comes from people on shore - holiday-makers who leave their rubbish on the beach, fishermen who simply throw unwanted refuse over the side - or from towns and

cities that dump rubbish into rivers or the sea. But in some areas most of the rubbish found comes from passing ships which find it convenient to throw rubbish overboard rather than dispose of it in ports. For a long while, many people believed that the oceans could absorb anything that was thrown into them, but this attitude has changed along with greater awareness of the environment. Many items can be degraded by the seas but this process can take months or years, as the following table shows: Time taken for objects to dissolve at sea Paper bus ticket Cotton cloth Rope Woollen cloth Painted wood Tin can Aluminium can Plastic bottle Source: Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association (HELMEPA) The MARPOL Convention sought to eliminate and reduce the amount of garbage being dumped into the sea from ships. Under Annex V of the Convention, garbage includes all kinds of food, domestic and operational waste, excluding fresh fish, generated during the normal operation of the vessel and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically. Annex V totally prohibits of the disposal of plastics anywhere into the sea, and severely restricts discharges of other garbage from ships into coastal waters and "Special Areas". The Annex also obliges Governments to ensure the provision of reception facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of garbage. The special areas established under Annex V are: 2-4 weeks 1-5 months 3-14 months 1 year 13 years 100 years 200-500 years 450 years

       

the Mediterranean Sea the Baltic Sea Area the Black Sea area the Red Sea Area the Gulfs area the North Sea the Wider Caribbean Region and Antarctic Area

These are areas which have particular problems because of heavy maritime traffic or low water exchange caused by the land-locked nature of the sea concerned. Although the Annex was optional, the Annex did receive sufficient number of ratifications to enter into force on 31 December 1988. Provisions to extend port State control to cover operational requirements as regards prevention of marine pollution were adopted as a new regulation 8 to the Annex in 1994 (entering into force on 3 March 1996). Like similar amendments adopted to the other MARPOL Annexes, the regulation makes it clear that port State control officers can inspect a foreign-flagged vessel "where there are clear grounds for believing that the master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to the prevention of pollution by garbage". Implementation, and enforcement, was also the focus of a further new regulation 9, adopted in 1995, which requires all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more, and every fixed or floating platform engaged in exploration and exploitation of the seabed to provide a Garbage Record Book and to record all disposal and incineration operations. The date, time, position of ship, description of the garbage and the estimated amount incinerated or discharged must be logged and signed. The Garbage Record Book must be kept for a period of two years after the date of the last entry. This regulation does not in itself impose stricter requirements - but it makes it easier to check that the regulations on garbage are being adhered to as it means ship personnel must keep track of the garbage and what happens to it. It may also prove an advantage to a ship when local officials are checking the origin of dumped garbage - if ship personnel can adequately account for all their garbage, they are unlikely to be wrongly penalised for dumping garbage when they have not done so. All ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more will have to carry a Garbage Management Plan, to include written procedures for collecting , storing, processing and disposing of garbage, including the use of equipment on board. The Garbage Management Plan should designate the person responsible for carrying out the plan and should be in the working language of the crew. MEPC/Circ.317 gives Guidelines for the development of garbage management plans and an Appendix to Annex V of MARPOL gives a standard form for a Garbage Record Book. Regulation 9 came into force for new ships from 1 July 1997 and from 1 July 1998 all applicable ships built before 1 July 1997 also had to comply: all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more, and every fixed or floating platform engaged in exploration and exploitation of the seabed. The regulation also requires every ship of 12 metres or more in length to display placards notifying passengers and crew of the disposal requirements of the regulation; the placards should be in the official language of the ship's flag State and also in English or French for ships travelling to other States' ports or offshore terminals. Despite the entry into force of Annex V in 1988, even recent surveys carried out in the United States each year have produced up to 10 tons of garbage per mile of coastline, a record that can probably be matched in many other parts of the world. Plastic forms the biggest single item found. Persuading people not to use the oceans as a rubbish tip is a matter of education - the old idea that the sea can cope with anything still prevails to some extent but it also involves much more vigorous enforcement of regulations

such as Annex V.

Shipboard incinerators
The Marine Environment Protection Committee 40th Session on 25 September 1997 adopted a Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators (seeresolution MEPC.76(40)). The specification covers the design, manufacture, performance, operation and testing of incinerators designed to incinerate garbage and other shipboard waste.

Cargo hold washing water

MEPC 59, having considered the problems associated with the disposal of cargo hold washing water from bulk carriers in accordance with the current requirements of MARPOL Annex V, and recognizing that the problem is addressed in the review of MARPOL Annex V (see below), agreed to issueMEPC.1/Circ.675/Rev.1, addressing this matter in the
interim period up to the entry into force of the amendments to Annex V.

Review of Annex V
The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at its 55th session in October 2006 established an intersessional correspondence group to develop the framework, method of work and timetable for a comprehensive review of MARPOL Annex V Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships and the associated Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V. The review took into account resolution 60/30 of the UN General Assembly, which had invited IMO to review MARPOL Annex V, in consultation with relevant organizations and bodies, and to assess its effectiveness in addressing sea-based sources of marine debris. The Correspondence Group for the Review of MARPOL Annex V completed its work and reported in the autumn of 2010 to the sixty-first session of MEPC who considered and approved the amendments. MEPC at its sixty-second session in July 2011 adopted the amendments to Annex V by resolution MEPC.201(62), which entered into force on 1 January 2013. The revised Annex V prohibits the discharge of all garbage into the sea, except as provided otherwise. An overview of the revised MARPOL Annex V discharge provisions can be accessed here. MEPC 61, having noted the need for amendments to associated guidelines, also established the intersessional Correspondence Group on Reviewing the Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V and the Guidelines for the Development of Garbage Management Plans. The correspondence group finalized its work at MEPC 63 and the Committee adopted the two guidelines by resolution MEPC.219(63) and resolution MEPC.220(63).

Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships

Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage are contained in Annex IV of MARPOL.

Sewage – the problem

The discharge of raw sewage into the sea can create a health hazard. Sewage can also lead to oxygen depletion and can be an obvious visual pollution in coastal areas - a major problem for countries with tourist industries. The main sources of human-produced sewage are land-based - such as municipal sewers or treatment plants. However, the discharge of sewage into the sea from ships also contributes to marine pollution.

Annex IV of MARPOL
Annex IV contains a set of regulations regarding the discharge of sewage into the sea from ships, including regulations regarding the ships' equipment and systems for the control of sewage discharge, the provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of sewage, and requirements for survey and certification. It also includes a model International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate to be issued by national shipping administrations to ships under their jurisdiction. It is generally considered that on the high seas, the oceans are capable of assimilating and dealing with raw sewage through natural bacterial action. Therefore, the regulations in Annex IV of MARPOL prohibit the discharge of sewage into the sea within a specified distance of the nearest land, unless they have in operation an approved sewage treatment plant. Governments are required to ensure the provision of adequate reception facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of sewage. The Annex entered into force on 27 September 2003. A revised Annex IV was adopted on 1 April 2004 and entered into force on 1 August 2005. The revised Annex applies to new ships engaged in international voyages of 400 gross tonnage and above or which are certified to carry more than 15 persons. Existing ships are required to comply with the provisions of the revised Annex IV five years after the date of entry into force of Annex IV, namely since 27 September 2008. The Annex requires ships to be equipped with either an approved sewage treatment plant or an approved sewage comminuting and disinfecting system or a sewage holding tank. The discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or when the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land. Sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected has to be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. The MEPC also adopted a standard for the maximum rate of discharge of untreated sewage from holding tanks when at a distance equal or greater than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land (see resolution MEPC.157(55)). In July 2011, the Marine Environment Protection Committee, at its sixty-second session, adopted the most recent amendments to MARPOL Annex IV by resolution MEPC.200(62) which will enter into force on 1 January 2013. The amendment introduces the Baltic Sea as a special area under Annex IV and adds new discharge requirements for passenger ships while in a special area. The discharge of sewage from passenger ships within a special area will generally be prohibited under the new regulations, except when the ship has in operation a sewage treatment plant which shall be of a type approved by the national Administration (see section below).

Revised sewage standards
MEPC at its sixty-first session in autumn 2010 recognized that the Revised Guidelines on Implementation of Effluent Standards and Performance Tests for Sewage Treatment Plants (see resolution MEPC.159(55)), which were adopted in October 2006 and which apply to sewage treatment plants installed onboard on or after 1 January 2010, would need updating in view of the new Annex IV requirements mentioned above. Accordingly, MEPC 61 instructed the Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment to carry out this work. The Sub-Committee, at its fifty-fifth session in March 2011, agreed to establish a Correspondence Group on the Revision of resolution MEPC.159(55), who made good progress in developing the revised guidelines. At its fifty-sixth session in February 2012 the Sub-Committee agreed, in principle, to a draft MEPC resolution on Guidelines on Implementation of Effluent Standards and Performance Tests for Sewage Treatment Plants, which was prepared by a working group established at that

session. However, no consensus was found regarding the total nitrogen and phosphorous removal standards for passenger ships intending to discharge sewage effluent in special areas. The Sub-Committee will therefore submit the draft MEPC resolution to the sixty-forth session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee in October 2012, who will be invited to decide on the nitrogen and phosphorous removal standard and adopt the guidelines accordingly.

Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Air Pollution
In 1997 a new annex was added to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (Annex VI) seek to minimize airborne emissions from ships (SOx, NOx, ODS, VOC) and their contribution to local and global air pollution and environmental problems. Annex VI entered into force on 19 May 2005 and a revised Annex VI with significant tighten emissions limits was adopted in October 2008 which entered into force on 1 July 2010.

GHG Emissions

In 2007 international shipping was estimated to have contributed about 2.7% to the global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). IMO has adopted mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures which will significantly reduce the amount of CO2 emissions from international shipping. The growth of world trade in the future represents a challenge to meeting a target for emissions required to achieve stabilisation in global temperatures and so IMO continues to work on the development of market-based measures as a complimentary means of achieving the required target for emissions.

Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

The "Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972" (the "London Convention") was one of the first global conventions to protect the marine environment from human activities and has been in force since 1975. Its objective is to promote the effective control of all sources of marine pollution and to take all practicable steps to prevent pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes. Currently, 86 States are Parties to this Convention.

In 1996, the "London Protocol" was adopted to modernize the Convention and, eventually, replace it. The London Protocol entered into force in March 2006 and currently has 38 Parties. Under the Protocol all dumping is prohibited, but Parties may issue permits to allow the dumping of the following specified materials, subject to certain conditions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

dredged material; sewage sludge; fish wastes; vessels and platforms; inert, inorganic geological material (e.g., mining wastes);

6. 7. 8.

organic material of natural origin; bulky items primarily comprising iron, steel and concrete; and carbon dioxide streams from carbon dioxide capture processes for sequestration (CCS).

Reception facilities

IMO has recognized that provision of reception facilities is crucial for effective MARPOL implementation, and the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) has strongly encouraged Member States, particularly those Parties to the MARPOL Convention as port States, to fulfil their treaty obligations on providing adequate reception facilities.

At its 54th session in March 2006, the MEPC emphasized the importance of adequate reception facilities in the chain of implementation of the MARPOL Convention, and stated that the policy of "zero tolerance of illegal discharges from ships" could only be effectively enforced when there were adequate reception facilities in ports. Therefore the Committee urged all Parties to the MARPOL Convention, particularly port States, to fulfil their treaty obligations to provide reception facilities for wastes generated during the normal operation of ships. The Committee also agreed to develop a port reception facility database (PRFD) as a module of the IMO Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS).

At its 56th session in July 2007, the MEPC approved a Revised consolidated format for reporting alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities (seeMEPC.1/Circ.469/Rev.1).

Action Plan to tackle the inadequacy of port reception facilities

The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at its 55th session in October 2006 approved an Action Plan to tackle the alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities - seen as a major hurdle to overcome in order to achieve full compliance with MARPOL. The Plan was developed by the Sub-Committee on Flag

State Implementation (FSI) in order to contribute to the effective implementation of the MARPOL Convention and to promote quality and environmental consciousness among administrations and shipping. The Plan contained work items aimed at improving the provision and use of adequate port reception facilities, including work items relating to reporting requirements; provision of information on port reception facilities; identification of any technical problems encountered during the transfer of waste between ship and shore and the standardization of garbage segregation requirements and containment identification; review of the type and amount of wastes generated on board and the type and capacity of port reception facilities; revision of the IMO Comprehensive Manual on Port Reception Facilities; and development of a Guide to Good Practice on Port Reception Facilities. With regard to regional arrangements, the Committee agreed to recognize them as a means of providing reception facilities in light of the MARPOL requirements. However, the Committee will have to consider adopting relevant amendments to the Annexes of MARPOL. Work on the Action Plan was completed by FSI in 2010. As part of the work on the Action Plan a standard Advance Notification Form was developed to enhance the smooth implementation and uniform application of this requirement, thus minimizing the risk of a ship incurring delay. Also, a standard Waste Delivery Notification form was developed to provide uniformity of records throughout the world. For the Standard Format for the Advance Notification Form see MEPC.1/Circ.644 and for the Standard Format for the Waste Delivery Receipt see MEPC.1/Circ.645. Also, under its work on the Action Plan, FSI developed the Guide of Good Practice on Port Reception Facilities which provides guidance and easy reference to good practices related to the use and provision of port reception facilities as well as a list of applicable regulations and guidelines (seeMEPC.1/Circ.671).

Special Areas under MARPOL

In Annex I Prevention of pollution by oil, Annex II Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances, Annex IV Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships and Annex V Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships, MARPOL defines certain sea areas as "special areas" in which, for technical reasons relating to their oceanographical and ecological condition and to their sea traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution is required. Under the Convention, these special areas are provided with a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea. Annex VI Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships establishes certain sulphur oxide (SOx) Emission Control Areas with more stringent controls on sulphur emissions. Special areas under MARPOL are as follows:

# Status of multilateral conventions and instruments in respect of which the International Maritime Organization or its SecretaryGeneral perform depositary or other functions as at 31 December 2002. * The Special Area requirements for these areas have not yet taken effect because of lack of notifications from MARPOL Parties whose coastlines border the relevant special areas on the existence of adequate reception facilities (regulations 38.6 of MARPOL Annex I and 5(4) of MARPOL Annex V). ** The new special area requirements, which will enter into force on 1 January 2013, will only take effect upon receipt of sufficient notifications on the existence of adequate reception facilities from Parties to MARPOL Annex IV whose coastlines

border the relevant special area (regulation 13.2 of the revised MARPOL Annex IV, which was adopted by resolution MEPC.200(62) and which will enter into force on 1 January 2013).

Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas

A Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) is an area that needs special protection through action by IMO because of its significance for recognized ecological or socioeconomic or scientific reasons and which may be vulnerable to damage by international maritime activities. The criteria for the identification of particularly sensitive sea areas and the criteria for the designation of special areas are not mutually exclusive. In many cases a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area may be identified within a Special Area and vice versa.

Particularly sensitive sea areas
Guidelines on designating a "particularly sensitive sea area" (PSSA) are contained in resolution A.982(24) Revised guidelines for the identification and designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) . These guidelines include criteria to allow areas to be designated a PSSA if they fulfil a number of criteria, including: ecological criteria, such as unique or rare ecosystem, diversity of the ecosystem or vulnerability to degradation by natural events or human activities; social, cultural and economic criteria, such as significance of the area for recreation or tourism; and scientific and educational criteria, such as biological research or historical value. The provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) are also relevant. When an area is approved as a particularly sensitive sea area, specific measures can be used to control the maritime activities in that area, such as routeing measures, strict application of MARPOL discharge and equipment requirements for ships, such as oil tankers; and installation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS).

List of adopted PSSAs
The following PSSAS have been designated: The Great Barrier Reef, Australia (designated a PSSA in 1990) The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago in Cuba (1997) Malpelo Island, Colombia (2002) The sea around the Florida Keys, United States (2002) The Wadden Sea, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands (2002) Paracas National Reserve, Peru (2003) Western European Waters (2004)

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Extension of the existing Great Barrier Reef PSSA to include the Torres Strait (proposed by Australia and Papua New Guinea) (2005)

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Canary Islands, Spain (2005) The Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador (2005) The Baltic Sea area, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Sweden (2005) The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, United States (2007) The Strait of Bonifacio, France and Italy (2011) The Saba Bank, in the North-eastern Caribbean area of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2012)

Explore each PSSA at www.pssa.imo.org.

A.982(24) Revised guidelines for the identification and designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs)
The IMO Assembly in November-December 2005 at its 24th session adopted revised Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) (resolution A.982(24)). A PSSA is an area that needs special protection through action by IMO because of its significance for recognized ecological, socio-economic, or scientific attributes where such attributes may be vulnerable to damage by international shipping activities. An application for PSSA designation should contain a proposal for an associated protective measure or measures aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the threat or identified vulnerability. Associated protective measures for PSSAs are limited to actions that are to be, or have been, approved and adopted by IMO, for example, a routeing system such as an area to be avoided. The guidelines provide advice to IMO Member Governments in the formulation and submission of applications for the designation of PSSAs to ensure that in the process, all interests - those of the coastal State, flag State, and the environmental and shipping communities - are thoroughly considered on the basis of relevant scientific, technical, economic, and environmental information regarding the area at risk of damage from international shipping activities. The guidelines update resolution A.927(22) Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas under MARPOL 73/78 and Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas.

Ships routeing measures to protect PSSAs
A PSSA can be protected by ships routing measures – such as an area to be avoided: an area within defined limits in which either navigation is particularly hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid casualties and which should be avoided by all ships, or by certain classes of ships. The IMO Publication Ships' Routeing includes General provisions on ships' routeing, first adopted by IMO in 1973, and subsequently amended over the years, which are aimed at standardizing the design, development, charted presentation and use of routeing measures adopted by IMO

Pollution Preparedness and Response

Good prevention initiatives can go a long way to reducing the risk of pollution from ships. However, in spite of best efforts, spills will inevitably occur. When this happens, it is necessary to ensure that effective preparedness measures are in place that will ensure a timely and coordinated response to limit the adverse consequences of pollution incidents involving oil and hazardous and noxious substances (HNS). The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation 1990 (OPRC 90) is the international instrument that provides a framework designed to facilitate international co-operation and mutual assistance in preparing for and responding to major oil pollution incidents and requires States to plan and prepare by developing national systems for pollution response in their respective countries, and by maintaining adequate capacity and resources to address oil pollution emergencies. The Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol) extends this regulatory framework to address pollution incidents involving hazardous and noxious substances, i.e. chemicals. States which are party to the OPRC Convention and OPRC-HNS Protocol are required to establish a national system for responding to oil and HNS pollution incidents, including a designated national authority, a national operational contact point and a national contingency plan. This needs to be backstopped by a minimum level of response equipment, communications plans, regular training and exercises. In addition to the requirement for implementing national response systems, the two instruments also promote cooperation amongst Parties through the establishment of bilateral and multilateral agreements to augment national-level response capacity, when needed. Most importantly, OPRC 90 and OPRC-HNS Protocol 2000 provide the mechanism for Parties to request assistance from any other state Party, when faced with a major pollution incident. There are a number of key benefits for those States acceding to the instruments, notably:  Access to an international platform for co-operation and mutual assistance in

preparing for, and responding to, major HNS pollution incidents and a mechanism for establishing co-operative arrangements with other States Parties.  A means for urgently accessing relevant technical assistance and response resources in the event of an HNS incident.  A framework for the development of national and regional capacity to prepare for, and respond to, HNS incidents.  Participation in a network for the exchange of new research and development information, best practices and practical experiences in HNS response. Access to training and support for developing the essential preparedness and response structures and legislation, at national and regional levels, through IMO's Integrated Technical Co-operation Programme.

Responding to marine pollution incidents

Responding to marine pollution incidents is a highly technical business, requiring specialized knowledge and expertise, as well as dedicated equipment and tools that are fit for purpose. The OPRC 1990 and OPRC-HNS Protocol 2000 collectively set out the international legal framework and requirements for oil and HNS pollution preparedness and response, but more practical technical guidance is needed for those tasked with building robust national response systems for pollution response. Taking into account these requirements and recognizing that there are varying levels of knowledge and capacity that exists amongst state parties to the Convention and Protocol, IMO has developed a wide array of tools and practical guidance to assist countries in developing response capacity.

This guidance is developed through the Organization’s OPRC-HNS Technical Group, a subsidiary body of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee, one of IMO’s main technical bodies. This Group brings together marine pollution response experts from Member States and Observing Organizations worldwide to share experiences, lessons learned and identify best practices and new technologies and advancements in preparing for and responding to oil and HNS incidents at sea.

Over the past ten years, this Group has developed an array of resources to assist countries in all facets of pollution preparedness and response. This has included the development of model training courses, manuals and guidance documents, IMO circulars and other relevant resources and materials.

These resources are also routinely used in the implementation of activities delivered through the Organization’s Integrated Technical Cooperation Programme. States may also request assistance from IMO, through the ITCP, to build pollution response capacity and in implementing the provisions of the OPRC 90 and OPRC-HNS Protocol.

In addition, other relevant tools and references and best practices developed by governments, industry, and recognized institutions from around the world have been compiled to further assist countries in developing response capacity and implementing the provisions of the OPRC Convention and OPRC-HNS Protocol. This inventory is periodically reviewed and updated, to ensure the most current available information pollution preparedness and response topics and issues.

The compiled resources have been organized as follows:

PPR Information Resources
An inventory of information resources on the various aspects of oil and chemical pollution preparedness and response issues.

Oil Spill Organizations and Resource Providers
Information on oil spill response organizations, governmental agencies, scientific organizations and equipment providers with knowledge and expertise on oil pollution preparedness and response issues.

HNS Centres of Expertise
Organizations and/or centres dealing with preparedness and response issues related to HNS.

Liability and Compensation for Oil and HNS Pollution Incidents

Over the years, the IMO has put in place a comprehensive set of regulations covering liability and compensation for damage caused by oil transported by ship, through which the shipping industry (in conjunction with oil importers) provides automatic cover of up to US$1 billion for any single incident, regardless of fault. This tiered system of compensation includes the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) and the

International Oil Pollution Compensation (IOPC) Funds, including the 2003 Supplementary Fund, which collectively provide more coverage than ever before to those affected by oil spills.

The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage entered into force in November 2007, extending the liability and compensation regimes to damage caused by spills of oil when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers. The International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, 1996, once in force, will serve to complete this framework by establishing a regime to cover spills involving hazardous and noxious substances. A Protocol aimed addressing the issues that were widely viewed as barriers to ratification of Convention was adopted in April 2010, with the hope that this would accelerate the entry into force of the Convention, providing the much-needed compensation scheme for spills involving HNS

IMO R&D Forums

Article 8 of the OPRC Convention calls on governments and IMO to play an active role in the promotion of Research and Development (R&D) relating to the enhancement of state-of-the-art of pollution preparedness and response through the exchange of information.

In this connection, IMO periodically organizes IMO R&D Forums on relevant and topical technical and scientific issues in order to enhance knowledge and promote best practices in pollution preparedness and response.

To date, there have been four IMO R&D Forums organized:

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The first and second International R&D Forums on oil spill response issues were held in McLean, Virginia (USA, 1992) and London (United Kingdom, 1995). The third R&D Forum on High Density Oil Spill Response was held in Brest (France, 2002). The fourth R&D Forum on Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) in the Marine Environment was organized in conjunction with Interspill 2009, held in Marseille (France, 2009).

Pollution Incidents

Did you know that, in the past 10 years, the number of major oil spills from ships has been more than halved, while the total quantity of trade transported by sea has almost doubled?

However, in spite of best efforts, some spills continue to occur. When this happens, it is necessary to ensure that effective and co-ordinated response mechanisms are in place and an adequate liability and compensation regime is available to recompense those affected.

IMO’s International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990 (OPRC 1990) provides the framework for facilitating international co-operation and mutual assistance in preparing for and responding to major oil pollution incidents. OPRC 1990 recognizes that successful preparedness and response relies on good co-operation between government and industry. There are numerous examples of how this co-operation has served to strengthen the collective capacity for oil spill response around the world.

Some seventeen years on, with 90 contracting parties representing over 65% of the world’s tonnage, OPRC 1990 is widely considered to be a great success. Under the provisions of the HNS Protocol, which entered into force in June 2007, this regulatory framework has been extended to cover releases of hazardous and noxious substances.

IMO OPRC Model Courses

The OPRC 1990 Convention obliges governments to establish a programme of exercises for oil pollution response organizations and training of relevant personnel. It also calls on IMO to develop a comprehensive training programme in cooperation with interested governments and industry.

The IMO has developed a range of training courses to address all aspects of oil spill planning, response and management. These are known as the OPRC Model Courses. These courses have been designed and developed by an international group of experts from governments and industry. They are available in CD format and include instructor’s manuals, participant’s manuals and training aids, in the form of presentations and additional guidance and tools.

The IMO courses on oil pollution preparedness and response have been developed for three levels of competency:

  

Operational staff (Level 1); Supervisors and on-scene commanders (Level 2); and Senior management personnel (Level 3).

Purchase
The OPRC Model Training Courses are offered for purchase through IMO Publishing.

Accreditation
It is important to note that while the courses are made available for purchase, the International Maritime Organization does not endorse or accredit training institutions for the delivery of the OPRC Model Courses.

Use of the IMO logo
The Organization also prohibits the use its logo, unless permission has been expressly granted in writing, based on an official request. This rule extends to the use of the IMO logo on promotional materials, web sites, and business cards that may be used by training organizations to promote the delivery of the OPRC Model Courses or imply endorsement by the IMO for this purpose. The criteria for granting use of the IMO logo are limited and permission would not be granted for its use in this context.

Ballast Water Management

Since the introduction of steel hulled vessels around 120 years ago, water has been used as ballast to stabilize vessels at sea. Ballast water is pumped-in to maintain safe operating conditions throughout a voyage. This practice reduces stress on the hull, provides transverse stability, improves propulsion and manoeuvrability, and compensates for weight lost due to fuel and water consumption. While ballast water is essential for safe and efficient modern shipping operations, it may pose serious ecological, economic and health problems due to the multitude of marine species carried in ships’ ballast water. These include bacteria, microbes, small invertebrates, eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. The transferred species may survive to establish a reproductive population in the host environment, becoming invasive, out-competing native species and multiplying into pest proportions. Scientists first recognized the signs of an alien species introduction after a mass occurrence of the Asian phytoplankton algae Odontella (Biddulphia sinensis) in the North Sea in 1903. But it was not until the 1970s that the scientific community began reviewing the problem in detail. In the late 1980s, Canada and Australia were among countries experiencing particular problems with invasive species, and they brought their concerns to the attention of IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC). The problem of invasive species in ships’ ballast water is largely due to the expanded trade and traffic volume over the last few decades and since the volumes of seaborne trade continue to increase the problem may not yet have reached its peak. The effects in many areas of the world have been devastating. Quantitative data show the rate of bio-invasions is continuing to increase at an alarming rate and new areas are being invaded all the time. The spread of invasive species is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the ecological and the economic well being of the planet. These species are causing enormous damage to biodiversity and the valuable natural riches of the earth upon which we depend. Direct and indirect health effects are becoming increasingly serious and the damage to environment is often irreversible. For some examples of aquatic bio-invasions causing major impact please click here. It should be noted, however, that there are hundreds of other serious invasions which have been or are in the process of being recorded around the world.

Global response
Preventing the transfer of invasive species and coordinating a timely and effective response to invasions will require cooperation and collaboration among governments, economic sectors, non-governmental organizations and international treaty organizations and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides the global framework by requiring States to work together “to prevent, reduce and control human caused pollution of the marine environment, including the intentional or accidental introduction of harmful or alien species to a particular part of the marine environment.”

IMO has been at the front of the international effort by taking the lead in addressing the transfer of aquatic invasive species (AIS) through shipping. In 1991 the MEPC adopted Guidelines for preventing the introduction of unwanted organisms and pathogens from ships' ballast water and sediment discharges (MEPC resolution 50(31)); while the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, recognized the issue as a major international concern. In November 1993, the IMO Assembly adopted resolution A.774(18) based on the 1991 Guidelines requesting the MEPC and the MSC to keep the Guidelines under review with a view to developing internationally applicable, legally-binding provisions. While continuing its work towards the development of an international treaty, the Organization adopted, in November 1997, resolution A.868(20) - Guidelines for the control and management of ships' ballast water to minimize the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens inviting its Member States to use these new guidelines when addressing the issue of IAS. After more than 14 years of complex negotiations between IMO Member States, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted by consensus at a Diplomatic Conference held at IMO Headquarters in London on 13 February 2004. In his opening addressto the Conference the Secretary-General of IMO stated that the new Convention will represent a significant step towards protecting the marine environment for this and future generations. “Our duty to our children and their children cannot be over-stated. I am sure we would all wish them to inherit a world with clean, productive, safe and secure seas – and the outcome of this Conference, by staving of an increasingly serious threat, will be essential to ensuring this is so”. The Convention will require all ships to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan. All ships will have to carry a Ballast Water Record Book and will be required to carry out ballast water management procedures to a given standard. Parties to the Convention are given the option to take additional measures which are subject to criteria set out in the Convention and to IMO guidelines. Several articles and regulations of the BWM Convention refer to guidelines to be developed by the Organization and Conference resolution 1 invites IMO to develop these guidelines as a matter of urgency and adopt them as soon as practicable and, in any case, before the entry into force of the Convention, with a view to facilitate global and uniform implementation of the instrument. The MEPC, at its fifty-first session in April 2004, approved a programme for the development of guidelines and procedures for uniform implementation of the BWM Convention, listed in Conference resolution 1 including additional guidance required but not listed in the resolution. The programme was further expanded at the fifty-third session of the MEPC in July 2005 to develop and adopt 14 sets of Guidelines, the last one being adopted by resolution MEPC.173(58) in October 2008. The Guidelines and other relevant guidance documents can be found here.

Approval of ballast water management systems
During the Convention development process, considerable efforts were made to formulate appropriate standards for

ballast water management. They are the ballast water exchange standard and the ballast water performance standard. Ships performing ballast water exchange shall do so with an efficiency of 95 per cent volumetric exchange of ballast water and ships using a ballast water management system (BWMS) shall meet a performance standard based on agreed numbers of organisms per unit of volume. Regulation D-3 of the BWM Convention requires that ballast water management systems used to comply with the Convention must be approved by the Administration taking into account the Guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8). Regulation D-3 also requires that ballast water management systems which make use of Active Substances to comply with the Convention shall be approved by IMO in accordance with the 'Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances (G9)'. Procedure (G9) consists of a two-tier process – Basic and Final Approval - to ensure that the ballast water management system does not pose unreasonable risk to the environment, human health, property or resources. A technical group of experts has been established under the auspices of GESAMP to review the proposals submitted for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances. The GESAMP Ballast Water Working Group (GESAMP-BWWG) reports to the Organization on whether such a proposal presents unreasonable risks in accordance with the criteria specified in the Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances. For more detailed information regarding the ballast water treatment technologies please click here.

Periodic reviews
The Convention requires a review to be undertaken no later than three years before the first effective date for compliance with the performance standard set out in regulation D-2 in order to determine whether appropriate technologies are available to achieve the standard. The first review was conducted at MEPC 53 and the Ballast Water Review Group, established in accordance with the provisions of regulation D-5.2, concluded that the variety of systems being tested on board have the potential to meet the criteria of safety, environmental acceptability and practicability and that, it is reasonable to expect ballast water management technologies and type-approved systems will be available by October 2008. The second review was conducted at MEPC 55 when the Committee noted that type approved ballast water management systems would probably be available for installation prior to the first application date of the BWM Convention. However, the Committee remained concerned regarding the capability of all ships subject to regulation B-3.3 of the Convention to meet the D-2 standard in 2009 due to procedural and logistical problems. Following an initiative of the Secretary-General of IMO to address this concern, the Assembly, at its 25th session, adopted resolution A.1005(25) on the Application of the International Convention for the Control and Management of

Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004. The Assembly resolution calls on States, which have not yet done so, to ratify, accept, approve or accede to the Convention as soon as possible. In the meantime, the resolution recommends that ships built in 2009 to which regulation B-3.3 applies, should not be required to comply with regulation D-2 until their second annual survey, but no later than 31 December 2011. The Assembly resolution instructs MEPC to keep this provision under review, in particular, to review, not later than at its fifty-eighth session, the issue of a ship subject to regulation B-3.3 constructed in 2010 and the immediate availability of type-approved technology for such a ship to meet the D-2 standard. For the text of the resolution A.1005(25) please click here. In the subsequent reviews MEPC 58 confirmed that ballast water treatment technologies were currently available and more technologies would be available in the near future and MEPC 59 concluded that there were sufficient typeapproved ballast water treatment technologies available for ships, subject to regulation B-3.3, constructed in 2010 and agreed that no changes to Assembly resolution A.1005(25) were needed.

BWM Convention status
The Convention will enter into force 12 months after ratification by 30 States, representing 35 per cent of world merchant shipping tonnage.For

the current ratification status

please click here Status of Conventions.

The adoption of the last set of Guidelines for the uniform implementation of the BWM Convention and the approval and certification of modern ballast water treatment technologies have removed the last barriers to the ratification of instrument and significant number of countries have indicated their intention to accede to this Convention in the near future. The Convention will enter into force 12 months after ratification by 30 States, representing 35 per cent of world merchant shipping tonnage.For the current ratification status please click here Status of Conventions. The adoption of the last set of Guidelines for the uniform implementation of the BWM Convention and the approval and certification of modern ballast water treatment technologies have removed the last barriers to the ratification of instrument and significant number of countries have indicated their intention to accede to this Convention in the near future.

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