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"Showing how living creatures of diverse kinds, may be mingled and coupled together, that from them, new and yet profitable kinds of living creatures may be generated."
The Proeme Having wandered beyond my bounds, in the
considerations of causes and their actions, which I thought fit to make the sub ect of my first book. It will be time to speak of those operations, which we have often promised, that we may not too long keep off from them those ingenious men that are very desirous to know them. Since that we have said, That !atural "agick is the top, and the complete faculty or !atural Science, in handling it, we will conclude within the compass of this volume, whatsoever is high, noble, choice, and notable, that is discovered in the large field of !atural History. #ut that we may perform this, I shall reduce all those secrets into their proper place, and that no thing may be thrust out of its own rank, I shall follow the order of sciences. $nd I shall first divide them into !atural and "athematical Sciences, and I shall begin with the !atural, for I hold that most convenient, that all may arise from those things that are simple, and not so
laborious, to "athematical Sciences. I shall from animals first proceed to plants, and so by steps to mineral, and other works of nature. I shall briefly describe fountains, also whence flow springs, and I shall anne% thereto the reasons, and the causes, that industrious men made ac&uainted with this, may find out more of themselves. $nd because there are two generations of animals and plants, one of themselves, the other by copulation. I shall first speak of such as are bred without copulation, and ne%t, of such as proceed from copulation one with another, that we may produce new living creatures, such as the former ages never saw. I shall begin therefore with Putrefaction, because that is the principle to produce new creatures, not only from the variety of simples, but of mi%ed bodies. I thought fit to leave none out, though they be of small account, since there is nothing in nature, appear it never so small, wherein there is not something to be admired.
"The first 'hapter treats of Putrefaction, and of a strange manner of producing living creatures."
Efore we come to show that new living creatures are generated of Putrefaction, it is necessary to rehearse the opinions of ancient philosophers concerning the matter whereof though we have spoken elsewhere, in the description of plants, yet for the readers ease, we will here rehearse some of them, to show that not only imperfect, but perfect living creatures too, are
generated of Putrefaction. Porphyry thought that living creatures were begotten of the bowels of the earth soaked in water, and quickened by the heat of the Sun. Of the same mind were $rchelaus, the Athenian, $na%agoras, Clazomensus, and (uripides his scholar. 'leodemus, and after him Theophrastus, thought that they came of putrefied water mixed with earth, and the colder and fouler the water was, the worse it was for their generation. )iodorus, and many other good philosophers hold, that all living creatures did arise of Putrefaction. or whereas in the beginning of the world, the heavens, and earth, and (lements were settled in their natural places, the earth being left slimy and soft in many places, and then dried and stricken with the heat of the Sun, brought forth certain tumors and swellings in the surface and uppermost parts. !n these tumors were contained and cherished many Putrefactions and rotten clods, covered over with certain small skins, this putrefied stuff, being moistened with dew by night, and the Sun heating it by day, after a certain season became ripe, and the skins being broken, thence issued all kinds of living creatures, whereof, they that had quickest heat, became #irds, the earthy ones became creeping beasts, the waterish ones became *ishes in the sea, and they which were mean, as it were, between all these, became walking"creatures. #ut the heat of the Sun still working upon the earth, hindered it from begetting and bringing forth any more such creatures, but then, the creatures before generated coupled together, and brought forth others like themselves. $vicenna, in that work of his which he made of deluges and floods, holds, that after the great floods that drowned the earth, there was no mans seed, but then, man, and all living creatures else, were generated of rotten carcasses, only by the virtue of the Sun. And therefore he supposes, that the womb, and such needful places framed by nature, for the better fashioning of the infant, are not needful to the procreation of man. $e proves his assertion by this, that "ice, which arise of Putrefaction, do couple together, and beget store of young, yes, and serpents are generated chiefly of woman%s hair. And is his book of living creatures, he tells of a friend of his, that brought forth scorpions after a strange manner, and those did beget others. $verroes held, that the stars were sufficient to generate imperfect creatures, as mice, bats, moles, and such like, but not to generate men, or +ions. And daily experience teaches us, that many living creatures come of the putrefied matter of the earth. And all the $ncients supposing all things to be produced out of the earth, called it the mother of all, the &reeks called it )imitera. ,vid has very elegantly set down
this generation of Putrefaction, under the fable of Pytho, that the earth brought forth of its own accord, many living creatures of diverse forms, the heat of the Sun enlivening those moistures that lay in the tumors of the earth, like fertile seeds in the belly of the mother, for heat and moisture being tempered together, causes generation. 'o then, after the deluge, the earth being now moist, the Sun working upon it, diverse kinds of creatures were brought forth, some like the former, and some of a new shape.
(,f certain earthly 'reatures, which are generated of Putrefaction."
Plants and living creatures agree both in this, that some of
them are generated of seed, and some of them nature brings forth of her own accord, without any seed of the same kind, some out of putrefied earth and plants, as those creatures that are divided between the head and the belly, some out of the dew that lies upon leaves, as 'anker-worms, some out of mud, as shell"creatures, and some out of living creatures themselves, and the excrement%s of their parts as +ice. )e will only rehearse some which the $ncients have set down, that so we may also learn how to procreate new creatures. And first let us see how*
""ice are generated of Putrefaction."
)iodorus says, that near to the city +hebais in ,gypt, when -ilus overflowing is past, the Sun heating the wet ground, the chaps of the earth send forth great store of "ice in many places, which astonishes men to see, that the fore"part of the mice should live and be moved, whereas their hinder parts are not yet
shaped. Pliny says, that after the swaging of -ilus, there are found little "ice begun to be made of earth and water, their fore"parts living, and their hinder parts being nothing but earth. $elianus says, that a little rain in ,gypt, engenders many "ice , which being scattered everywhere in their fields, eat down their 'orn, and devour it. And so it is in .ontus, but by their prayers to &od, they are consumed. "acrobious and $vicenna say, that the "ice so generated, do increase exceedingly by coupling together. $ristotle found out, that a kind of field"mice increases wonderfully, so that in some places they did suddenly eat up whole fields of 'orn. !nasmuch that many husbandmen appointing to reap their corn on the morrow, when they came with their reapers, found all their 'orn wasted. And as these mice are generated suddenly, so they are suddenly consumed, in a few days, the reason whereof cannot be so well assigned. Pliny could not find how it should be, for neither could be they be found dead in the fields, neither alive within the earth in the winter time. )iodorus and $elianus write, that these field" mice have driven many people of !taly out of their own country. +hey destroyed Cosas, a city of $erturia. /any came to +roas, and thence drove out the inhabitants. Theophrastus and .arro write, (that mice also made the inhabitants of the island Gyarus to forsake their country,( and the like is reported of $eraclea in .ontus, and of other places.
"*rogs are wonderfully generated of rotten dust and rain."
0ikewise also for a summer shower lighting upon the putrefied sands of the shore, and dust of the highways, engenders *rogs. $elianus, going from -aples to !taly, to .uteoli, saw certain *rogs, that their fore"parts moved and went upon two feet, while yet their hinder parts were unfashioned, and drawn after like a clot of dirt. And ,vid, says, one part live, the other is earth still. And again, mud engenders *rogs that sometimes lack feet. +he generation of them is so easy, and sudden, that some write it has rained *rogs, as if they were gendered in the air. Phylarchus in $thenaus writes so, and Heraclides +embus writes, 1that it rained *rogs about 2ardany and .oeonia, so plentifully, that the very ways and houses were full of them. And therefore the inhabitants, though for a few days at the first they endured it, started killing the *rogs and shutting up their houses, yet afterward when they saw it to no purpose, but they could neither use water, nor boil meat, but *rogs would be in it, nor so much as tread upon the ground for them, they quite
you may generate a #asilisk.rovince of the new world." )e read. nay. the place being muddy and full of stinking marshes. of the hairs of a menstrual woman and of a Horse-tail. under the mud. A certain woman lately married. together with their children. will grow every one as big as a Serpent. and hide him in a vessel of 2lass. four creatures like to *rogs. and such like. ! bring forth Toads. that all shall die which look upon him. that3 "Serpents may be generated of mans "arrow.( -either is it hard to generate Toads of women%s putrefied flowers. the village is itself a marsh. or mane. but only thus. ()hen ! am rotten in the earth. that in $ungary. Paracletes said. And the women of 'alerium. $appily because they and ! both. a . brought forth instead of a child. #ut this is a stark lie. and after had her perfect health. *rogs. he said. ! will not gainsay it. you may make them of a woman%s flowers. +he people Autharidae in +hespratia. at the beginning of their conception. and so. were wont to use the 4uice of Parsley and +eeks. being in all men%s 4udgment great with child. as )iodorus and (ustathius write. +i1ards. he says. !t is evident also. and of women0s flowers. where Toads are presently gendered of the drops wherewith they water their houses." !n 2ariene.forsook their countries. as 'elius $urelianus and Platearius call them. and especially about the time of their quickening. were driven out of their country. the air is most unwholesome. by certain imperfect *rogs that fell from heaven. in times past. as Peter "artyr writes. that if you cut a Serpent in pieces. there will be gendered many 3orms. so that three thousand men . Toads . so that of one Serpent may be a hundred generated. A Toad is likewise generated of a )uck that has lain rotting under the mud. for women do breed this kind of cattle. Serpents and +i1ards did breed in men%s bodies. as the verse shows which is ascribed to the )uck . And so. that they do not gender the same Serpents. And the like holds of other creatures. by the river +heisa. thereby to destroy this kind of vermin with them. #ut this was a kind of a "oon-'alf. which being nourished by the mud. are moist and foul creatures. #ut it is a strange thing that3 "/ed Toads are generated of dirt.
. And our friends have tried the same. Pliny adds. bred in . into any cold air. $elianus says. and cover it with a stone. they will be turned into Scorpions. +here is also a3 "'reature that live but one day." day. it will bring forth 3orms. $vicenna in his book of deluges. . and hide the rest in the ground. 'o the3 "Pyrigones be generated in the fire. Pliny says. . that if you stamp a handful of #asil. so called. -o man denies but that Serpents are easily gendered of mans flesh. that if you rub it. $vicenna tells of a strange kind of producing a Scorpion. 0ikewise. a )aysbird. if you take off the 'rab0s arms. a maid"servant brought forth a Serpent. they are called Homerobion. that the hair of Horse0s mane laid in the waters. it will be a Scorpion. if the bodies of those *ishes lie dead upon the land." Certain little flying beasts. that Snakes gendered of the "arrow of men%s backs. )e have experienced also. that a dead mans back"marrow being putrefied. and yet they fly up and down in the air. because they live and are nourished in the fire.vid shows. Pliny writes. will engender Serpents. all the Scorpions thereabouts will come unto it. will become Serpents. that while the Sun is in the sign 'ancer.vid says. that as soon as ever they come out of the fire.inegar. And so of the meekest living creature arises the most savage. and lay it in the Sun. Pliny received it of many reports. that #asil chewed and laid in the Sun.died of it. +his is strange. together with ten 'rabs or 'revices. that about the beginning of the wars against the /arsi. And that evil men%s backbones do breed such monsters after death. and if you chew it. because they are naturally moister and longer then men%s. but that is more strange. presently they die. And some say." *lorentinus the &recian says. Serpents. that many hold it for a truth. becomes a Serpent. but 2alen denies it to be true. #ut the body of a 'rab-fish is strangely turned into a Scorpion. especially of his marrow. )riters also show3 "How a Scorpion may be generated of #asil. it will become a Scorpion. that Serpents are gendered of women%s hairs especially.
and the light and air come in. that 4ubas 5ing of Africa. beside the horns. then shut up the door and windows as before. nor any kind else. being laid with his face upwards. #ut let there be but one entrance into it." $elianus writes. and has taken air enough. #ut they must take great heed that they draw no blood of him. open the room. #ut now we will speak of a most excellent generation. And when you see that the matter is through cold. all of the same shape. After this. that as all putrefied bodies are turned into some small living creatures. About eleven days after. +hree weeks after. namely.% his nostrils. as Pliny notes. *lorentinus the &recian says. so . but the chief kings of all. that they kill him with their cudgels. that being dead. about two or three years old. you shall find the flesh turned into small. )hen you open the room first. this is one excellent commodity.%en are commodious many ways. and four windows. except there where the wind would blow in too violently. taught how to make #ees in a wooden $rk. are most of them greater. at the second . +hen cast a great deal of Honey under him. that ." or the Salamander itself genders nothing. how3 "#ees are generated of an . Chose a house ten cubits high. #ut it is a very ready way. the bones and the hair. and not moving. nor air can get in. the other of the flesh. stop up all the passages of the . and break his bones withal."The Salamander is gendered of the water. mouth. Afterward.%en putrefied do generate bees. with fine +inen 'louts besmeared with Pitch. but as yet only growing. #ut in this room an . open it again. namely #ees.% remaining.%. +hen set to him a company of lusty fellow. and you shall find the room full of #ees clotted together. .vid says it. there may be generated of them a very profitable kind of creatures. +hey say that the kings of the companies are generated of the brain.arro show a cruel manner of making #ees in a house. handsomer. to beat him so cruelly. of the "arrow. white and unperfected creatures. square every way. on each side one. and nothing of the . and daub up the door and the windows with thick +oam. and necessary places of evacuation. and ten cubits broad. )emocritus and . nor yet among (els. which does not generate of themselves either egg or young. neither must they strike him too fiercely at the first. eyes.%. yet those that come of the brain. among the rest. so that no wind. and better"colored then the rest. neither is there any male or female among them. and let them all go forth. let him be fat and fleshy.
Isiodore says." As Isiodore affirms. where they would en4oy their desired light. and not )rones. the right color of #ees in them. especially toward the windows.vid says.%. of the basest beast comes the basest fowl. but lay their feed in a clot of earth for 67 days. $elianus says. because he eats that which he never labored for. A swift kind of fowl." )hen his carcass is putrefied. "The #eetle is generated of the $ss. -ow as the best kind of #ees are generated of a young . . because they are brought forth of Horse. so a more base kind of them is brought forth of the dead flesh of baser creatures. #ut it is best to let them light by the windows every other day. and Isiodore derives crabronem a' cabo. you may see their wings grown.opening. ." As Pliny writes. Chapter III . they have no female. are generated of the flesh of dead Horses. and then bring forth young out of it. 'o also. that 3asps and Hornets both. id est caballo. they come of swift )ogs. that Hornets are thence generated. and how they fit about their kings. $elianus says3 "That 3asps are generated of an Horse. #ut others hold that the +ocusts. and flutter about.irgil has very elegantly set down in the same manner. from a swift kind of beast. the "arrow of him brings forth 3asps.irgil say. a Hornet of a Horse. And the )rone is called *ucus &uafi *agos. are generated of "ule%s flesh. +his same experiment. !n like manner3 ")rones come of "ules. Pliny and .
is enliven by her heat. and shut up in a vessel of 2lass. it lives. Paracelsus says. some of the boughs and branches of trees which fall into the sea.". for the ancient 'osmographers. 0ate writers report. which is . And when they are come to their full growth.urope. and grow to be )ucks or such like #irds. that there is a certain bird. that not only in 'cotland." . if it be laid under a Hen. in the description of the north countries of . if it fall into the water under it. they die3 but they which are swallowed still into the sea. +hey commonly stick on the keel of some old ship. where they hang together like mushroom stalks. and so laid under the mixture. as other birds do. so a bird burnt to ashes. 2esner says. mentions the same tree. they fly about in the air.laus "agnus. and get out of their shell. first after a while there will certain 3orms breed in it. will become a filmy humor. and outwardly white. and then. bred as it were of moss and mud. round. +hese *ish are little. they come of 3orms. smooth and brittle shelled. and restored to herself like a Phoeni%. some having feathers. live. like an almond shell. and becomes a quick bird. reports that about 'cotland.f certain #irds. becomes a chick by the heat of a Hen. especially Sa%o 2rammaticus. which. feet. 'ome say. which is called $vis arborea. which by little and little become like )ucks ." !f you cast wood into the sea. there be certain #irds generated of the fruit of a tree. and at length grow to be a big as 2eese. there are certain trees which bring forth a fruit covered over with leaves. the same3 "#irds are generated of putrefied wood. *icinus reports. there appears a great many 3orms. that in the islands of $ebrides. others being in some parts perfect. much like a #lackbird. at the right season. which are generated of the Putrefaction of Plants. as if there were thereby nourished. but in the 8iver of +hames also by 0ondon. and some none. if any of these be cast upon shore. -either is this any new tale. some unshaped. As soon as the wood begins first to be putrefied. wings and feathers. "unster says. there is a kind of shellfish in a two"leafed shell. and he had it out of $lbertus. in the head. that has a foot full of plaits and wrinkles. inwardly they are great bellied. As the yolk and white of an (gg.
they are generated of the garbage of the earth.generated of the Putrefaction of Sage. -either indeed do they ever breed without rain. even after all the water and mud has been gone. and so in short time generated (els. in rivers. as $ristotle writes. and then of fowls. nor any copulation. and in pools. and some other water"herbs. or it is the rain. +hey have bred often in certain muddy pools. any passage fit to be a womb. nor (ggs. Chapter II ". And a friend of mine filled certain wooden vessels with water." Having first spoken of earthly creatures. arises in the sea. now we will speak of *ishes so generated. has brought forth a great store of (els. 'uch is the generation of. and set them in the open air. that a dead Horse thrown into a standing pool. in pool and rivers. And first how3 "(els are generated. . having first covered them with a weighty stone.f 'ertain *ishes which are generated of Putrefaction. and /eeds. but it arises in the sea by reason of /eeds. by reason chiefly of Putrefaction. for there the heat is more forcible to cause Putrefaction. "2roundlings out of foam and froth. which he says." Among them there is neither male or female.xperience that proved. and the like has been done by the carcasses of other creatures. $ristotle says. +hey are also generated of putrefied things. neither there was there ever seen in any of them. which receives her life and quickening from the general life of the whole world. only by rain"water. it arises by the bank side." . though they have never so much water otherwise. both that begets and nourishes them.
this *ish is consecrated to . as you see little worms creep on the top of the mud. !t seems too.specially of the putrefied mud of sweet water. neither does he need any food. nor river. so it is to be thought. that. +here are also in certain particular lakes. and the #enacian lakes. $thenaus says. there be diverse kind of 'arp. after some few showers. "$ 'arp is generated of Putrefaction. were generated little *ishes. being dried up. among the rest in $indus. or it is experienced. $elianus says. !n some places. as soon as ever they began to be full of rain water again. especially carp. whence she is called $phrodite. a kind of "ullet. but only come of the mud. which is generated of mud and sand. or when dirt is clotted together in the sea. to moisten it. because rain breeds it. as in the 0emane. And as the "ullet-2roundlings comes of mud.enus. or a sandy loam. and of their generation. compassed about with hills. and other such *ish. that still goes and comes at all times. /any of them breed of the foam that rises out of the sandy channel. as has been tried in many marsh places.ppianus makes the very same description of him. at the mouth of the 8ivers into the sea. he hides himself in the cleft of some rock. and so is changed into very many living creatures. "(arthly *ishes generated of Putrefaction. that the 'ackrel-groundling comes thereof also. )hen the waves are too boisterous for him. 0ikewise are certain. called "ullet-2roundlings. which had neither seed nor egg in them. and namely into 2roundlings ." . +here is a kind of these *ishes. where Themistocles got his famous victory. so that the mud was hard. that in certain lakes. where in the )og-days. particular kinds of *ishes. so that this kind of *ish breeds all times of the year. And . but only the rain. this *ish breeds of some by the help of the rain. and then receives heat and life after a wonderful manner. about the bigness of little 'ackrels. some of a bigger size are generated. nor are begotten.)hich *ish the &reeks call $phya. in shadowy and warm places. where there is no well. when the soil is heated. the lakes. because she also comes of the froth of the sea. these *ish neither do beget. and swims on the top of the water in the foam. as $ristotle writes. near to 'alamnia. as in Attica. there has been great store of *ish. till at last it is dissolved. and in /arathon. And in some parts of Asia. #ut there are some of this kind generated by copulation." . it waxes very black and filmy.
#ut surely it is by virtue of some moisture. 0ikewise. the mud in the rocks breeds Holoturia. and it is so in places where there is no standing water. and "uscles.aphlagonia. there have been found no more +impins. 'o then . nor male. the hardness and closeness of their shells. nor female.ppianus writes also.rtica. Chapter V . 2irty mud genders . and the Purple. have bred of rotten hedges made to *ish by. in rivers and in lakes. but live only as plants live. which he ascribes to the wells. they dig out of deep ditches. which appears by this. Only they were somewhat greater. there were found no more then were cast in. it appears.ysters. and he wonders that they should be generated without copulation. +impins. and Scallops. for lack of moisture.ysters are generated in the sea. that often they breed in ships. 'o the *ish called . and cast them into lakes near the sea. . hindering all things from touching or rubbing their inward parts. so does it bring forth different kinds of *ishes. sandy mud Perwincles. of a frothy mud putrefied. And that these *ishes emit no seed or generative matter. which might be fit for generation. And in many places. +epades. where no such thing was before. and such"like. that in . that they have neither male nor female. without the help of any copulation. "Shellfish are generated of the frothy mud. they breed all of themselves. because that when the men of Chios. and as soon as the hedges are gone. and Perwincles. and all shellfish are generated of mud. because they breed in muddy places. for they have neither seed. had brought out of 0esbos many oysters." Or else merely of the Saltwater. but are generated of themselves and their own accord. $ristotle says. and therefore are called +imnoslrea. many shellfishes have bred.Pliny reports. or they cannot couple together. because in some of them *ishes are found. And look how the mud differs. as experience has shown. certain earthly *ishes very good to be eaten. when once the place waxed muddy. and +impins.
as they multiply their copulation%s. have diverse uses in Physic. or found out by chance. that this generation may be more easily wrought. And by this. and these also may bring forth others. irst. coupled together. we will rehearse those experiments. have brought forth other new kinds. A )og and a 3olf. many creatures are generated of kinds diverse in nature. the ingenious reader may find out others."That new kinds of living creatures may be generated of diverse beasts. they cannot couple. and so gendered diverse monstrous creatures. which hold that of two kinds diverse in nature. and in hunting. for if there be great odds in their bigness. that Africa always brings forth some new thing. by carnal copulation. a Partridge and a Hen. till at length they are scarce in anything like the former. are of one bigness. we must not think that the one example of "ules not gendering. let men of learning 4udge. and of these are generated others. which $ristotle and others have prescribed. And against their second position. #ut first ! will relate certain observations. unlike to either of the parents. +he $ncients have set down many such generations. and then those which new writers have recorded. or we see. and that some creatures do not gender at all. as "ules do not. irst. +he commissions or copulation%s. and some are lately devised. so that infinite monsters may be daily gendered. to the perpetual coupling together. -ow we will show. and partly by constraint. because the country being in most places dry. may bring forth new kinds of creatures. or hereby many properties are conveyed into many creatures. the reason thereof is this. that sundry kinds of beasts coupling together. must be of an equal pitch. which the $ncients have described. diverse kinds of beasts come out of sundry quarters thither. and in domestic affairs. neither let the opinions of some philosophers stay us. where the rivers were. contrary to the first of these their positions. that. differing from their progenitors every day more and more. a third cannot be made. a +ion and a Panther. should pre4udice the common course of other creatures. or whereas $ristotle says. and ourselves have seen in diverse countries. an $ss and a Horse. the creatures thus coupled. and what may be hereafter." e have shown that living creatures are generated of Putrefaction. and . and there partly for lust.
if it may be. is the 'pring. for then their seed is unfit for generation. in the prime of their best age and strength. and then rub the generative parts of them in the time of their coition. . -either of them must be barren. $bsyrtus shows. there be many slights. #ut those which are full of lust. when it is but half ripe by the other. because they differ in the time of their bearing. for their more lustful and eager performance of that action. then the young will be ripe by one side. Again. then almost all creatures are prone to lust. being well rubbed therewith. if he have not his female at that time. a Swine. a 2oat. or a chaste creature. Others besmear them with Pepper. A )og must have two months. and their nostrils with sweet ointment. And the philosopher says. or if one of them bring forth in twelve months. otherwise with !ettle seed. )ove. +he common time. if you besmear their chin." And if the female do cast out the seed. they must be coupled at such a time as it fit for generation. and "ares. Among four"footed beasts. the creatures which we would thus couple. nor too young. nor a Horse of an (lephant. !f any creatures want appetite thereunto. /oreover. it will make him very lustful. and a Horse must have twelve. #ut both of them. not weak. he loses his appetite before he can fancy any other mate. )ydimus says. will eagerly couple with another kind as well as their own. except he have his full time. and some usual with us.therefore may couple together. be most lascivious. 5uails. do besmear their hands with Salt and !itre. and the other in six. must be one as lustful as the other. that if you wipe off some !ature or Seed of a "are. at a set age. and contrariwise. and 2oats. they must have one and the same space to bring forth in. they are nothing so eager of copulation. a )og. Sparrows. and therewith besmear the nostrils of a Stallion Horse. no creature can be born. 'o then a )og cannot be born of a man. others with "yrrh and !itre. whereby we may3 ""ake them eager in lust. there be means to make her hold in it. but a Horse and a )og. if you tie a thread about the middle of their tail. $elianus writes. 'econdly. an $ss. among birds. and make her stand to her male. or nature has prescribed certain times and ages fit for that work. +he ages of them must likewise be fit. that the keeper of Sheep. +he He-goat.ncouragements to lust there are many set down by writers. all of them kindle the appetite of the female. . or a Hen and a Sparrow cannot. or a "are and an (lephant. are thereby much inclined to lust. or the generative power comes to creatures. that uses coition but once a year. Partridge.
and says. in bigness. and very lecherous. and her genitories besprinkled with cold water. or a Hircan-)og. And first how* "$ strong Indian-dog may be generated of a Tygre. and )og coupling with . and so changes his shape and fashion. they are generated of a )og and a Tygre. and stronger for the act of copulation. +he She-ass. and is made fitter to hunt. /any such helps are recorded by those who have written the histories of living creatures. leaving the bad qualities of his own kind. that . and diverse rare properties. $ristotle calls them Indian-dogs. and suiting with many beasts. to make her run after it. Pliny shows. if presently after copulation she be well beaten. or any other beast. as the herb /otchet does in men. as being a most familiar creature with us.that if a /am. Pliny writes. but he names it not. of a )og and another wild beast. Chapter VI "How there may be )ogs of great courage. and for diverse other uses." e will first speak of )ogs. and elsewhere. they will become both eager to lust. to keep anything from spoil. by others a 3arrior. tie the SheTygre in the woods about rutting time. being always ready for copulation. that the !ndians intending to generate )ogs of Tygres.nions increase desire of copulation in beasts." +his is called by some a "astiff. often coupling with beasts of a far diverse kind. to play or make sport. feed up the herb "ilk-wort. generated of diverse kinds of beasts. in like time of breeding. and besides. holds the seed within her the better.
are by the shepherds tied to certain trees within the Tygres walk. and such as are swiftest to run. gave to $le%ander four such )ogs. say that Sopithes a 5ing. before $le%ander the 2reat. And Plutark describes the Indian-dog. After that. but the )og still kept his hold. gave $le%ander an hundred and fifty of these )ogs. -ext. After that. first bears. then his courage to be taken from him. And Pollu% writes the same. wherewith he was much delighted. And moreover. and then )eer. next a #oar. rewarded the !ndian that gave them with a . A noble man of !ndia made trial of the valor of these )ogs. Pliny writes. out of !ndian writers. a +ion. $elianus relates the story of this kind of )og. his fourth leg.rincely recompense. but the third they bring up. . and took him by the throat. or a Hart. and he received them as a great present. his third leg. and yet still he kept his hold. that he would rather suffer his life. he cut off one of his legs. but the )og scorning the Hart. their seed degenerating into the mothers kind. stirred not at him. and his fight before $le%ander. if they have not before met with their prey. as it is before related. where he took his first hold. in comparison of the +ion which he had in his mouth. then they couple with the bitches. and so generate. but the )og cared not for his tail. and saw he would not touch them. 0ast of all. and usually coupling with Tygres. as if it had been none of his legs. and knew well this )ogs valor. and accepted them gladly and thankfully.them engender young. +hen the !ndian that showed this sport. as being too fierce. but if they be full of meat. +hat the stoutest bitches. he caused another of his legs to be broken. #ut the first and second births they care not for. being much offended that so great a body should have so little courage. After that. +he !ndian perceiving that. all very huge and strong. as being milder and fitter for their uses. scorn to hunt a #oar. and best to hunt. on this manner. he caused him to be killed. #ut when he brought the )og. then #oars. that the 5ing of Albania gave $le%ander a great )og. after that a #ear. +he 5ing that gave him. rose up very furiously. and greatly amazed at his valor. and run upon the +ion. and his head was cut off from his body. and stifled him. but a )og. was much grieved for the )ogs death. then the )og seeing that he had an even match in hand. and hot in lust. And these )ogs thus gendered. but he scorned the #ear too. but the )og held fast his hold still. irst he set an Hart before him. but neither stirred he at the #oar. $le%ander seeing this. not a tiered. they devour them. As soon as the Tygres light upon them. #ut )iodorus Siculus and Strabo. +he same story Philes also writes. yet still it stuck fast by the teeth in the same place. first cut off his tail. but a +ion they will set gallantly upon.
that $rcadian dogs first came of a )og and a +ion. are strong. and so fell down and was killed. and fit to hunt.ppianus commends the $rcadian dogs. Afterward he tried him with an (lephant. that it is gendered in Africa. As the !ndians 4oin Tygres. and says there be diverse kinds of them. as $ristotle writes. Hesychius says." Pliny says. and presently the )og killed him. $le%ander caused a +ion to be set before him. that these )ogs break all things with their teeth. And 'oelius writes the same. and calls them half"savage. Solinus called them (thiopian 3olves. )iodorus says. and assaulted him so artificially every way. but either with a +ion or an (lephant. +here is also a. is in all his entrails like a 3olf0s. has a )og for their ring"leader. 3olves do couple with )ogs. writes. sent him another. and is a strong beast. +his also "$ strong and swift )og gendered of a kind of 3olf called Thos. and retain each others seed. which is a town of Acadia. and so the She-wolf by a )og. ")og called 'rocuta. 2ratius writes of this kind of )og. Herodotus. gendered of a )og and a 3olf. that a #itch and may conceive by a He-wolf. so do the &auls 4oin 3olves and )ogs together. and those of +egea. and good hunters. 'o then. and ripen it to the bringing forth of both kinds. thus generated of a #itch and a Tyger. every herd of wolves there. !n the Country of Cyrene in 0ibya. 2alen. And . as coming of a tame )og. that the )og which .hearing this. that )ogs generated of these Thoes. that he should not be tried in small matches. as $ristotle and Pollu% write. in his book concerning the use of parts. )herefore 2ratius says. and the )og bristled and barked at him. and presently devour them. Pliny says. !earchus calls these beasts Tygres. swift. "2enerated of a +ion . and called +ion-)ogs. it is like a 3olf. till the (lephant was giddy with turning about. and withal charged the messenger." And these are strong )ogs." which. +here is also another kind of )og. and is wont to encounter a +ion. and a savage kind of 3olf. Pollu% says. it is kind of 3olf.
are generated of 3olves and )ogs coupling together. changing his fierceness into lust.thiopian calls 'rocuta. that the )og !ape was conceived of a 3olf. called +acedamonian )ogs. mention the )og +ycisca. as 6enophon also writes of them. as some suppose. that the great )og called a mastiff.the . and makes them to be hunting )ogs. +he first births are of both kinds. though they be of a diverse kind. which.vid and . And surely the best and swiftest hunting )ogs. or else couple a )og with a wolf. )hen !iphus was hunting. and they will. of both which. as greyhounds. the former.arinus call them )og-fo%es. is gendered of a )og and a 3olf. that beasts may couple together. couple )ogs and *o%es together. they take after the )am. to amend certain natural defects in one kind3 and the latter." $ristotle. Pollu% says. is a compound of the nature of a )og and 3olf. began to line her. counsels to 4oin the . 'oelius called these )ogs 'hanides. are gendered swift )ogs. as greyhounds. these are called $lopecidae." we must make a medley of sundry kinds of )ogs together3 as a "astive and a 2reyhound gender a swift. we must 4oin )ogs with some swift beasts. and strong withal. so that their nature do not much differ. and thereby suitable for their times of breeding and bringing forth. and . and overtaking her. ! myself saw at 8ome. and sharp"snouted. and they be of a like bigness. report. and out of him 2alen. to make their )ogs stronger for the game. or with a +ion. whence they have that name. "2ender swift )ogs. the qualities of the mind are derived into the young ones.irgil both. one of his )ogs eagerly pursued a she"wolf. #ut if we would generate swift )ogs. and withal a strong )og.ppianus in his book of hunting. a she"wolf of a )og. And .vid says. if we would generate a kind of. but in time. for both these mixtures have hunts"men deviled. together with the properties of the body. *o%-dogs. as Isiodore writes. are long"headed. after sundry interchangeable generations.vid mentions such mongrels among $etaon0s )ogs. . and at -aples. and craftier to spy and take advantage3 as commonly. and follow the kind of the female. Hesychius and . . a )og generated of a 3olf. being gendered of a kind of 3olf called 'haos. called +acedaemonian dogs. As. as $ristotle writes. #ut now. as it is between )ogs and 3olves. "Swift )ogs. $lbertus says. as foxes are.
for thereby they shorten and lessen their bodies. As the )ogs of . how to generate a )og as stomachful as a +ion. therefore we will show how to generate and bring up a little )og. but their parts are prettily well knit together. for nature performs her . gives two reasons* one. diverse )ogs together. Chapter VII "How to generate pretty little )ogs to play with.annonia. and one that will be playful. the )ogs of Crete.f little )ogs. and as ravenous as a 3olf." Because a )og is such a familiar creature with man. and there. as they which nourish up little 3helps in small cages. and sarmatian )ogs. 'alimacus terms them with "elitean dogs. as crafty as a *o%. women were wont to esteem little )ogs in great price. and some have attempted to lessen the bodies of them. +hus we see. with them of Arcadia. 0acedamonian with them of +uscia.% shows the manner of their generation. some have greater. with 'panish )ogs. as appears in "elitean dogs.spring"time. near to 8agusius. why among living creatures of the same kind. is the straightness of the place where they are kept3 the other. with them of Caria. is the scarceness of their nourishment. +hracians. if we desire to have any excellent parts in any. and some have smaller bodies. "." !n times past. where he questions. with them of . as spotted as a +eopard. And $ristotle in his %Pro!le"#. even after their birth. especially such as came from /alta the island situated in the Adriatic 'ea. irst of the generation. as fierce as a Tygre.lis.
a small snout. and gnaw without biting. with long hair to the shoulders. and bark softly. by handling the heads of )ogs while they be young. and daintily kept. for so Hippocrates writes. ")og that will do tricks and feats. that they never have their fill. will be exceeding practiced to do feats. in body well set. another kind. and some of them are shagged all over. in color white. having a little head. of whom they will learn many sportful tricks. a shagged neck.work. such as 4ugglers and players are wont to show by their )ogs. and stand upon his rear legs. $lbertus says. short legs. no bigger at their best growth then a mouse. make them less then. and leap up and down. notwithstanding the place. #ut if you would know the generation of a . and let them line the ape. that -orthern people. Chapter VIII .. the other parts being as it were shorn. and so they remain even after they are come to their full growth. and will fetch and carry. +hey are much made of. as dwarfs are among men." One that will make sport of himself. which are such in the kind of )ogs. that these kind of )ogs may very well be generated of a )og and a *o%. and the young one which is born of them two. holding forth his other legs like hands. you must feed very sparingly. the nose turning upward. +hose that are chosen for such purpose. bent so for the purpose when they were young3 long ears. so that they make. you must first let them converse and company with an Ape. that so less may be generated. +hese being shut up in a cage.. rather for pleasure then for any use. that the 'ybarites were much delighted with "elitean dogs. narrow feet. and let them couple with the least you can find. and in this shape they gender others. $thenaus writes. as it were. tail somewhat long. are of the smallest pitch.
nature will make them ashamed not to resemble their qualities. will make them too lazy and weak. that this is supposed to make that people flap"mouthed and to grin like )ogs. and drink it. or Sheep. both for the quality of the body. in the very same words. that by little and little they may be acquainted with the sweetness of hunting. and the qualities of the soul. for so they will become swift and strong. for always the milk. or . but they must suck a tame +ioness. for this. by other means. like to their nurses that give them suck. Pollu% says.. 'olumella shows how3 "To make )ogs strong and swift. and Solinus writes. and when she has done thus for the . though they be never so fierce. 'tefias in his book of !ndian matters." !f we take him as soon as he is brought forth into the world. And $elianus gives us the very same precept. )e may also make.. that the people called 'ynamolgi. . and teach them new qualities. that qualities are drawn in together with the milk and nourishment whereby we live. but after. says he. which afterward being let loose at the #ulls of !ndia. as $elianus reports. "$n $ss become courageous." e may also supply the lacks that are in )ogs. then they shall remember that they had such strong swift nurses. and the people themselves milk their bitches. she will give suck to the $ss as to her own foal. you must suffer them to suck the breasts of some other beasts. that she may not discern him. or Hart. writes. the )ams milk is fittest meat for 3helps. as we drink 2oats or Sheep milk. let them lap the blood of those beasts which )ogs have caught. do nourish and feed many )ogs with #ulls blood." !f you would have them full of stout spirits. are much available. or 2oats. or )oe.ppianus bids us to keep hunting )ogs from sucking any ordinary bitches. even by their food and nourishment. by other means. for we have shown often. says he. and the spirits of the nurse. and put him to a "are in the dark. overcome them and kill them. for her own colt being secretly taken from her."How to amend the defects and lacks that are in )ogs. that for a while.
found out "ules. strongly 4ointed. though she know him to be none of hers. but her strength.f a Horse and a She-ass. . and after made a custom of it. $elianus writes out of )emocritus. as ." e will speak of the commixtion of $sses.. you must chose a "are of the largest size. #ut there is another kind of "ule called Hinnus.. yet it may be we shall add something which may delight the reader. she will give suck always after willingly. Homer0# Scholiast says. +hus shall he be larger. !t is written in &enesis... that "ules are not nature%s work.. a city of . that "ules were first devised by the 9enetians. that by force covered a mare. and able to endure any labor. "$ "ule comes from a "are and an $ss ." #ut here special choice must be made of the $ss that she be of the largest size. Chapter I$ "How to bring forth diverse kinds of "ules. $ow. though it be a known matter.arro says. (sau0s kinsman. first committed by an $ss of /edia. and well"knit 4oints. but are grassed as it were. and double"kinded.. v.aphlagonia. chap. !f you would have a strong and a big "ule. ". :.space of ten days. Horses. and by chance got her with foal.. but a kind of theft and adultery devised by man. which violence men learned of him. that comes." +hey have no root in their own kind. and better in every way.. and such like. feeding his fathers $sses in the wilderness. 6< that $nah. not regarding her swiftness.
and of a She-ass. but much slower.. but only that is the unruly and stubborn. beget excellent young ones... but the stomach and swiftness of their grand"sire3 and they have exceeding hard feet. And ! myself saw at erraria. they also a bulls eyes. +hese "ules thus gendered of a wild $ss. having the main and the tail of an $ss.. and much wilder. that in rance. comes nothing behind the other. yet that which is begotten of the wild $ss. and were exceeding stomachful. and fertile. because of their shape. resembling the shape and mildness of their sire. "Strong "ules gendered of a !ull and an $ss. if they be males. wherewith we were much delighted. are generated. a spectacle. though ! passed through the whole country. 4umar.and of good qualities also. "." And these are the swiftest too. but ! could see none there. and a She-ass. are only in 'yria. like the sire. for howsoever it is the sire that gives the name to the young one.. . but horses ears. though their kind be of a wild $ss." )hich is a fourth sort of "ule found in &ratianopolis. and put to cover a mare. for though the muse that is begotten by the He-ass. but they had a bulls head.of a wild $ss. and called by a rench name. +hese happily are the "ules which $ristotle writes.. ! have heard.. and somewhat scammel. and it is called Hinnus. and it is not so great of body as the "ule is. that at the foot of the $ill 'pelungus in 8hetia. which by little and little wax team. be both in shape and qualities very excellent in his kind. 2esner reports. called by the common name of "ules. and their color was black. #ut the best She-mules of all. certain beasts in the shape of a "ule. as 'olumella writes. and two great knobs in stead of horns. was seen a Horses gendered of a "are and a #ull. swift. they be common. of the Horse. #ut there is a more common kind of. yet it grows altogether like the )am..
""usimones. which are 2oats in the hinder parts. 7mbri. and that the young ones which wild /ams beget of tame Sheep. as soon as they are born. " as the same $lbertus writes of.. to couple in generation. #ut the best devised adultery is.. do run over them. #ut $lbertus calls them "usini or "usimones. of a wild and a tame 2oat . if they couple with the tame of the same kind. there are generated certain beasts. +here is a beast called. Sheep or /ams3 but they cannot live long. such as are not much unlike either in quantity or in kind. there is a beast called . are very strong and lustful." If we would better any qualities in a /am. And that there the /ams being grown in years.. but especially in Corsica. the wildness of them. but in the former parts. )riters affirm. in $elvetian confines. Sheep3 the young ones which are gendered of them.. On the other side. and an (we. and so often times meet with 2oats. and so is their breed after them3 and the wool of the first breed is shaggy. Strabo calls them "usimones. and thereby to procreate young ones. but in their after"breed soft and tender. which have 2oats hair. are color like the sire. "'inirus. but in other parts. and some tame. are called by the $ncients. generated of a He-goat. but commonly they die. gendered of a 2oat and a %a"( Pliny #a&#. ! have heard that in 8hetia.Chapter $ "How to mingle the Sheep and 2oats together. that in 'pain. coupling with Sheep. there are beasts called "usimones not much unlike to Sheep. by 2eneration. is altered in the . which are gendered of a 2oat and a /am. we must effect it by coupling them with wild beasts. that whatsoever kind has some wild.
And surely howsoever.f some other commi%tions.. that of . And moreover we will show. that if the female refuses to couple with him. inasmuch.. and put them into his grounds3 and when they were somewhat tame. and grand"sires. or kill her. And those which are thus gendered. #ut these then afterward coupling with the (wes of +arentum. or hybris signifies reproach. he let them cover his ewes. are called Hybrides. 'olumella writes. these half" wilds. as the kind of Swine is. =et there is no kind so apt for generation. either he will force her. as also of other mixtures derived from these. ". so to find out all such kinds. Chapter $I ". the uncle of this writer. all their succeeding generations resembled the color of their sires. and had the color of their sire. by some that set out games before the people. whereby other beasts of diverse kinds are generated. that many wild /ams were brought out of Africa into Cales. a Hart brought up by hand from his birth. and 'olumella. happily because there are generated in reproachful adultery. And these brought lambs that were rough. the one being wild. bought some of them. some wild beasts being made tame. and a #oar is hardly fruitful in such a case. but the gentleness and the softness of their )ams. and wonderfully desires coition. +he like is experienced in Swine. the beast called Hybrides8" for a #oar is exceeding hot is lust.f a wild and a tame Swine." e will speak yet farther of the commixtion of diverse beasts differing in kind. and the other tame. or we may bring forth. begot lambs that had a thinner and a softer fleece.succeeding generations3 for they become tame. And afterward. are thereby unfit for generation as a 2oose.
Isiodore says that the +ibard and the +ioness coupling together. she gets away into the mountains. one of a +ibard and a +ioness." +he +ioness is reported to burn in lust. and therefore nurse them in thick woods very covertly.. that . and because the +ion is not so fit for copulation. do want the mones of +ions. when the +ioness has played the harlot.. An first. the other of a +ion and a Panther. as it were. that is gendered of a mingled seed. #ut when her time of bringing forth draws near. "$ +eopard is gendered of a +ibard and a +ioness. some take after the sire most. and some after the )am." . one a Horse and an $ss an the other of an $ss and a mare. Pliny says. when the. this is in body and color like a +ibard. but not in courage. when a strong and vigorous +ibard meets with a +ioness. or else keeps aloof from him. and happily couples with her3 and this kind of +ibard is like the sire for his spots. as Solinus writes. especially for shape and quantity of their bodies. till the scent is no longer discernible.their young. making show to the +ions... which couple the +ioness. or if the +ions at any time light upon the 3helps. that they go abroad only to seek some prey. so there are two sorts of +eopards. which he calls a 3ater-libard. procreate a +eopard. that the +ion can find out by his smell. and beget +ions. and seeks to revenge it upon her with all his might. there are +eopards. another kind of Panthers. 'laudianus says. "Hyena and the +ioness gender the beast 'rocuta. which are known well enough. or they bring forth spotted 3helps. -ow there is another copulation of the +ioness. or Shelibard3 that is in body like a +ion. that those +ions which are generated of +ibards. that there is a kind of +ibard.. take most after their mother.. they tear them in pieces. And Solinus says. !n the wilds of $ircania. and so make a third kind. therefore she entertains the +ibard into the +ions bed. but they are but base +ions. but his back and the proportion of his body is like his )am. as Philostratus writes. And therefore the +ioness washes herself in some river. but not in stomach3 for all double" kinded creatures. as being a bastard brood. by reason of his superfluity of heat. and such places there the +ibard haunt. -ow as there are two sorts of "ules.
often the 3olf comes to the Panther %s den. And this 'amel so gendered. is in many qualities like the sire.ppianus says. so the 'amel which is begotten of a #oars. is gendered. but in his looks he resembles the sire. and makes a great noise. or. +his medley. but is fashioned like a wolf. #ut as the "ule which is generated of a Horse and an $ss.. skinned like a panther. . why they are .thiopia. +here is also a Thoes gendered of a 3olf and a female Hyena.. whose skin is very hard. or two bunches upon his back. and will carry twice so great a burden as others. #oars and 'amels feed together. which by the rench is called /aphium. 0ikewise the panther is a most lustful beast. and headed like a 3olf. which resembles the )am in the spots of his skin. and is not so soon down in the mud as other 'amels are. and of other kinds also. that this 'haos. with a wolf especially. +hat of them comes this Thoes. and so fall to copulation. "Hycopanther. gender the beast 'rocuta. says he.. both of her own kind.for the +ioness is very furious in lust. and thereby assembles many. +he Scholiast upon Homer say." for the Panther. but helps himself out lustily by his own force. and from them is generated the beast Thoes. and she also couples with beasts of diverse kinds. as the &reeks call it. when her breeding time has come. > as we have shown before? and couples with diverse kinds of beasts. And among the rest. reports. #ut the reason of their name. that is like to the Hyena. Hesychius and . that the Hyena and the +ioness of . and thence is generated the Thoes. Pliny says.. the 3olf often meets and couples with her. goes up and down. is strong and full of stiff bristles like a #oar. of both which. and Solinus writes the same. that. and yet he is of neither kind. And some call it 'haos. or beast called Thoes.arinus have described. and is meddled with both their shapes. that the Panther and the 3olf do gender this Thoes. and couples with her. in his works called 2eoponica. has a double rifting. #ut the &reeks make mention of a very strange adultery. And that it had spots like a +eopard. that in certain mountains in !ndia.. the. and gender a 'amel." )idymus. "The #aetrian 'amel is gendered of a camel and a Swine. or Pliny writes. was first set forth for a show in the games of Pompeii the &reat.
and their names odious to others. is this. that brute beasts fall not in love with any. "$ babe gendered of a man and a "are." )hich had the hands. All which circumstances make much for the producing of monstrous. Thales. that he did not . told Periander." I am much ashamed to speak of it. should so foully disparage himself.f sundry copulation0s. at all seasons fit and ready for copulation. ! will relate some few examples hereof. and besides. that he is not ashamed most villanously to couple himself with mares and goats. and it cried like a young child. but helps much to the knowledge of some other things in the searching out of the secrecy%s of nature.. as soon as he saw it. and neck. but of their own kind.. was bred in the country of #aetria. as to couple with brute beasts. and other beasts. but man is so incensed with lust. Chapter $II ". for man is of all other creatures most lecherous. Plutark says. because the first that ever was so generated. but otherwise it was like a Horse. yet it is not fruitless. and head of a man. Plutark in his +ract. thereby to make such wicked wretches an obloquy to the world. )herein man shows himself to be worse then a beast.called #aetrian camel. whereby a man genders with sundry kinds of beasts. and procreate so man half"savage monsters as are often seen. agrees with many living creatures in his time of breeding. shows that a shepherd brought in the house of Periander. and half"savage broods. And howsoever the mater we speak is abominable. that man being the chief of all living creatures. which he calls the #an&uet of the wise men.
one having $ss%s thighs.. that there was once generated.. +he same author >Thales? in his %Parallels. of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden"child. as )iocese thought of it. seeing all men are not of a like complexion. because his genitories are not long enough to convey it into her place of conception. "$ half-beast of a "an and a 2oat. And being over"ruled by his lust.. yet ! do not think it altogether impossible. and she was called by a fit name. And this story was gathered out of $ristotle. and causing the )am to conceive it. that either they should have no Horse"keepers. in the second of his paradoxes.esteem it as a strange and monstrous thing. or if a man should have to do with an $ss. it is scarce possible in nature. And because all these things do very seldom concur together. "$ maiden that was generated of a "an and an $ss9" for $ristonymus (phesius. And the same Plutark reports also of. his advice was. mar his seed. his third book of !talian matters. that is to say. And therefore. seeing a man and an ass differ so much as they do. but some may be found. 'he was called . and bring it forth in due time. as also some mares and asses have less and shorter genitories then other have. and was exceeding beautiful. or if they had. a luster after 2oats. or at least no long after. her womb cannot receive his seed. and bring her birth to perfection. or by what food should it be nourished after birth@ #ut. that *ulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman. a very comely maiden. And it may be to. therefore such births are very seldom seen. how. but rather as a natural thing. whose complexion does not much differ from Horses. coupled himself with a "are. if she could so conceive. (pona. Or .. could not away with a woman%s company. that some celestial influence has a stroke in it." +here was a certain young man in 'ybaris. Or if it were. by enlivening the seed. which the gods had sent to portend and betoken the sedition%s and commotion%s likely to ensue. yet she would presently.% reports out of $gesilaus. and some men also have longer and larger genitories then others have.noscelis. though can hardly be. $elianus writes another story. they should have wives of their own. who was called 'rachis. nay. the son of )emonstratus. but made choice of an ass to lie with3 and she brought him forth after a certain time. . #ut 2alen cannot think this possible.
as Pindarus reports. that in the /editerranean 'ea. and they will not admit into their cities any /ed $pes. watched his time when the young man was asleep.. and fell upon him and spoiled him.. and lived with her as his love and 'oncubine. the ring"leader of the herd. says he. and with the 'ynocephali. that. where Pan is honored for a god... is half a beast. !n the utmost corner of the winding river -ilus. Strabo says... and kept her mouth very sweet. brought forth an infant that had the face of a man.. as Ivy and /ushes to eat.coupled himself with a fair 2oat. +he He-goat. are fed certain herds of 2oats.irgins. He-goat have to do with women. and sleep the better. and that which is so generated. but the thighs of a goat. "3omen lie with He-goats. that she might lie easy. bestowing many gifts upon her. they will set upon . and there the lecherous He-goat are mingled with women. and with him is likewise honored a He-goat. and a city within the . that he might kiss her. Chapter $III . #ut the She-goat. a little without the mouth of a river near to 'ebenis and . Pliny writes also. Herodotus in second book.. that." or some of the !ndians have usual company with brute beasts. and half a man. the fairest he could light upon. and if at any time they find such $pes. because they are often mad in lust towards women. they hunt and destroy them as being adulterous beasts. when her time was come. and in the sight of many men standing by. $e laid under her soft grass. that had to do with a woman openly. +he same author writes. there is an island called Aoas. ""an couples with diverse kinds of beasts. writes of a He-goat. seeing all this. and there. $elianus also writes of the !ndians." or the He-goat are so lecherous.harnix.rovince of 'ebenis. that in the madness of their lust. and the Cities $ermopolis and /endes. and by force ravish them.
but especially. and let all the windows be made out toward the south. !f a falconer be desirous to produce fighting Hawks. as that the #irds head and neck may go in between them. >for that is the time wherein all creatures are most eager in lust? you must get you fruitful #irds. the young ones will rather take after the fullness and faint"heart of the one. he must first seek out good lusty males. and bring them by little and little acquainted with each other. as with her fellows. in the prime of the 'pring. before their copulation. And in one side of the room. so that the strange bird may come at it through the grate. )e showed before out of $ristotle. or other #irds. put the other #irds which you purpose to 4oin in copulation with the strange bird. of a like color." Before we come to speak of the commixtion of #irds. such as be strong and stomachful."That diverse kinds of birds may be generated of diverse birds coupling together. which you may best do. being as it were kept in prison from . made of osiers. which you would make tame. or 'ocks. )hen you have thus made choice of the best breeders. let the bird be alone by her self. +hat if we have need to supply any defects in any #irds. and after the quickness and courage of the other. it is meant to prescribe certain observations for the more easy creating thereof. we must see that they be of like bigness. as the bird which you desire to become tame. in the other side. +hese you must keep certain days at the same brood as it were. And let the rods stand so far asunder. to make them fitter for our uses. and ten foot broad. of a like proportion of time for their breeding. or otherwise they will hardly insert themselves into a strange flock. and let them be of the same color. you must keep them together within doors. +herefore you must prepare a pretty little cottage. that if we would mingle creatures of diverse kinds. or by this means she will learn to be acquainted with them. that they may derive the same qualities into their young ones. that they be very lecherous. 'o then. -ext. or if but one of them be stomachful. and give them their meat together. about ten foot long. we may be the better instructed how to perform it readily. by causing them to feed and live together. and will live quietly by them. so that there may be good store of light come in the top of the house. they must procure strong and courageous females. !n the middle you must make a partition with lattices or grates.
that she would spare none. and continual acquaintance with his fellows. let them be brought up by themselves. And thus shall you have a young one. when they be come to ripeness. the females of this brood. their first of their second brood will be a very exact and absolute kind. they may be very profitable and gainful. because they are in great request with us. and to repress their lust. And because commonly he either kills. presently you must divorce one of them from the other. and give them both meat enough. Chapter $IV ")iverse commi%tions of Hens with other #irds. in all respects like the cock." e will begin with Hens. let her be put in the same room where he is. not of their mother. )hen you perceive that he has gotten the female with young. destroy them all. +hey . he must keep diverse females for supply. that they stand to their cock. if we can tell how to procreate and bring up diverse kinds of them. look which of the females he is most familiar with. but of some other hen"bird. lest the keeper should lose all his hope. therefore. or put the (ggs under some other that is sitting. #ut as soon as the young ones are out of the shell. that he may fill her before you must feed her well till she begins to sit on her (ggs. but even when they hear them crake or cackle. #ut when once by tract of time. and besides. 0ast of all. but if she could. and they spend their seed.doing them any wrong. always before our eyes. this male"bird is become somewhat gentle. they are often carved. whereas otherwise she would be so fierce upon the. Cocks are of all other most lecherous. not only at the sight of their Hens. and as household"#irds. or does not care for the first female that is put unto him. and let him in a new mate.
do lay twice in one day. 'ome Hens are very lusty. they take merely after the mother in all respects.rinces Court. the Pheasant and the Hen agree both in their time of laying.. especially those that are of the smaller sort. or in $thenaus we find a saying of Ptolomy.. yet in their treading time they are glad of coition. and they tread their Hens as soon as ever they are off the roost. +he field"cocks are usually more lustful then household cocks are. #ut some breed them for delight and pleasure. and suffered to go among hens. and some bring forth such store of (ggs. of whom they procreate certain #irds. you must take a 'ock-pheasant. as $thenaus writes.. "$ Hen and a Pheasant may gender together." Partridges are much given to lust. irst then. and are mingled with other #irds of diverse kinds. 'ome men bring up Pheasants to make a game of them. that they consume themselves thereby. the (ggs being conceived in them by the treading of a cock"pheasant. and they couple between themselves.. about the middle of the day. both of Hens and Pheasants also.. but even Peacocks also. that not only pheasants were sent for out of /edia. as first with hens. "How to couple a Partridge with a Hen. or these may easily be made tame. and very eager of coition. and will often not only kill hens. but the country Hens. for the first brood. And though she be not so wanton as other #irds are. as like the color of the hen"pheasant as you can. )e will first show. =es. but at their first taking they are very fierce. inasmuch that they lay three" score (ggs. and so have young ones. . as $ristotle writes. before they sit to hatch them. almost all year long. and die upon it. but in process of time. After the same manner. which partake of both kinds in common. either of them bringing forth (ggs one and twenty days after conception. out of $elianus and Theophrastus. when diverse generations have successively passed. Of which circumstances we may take our best advantage in coupling them with Partridges. they also afforded good store of them. some that are kept in a pen.tread and fall to their sport. and withal very fruitful. after that you must seek out country"hens of diverse colors. And this has been an old practice. and not very wild." As *lorentinus writes. #ut the Hens are more inclined to coition.. and be very careful in keeping him tame among your Hens. as ! saw at erraria in the . where was brought up very great store.
and they bring forth both 'ummer and )inter. whereby she conceived. they were like a Pigeon3 their feathers very white and curled. and much abundance of seed. +he Pigeon was of a large size. or muzzle into some woman%s bosom. you must bring up the 'hickens with #arley-flour. and wanton withal. #ut there is yet another mixture. being mixed of a 'ock and a Pea >hen?. when. and afterward hatched them.and let them live with the 'ock-pheasant. everywhere full of black spots. !n greatness of body. for then he has more heat and desire of copulation.. and they will bring forth speckled (ggs. and a Hen that had lost her 'ock. +hese lived together and in the spring"time the Pigeon trod the hen. but they were overgrown with feathers. the rather. that they would still sit upon the bed. because they were so familiar. in fashion of head and bill. "$ 'hick gendered of a Pigeon and a Hen8" +he Pigeon must be young.. he cannot tread.. gender the 2allo-Pavus9" )hich is otherwise called the Indian-hen. +here is also. and resembled the shape of them both. far greater and better then other (ggs are. their feet like a Hens feet.. Chapter $V . and a Pea. "$ 'ock . #ut young pigeons do couple at all times. though the shape of it is more like the Pea then the 'ock. And ! took great pleasure in them. or this is the most delightful and nourishing food that they can have. the hen was but a very small one. )hen these are hatched. and in her due season laid (ggs. and they made a noise like a Pigeon. for if he is old.. ! had my self at home a single Pigeon. and some leaves of Smallage shred among it. and brought forth chicken that were mixed of either kind. that in the springtime he may tread the hens.
as also with most of those fowls that live upon the prey and spoil of other . by the example whereof. and with a #u11ard. "3ith a *alcon. +here is also a commixtion. presently he flies to her. (agles are most lecherous.. that in the spring they loose all their strength."How to generate Hawks of diverse properties" e will show some commixtions of Hawks. called Theocronus. #u11ards. she devours. And whereas among other creatures.. or the male (agle. and a female (agle. #ut he (ggs which she conceives by this base copulation. the female is not always ready and willing to yield the male for coition. as $ristotle writes. and the (agle Nifu#. they couple with (agles. And here it shall appear how we may amend diverse faults and defects in Hawks. you may imagine of yourself the like in other #irds." or Hawks do not only couple with their own kind.ppianus in his I%eutica says. if once he perceive that she has played the harlot. that there is a bird known well enough. and as many of them as she catches. !f the male of this kind do but hear the voice of the female (agle. yet they all couple together among themselves without any difference. "The bird Theocronus is gendered of a Hawk and an (agle. 'he is so lusty. how. which is generated of a male Hawk.. and though there be diverse kinds of them. but with *alcons. and thereby engender bastard (agles. she flies far away from him. =et the (agles never refuse it. and they couple together. And that she may not be known of it to the male (agle. whereby the Hawk mingles himself. $elianus accounts ordinary and common hawks in the kind of (agles. and is thoroughly revenged upon her. +here is a kind of Hawk so wholly given over to lust. and engross in them some new qualities to be derived from there sundry progenitors. that she flies up and down to revenge herself upon those little #irds. she scorns to hatch and sit upon." Hawks are exceeding hot in lust. +hese #irds are now commonly called Seaeagles. . and (agles of diverse kinds.. And first. divorces her from him.
presently they beat them away. +he author of which assertions before Pliny.ssifragi. !n like manner there may be generated of diverse kinds of fowl. they couple with strange *alcons of other countries. if their parents see that they are not right *alcons. till at length they forsake the land. the most like to her own that she can meet with. #esides. And that which comes out of the . because they live altogether . which their parents beat out of their nests. and so they are for a while nourished by some other fowl.sprey.sprey. Chapter $VI ".#irds. they seek out a mate of another kind. and other kinds. diverse kinds of Hawks are generated. 'o then. and /avens also. they fly away into strange places. was $ristotle in his book of wonders. if you have Hawks that descend from the right and best kind. then those that come from a baser sort. . is a kind of little /aven. which have no offspring at all. and seek their living in the sea. and of these afterward is generated a kind of great /aven. the fowl called . and that which comes of the .ppianus says. is of the kind of . as. and couples with them. and partly to get their living.f the commi%tion of diverse kinds of *ishes " It is a very hard thing for a man to know. that they have no proper kind of their own. says. and according to the diversity of those kinds .sprey. but are descended from different sorts of eagles mingled together. and their finding no mates of their own kind. and so partly because they cannot endure their parents rage. whether divers kinds of *ishes be mingled together or no." Pliny discussing the .ssisragi. they are more easily worked with. or as soon as they be hatched and pin"feathered. that land"eagles are a bastard brood. "The .ssisragi.
and the picture therefore is yet reserved. that is a Skate-ray. !n time of breeding. of both which is gendered the *ish /hinobatos. And though some deny that there is any such *ish surely it is found in the sea about -aples. And of this kind of *ish ! never read nor heard anything besides this. did help me to the sight of one of them. and it is to be seen. excepting only these two. and in other such conditions as were before required. that divers *ishes in kind never mingle their seed together. if we take such *ishes as are much given to venery. $ristotle in his book of living creatures. so that we cannot observe their doings. Chapter $VII "How we may produce new and Strange "onsters. and match those together which are alike in bigness. Theodorus 2a1a translates the word '/hinobatos' into 'S&uatino-raia% in 0atin. #ut if we rightly consider that which has been spoken before. or it is compounded of the names of both his parents. which is like the /ay in all his former parts. a very learned philosopher of -aples. and has his name in &reek answerable to his nature.specially such as they practice against the ordinary course of nature.under the waters. And out of $ristotle. -either did ever any man see two *ishes of divers kinds couple in generation. Pliny reports. "The Skate and the /ay. we may easily effect their commixtion. says. that no *ish of different kinds mingle their seeds. which engender the /hinobatos" which is so called of both his parents names compounded together. And Simon Portus. . namely." . save only the Skate and the /ay.
)emocritus. or such like causes. because some new seed is cast upon the former. especially such as have many cells or receipts for seed in their womb. or four arms. he says. $is reason is.S trange and wonderful monsters. and another not long after. why such monsters are generated. namely. $ristotle says. are far more fruitful then the greater kinds are. as by those ways of which we spoke of before. Afterwards she works sometimes more. sometimes less. which the $ncients have set down. or if it light not in the right place. that sometimes they have two heads. so that they are meddled and confounded together. or the womb puffed up with wind. and sometimes having both sexes in . !t is the cause of the generation of many monsters. by imagination. Sows. And in his #ook of Problems. And Straton assigns many reasons. as. )hereby it comes to pass. Concerning imagination. we will speak hereafter. do most commonly produce monsters. that large four"footed beasts. which is often misplaced. $ence it is in those #irds which use often coition%s. held that the mixture of many seeds. because the smaller kinds. seems to have attained the truth in this case. as Horses and $sses. so also by other means. do oftentimes bring forth such births. still framing herself thereunto. the commixtion of diverse kinds. and abortments. as $ristotle says. and (wes. or some parts transposed. some exceeding the ordinary course as having four eyes. or untimely births. #ut (mpedocles. or he says. 2oats. or but one eye. as the matter can afford which she works upon. or if the congredients be not rightly affected to procreate according to the ordinary course of nature. that such creatures are wont to bring forth many young ones at one birthing. by reason of inflation%s. may be gendered of living creatures. or if it be scattered into many parts. -ow at this time let us see the ways of engendering such monsters. as by the mixture of diverse seeds in one womb. and first shapes out the principal parts of the body. that if the matter be defective. that the ingenious reader may learn by the consideration of these ways. when one is received into the womb before. do not produce them so often. or if it be too little. -ature is earnest in fashioning of a living creature. either if the seed be too much. as #itches. that the causes of the generation of monstrous creatures. are these. and more parts then the nature of their kind require. as having but one leg. having forecast all scruples and doubts within himself. or four feet. And some physicians say it principally to the place of conception. or some of the former seed is diminished. to invent of himself other ways how to generate wonderful monsters.
and make good your endeavors. that had four feet. or you shall see such things effected. this may come by reason of inordinate or unkindly copulation%s. ! myself saw at -aples. #ut whosoever. but that his head only stuck behind in the other boy%s breast. the +yrant of Cyprus. that there was born in 'icily. and for want of room. thou must learn by examples. one of them in his shoulder. with six fingers on one hand. which here were too long to discuss. $elianus saw an . and the work will much delight you. had a Hart with four horns. Again. #y the like causes may. ""onsters in "an" irst. and was of double nature in all respects. so absolutely made. nature will assist you. and four eyes. especially such as have many cells or receipts in their womb for seed. and their hands and four feet. are pressed and grow together. it may come by the narrowness of the womb. when the seed is not conveyed into the due and right places. a boy having two heads. having all his parts. a city of !taly. Philostratus in the life $pollonius writes. as here possible to be brought to pass. and so conveniently placed. out of whose breast came forth another boy. would bring forth any monsters by art. there was birthed a +amb that had two . as it was a great help to him in his going. Again. a boy alive. a woman servant brought forth a child. look how your art disposes and works. do most often produce monsters. and by such principles be directed. when there are two young ones in it. whereby also you may find the means to procure more admirable effects. as you would not think of. that at 'effa" Arunca. and double natured in every way. and thus they had stuck together in their mothers womb. and finish your beginnings.them. Pliny writes. !icocreon. it may come by the marring of those thin skins of partition. there was born a maid"child that had two heads. or if you attempt likely matters. that in the year of 'aius +alius and +ucius )omitus Consulship. +ivy says. and as many ears. And a little before that. that such beasts as bring forth many young ones at one birthing. and monstrous diverse other ways. which nature has framed in a woman%s womb. +here be many reasons and ways whereby may be generated. which are called Hermaphrodites. ""onsters be generated in #easts" )e have shown before. and four hands. and six toes upon one foot. And so. to distinguish and keep asunder the young ones.% that had five feet. four hands.
"$ 'hicken with four wings and four feet" )hich we learn out of $ristotle. many of them being twins. And besides this.. 'eek out therefore some fruitful hens. and many do lay a plate of Iron. that you see they are for your turn. before they grow to any ripeness. that in the time of . both whether there be in them two yolks. and #ay-tree boughs. And there be many other like matters which ! have no pleasure to speak of. or some nail heads. and procure some of the most perfect (ggs that they may lay. are wont to lay (ggs that have two yellow yolks. #ut if the yolks be meddled one with another.eneus 5ing of the 'outh. and there was a :itling with but three feet. they may stick together. and the very Hens themselves. there was seen a crane that had two heads3 and in another king%s days. =ou may know them against the Sun. and growing into each other. ""onsters in #irds may be more easily produced" #oth in respect that they are more given to lust. yes.. and easily cleave each to other. )e will show also how to hatch. another bird was seen that had four heads. or these causes. -ow. that many do strew straw 2rass. and their nests. and Iron nails in the Hen%s nests. if there be any. and heads of 2arlic. Among (ggs. there are often some that have two yolks. All of which are supposed to be good remedies against thunder. whereby. 'olumella and +eontinus the &reek. without any skin to part them. and you shall discern. #ut it may be seen that. give counsel to air and purge the houses where the Hens are. /hases reports. and some #aytree boughs upon their nests.. and because also they bear in their bodies many (ggs at once. and at Apolis.heads. then that which is produced thereof is a monster. those #irds that are by nature very fruitful. that he saw a )og. they yield two perfect 'hickens without any blemish. another +amb having five feet. and Pitch. and these also do spoil all imperfect 'hickens. or two conceptions cling and grow together. the like where we may see in the fruits of trees. as being very near each to each other. and also whether they be distinguished or not. for all these are supposed to be very good preservatives against monstrous and prodigious births. if the hens are fruitful. with brimstone. and torches. $elianus reports out of Apion. let . And 'olumella reports farther. And if you find in them such plenty of matter.. that it may not mar their (ggs. having three heads. if the two yolks be distinguished by a small skin.
whitish eyes. they would yield 'hickens with six wings and six legs. even as we list. a black head. and it cannot be but these were generated of such (ggs as had two yolks. And while ! was in -aples a . And many such monsters we have often hatched at home for pleasure sake. and the ancient devisors of *ables. $ristotle writes. #ut these are not so common. +here has been seen a small )uck with four feet. #ut you must have special care in bringing them up. which the common people most foolishly esteem to be a 4est.igeon that was seen which had four feet. having many heads and many tails. -o question but she was generated after the same manner as we spoke even now of 'hickens. )hich fiction was without all question occasioned by these kinds of monsters. and if they could be gotten. 'o they report of a .them be sat upon their full time. we may fashion them into a monstrous shape. +he Poets. and three cloven tongues. which would be more wonderful.iper was seen alive. do speak much of that. and moved every one of them up and down. black low feet. that they may be generated after the same manner. her hinder"parts yellow. 'o also are serpents generated. . ! myself have seen many lizards that had two or three tails. of certain serpents. having a small thin bill. and not standing far asunder3 and she is at this day kept to be seen at +orga. And as some (ggs have two yolks. Chapter $VIII ". to have many heads. which had two heads. so there are some that have three. for even after they are brought forth.f certain other ways how to produce monstrous births" e may also produce monsters by another way then that which we spoke of before. And the 'hickens produced will have four wings and four feet. her foreparts black. Hydra +ernaea which was one of Hercules labors to overcome.
but all in length. And the like also comes to pass concerning other shapes. and so cause it to grow out in length. so that they needed not to be so framed by handling. while his head was still soft and tender. and so nature. And in process of time. And surely custom was the first cause that they had such heads." . and blear"eyed fathers. does precisely set down the manner hereof. for whereas the generative seed is derived from all the parts of the body. and shows how they do it. they would presently crush it in their hands. Hippocrates in his book of $ir. +he beginning of that custom was thus. insomuch that they esteemed it an honorable thing to have a very long head. a 'ucumber like a Snake. but crazy bodies unsound seed. blear"eyed children. that it might not grow round. whereas no other nation is so besides. but afterward nature framed herself to that custom. which was upheld by that custom. $nd Places. as we may make a 5uince like a mans head. =es. and 3ater. that dwell by the river . so also we may do try the births of living creatures. and so cause it to grow out in length. they would bind it up with swathing bands. that their heads afterward grew such by nature. As soon as the child was new born. found bodies yielding good seed. into the fashion of any vessel or case that we make for them to grow into.or as we may shape young fruits as they grow. they were born with such heads. Chapter $I$ ". and often bald fathers beget bald children.f the wonderful force of imagination9 and how to produce party-colored births. because that practice is quire out of use. all of them being very long"headed. by making a case of that fashion for them to grow in. and a deformed father.hafis. )hy should not longheaded fathers beget longheaded children@ #ut now they are not born with such heads. for the most part a deformed child. And by this custom it came to pass. ceases together with the custom.
when they long most vehemently. and all because their mothers being with child looked upon a Hare. who brought forth 'hariclea a fair daughter. in his reherseal of the opinions of philosophers. And as man of all other living creatures. by reason of their mothers longing. and searching out the reason thereof. in the tender substance of the child. with the Bueen of . and the force of the imagination is great. ascribed the cause of it to a certain picture which she had in her chamber. which was supposed by all men to be her slaves son. )omen with child. the spirits move the blood. women were won to have commonly pictures and images in great request. /any children have Hare-lips. Hippocrates. and such like.. if this longing were not in some sort satisfied. #ut it is then most operative. is most swift and fleeting in his thoughts. the cause was determined to be the fable of $ndromeda pictured in that chamber. +he conceit of the mind. who being her self fair. where she lay with the 5ing. and to bring forth children resembling the same. or endeavoring. that a certain young woman brought forth a child that was all hairy. )e read of some others. as in coition. and fullest of conceits. in letting go her seed. which she was wont to look upon. And the same defense 5uintilian uses on the behalf of a woman. and have their minds earnestly set upon any thing. that (mpedocles held that an infant is formed according to that which the mother looks upon at the time of conception. writes. to the imagination of the mother. And surely all children would have some such marks or other. he found the hairy image of 4ohn the #aptist in her chamber.. says he. because in the time of their coition they looked upon the fable of $etaon painted before them. 4acob was well acquainted with this force of imagination. especially that imagination which prevails with her in the chiefest actions. had brought forth a #lackmoore. when it is excessively bent upon any such thing as it cannot attain unto. so the variety of his with affords much variety of such effects. that they brought forth horned children. and so imprint the likeness of the thing mused upon. or. )herefore the searchers out of secrets have 4ustly ascribed the marks and signs in the young ones. Heliodorus begins that excellent history which he wrote. and therefore they are more in mankind then in other living creatures. to clear a certain woman%s honesty that had brought forth children very unlike their parents. as the scriptures witness.thiopia.P lutark. do thereby alter their inward spirits. . )amascen reports.
that they might look upon the rods. or of any one color. or the Horse breeder does paint the "are0s back with sundry colors. And $bsytrus teaches the same in effect. or look what color she is set forth in. or of sundry colors together. like a Snake0s color. )hereby it came to pass. brought forth lambs of the like color. 'uch is. when he comes and sees such goodly preparation as it were for his wedding. procure them to be of divers colors. that the other Sheep in their heat. as in the heat of his lust he looks on. says he. And the Sheep conceived before the rods. that attempts any such enterprise. or they are often found to hang and adorn with tapestry and painted clothes of sundry colors. and even in the womb of their )am." he took that course which ! would with every man to take. >even such as they would procure to be in the 'olt. or of a dapple gray. and Horse breeders do practice much. that they can alter the color of the young ones from the mother. and were in heat of conception. which we would have the 'olt to be of. Counseling us to cover the "are0s body with some stuff of that color. presently begins . and brought forth young of party"colors. the same will be derived into the 'olt ." A matter which Horse keepers. A delightful sight it was. and cut off half the rind. into the gutters and watering troughs. will be much affected with the sight of such colors. And such experiments might be practiced upon all living creatures that bear wool. and with small and great spots. beholding those that were party colored. about the time of their conception. the industry and practice of man%s wit. $e took certain rods and poles of Poplar and $lmond-tree. "2enerating party-colored Horses."To bring forth party-colored Sheep. and would take place in all kinds of beasts. so that the rods were white and black in several circles. and the Stallion is admitted to cover her. pilling them by white stakes.? against the time that both she desires Horse. writes the same argument. when the sheep came to drink. the houses and rooms where they put their "ares to take Horse. -ow afterwards.ppianus in his first book of hunting. they produce colts of a bright bay color. and turned the faces of the other Sheep towards these party" colored ones. 4acob parted these +ambs by themselves. )hereby. +hen he put the rods which he had pilled. and such as might be easily barked. And will beget a 'olt of the same hue as the example then before his eyes does present unto him. 'o the Stallion. or the Horse that covers her. .
are white all over. they turned white. for there the old ones sit upon their (ggs in the air. And so while he feeds their eyes with pleasing sights." =ou must take that course which . says he. let him that keeps them lay before their eyes sundry cloths of the bravest colors they can get. shall resemble the same colors. raving and taking on. and lets them loose together. upon the tops of very high mountains. but there couple and sit. it causes some alteration in their own color. 'o if you would. and afterward brings forth a 'olt of as many colors as she beheld in the time of her copulation. that gives himself to take and to bring up #irds. that every one admired them as a most strange thing. and is possessed with the fire of raging lust throughout his whole body. #ut afterward they became more common. and their nests wherein they sit. he steals away their . or whereas black or else party"colored Peacocks were carried into that country to be seen. and purple garments. for if we take their cages or coops wherein they are kept. "How to procure white Peacocks " !n former times. but especially purple. or the Pigeons will in their heat of lust be much affected and delighted with the sight thereof. and very artificially procures fine colors in young Pigeons. and to neigh after her. but the young ones which they hatch. as they fall to kissing their mate. and is often found to practice such experiments. full of snow. by reason that merchants brought many of them out of -orway.to foam at the mouth. they will yield unto us white broods. and by continual sitting there. And the "are admits him. or else cover them all over with white colored curtains and so keep them in with grates. and are desirous of copulation. white Peacocks were such a rare sight in Colen. "Procure Pigeons of party colors. +he subtle *owler.ppianus has set down. that he cannot forthwith satisfy himself upon his bride. or as she conceives the 'olt. At such time. is well acquainted with. that they may not get out. At length the Horse breeder takes off their fetters. and hatch their (ggs. and white them on the inside with some plaster. And so no doubt but some such courses will take good effect in all kinds of #irds. $e casts before their sparkling eyes fine wrought tapestry. so withal she conceives those colors which he then looks upon. and the young ones which they bring forth. and red coverlets.
And the Swine which were brought forth in such white sties. Chapter $$ "How it may be wrought. and usually haunt. +his we heard came to pass by chance. that these things . and to know how to procure fair and beautiful children. with the fleeces and hides of beasts. "How to procure a shag-haired )og. when they would have white litters. that 3omen should bring forth fair and beautiful children. and without any such intended purpose. and thereby derives the very same colors into the young ones. became thereby white all over." B y this. when she came to be with 3help. it is easy for any man to work the like effects in mankind. and other beasts to be white. )riters make mention. she brought forth puppies of the like hair as the fleece was. they will beget shag 3helps like +ions. "How to procure Swine." 'wineherds and keepers of beasts. are found often to beautify. and to build the stables and places where the beasts resort to lie. with white roofs and white eaves. while they continually look upon those sights. which has been spoken." !n breeding time you must strew their kennels.imagination to the colors which they look upon. And so. that a little #itch lying continually in a /am fleece. and the other beasts likewise that were brought forth in such whitened places. and the places where they lie and couple.
'ome of the most beautiful and handsome young men that ever mankind afforded. and (van that had a diadem of vine"leaves about his head. And thus the truth of this experiment was manifestly proved. still they may think upon those pictures. that they may always have them in their eyes. or else to set them there in carved and graven works. have often fallen out by chance. in some solid matter. And when she lay with her husband. or she procured a white boy carved of "arble. or such a son. and 2anymedes. that whenever their wives lie with them. that when her breeding time was expired. +he best means to produce this effect. but after they have conceived and quickened also. imitate and express the same form which his mother conceived in her mind. that heard of it. they might breed and bring forth children of the same comeliness and beauty. And this they did.which we speak of. well proportioned in every way. and valiant Hyacinths. and have their imagination strongly and earnestly bent thereupon. while she bare him in her womb. )hereby it may to pass. there was a woman who had the great desire to be the mother of a fair son. and place goodly images in their sight. hang up fine pictures. still she would look upon that image. or they. being as pale and as white. of such excellent gods as was $pollo crowned with a garland of fresh colored bay. and her eyes and heart were continually fixed upon it. as of !ireus. and goodly hair hanging down under it. it was that she much desired. but especially in color. )herefore it was not here to be omitted. 'o that when the child is born. !arcissus. is to place in the bed"chambers of great men. that it is usual among the 0acedaemonians. and of other young lusty gallants that were mostly comely and beautiful in face. /any other women have put the like course in practice. when she was with child. the images of 'upid. as if he had been very marble indeed. )hereby it came to pass. $donis. And not only while they are in the act. and comely portraitures. and him she had always before her eyes. when they perceive that their wives are breeding young bones. and likewise afterwards. when she conceived him. that while their wives stood gazing continually upon such brave pictures. to that "arble image. for after ! had counseled many to use it. and bare in her mind. and put it in practice. says he. and very sightly for all the parts of their body3 and some. she brought forth a son very like in all points. And ! know by experience that this course will take good effect. .
prevail more then the seed. then it is a female. that the first males are reported to have been generated in the eastern and southern parts of the earth. as being more loose and open. or the left seed into the right cell. #ut if the nourishment which it receives in the breeding. And likewise that which issues out of the left parts of the body. that males and females were generated. then it is a male. that the right side has most heat in it. is derived into the right parts of the womb. that the seed which issues out of the right parts of the body. +eucippus held. that males were especially generated towards the -orth. fall into the left parts of the womb. $na%agoras.ard. And thence it is. then that which she conceives. is a male. and females especially towards the 'outh. according to the disposition of the place. or solidity. #ut if they change courses. #ut the first females in the northern parts. if the seed whereof the young is begotten. weak and feeble. that there was no cause either in the seed or heat. it is a female. according as the seed is either strong and sold. #ut Parmenides quite contrary affirmed. Hippona% held. #ut all physicians with one consent affirm. or place. )herefore if the woman receive and retain the generative seed in the right side of her womb. that they should be different sexes. then it generates a female. that either sex in every part proceeds indifferently from either parent. +he experience whereof may be evidently . #ut the young one takes in sex after that parent which was most prevalent in that generation. )emocritus affirms. #ut only as it pleases nature to mark the young ones with different genitories. says he. prevail most. #ut if in the left side. as having in them more solidity and thickness. or fluid. that the male has a .Chapter $$I "How we may procure either males or females to be generated. that males or females were generated according to the heat or cold that was in them. Hippona% says. and the female a womb. and the right seed falls into the left cell or receipt in the womb." ( mpedocles was of opinion. writes.
as Pliny reports. And not far . a certain river called /ilichus. where there is great store of cattle. they make his character as looking toward the right side. we may cause it by another means. and so let them fall to copulation. #ut if you desire to have a male generated. then we must so wait for 'outhern blasts. as soon as they have taken in mans seed. and let them stand with their heads towards the 'outh as they are in copulation. you must not put them to it in the afternoon. and then let the stock feed against the wind. A #ull. or it is a rule that $elianus. 'olumella. or if he leapt off by the right side. !f by the left side. at such times as he is to be coupled for generation. that about the time of gendering. that if you knit up a /am0s right stone. in the begetters themselves. And hence it is. then a 'ow-calf. to turn them presently on their right side. this will cause to bring forth males also. but 'olumella and $elianus also. when they would signify a woman that has brought forth a daughter. as soon as they have been covered. then to knit up his right stone.gyptians in their Hieroglyphics. Pliny. and 'outhern blasts to the conception of a female. we should wait for some -orthern blasts in a dry day. #ut because this would be too much to do. he begets (we lambs only. -orthern blasts help much to the conception of a male. as Pliny writes.ana. +here is also some cause of the procreation of a male. +he force of the -orthern air is such. not far from the city . wills us. #ut to signify the birth of a son. you shall find the #oar-pigs lying in the right side. for then they will not stand to their mate. that if the cattle. and the Sow-pigs in the left side of her womb. $fricanus. and )idymus counsel you to knit up the left stone of the sire. or of a female. And hence it is. And if they have been used to coition still in the morning. $ristotle. or if you cut open a Sow. they make the character and likeness of a #ull looking toward the left side. then certainly they have conceived females. that physicians counsel women. it is certain that he has begotten a #ulchin. gives evident signs to any man to con4ecture whether he has begotten a 'ow-calf or a #ulchin. or sometimes the waters cause that a male or female be generated. must be set with their noses into the -orth. -ay further. )herefore the . !f we would procure females to be gendered. and exquisitely keen in the works of nature. !f a female. a man most subtle. do turn themselves toward the 'outhern wind. or not only $ristotle counsels. that those beasts which are wont to procreate females only. as soon as he has rid a cow.seen in such living creatures as bring forth many at one birthing.. +here is. $fricanus and )idymus do all give. that is great with Pig. some cause thereof may be the force and operation of some waters. +he )ams at the time of their copulation.
or which cause the shepherds there drive away their flocks at that time.f diverse e%periments that may be.ppianus speaking of the same experiment. is. practiced upon diverse living creatures. first to shave off the hair in that place where you would have a white patch. both pleasant. or crafty Horse coursers are wont to counterfeit white spots in the forehead. or left thigh. +hereby to deceive such men." !t is a thing required in the art of trimming of Horses . "How to make Horses have white spots on them. if you would have. which we have thought good here to set down. as are wont to guess at the goodness and qualities of a Horse. or right shoulder of an Horse. . says he. they commonly bring forth all males. shows that it is to be done by fire. that are full of white round spots intermingled with their black color. And this their counterfeit practice has been detected by this chance. #ut . +he manner of the doing it. and of some use. Chapter $$II ". )hereof if the beasts drink in the springtime. #ut on the contrary. cunningly burns off their hair with a hot iron." There remain now certain experiments of living creatures. +here are some Horses. that the hair of a Horses skin being galled off in any place. by the con4ecture of such marks. And first. who when they are yet tender and young. as Pausanias writes in his $chaica. after a while hoary hairs have grown up there of themselves. And it is not unlikely but that this chance taught them that practice. !t comes by the industry of the Horse breeder. and feed them in that part of the country which lies farthest off from that river. another river called Charadius. and have been. to save a labor of seeking them any further. to be able to cause white spots to grow in some parts of them.from that.
especially at every ramming time. and all four footed beasts. by giving them some kind of water to drink. or . not white hairs. "'ause the *leeces and hides of cattle to be of diverse colors.%en by nature. and then mix them with oil. and all the naughty stuff. Afterwards. though indeed he be very lean. all for the most part. #ut what should be reason that this #arley ashes should cause. but the like in color to the rest. And this you must do for twenty days. are white . and blow wind thereby into him. and afterward give him meat." !f you take an . and make it into loaves. and near also to a certain river +hracia. $le%ander $phrodisous ascribes to this." as $elianus show. he will show fat. and put to it the froth of !itre and a little Salt. that was gathered by the fore into that part. and contrariwise. and anoint the fore or the scar therewith. that. as soon as they drink of it. become white.%en a counterfeit show of fatness.% well grown in years. because it was maimed. because #arley has in it a purgative and cleaning force. as the other hair is of. as Theophrastus. .uboea. some are turned from white to black. "Procure in ."The hairs of a wounded or galled place. crush them and beat them to powder. to become yellow. do diversely change their color. =ou must knead three pints of bruised or ground #arley. and so washes and expels the humors. 'ome are turned from black to white. to grow up of the same color. +he river 'camander." Tiberius has taught the way how do it. though before they were red or black. Sheep. )e may also. says. +hen you must put them into an oven till they are burned to coals. +he force and nature of the rivers working this change in them. to grow upon the scars or sores of Horses whereupon it is cast. and make a hole into hid thigh. neither yet will ! here omit that boyish experiment whereby we may. by reason of the diversity of water which they drink. )e may also con4ecture and foresee by certain outward bodily signs in the )am or sire. !n .%en and Sheep. +hese alterations are commonly seen near to the river Antandrus. the river Crathis affords one channel that makes beasts white. makes as many Sheep as drink of the water thereof. which is near unto +roy. and consequently not so well able to revive itself.
then it yields a Hen. And not only frame her tongue to their words. -ow. 'o if you look under the /am0s tongue. yet in those two parts we may discern so many and such colors as the foal shall have. because in things that are round. that she would fly to him. she would fly to his trencher at dinner and supper."3hat color their young ones will be of. there will be also sundry like colors upon the +ambs. or however the rest of their body is of one and the same color. and she would fly everywhere. !nsomuch that nothing could be spoken in the house. you shall there find certain veins. #ut still at . )hich if they be black. And he himself gave her with his own hands all the meat she did eat. "How to make a bird sociable and familiar with thee. +he device was this. not only for the supplying of her daily wants. whether the chick when it is hatched. with the same color will the fleece of the +amb be overspread. will be a 'ock or hen. as $ristotle." -ow we will speak of the sociable ness and familiarity which a certain Pie had with a friend of mine. but she would imitate it. says he." +o foreknow the color of young "ules. #ut if they be white. but as it were for love. while she was yet unfeathered in the nest. as 'olumella writes. then he has begotten white +ambs." $ristotle teaches us. then it will yield a 'ock 'hicken. the natural heat is more kindly and strongly compacted together. then will the +amb0s be black also. )ho by this pretty device did make the Pie so well acquainted with him. how we may. that the poor wretch could not eat any meat but that which put into her mouth with hands. or look what color these veins are of. we must take special example of the hairs of their )am%s ears and eyelids. never forsaking him night or day. #ut if it be somewhat long. but her body also to the imitating and resembling of their actions. +he reason is. even to her very 4aws. !nsomuch that if there be sundry colors in them. And he often left her loose at home. for. he broke off her lower beak. ":now by the (gg. and speak it again. After that. and would prate and chat unto him very flippant. if the (gg be exactly round. )emocritus and )idymus do witness. and so serviceable to him.
And sometimes staying behind him. she would in all haste fly away after to overtake him.dinner and supper times she would return home. frisking about him for very 4oy. now and then flying a great way before him. And yet to his day he has her. And she was also his continual bedfellow. and would sit still upon a bough till he came at her. let these things be sufficient which we have already spoken. !t fell out that the man had occasion to go from home fifteen or sixteen days 4ourney. and then when he was gone a great way before. The (nd of The Second #ook of !atural "agick . 'he would always bear him company. concerning the general transmutation and change of living creatures. #ut. And then she would leap upon his cap and his shoulders. and en4oys her familiar company.
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