What is meant from AS 26 • 1. 2. 3. The statement gives Guidance on Recognition criterion Measurement norms Disclosure norms

in relation with the accounting of intangible assets

• Identifiable non monetary asset

• Without physical substance
• Held for use in (a) production or supply of goods or services , (b) renting or © for administrative purposes • An asset is a resource controlled by an enterprise and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow.

Hardware forming integral part of Intangible asset ! • H Ltd purchased the distribution rights of a motion picture for Rs 50 crores that includes the cost of 2600 prints of CDs, 5000 prints of DVDs and a master copy of the film to enable creating further copies of prints for a period of 6 years. How would the hardware cost be accounted here ? • Here the intangible asset is contained on the hardware and therefore it is not separable. At the same time the comparative cost element of the hardware is not significant .Therefore the whole amount becomes intangible asset.

ERP system falls in second category. . Therefore it is an intangible asset. The contract further included a tripartite arrangement with Oracle and IBM where in an Oracle based ERP system would be installed and IBM would facilitate the installation.Intangible or fixed ? • X ltd purchased 100 computers from IBM and granted a turnkey contract of installing them in a networked set up .. • Here the contract has two broad elements software and support systems that form an integral part of the hardware and those not forming its integral part. satellite connectivity etc. However those falling as an integral part of the hardware is part of fixed assets. The contract also included the cost of licensed operating systems . anti virus systems .

sold or exchanged. . a legal right to use makes it identifiable . • Even if not separable . that means the asset is capable of being rented. So identity is easily established. independent of other assets .Is Identifiable asset means separable asset ? • Not necessarily . • If separable.

economic benefits can assumed to be accruing to the asset holder. in the absence of a legal right .Auditor’s view lack of control over asset as a reason to derecognize the asset . is a threat to “control over the asset” • Therefore it is a matter of subjective judgment . Comment • Legal enforceability of a right is not a necessary condition for control if an enterprise is able to control the future economic benefits in some other way. • P ltd has been using a brand name “turmericano” for its ayurvedic product which they transferred to another company for a consideration . The application for registration of brand name is not approved by the authorities. • Yet.Intangible assets without absolute legal right. • As long as there is no restriction to use the brand name and there is market for product. The buyer company continues to treat it as an intangible asset . misuse of the brand name by others .

. Hence subject to compliance of other conditions. with the help of which it anticipates 2% reduction in its operating cost. capitalization is possible. Comment • It is not necessary that future economic benefit has to accrue through income generation alone.in the definition of an asset • X ltd has created an innovative effluent management system . Company intends to capitalize the cost of internally developed technology. Auditors are of the view that this is not a case where future economic benefits from revenue is possible and hence definition of “asset” is complied with . It could be from cost saving too.“Future economic benefits”.

trade marks Computer software expenses Start up expenses Training expenses Expenditure on advertising Expenditure on relocating or re-organising • The first four only are intangible assets. for brands and trademarks . only acquisition cost if any is allowed for capitalization. 7. 6. brands. List of intangible assets of a company include the following . 8. 3. Even amongst them. 2. Intellectual property rights.Do we find difficulty in identifying intangible assets ? • 1. 4. . 5. designs. processes Cost of Rights under licensing agreements. Comment Cost of technical know-how.

attributable to the asset will flow to the entity and That the cost of asset can be measured reliably 1.When is an expenditure recognized as intangible asset • When an enterprise is able to demonstrate that the item meets the Definition of intangible asset and When it is probable that future economic benefits . 2. . 3.

pointing out that the ongoing market situation suggests unlikely economic benefits from the product in near future.Issue of correct assessment of future economic benefits • A software company has developed a dedicated software for the US financial sector . Comment • AS 26 requires the entity to assess the probability of future economic benefits using reasonable and supportable assumptions that represent best estimate of the economic conditions. that will exist over the useful life of the asset. the cost of which has been capitalized. a subjective matter . Auditors have challenged the rationale behind capitalization . • In view of the market condition auditors have a case .

.Can fair value be the initial intangible asset value • AS 26 requires initial measurement at cost • In case of an acquired intangible asset. there could be variations where cost must be the basis. fair value and cost may not be different • In self generated assets .

Company capitalized the whole of the cost including taxes and chose to credit the tax advantage as income.Cost of intangible asset • Cost of an intangible asset included certain taxes which is allowed to be offset against tax payables. Comment • Cost for the purpose of measurement of intangible asset does not include taxes that are refundable. The accounting therefore is incorrect .

00 crores. • In the case of amalgamation in the nature of purchase . even if it was not reflected in vendors books . unless there is an active market for the intangible asset .00 crores as goodwill value was only Rs 25.Considering this the brand value can not be accounted for.00 crores. P Ltd recognized the asset and created capital reserve of Rs 75. intangible assets of vendor company can be brought to purchaser’s book.Intangible assets in case of amalgamation • V ltd amalgamated with P Ltd and while accounting for the assets taken over identified brand value with a fair value at Rs 100 crores which was not in the books of V Ltd. more than Rs 25.However such accounting shall not create or increase any capital reserve. . Comment.

assets and liabilities of transferor company gets shifted to transferee at carrying value and therefore assets not in the books of transferor gets no chance to get reflected in the books of transferee. Y Ltd decided to Account for the same by reducing goodwill account for equivalent amount. • As per A S 14. in the case of amalgamation in the nature of merger. • However scheme of approval by court can perhaps alter this situation . Comment. but had not been reflected in the financial statements of S Ltd.Intangible assets in case of merger • S ltd got merged in to Y Ltd and while accounting for the assets and liabilities acquired. Y Ltd identified patent rights in the name of S ltd . that had a fair value of 10 crores.

actual cost or a nominal amount . Unless the future economic benefit attributable to this asset is likely to flow to H LTD . • However in the given case the license is only for exploration. • Cost incurred towards acquisition of an intangible asset or in case it is granted by government as a free license. Should this be recognized as an intangible asset. as may be appropriate. has to be recognized towards intangible asset. Suppose there would have been no fees charged what would have been the difference.00 lakh was charged .Government grants leading to intangible assets • Government has granted exploration licenses to H ltd for which a nominal licensee fee of Rs 10. it can not recognize it as an intangible asset .

customer list or similar items as intangible asset . brands mastheads. Expenses if any on them has to be charged to revenue .Comment. publishing titles.Internally generated assets • X wants to recognize its internally generated goodwill and brand value as intangible assets . • AS 26 does not permit capitalization of internally generated goodwill .

.Norms on recognition of R&D Expenses • Expenses incurred in research phase is not an intangible asset and to be charged off to revenue immediately • Expenses incurred in the development phase is recognized as intangible asset. subject to its probability to contribute to future economic benefits.

00 lakhs • Rs 50. It incurred Rs. 22. .Differentiation of R& D expenses • X ltd has been developing a new production process and on 31-10-2006.00 lakhs impairment loss to be debited and asset to be reduced.00 lakhs is development expenses –intangible asset • Rs 2. it has been able to demonstrate that it is likely to enjoy future economic benefits from the research. 50 lakhs on this account till 3110-06 and Rs24 lakhs afterwards up to 31-03-07.As on 31-3-07 it estimates the recoverable amount of know how embodied in the process at Rs.00 lakhs is research expense to be charged to P/L • Rs 24.

Comment • Language of the policy has failed to appreciate the spirit and tenets laid down in AS 26 . which is against AS 26 . Capital expenditure incurred on research and development is capitalised as fixed assets and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company. Similarly there is no differentiation of fixed assets and intangible assets.as the crux is what constitutes revenue or capital. • In addition research and development expenses are considered alike.Accounting policy of a listed company on R&D expenses • Revenue expenditure on research and development is expensed as incurred.

However it has not been able to distinguish the research phase with development phase and showed the whole expenses under R&D Expenses. .R&D Expenses not distinguished • A Ltd incurred Rs 20 L for developing a new product . Wants to show appropriate amount under Intangible assets towards “products rights” • In the absence of proper distinction the whole expense will be research expense to be charged to P/L.

.Asset not operational • A Company after installing a sophisticated software has not been able to make use of its benefits because of the untrained staff and lack of support from software provider (due to contractual disputes). The company has recognised the software expenses as intangible assets. Appropriate impairment provisions may be made and in future such impairment losses can be reversed if the asset becomes useful. Comments • Recognition of an intangible asset depends on the future economic benefits available to the company. Auditor has cited reservation in view of the lack of usefulness of the asset .

Internally generated Brand value • A company has earmarked 30% of its advertisement and sales promotion expenses towards brand value. Auditors objected to the act. Comment • Internally generated brands. every year. . Charge them to revenue.Auditor is right. customer lists and similar items can not be recognized as intangible assets . Publishing titles.

. Therefore AS 2 and AS 9 are applicable here. How would the cost of purchase of Brand endorsement rights be accounted or amortized in compliance of AS 26 ? • AS 26 has no application here as the Brand endorsement right as an asset is A’s inventory.Dealer of Intangible assets • A is in the business of buying and selling Brand endorsement rights and has in his control different kinds of brand rights at any point of time .

• Control over the resources is not with the company as employees can leave the company . . and are not eligible to be reckoned as intangible assets . out of which 50 % or more are employees served less than one year.an Intangible asset • A BPO company spends Rs 30000. Comment. amortized over 4 years.They are required to be charged off expenses in the year of incurrence as per paragraph 55-56 of AS 26. The company faces 40 % attrition on an average. So Training costs are not expected to give future economic benefits to the company with certainty .Training costs.00 per employee as induction training cost and recognizes it as an intangible asset.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. The management estimates the useful lives for the various intangible assets as follows: • Customer contracts 2 to 5 yrs • Technical know-how 10 yrs • Non-compete fees 1. commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use.Comment about this accounting policy Intangible assets and amortisation • Intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition..5 to 10 yrs • Patents. Aspects such as what constitutes an intangible asset for the company and how is it recognized if self generated etc. trademarks and designs(including marketing know-how) 3 to 10 yrs • Comment – The policy is largely alright. not covered in the policy .

Components of costs in an intangible asset • 1. Expenses identified by a Co in its intangible assets under “Product development” includes the following Expenses on materials and services used in creating the product line Salaries. 5. • . 3. amortization of license fees and patent cost used for development Depreciation attributable to the set up and Interest attributable to the investment Comment about the correctness The company was right in choosing all those expenses attributed to the product development. 2. wages and other establishment costs of the set up Legal charges. provided they were incurred in development phase. 4. fees .

The company is hopeful of getting brand owners approval sooner or later and hence desirous of keeping the asset value in balance sheet.Asset or expense ?. Comment. . • In the given case although the absolute ownership is not with the company for brand use they have done all right steps to enjoy the usefulness of the asset for economic benefit in future and therefore subject to impairment losses the asset can remain in the books. • A company on amalgamating with another one acquired a brand use license originally belonging to an overseas company and which required their approval for use by any transferee company.

• As per paragraph 58 of AS 26 such reversal are not possible. • However according to A S 5 prior period items can be reported suitably in the subsequent reporting period. Comment. Company reversed the expenses and capitalized the expenses.Past expenses • During the quarter ended 30th sep 2007.00 crores towards R&D expenses as expenses although it was realized that it belonged to a new product line ready for commercial launch soon and was to be treated as intangible asset. . X Ltd recognized Rs 2.

capitalization is allowed . Comment • General principle is that the subsequent expenses are not to be capitalized. When additional expenses have enhanced the future economic benefits and such cost is reliably measured.Subsequent expenses on intangible asset • A software was bought in 2007 and was capitalized. the cost of which is proposed to be added to the intangible asset’s value. In 2008 certain in-house modifications were made to the software through a special project. • There are exceptions.

.No where specifically .AS 30 • Incidental costs for arranging borrowings – AS 30 • Share issue expenses .INTANGIBLE ASSETS NOT COVERED BY AS 26 • Expenditure on exploration.AS not yet introduced • Accounting for discount/premium on securities. mining etc..Guidance note in force • Contracts between insurers and policy holders.

This amendment to AS 26 is consequential to introduction of AS 30 and hence effective from 1-4-2011 . capitalization is to be done at cash price only . Auditors are of the view that the cost of capitalization shall exclude the interest element involved in the consideration.Payment for intangible asset deferred • Brand use license for a product was bought. Comment • In case of deferred payments. for which payment is to be settled in 5 years.

Amortization • Depreciation. if any. be allocated on systematic basis over the best estimated useful life • There is rebuttable presumption that the useful life period does not exceed 10 years. • There must be cogent evidences to establish the useful life beyond 10 years .

If there are empirical evidences to the claim of the company from past. with a renewed launch of the movie in the market . Otherwise straight line method may be used.Comments • The method of amortisation shall reflect the pattern in which economic benefits are accrued to the company . . the method can be accepted.Method of Amortisation • A company decides to amortize the cost of its licensee rights for movie distribution as 8:1:1:5:1:1:2 over 7 year period with the reasoning that it expects to reap good revenues after every two year break.

Economic life Vs Legal life • A patent right was acquired for 15 year period. Company wants to amortize it over 20 years. Here virtual certainty is not established and hence amortize over 15 years . • Only if the contract is virtually certain to be renewed by virtue of renewal clause. a longer than legal period as useful life period is permitted ( para 69) . • 10 year period of useful life stipulated in AS 26 is rebutted by evidences in the form of legal agreement which provides the useful life as 15 years. The patent is renewable for another 5 years subject to revised terms to be agreed up on at the time of such renewal.

Residual value Unless • there is an active market for the asset ( from where residual value can be determined )which would exist at the end of the useful life or • There is a commitment by a third party to buy the asset at the end of useful life The residual value is zero .

Review of amortization period • Review the amortization period and amortization method every year and • For significant differences if any. appropriate changes may be made subject to A S 5 .

for the purpose of increasing values • Impairment principles are applicable .Can an intangible asset be revalued • No .

in case there are indications of impairment. once in a year and impairment losses if any be recognised.Should the intangible asset be tested for impairment 1. Yes . • • . Even if there are no indications of impairment In the case of intangible asset that is not yet available for use and That is amortized for longer than 10 years Recoverable amount has to be ascertained in line of A S 28 . AS 28 applies to intangible assets where. 2. test of impairment has to be done .

• Gains or losses be charged to revenue . .Retirement and disposals • Derecognize intangible assets when no longer in use or disposed off.

Sample accounting policy Intellectual Property rights • Costs relating to intellectual property rights which are acquired are capitalised and amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives or ten years whichever is lower. incurred for development of products are expensed as incurred. and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Development costs carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project. Research and Development Costs • Research and development costs. except for development costs which relate to the design and testing of new or improved materials. including technical know-how fees. • The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use. products or processes which are recognised as an intangible asset to the extent that it is expected that such assets will generate future economic benefits. not exceeding ten years. . • Research and development expenditure of a capital nature is added to fixed assets.

amortization rates Amortization method Opening and closing gross and net figures Movement data (that includes impairment data also) If amortized over longer than 10 years. 3. reason. etc. period. A description of material intangible assets Existence and carrying amounts of intangible assets whose title is restricted Intangible assets pledged Commitment for acquisition of intangible assets Amount of R&D Expenses recognized as expenses. 4. • • • • • • Class wise disclosures distinguishing internally generated and purchased assets for Useful life. 2..Disclosures • 1. .

Impairment .Disclosure on intellectual properties related to drugs • • Extracts from a published disclosure Addition . Comment – These disclosures as additional information to users is value addition .The Company acquired patents relating to certain technologies for oral insulin.138. the Company decided to licence one of it’s IP (Apaza) and certain other IP’s for further development and commercialisation. The Company determined to expense the intangible assets in view of the recent adverse reports and decline in sales trend of Natrear / Neseritide.000. oral BNP and Apaza (collectively IP’s) for a total cost of Rs 521.In December 2007. and amortised Apaza over a period of 5 years effective October 2006. the Company recorded a total impairment of Rs 220.In the Board meeting of October 18. Amortisation . in respect of one of it’s intellectual property acquired for drug development. 2006 . though not mandatory • • • . a competing drug.

under IAS . • Amortization only when there is a definite useful life term. except that • Subsequent measurements can follow revaluation policy also. So in case of indefinite life term no amortization required under IAS .Comparison with IAS 38 • Largely principles are same under both the statements. .


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