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NPQS

C5-10 Structural Steelwork
Version 1.0
National Productivity and Quality Specifications (NPQS)
C5-10 Structural Steelwork
NPQS
C5-10 Structural Steelwork
Version 1.0
CONTENTS
Page
1. GENERAL 1
1.1 Scope 1
1.2 Related Sections 1
1.3 Standards and Technical Reference 1
1.4 Trade Preambles 3
1.5 Definitions 6
2. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 7
2.1 Design Brief 7
2.2 Loading During Construction 7
3. MATERIALS 8
3.1 Steel Sections/Elements 8
3.2 Welding Consumables 9
3.3 Fasteners 9
3.4 Profiled Steel Decking 10
3.5 Protective Finishes 10
3.6 Grout 10
4. WORKMANSHIP 12
4.1 General 12
4.2 Storage and Handling 12
4.3 Fabrication 12
4.4 Bolting 14
4.5 Welding 16
4.6 Permitted Deviations (PDs) of Fabrication 19
4.7 Erection 26
4.8 Permitted Deviations (PDs) in Erection 27
5. VERIFICATION AND SUBMISSIONS 32
5.1 Submission 32
5.2 Procedural Trial and Trial Assemblies 34
5.3 Inspection 34
5.4 Non-Destructive Testing of Welds 34
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1. GENERAL
Read with the General Requirements section, and all other contract documents.
1.1 Scope
This section covers the requirements for the fabrication and erection of normal
structural steelwork in buildings. It does not cover the use of stainless steel in special
structures.
This document specifies project specific data to be read in conjunction with section
C5-10 of NPQS. All modification and additions noted in this document take
precedence over clauses noted in NPQS. Clause references in this document tie with
those in C5-10 with the same clause title.
1.2 Related Sections
Read this work section in conjunction with the relevant requirements of the other work
sections as follows:
C5-20 Protective Works for Structural Steelwork
1.3 Standards and Technical Reference
1.3.1 Standard
Unless otherwise agreed by the SO, ensure all of the Works comply with the relevant
requirements of the Standards and Codes listed below or referenced in the body of
the Specification. Alternative Standards and Codes may be proposed for approval by
the SO, provided it can be demonstrated that the alternative Standards and Codes
comply with the requirements of the standards specified. All Standards and Codes
quoted are the current version, unless specific year references are noted.
Singapore Standards
SS 470 Hot-finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural
steels
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements
Part 2: Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties
SS 503 Cold formed welded steel structural hollow sections
Part 1 : Technical delivery requirements
Part 2 : Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties
Other Standards
ANSI/AWS
D1.1-02
Structural welding code. Steel
ASTM E165 Standard test method for liquid penetrant examination
ASTM E709 Standard guide for magnetic particle examination
ASTM E747 Controlling quality of radiographic testing using wire penetrameters
BS EN ISO 898-
1
Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel.
Bolts, screws and studs
BS EN ISO 1461 Hot dip galvanised coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles.
Specifications and test methods
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BS EN 10024 Hot rolled taper flange I sections. Tolerances on shape and dimensions
BS EN 10025 Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels. Technical delivery
conditions
BS EN 10029 Tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled steel plates
3mm thick or above
BS EN 10051 Specification for continuously hot-rolled uncoated plate, sheet and strip of
non-alloy and alloy steels. Tolerances on dimensions and shape
BS EN 10113 Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels
Part 1: General delivery conditions
Part 2: Delivery conditions for normalised/ normalised rolled steels
Part 3: Delivery conditions for thermomechanical rolled steels
BS EN 10137 Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steel in the
quenched and tempered or precipitation hardened conditions
Part 1: General delivery conditions
Part 2: Delivery conditions for quenched and tempered steels
Part 3: Delivery condition for precipitation-hardened steels
BS EN 10155 Structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance.
Technical delivery conditions
BS EN 10163 Specification for delivery requirement for surface condition of hot rolled
steel plates, wide flats and sections
Part 1: General requirements
Part 2: Plates and wide flats
Part 3: Sections
BS EN 10210 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural
steels
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements
Part 2: Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties
BS EN 10219 Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain
steels
BS EN 10279 Hot rolled steel channels. Tolerances on shape, dimension and mass
BS EN 10034 Structural steel I and H section. Tolerance on shape and dimensions
BS EN 10055 Hot rolled steel equal flange tees with radiused root and toes. Dimensions
and tolerances on shape and dimensions.
BS EN 10056-1 Structural steel equal and unequal leg angles. Dimensions
BS EN 10056-2 Specification for structural steel equal and unequal leg angles. Tolerances
on shape and dimensions
BS 4-1 Structural steel sections. Specification for hot rolled sections
BS 2583 Podger spanners
BS 3692: ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts – specification
BS 4190 ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts – specification
BS 4320 Metal washers for general engineering purposes
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BS 4395 High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for
structural engineering (metric series)
BS 4429 Specification for rigging screws and turnbuckles for general engineering
lifting purposes and pipe hanger applications
BS 4604 Use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steelwork (metric series)
BS 4921 Specification for sherardised coatings on iron and steel
BS 4933 ISO metric black cup and countersunk head bolts and screws with
hexagon nuts
BS 5531 Code of practice for safety in erecting structural frames
BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building
Part 1: Code of practice for design. Rolled and welded sections
Part 2: Specification for materials, fabrication and erection. Rolled and
welded sections
Part 4: Code of practice for design of floors with profiled steel sheeting
BS 7079 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related
products.
Part A1: Visual assessment of surface cleanliness
BS 7419 Specification for holding down bolts
BS 7644 Direct tension indicators.
Part 1: Specification for compressible washers
Part 2: Specification for nut face and bolt face washers
BS 7668 Weldable structural steels. Hot finished structural hollow sections in
weather resistant steels
In the event that the Standards or Codes are partially superseded or become
obsolete, refer to the latest edition or the approved substitution for the relevant
clauses.
1.3.2 Technical Reference
When carrying out the works, take guidance from the following technical reference:
a. UK’s National Structural Steelwork Specification (NSSS), 4
th
Edition, 2002.
1.4 Trade Preambles
1.4.1 Contractor’s Submissions and Proposals
1.4.1.1 Connection Design
Develop the connection design when required as indicated in the PSD.
Development of the design of connections is *required / not required.
Engage a PE (civil) to develop the design of the connections based on the structural
design drawings.
1.4.1.2 Temporary Works
Engage a PE to plan, design and supervise any necessary temporary supports to
ensure the structural steelwork is stable throughout the construction, paying attention
to the safe erection of structural steelwork in accordance with BS 5531.
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1.4.2 Shop Drawings
Engage qualified and experienced personnel to prepare coordinated shop drawings
for the fabrication and erection of the steelwork.
1.4.3 Qualifications
1.4.3.1 Steel Fabricators
Engage steel fabricators who are accredited under the Structural Steel Fabricators
Accreditation Scheme of the Singapore Structural Steel Society for the fabrication
works.
Refer to the PSD for the required grade of the fabricator.
The required grade of steel fabricator is ____.
1.4.3.2 Supervisors
All structural steelwork and associated works are to be undertaken and supervised by
appropriately experienced personnel. Provide evidence of personnel’s past
experience and certificate to the SO for acceptance prior to commencement of the
Works.
1.4.3.3 Welder Qualification
Submit evidence of welders’ competence to the to undertake the specified work.
The welders are to be tested to meet the requirements of ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 4
Part C. The welder’s test is to be conducted and certificates are to be issued by the
Independent Inspection and Testing Agency.
1.4.4 Quality Control Plan
Submit and work to a quality control plan as agreed with the SO. Refer to the General
Requirements section, clause 1.4.10 for guidance.
1.4.5 Accredited Laboratory
Engage a laboratory accepted by the SO and accredited under the Singapore
Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (SINGLAS) to carry out tests and checks as
required by this Specification, including all on site weld tests where applicable.
1.4.6 Independent Inspection and Testing Agency (ITA)
Appoint an independent Inspection and Testing Agency (ITA) when required as
indicated in the PSD.
Appointment of an accredited inspection body is *required / not required.
When required, the scope of service of the ITA shall be as follows:
S/N Description Tick where
applicable
1. Review the quality manuals, inspection & test plans
2. Review fabrication and erection procedures
3. Review of welding procedure specification, procedure
qualification records, welder and welding operator qualification
records.
4. Pre-inspection meeting and audit of fabricator facilities/plants
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5. Review of material test certificates/records, verify or inspect
materials and witness pre-treatment processes, if any
6. Witness cutting/edge joint preparations, verify joint geometry
and inspect fit-up condition
7. Verify that welding processes are carried out in accordance
with the approved welding procedures, codes/standards and
relevant documents
8. Perform visual inspection and verify dimensional records
9. Select weld joints for testing & witness non-destructive testing
and assess all results
10. Witness blasting & galvanising processes
11. Inspect painting and galvanising works
12. Identify & verify completed structural members and witness the
handling of these members onto lorry/truck for delivery to site
13. Inspect delivered structural members for damage due to
handling and transportation
14. Inspect the assembly of structural members at erection site
prior to welding
15. Verify all welding procedure and welder qualification records at
site
16. Witness procedure trial of stud welding process
17. Inspect all welds & bolt tightening
18. Select weld for testing and witness site NDT
19 Inspect all remaining site painting and witness repairing of all
protective treatment works
20. Witness fireproofing mock-up test as well as laboratory tests
21. Witness and inspect the application of fireproofing works
22. Final inspection of all structural members
23. Review all documents and records including but not limited to
the following:
- Dimensional
- Procedures
- Testing
Alternatively, the SO may engage the ITA separately.
In either of the above cases, make available to the ITA the following:
a. All requested documentation and a detailed programme to allow the ITA to
discharge its duties and to witness significant stages in the fabrication and
erection process.
b. Any instruments or other equipment required checking the accuracy and quality
of the works.
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1.5 Definitions
a. Design
Drawings
Drawings showing the dimensioned layout of the steel
structure with the size and material grades of all members,
the forces to be developed in their connections and any
cambers etc, from which shop drawings are made.
b. Shop
Drawings
Drawings showing all necessary information to fabricate the
structural steelwork, including the piece markings with the
location in the structure.
c. Reaming Forming, shaping, tapering, or enlarging a hole with a reamer.
d. Faying
Surfaces
Surfaces which are tightly or closely fitted.
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2. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
2.1 Design Brief
When carrying out design as described in Clause 1.4.1, ensure the design conforms
to the requirements of BS 5950 or other design codes as indicated in the PSD.
Design the connections based on forces given in the design drawings.
When carrying out design as described in Clause 1.4.1, ensure the design conforms
to the requirements of ____.
2.2 Loading During Construction
Ensure that the steelwork is adequately braced or restrained to withstand all loadings
liable to be encountered during construction without inducing excessive stresses,
deflections or distortion in the structure.
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3. MATERIALS
3.1 Steel Sections/Elements
3.1.1 Material Qualities
Material qualities, dimensions and tolerances are to comply with the appropriate
standard as tabulated below:
MATERIAL, DIMENSION AND TOLERANCE STANDARDS
Material Qualities
Form Non-alloy
steels
Fine
grain
steels
Q&T
steels
Weathering
steels
Dimensions Tolerances
Universal
Beams &
Columns
BS 4 -1 BS EN
10034
Joists BS 4 -1 BS EN
10024
Channels BS 4 -1 BS EN
10279
Rolled
Asymmetric
Beams
(4) (4)
Angles BS EN 10056-1 BS EN
10056-2
Rolled Tees BS EN 10055 BS EN
10055
Split Tees BS 4 - 1 As UB & UC
Plates
(Reversing Mill)
- BS EN
10029
Plates
(Cut from Coil)
- BS EN
10051
Bars and Rods - -
Wide Flats
(3)
BS EN
10025
(1)
BS EN
10113
BS EN
10137-2
(2)
BS EN
10155
- -
Hollow Sections
(Hot-Finished)
(5)
SS 470: Part 1
(BS EN 10210-1)
- BS 7668 SS 470: Part 2
(BS EN 10210-2)
Hollow Sections
(Cold-Formed)
(5)
SS 503: Part 1
(BS EN 10219-1)
- - SS 503: Part 2
(BS EN 10219-2
(4)
)
Turnbuckles BS 4429
3.1.2 Mill Certificates
All steel elements are to have the manufacturer’s mill test certificates indicating
compliance with the specified codes.
3.1.3 Surface Condition
3.1.3.1 General Condition
Steel for fabrication is not to be more heavily pitted or rusted than Grade C of BS
7079 Part A1.
3.1.3.2 Rectification of Surface Defects
For hot rolled plates and wide flats, if there are surface imperfections and defects as
classified in BS EN 10163-2 Clause 4 (Requirements) revealed during surface
preparation, rectify the surface in accordance to BS EN 10163-2 Clause 5 (Repair
Procedures).
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For hot rolled sections, if there are surface imperfections and defects as classified in
BS EN 10163-3 Clause 4 (Requirements) revealed during surface preparation, rectify
the surface in accordance to BS EN 10163-3 Clause 5 (Repair Procedures).
For hot rolled hollow sections, rectify the surface imperfections and defects revealed
during surface preparation in accordance to BS EN 10210-1 Clause 6.8 (Surface
Condition).
3.2 Welding Consumables
Welding consumables for metal arc welding are to comply with ANSI/AWS D1.1
Clause 5.3 (Welding Consumables and Electrode Requirements).
Ensure compatibility between welding consumables and parent materials used for the
steelwork.
3.3 Fasteners
3.3.1 Ordinary Bolt Assemblies
Ordinary bolts (full and part threaded length) are to comply with BS 4190 for all
grades.
Ordinary nuts are to comply with BS 4190 (grade 4 for grade 4.6, 8 for 8.8 and 10 for
10.9).
For galvanised or sherardised bolts use class 10 nuts for 8.8 bolts and class 12 nuts
for 10.9 bolts.
Black steel washers are to comply with BS 4320 Section 2.
3.3.2 Countersunk Bolt Assemblies
3.3.2.1 Bolts
Comply with BS 4933 for grade 4.6 (cup headed bolts and 90° countersunk head
bolts).
Comply with BS 4933 (dimensions) and BS EN ISO 898-1 (material) for grade 8.8
bolts.
3.3.2.2 Nuts
Comply with BS 4190 (grade 4) for grade 4.6 bolts.
Comply with BS 3692 (grade 8) for grade 8.8 bolts.
3.3.2.3 Washers
Ordinary steel washers (normal diameter series) are to comply with BS 4320 Section
2.
3.3.3 High Strength Friction Grip Fasteners
Bolts, nuts and washers are to comply with:
a. BS 4395-1 for general grade bolts
b. BS 4395-2 for higher grade bolts
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3.3.4 Lock Nuts for Bolt Assemblies
Comply with BS 3692 or BS 4190 as appropriate.
3.3.5 Holding Down Assemblies
3.3.5.1 Bolts
Comply with BS 7419 for grades 4.6 and 8.8.
3.3.5.2 Nuts
Comply with BS 4190:
Grade 4 for grade 4.6 bolts.
Grade 8 for grade 8.8 bolts.
Class 10 for galvanised or sherardised grade 8.8 bolts.
3.3.5.3 Washers
Comply with BS 4320 Section 2 (normal diameter series) for bolts grades 4.6 and 8.8.
3.3.6 Shear Studs
Proprietary headed studs are to have the following properties:
a. Minimum yield strength of 350 N/mm
2
b. Minimum ultimate tensile strength of 450 N/mm
2
c. Elongation of 15% on a gauge length of 5.65  A, where A = area of test specimen
d. Diameter and nominal length as noted on the drawings
3.4 Profiled Steel Decking
Comply with BS 5950-4 Clause 3.1 unless otherwise agreed.
3.5 Protective Finishes
3.5.1 Galvanising Materials
Comply with BS EN ISO 1461.
3.5.2 Sherardised Coatings
Comply with BS 4921.
3.5.3 Metallic Blast Cleaning Abrasives
Comply with BS 7079-E2 for chilled iron grit.
Comply with BS 7079-RE3 for cast steel grit.
3.5.4 Surface Coatings
Refer to Section C5-20, clause 3.0 for all paints and other coatings.
3.6 Grout
Grout is to comply with BS 5950-2 Section 2.5.
Grout around anchor bolts under base plates and between steel plates and concrete
surface is to have a minimum compressive strength at 28 days of 40 N/mm
2
.
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Proprietary grouts are not to contain high alumina cement.
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4. WORKMANSHIP
4.1 General
4.1.1 Traceability
All steel elements are to be identified and traceable to the manufacturer’s
material/mill test certificates.
4.1.2 Marking
Mark all pieces so that they can be identified at all stages of fabrication.
Mark completed components in locations that will not be covered up by other material
after erection to avoid confusion.
Hard stamping may be used other than where specified in the PSD.
Hard stamping may be used other than at the following areas:
a. _____
b. _____
Keep areas of steelwork free of all markings where so required on the Drawings.
4.2 Storage and Handling
Prepare and comply with proper storage and handling procedures in approved
method statement to ensure achievement of the desired quality and to minimise
damage to the steelwork.
4.2.1 Holding Areas
Lay steel in separate holding areas and keep clean.
4.2.2 Storage
Adequately support steel clear of the ground. Keep clean and do not allow water to
accumulate on components. Protect steel against corrosion.
Ensure individual piece markings are visible when members are stacked.
4.2.3 Handling
Plan and carry out bundling, packing, handling and transport in a manner designed to
prevent permanent distortion to the steelwork and minimise damage to any protective
coating.
4.2.4 Storage and Drying of Welding Consumables
Store and protect welding consumables that have been removed from the original
package so that the welding properties are not affected.
Carry out drying or re-baking, where necessary, in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
4.3 Fabrication
Prepare and comply with proper fabrication procedures to SO’s acceptance, to
ensure achievement of the desired quality.
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4.3.1 Cutting
Comply with BS 5950-2 Clause 3.3 (Cutting).
Cut and shape steel by sawing, shearing, cropping, nibbling, plasma or laser cutting
and thermal or flame cutting.
Thermal cutting are not permitted at the areas indicated in the PSD.
Thermal cutting are not permitted at the following areas:
a. ____
b. ____
4.3.1.1 Hand Flame Cutting
Use only where it is impractical to use machine flame cutting.
4.3.1.2 Flame Cut Edges
Flame-cut edges that are free from significant irregularities require no further
treatment other than dressing as specified in 4.3.3(Dressing).
4.3.2 Holing
Comply with BS 5950-2 Clause 3.4 (Holing).
4.3.2.1 Forming
Drill, punch, plasma or laser cut and thermal or flame cut round holes for fasteners.
Thermal holing or full size hole punching are not permitted at the areas indicated in
the PSD.
Thermal holing or full size hole punching are not permitted at the following areas:
a. ____
b. ____
4.3.2.2 Matching
Ensure all matching holes are formed such that fasteners can be inserted freely
through the assembled members at right angles to the contact faces.
Drifting to align holes may be used provided it neither enlarges nor distorts the holes.
4.3.2.3 Drilling through Multiple Thickness
Tightly clamp the separate parts before drilling and remove any burrs after separating
the parts.
4.3.2.4 Punching Full Size
Punching of full size holes is permitted when all the following conditions are satisfied:
a. The tolerance on distortion of the punched hole does not exceed that specified;
b. The holes are free of burrs which would prevent solid seating of the parts when
tightened;
c. The thickness of the material is not greater than 30mm, nor greater than the
diameter of the hole being punched;
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d. In spliced connections when the holes in mating surfaces are punched in the
same direction and the splice plates marked to show the assembly faces, if
packed separately.
4.3.2.5 Punching and Reaming
When the conditions in 4.3.2.4 is not satisfied, punching is still permitted provided that
the holes are punched at least 2mm less in diameter than the required size and the
holes are then reamed to the full diameter after assembly.
4.3.3 Dressing
4.3.3.1 Removal of Burrs
Dress cut edges or holes to remove dross, burrs, irregularities and protruding edges.
If holes are drilled through components that are clamped together not intended to be
separated after drilling, removal of burrs is not required.
4.3.3.2 Dressing of Sharp Edges
Dress all sharp edges.
A 90° rolled, sheared or machined cut edge requires no further treatment.
4.3.4 Curving and Straightening
Curve or straighten components during fabrication using mechanical means or the
local application of heat.
4.3.4.1 Heating
Control the temperature carefully and do not let the temperature exceed 650°C.
4.3.4.2 Inspection
After the process is complete, visually inspect all welds within the area of curving or
straightening. Carry out non-destructive testing of welds, where directed.
4.4 Bolting
4.4.1 Hole Sizes for Bolting
4.4.1.1 Ordinary and HSFG Bolts
a. For bolts ≤ 24mm diameter, hole sizes are to be bolt diameter +2mm.
b. For bolts > 24mm diameter, hole sizes are to be bolt diameter +3mm.
4.4.1.2 Holding Down Bolts
Hole sizes are to be bolt diameter +6mm with sufficient clearance to ensure the bolt
can be accommodated through the base plate when adjusted.
4.4.1.3 Fitted Bolts
Clearance of bolt in hole is not to exceed 0.3mm.
4.4.2 Ordinary Bolted Assemblies
4.4.2.1 Make-up of Bolt Assemblies
Refer to Clause 3.3.1(Ordinary Bolt Assemblies) for strength grade combination of
bolt/nuts/washers.
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4.4.2.2 Condition of Bolts
Bolt assemblies are to be in such condition immediately before installation that the
nut turns freely on the bolt.
4.4.2.3 Differing Grades of Bolts
Unless otherwise agreed by the SO, do not use different bolt grades of the same
diameter in the same structure.
4.4.2.4 Bolt Length
The length of bolt is to be such that at least one clear thread shows above the nut
after tightening, and at least one thread plus the thread run out is clear between the
nut and the unthreaded shank of the bolt.
4.4.2.5 Washers
Use at least one washer placed under the nut or bolt head being rotated in each bolt
assembly where the rotation might damage the surface protective treatment on the
members being connected. Use a plate or heavy duty washer under the head and nut
where the members being connected have oversize or slotted holes.
4.4.2.6 Taper Washers
Place under bolt heads and nuts bearing on surfaces sloping 3
°
or more from a plane
at right angles to the bolt axis.
4.4.2.7 Galvanised Nuts
Check after galvanizing to ensure free running on the bolt. Re-tap nuts, if necessary,
to ensure satisfactory tightening.
4.4.2.8 Tightening
Use power tools or by hand using appropriate spanners to BS 2583.
4.4.2.9 Locking of Nuts
Secure nuts used in connections subject to vibration or reversal of stresses to prevent
loosening. If not specified on the drawings, include the proposed method in the
erection details.
4.4.2.10 Fit-up Using Ordinary Bolt Assemblies
Draw connected parts firmly together. If there is a remaining gap more than 2mm,
which may affect the integrity of the joint, take the joint apart and insert a pack of the
same steel material.
4.4.2.11 Reaming
Reaming may be used where the connection design allows the use of larger diameter
holes and bolts in cases where drifting would distort the steelwork.
4.4.3 High Strength Friction Grip Fasteners
4.4.3.1 Make-up of Bolt Assemblies
Refer to Clause 3.3.3(High Strength Friction Grip Fasteners) for strength grade
combination of bolt/nuts/washers.
Place the hardened washer under the nut or head being turned.
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4.4.3.2 Tightening
Use high strength friction grip bolts in compliance with BS 4604-1 or 2.
Use the torque control method, the part-turn method or direct tension indicators in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for tightening in compliance
with BS 4604-1.
4.4.3.3 Calibration of Torque Equipment
Calibrate torque devices at least once each shift.
Recalibrate where necessary in accordance with BS 4604.
4.4.3.4 Discarded Bolt Assemblies
If after tightening, a bolt or nut is slackened off for any reason, discard the complete
bolt assembly and do not re-use in the Works.
4.4.3.5 Fit-up Using High Strength Friction Grip Fasteners
Draw connected parts firmly together with all bolts partially tightened. If there is a
remaining gap, take the joint apart and insert a pack of the same steel material before
continuing tightening.
4.4.3.6 Reaming
Reaming may be used where the connection design allows the use of larger bolts in
cases where drifting would distort the steelwork.
Demonstrate by calculation that the connection is adequate for the specified forces.
4.4.3.7 Faying Surfaces for HSFG Fasteners
Remove all mill-scale from the faying surfaces of friction grip joints.
Ensure the faying surfaces of friction grip joints are free of distortion, deformities or
contaminants, which may reduce the slip factor below the design value.
4.4.4 Slotted Holes Bolts
Where slotted holes are provided for movement connections ensure the joint is free to
move.
4.4.5 Holes in Hollow Sections
Seal bolt holes and vent holes in hollow sections to prevent the ingress of moisture.
If not specified on the design drawings, show the proposed method on the shop
drawings.
4.5 Welding
4.5.1 Welding Processes
Processes for Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged arc welding (SAW),
gas metal arc welding (GMAW) except GMAW-S, short circuiting transfer and flux
cored arc welding (FCAW) which conform to all of the requirements of ANSI/AWS
D1.1 Section 3 are deemed as pre-qualified and accepted for use without performing
the Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) Qualification Tests.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), electro-slag welding (ESW) or electro-gas welding
(EGW) and gas metal arc welding - short circuiting transfer (GMAW-S) are to conform
to all of the requirements of ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 4.
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4.5.2 Welding Supervisor
Carry out welding under the direction of a welding supervisor with appropriate
qualifications.
4.5.3 Welding Procedures Specifications
4.5.3.1 Preparation
Prepare Written Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) in accordance with
ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 4 Part B for acceptance by the Independent Inspection and
Testing Agency.
4.5.3.2 Procedure Tests
All procedure tests conducted are to be witnessed by the Independent Inspection and
Testing Agency.
4.5.3.3 Availability of Welding Procedure Specifications
Make WPS available to the welder, the SO and the Independent Inspection and
Testing Agency prior to the commencement of the works.
4.5.3.4 Inspection and test plans
Submit all inspection and test plans for SO’s acceptance prior to carrying out welding
works.
4.5.4 Assembly
4.5.4.1 Fit-up
Fit up joints to the dimensional accuracy in accordance with the following:
a. ANSI/AWS D1.1 Clause 3.9 (Fillet Weld Requirement) for Fillet Welding
b. ANSI/AWS D1.1 Clause 3.11 (Common Requirements of Partial and Complete
Joint Penetration Groove Welds) and Clause 3.12 (Partial Joint Penetration
Requirements) for Partial Penetration Butt Welding.
c. ANSI/AWS D1.1 Clause 3.11 (Common Requirements of Partial and Complete
Joint Penetration Groove Welds and Clause 3.13 (Complete Joint Penetration
Requirements) for Partial Penetration Butt Welding.
4.5.4.2 Temporary Welds and Tack Welds
Temporary welds are subject to the same welding procedure requirements as the
final welds. Remove the temporary welds unless otherwise agreed by the SO. Make
flush the surface with the original surface after the removal.
Tack welds are subject to the same quality requirements as the final welds, with the
following exceptions:
a. Preheat is not mandatory for single-pass tack welds which are re-melted and
incorporated into continuous submerged arc welds.
b. Discontinuities, such as undercut, unfilled craters and porosity need not be
removed before the final submerged arc welding.
c. Tack welds, which are incorporated into the final weld, are to be made with
electrodes meeting the requirements of the final welds and are to be cleaned
thoroughly. Multiple-pass tack welds are to have cascaded ends.
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Remove tack welds, which are not incorporated into the final weld, unless otherwise
agreed by the SO.
4.5.4.3 Control of Distortion and Shrinkage
Procedure and sequence of welding is to be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1
Clause 5.21 to minimise distortion and shrinkage.
4.5.4.4 Temporary Attachments
Welding of temporary attachments required for fabrication or erection is to be carried
out in accordance with the requirements for permanent welds.
Remove after use where required by flame cutting or gouging at a point not less than
3mm from the surface of the parent metal.
Grind flush and inspect the area visually.
Where the parent metal is more than 20mm thick, check by magnetic particle testing
method inspection using the acceptance criteria stipulated in Clause Error!
Reference source not found.(Non-Destructive Testing of Welds).
Do not remove temporary attachments by hammering.
4.5.5 Shear Stud Welding
4.5.5.1 Method
Fix shear studs in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for
materials, procedures and equipment.
4.5.5.2 Welding Procedure Trial
Where required, carry out welding procedure trial of studs to demonstrate the
suitability of the proposed welding system and equipment before commencement of
the work.
The trial is to use the materials and procedures proposed for the works. Test a
minimum of ten studs in the trial.
During the work, at the commencement of each shift, each welder is to undertake a
minimum of two trial welds.
4.5.5.3 Visual Inspection
Visually inspect all studs. They are to exhibit full 360 degree ‘flash’ with no evidence
of undercut into the stud base.
4.5.5.4 Bend Test
Subject studs to bend tests at locations agreed with the SO.
Test at least 5% of studs and not less than two per beam.
Bend the head of the stud by striking the head of the stud to an angle of
approximately 30° from their original axis with a hammer. Under this test the weld is
to show no visible signs of cracking or lack of fusion.
Do not straighten any studs so tested.
4.5.5.5 Defective Studs
Replace any studs with defective welding and re-test as above.
Where defective studs are removed check the surface as specified in 4.5.5.3 above.
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4.5.6 Removal of Slag
Remove slag by light hammering, wire brushing or other means that do not deform
the surface of the weld.
4.6 Permitted Deviations (PDs) of Fabrication
4.6.1 PDs in Rolled Components After Fabrication
4.6.1.1 Cross Section After Fabrication
In accordance with the appropriate standards given in clause 3.1.1(Material Qualities)
4.6.1.2 Squareness of Ends not Prepared for Bearing
PD = D/300, where D is the depth of the section.
= D/300 D
Plan or Elevation of End
4.6.1.3 Squareness of Ends Prepared for Bearing
PD = D/1000, where D is the depth of the section and the deviation is measured
relative to the longitudinal axis of the member.
D
= D/1000
Plan or Elevation
90°
4.6.1.4 Straightness
PD of a member from a straight line drawn between adjacent points of subsequent
effective lateral restraint = 3mm or L/1000, whichever is greater, where L is the
distance between restraints.
L
= L/1000 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4.6.1.5 Camber
PD from specified or proposed camber at mid-length = 6mm or L/1000, whichever is
greater, where L is the length of the member.
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L
whichever is the greater
Deviation = L/1000 or 6mm
Deviation
4.6.1.6 Length
PD after cutting, measured on the centre line of the section or on the corner of angles
= 2mm.
= 2mm
L ±
4.6.2 PDs of Fabricated Components
4.6.2.1 Position of Fittings
PD from the intended position for fittings and components whose location is critical to
the force path = 3mm.
= 3mm
4.6.2.2 Position of Holes
PD from the intended position of hole or group of holes = 2mm.
= 2mm
4.6.2.3 Punched Holes
Distortion caused by a punched hole is not to exceed D/10 or 1mm, whichever is
greater, where D is the nominal hole diameter.
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whichever is the greater
= D/10 or 1mm
D
4.6.2.4 Sheared or Cropped Edges of Plates or Angles
Deviation from a 90° edge is not to exceed t/10 where t = plate thickness.
= t/10
t
4.6.2.5 Flatness
Gaps in joints that depend on contact bearing when assembled during fabrication are
not to exceed 0.75mm and are to be less than 0.25mm over 50% of the length of
contact of the section.
=0 75mm
4.6.3 PDs in Plate Girder Sections
4.6.3.1 Depth
PD measured on centre line = ± 4mm.
D ±
= 4mm
4.6.3.2 Flange Width
For flange width B < 300mm, PD = ±3mm.
For flange width B≥ 300mm, PD = ±5mm.
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B ±
n
B ±
w
B or B <
w n
300
= 3mm
B or B >
w
= 5mm
300
n
_
4.6.3.3 Squareness of Sections
For flange width B, PD on out of squareness = B/100 or 3mm, whichever is greater.
B Flange width
= B / 100 or 3mm
whichever is
the greater
4.6.3.4 Web Eccentricity
PD on intended position of web from one edge of flange = ± 5mm.
= 5mm
b
±
4.6.3.5 Flanges
For flange width B, PD on out of flatness = B/100 or 3mm, whichever is greater.
B Flange width
= B/100 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4.6.3.6 Top Flange of Crane Girder
PD on out of flatness where rail seats = 1mm.
w = Rail width + 20mm
= 1mm
w w
4.6.3.7 Length
PD on length on centre line = ± 3mm.
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L ±
= 3mm
4.6.3.8 Flange Straightness
PD on straightness of individual flanges = L/1000 or 3mm, whichever is greater,
where L is length.
L
whichever is the greater
= L/1000 or 3mm
4.6.3.9 Curve or Camber
PD on intended curve or camber at mid-length of curved portion = L/1000 or 6mm,
whichever is greater, where L is length and deviation is measured with web
horizontal.
Deviation
Deviation = L/1000 or 6mm
whichever is the greater
L
4.6.3.10 Web Distortion
PD on distortion on web depth (or gauge length) = d/150 or 3mm, whichever is
greater, where d is depth of web.
d
gauge length = web depth
= d/150 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4.6.3.11 Cross Section at Bearings
PD on squareness of flanges to web = D/300 or 3mm, whichever is greater, where D
is depth of section.
D
= D/300 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4.6.3.12 Web Stiffeners
PD on straightness of stiffener out of plane with web after welding = d/500 or 3mm,
whichever is greater, where d is depth of stiffener.
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whichever is the greater
= d/500 or 3mm
d
PD on straightness of stiffener in plane with web after welding = d/250 or 3mm,
whichever is greater, where d is depth of stiffener.
= d/250 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
d
4.6.4 PDs in Box Sections
4.6.4.1 Plate Widths
For B
f
or B
w
< 300mm, PD = ±3mm, where B
f
,

B
w
are flange width and web depth
respectively.
For B
f
or B
w
≥ 300mm, PD = ± 5mm.
B ±
w
B ±
f
w
B or B < 300
f
= 3mm
= 5mm
B or B > 300
f w
_
4.6.4.2 Squareness
PD on squareness measured at diaphragm positions = D/300, where D is section
depth.
D
= D/300
4.6.4.3 Plate Distortion
PD on distortion on width or gauge length = w/150 or 3mm, whichever is the greater,
where w is depth of web.
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w
gauge length = width, w
= w/150 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4.6.4.4 Web or Flange Straightness
PD on straightness of individual web or flanges = L/1000 or 3mm, whichever is the
greater, where L is full length.
whichever is the greater
= L / 1000 or 3mm
L
4.6.4.5 Web Stiffeners
PD on straightness in plane with plate after welding = d/500 or 3mm, whichever is the
greater, where d is depth of web.
whichever is the greater
= d / 500 or 3mm
d
PD on straightness out of plane to plate after welding = d/250 or 3mm, whichever is
the greater, where d is depth of web.
whichever is the greater
d
= d / 250 or 3mm
4.6.4.6 Length
PD on length measured on centre line = ± 3mm.
L ±
= 3mm
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4.6.4.7 Curve or Camber
PD on deviation from intended curve or camber at mid-length of curved portion when
measured with the un-cambered side horizontal = L/1000 or 6mm, whichever is the
greater, where L is length of the curved portion.
Deviation = L / 1000 or 6mm
whichever is the greater
L
Deviation
4.7 Erection
4.7.1 General
Prepare and comply with proper erection procedures to SO’s acceptance, to ensure
achievement of the desired quality and safety, paying attention to site conditions,
constraints and restrictions.
4.7.2 Erection Loads
Ensure that the structure is not overloaded by stacking of materials.
4.7.3 Temporary Supports
Any temporary supports used may be removed after the structure has been lined,
levelled and plumbed, provided sufficient components have been erected and
secured to ensure the overall structure remains stable under the worst anticipated
conditions of loading.
4.7.4 Alignment
Align each part of the structure as soon as practicable after erection. Do not make
permanent connections between members until the structure has been sufficiently
aligned, levelled, plumbed and temporarily connected so that members will not be
displaced during subsequent erection or alignment of the remainder of the structure.
4.7.5 Temperature Adjustment
Take due account of the effects of temperature on the structure and measuring
equipment when measurements are made for setting-out and erection, and for
dimensional checks carried out subsequently.
Adopt 30°C as the reference temperature unless otherwise agreed.
4.7.6 Site Welding
Carry out site welding only by agreement with the SO or as shown on the design
drawings.
Carry out all site welding in accordance with clause 4.5(Welding) above.
Do not carry out site welding in inclement weather unless adequate weather
protection is provided for welders and materials.
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4.7.7 Foundation Bolts
Hold foundation bolts firmly in position during all setting-in operations.
Protect bolts, threads and nuts against damage, corrosion and contamination at all
stages of construction.
Keep pockets formed around foundation bolts clean and free from all extraneous
matter.
Use templates to set in the holding-down bolts.
4.7.8 Packs and Wedges
Plumb and level columns using steel packs and wedges of adequate strength and
stiffness, and not larger than necessary for the purpose.
Where packings are to be left in position and subsequently grouted, place them such
that they are totally enclosed by the grout.
4.7.9 Grouting
Carry out grouting in accordance with BS 5950-2 Clause 6.3.
Do not carry out grouting under column base plates until a sufficient portion of the
structure has been aligned, levelled, plumbed and adequately braced.
Immediately before grouting, clean the space under the column base plates to be free
of all extraneous matter.
Prepare, mix and place proprietary grout in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
4.7.10 Profiled Steel Decking
Install in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations, including the provision of
edge trims, temporary supports, lapping, etc.
4.8 Permitted Deviations (PDs) in Erection
Erect steelwork within the PDs in the following clauses.
4.8.1 Receiving Structures and Connections
Ensure that structures by others to which the steelwork attaches is constructed within
the anticipated PDs before commencing steel erection.
Where components and fixings are cast in by others ensure that they are also within
the anticipated PDs before commencing steel erection.
Inspect for position and level in good time before the planned start of steelwork
erection.
In the event of any discrepancies found, notify the SO, propose and correct the
discrepancies.
4.8.2 PDs of Holding Down Bolts
4.8.2.1 Bolts or Bolt Groups with Allowance for Adjustment
a. Bolt level: +25/-5mm.
b. Minimum clearance: 25mm at top of concrete
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c. Bolt centroid: ±10mm from specified position at top of concrete.
of concrete
clearance at top
25 mm minimum
at top of concrete
= ± 10 mm from specified position
bolt level
- 5 mm
+ 25 mm
=
4.8.2.2 Bolts or Bolt Groups with No Allowance for Adjustment
a. Bolt level: +45/-5mm.
b. Bolt centroid: ±3mm from specified position at top of concrete.
= ± 3 mm from specified position
bolt level =
+ 45 mm
- 5 mm
at top of concrete
4.8.2.3 Bolts or Bolt Groups Cast into Walls (No Allowance for Adjustment)
a. End of bolt: +45/-5mm.
b. Bolt centroid: ±3mm position in plan and elevation.
and elevation
position in plan
= ± 3 mm
= bolt level
+ 45 mm
- 5 mm
4.8.3 PD of Level of Base Plate
PD of level of column base plate = 5mm.
4.8.4 PDs of Erected Components
4.8.4.1 Position of Columns at Base
PD of section centreline from the specified position = 10mm.
= 10mm
4.8.4.2 Overall Plan Dimension
PD on length or width = 20mm for L < 30m and [20 + 0.25 (L-30)] mm for L ≥ 30m,
where L is the specified overall dimension in metres.
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4.8.4.3 Plumb of Single Storey Columns
PD of top relative to base = ± h/600 or 5mm, whichever is greater, on main axes,
excluding portal frame columns, where h is the storey height.
H
H
= ± H/600 or 5 mm
Max = ± 25mm
whichever is greater
4.8.4.4 Plumb in Multi Storey Columns
PD in each storey of column = h/600 or 5mm, whichever is greater, where h is the
storey height.
PD of column at top storey relative to specified position at base plate = 50mm
maximum.
H = 50mm maximum
h = ± h/600 or 5 mm
h
h = storey
height
H
whichever is greater
4.8.4.5 Alignment of Adjacent Perimeter Columns
PD of one column relative to the next on a line parallel to the grid line = 10mm when
measured at the base or splice level.
= 10 mm
critical face of columns
4.8.4.6 Gap Between Bearing Surfaces
PD = (D/1000 +1) mm where D is the dimension along the bearing surface.
= (D / 1000) + 1 mm
D
D
4.8.4.7 Level of Beams
a. PD of two or more beams meeting at a column = ± 5mm.
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= ± 10mm
Specified
Level
b. PD on level of beam at its ends = 5mm.
= ± 5mm
c. PD on level of adjacent beams within a distance of 5m = ± 5mm.
= ± 5mm
d. PD from specified level of beam at supporting column = ± 10mm.
Level
Floor
h<3m, = 5mm
h<3m, = h/600
h
Floor
Level
e. PD of beam relative to adjacent beam above or below = 5mm for h < 3m and
h/600 for h ≥ 3m, where h = storey height in m.
4.8.4.8 Plumb of Crane Gantry Columns
PD = ± H
c
/1000 or 5mm, whichever is greater to a maximum of ± 25mm.
H
c
= ± H /1000 or 5mm
c
whichever is greater
Max = ± 25mm
4.8.4.9 Crane Gantries Gauge of Rail Tracks
PD from true gauge = ± 10mm.
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= ± 10mm
G + H
4.8.4.10 Joints in Gantry Crane Rails
a. PD on rail surface across joint = 0.5mm.
= 0.5mm
b. PD on rail edge alignment across joint = 1mm.
= 1mm
4.8.4.11 Profile Steel Floor Decking
PD of dimension between deck edge trim and perimeter beam = ± 10mm for deck
span in either direction.
x ±
either direction
deck may span
Generic profile
= ± 10mm
L
C
Actual beam
line
Grid
4.8.5 Deviations Exceeding PDs
Inform the SO as soon as possible if checks show that the deviation in position of the
steelwork as erected exceeds the PDs given above. Propose and carry out remedial
measures as required.
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5. VERIFICATION AND SUBMISSIONS
5.1 Submission
5.1.1 Design Submission
When required in Clause 1.4.1, submit to the SO for acceptance calculations and
drawings for the connection details within time as directed by the SO prior to
commencement of the Works.
5.1.2 Shop Drawings
Submit to the SO for acceptance complete and coordinated shop drawings within
time as directed by the SO prior to commencement of any works. Include all details of
the steel structures incorporating at least the following information:
a. Number of pieces of steel sections
b. Dimensions
c. Tolerances
d. Connection details
e. Bearing locations and details
f. All other fabrication and erection details
5.1.3 Method Statement
Provide a detailed method statement to the SO for acceptance within directed time
prior to commencement of any works. Include at least the following information:
a. A site plan showing the work layout area, position and type of cranes, access
routes, datum level, setting-out lines, storage area, etc.
b. Fabrication procedure/manual, locations (local and/or overseas), list of
subcontractors/suppliers and their scope of works, quality assurance system, etc.
c. Storage and handling.
d. Maximum size of structural steel components that can be delivered to the site.
e. Assembly of structural members on the ground level before erection, where
partial or complete fabrication work is required on site.
f. Sequence and method of erection and assembly of structural members taking
into account the site conditions, site constraints, site restriction and interface with
other trades.
g. Detailed drawings and calculations for temporary works.
h. Details of proposed site inspection systems by the Accredited Inspection Body.
i. Details of staging, platforms and weather protection where site welding is to take
place.
j. Remedial procedures for damaged steelwork during fabrication, transportation,
storage, handling and erection.
k. Safety procedures for handling and erection of steelwork on site.
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5.1.4 Construction Information
Provide the following information within time as directed by the SO prior to
commencement of the Works:
a. Welder qualification records, welding procedure records, stud welding procedure
records.
b. Details of welding procedures in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1 for all welds,
including tack and sealing welds.
c. Details of proposed shop inspection system by the Independent Inspection and
Testing Agency.
5.1.5 Programme
Provide a detailed programme to show the planned timing of the various items of
work to be done within time as directed by the SO, including:
a. Preparation and submission of construction information
b. Order and delivery of materials
c. Fabrication
d. Application of protective coatings
e. Transportation to site
f. Erection
Include in the programme, the time required for all procedural trials, inspection and
testing, and trial assemblies.
5.1.6 Material Certificates
Submit to the SO for acceptance, material certificates duly verified by the
Independent Inspection and Testing Agency within time as directed by the SO prior to
commencement of any work.
5.1.6.1 Mill Certificates
Provide mill certificates for every batch of supply confirming compliance with the
specified standards before the supply of material to the works.
5.1.6.2 Test Certificates/Reports for Bolts and Inserts
Provide test certificates/reports and demonstrate by testing on 2% of actual materials
used that bolts and inserts used in the Works conform to the specified requirements.
5.1.7 Inspection by ITA
Submit all reports from the Independent Inspection and Testing Agency to SO
periodically as agreed with the SO.
5.1.8 As-built Drawings
Submit as-built drawings to the SO for record upon completion of the Works. Include
information on all element type, sizes, position including deviation exceeding the
permitted PD if any, connection and assembly details, and protective works applied if
any.
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5.1.9 Quality Control Manual
Submit a Quality Manual containing a QA/QC programme for the Works to the SO for
acceptance within directed time frame.
The Quality Manual is to include at least information on the following:
a. Quality policy
b. Organisation charts and responsibilities
c. Internal quality control and audits
d. Facilities and equipment
e. Calibration and testing of equipment
f. Testing and inspection procedures
Subcontractors and suppliers
5.2 Procedural Trial and Trial Assemblies
Carry out procedural trial and trial assemblies as agreed with the SO, including tests
on material and workmanship in accordance with the Specification, prior to
commencement of the Works. Give adequate period of notice as agreed with the SO.
Keep records of all tests and make them available to the SO and the Independent
Inspection and Testing Agency for examination throughout the duration of the Works.
5.3 Inspection
5.3.1 Inspection of Accuracy of Fabrication and Erection
Provide inspection reports in agreed batches endorsed by the Independent
Inspection and Testing Agency, verifying that the fabrication and erection of the works
comply with the specified requirements.
5.3.2 Visual Inspection of Welds
Carry out visual inspection over the full lengths of all welds prior to any Non-
Destructive Testing (NDT).
Immediately examine any welds that will be covered up before loss of access.
The acceptance criteria for visual inspection are to be in accordance with ANSI/AWS
D1.1 Table 6.1.
5.4 Non-Destructive Testing of Welds
5.4.1 Scope of Inspection
Carry out Non-Destructive Testing as tabulated below unless otherwise agreed.
Inspection requirements may be reduced by agreement with the SO based on
satisfactory performance in the initial tests.
Full Penetration Butt Welds Partial Penetration Butt Welds
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Examples:

Examples:
Thickness All thicknesses All thicknesses MT /
PT
Frequency 50% (site welds 100%) 50% (site welds 100%)
Thickness t
max
≥ 3 mm t
max
≥ 3 mm UT /
RT
Frequency 50% (site welds 100%) 50% (site welds 100%)
Fillet Welds
Examples:
Thickness Fillet weld size ≥ 3 mm
Frequency 10% (site welds 100% but longitudinal welds 0.5m in each 10m or part
thereof)
Thickness Fillet weld size ≥ 20 mm
MT / PT
Frequency 20% (site welds 100% but longitudinal welds 1.0m in each 10m or part
thereof)
UT / RT As directed by SO
5.4.2 Hold Time Prior to NDT
For welds subject to NDT, carry out the testing at least 24 hours after the completion
of the welds. For quenched and tempered steel, carry out NDT not less than 48 hours
after the completion of the welds.
5.4.3 Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) and Penetrant Testing (PT)
Where magnetic particle testing (MT) is required in accordance with Clause
5.4.1(Scope of Inspection), the procedure and technique are to be in accordance with
ASTM E709.
If Magnetic Particle testing is impractical, use Penetrant testing in accordance with
the procedure and technique given in ASTM E165.
5.4.4 Ultrasonic Examination (UT)
Where ultrasonic testing is required in accordance with Clause 5.4.1(Scope of
Inspection), the procedure and technique are to be made in accordance with
ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 6 Part F.
If ultrasonic testing is impractical, for example when the plate thickness is less than
8mm, use radiographic testing in accordance with the procedure and technique given
in ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 6 Part E.
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5.4.5 Radiographic Examination (RT)
Where radiographic testing is required in accordance with Clause 5.4.1(Scope of
Inspection), the procedure and technique are to be in accordance with ASTM E94
and ASTM E747.
5.4.6 Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions
Acceptance criteria are to be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1 Section 6 Part C.
Propose corrective actions to the SO for acceptance if the welds do not conform to
the acceptance criteria.
5.4.7 Weld Test Records
Record the results of all visual inspections and non-destructive testing and make all
records available for inspection.