CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction One of the objectives of science education is to develop students’ interest in science and technology. Since most of the people of this generation are exposed to technology to the extent that this almost become a part of their way of life, teachers should find ways of teaching that would arouse the interest of the students. Science teachers have always recognized the importance of practical work as a means of introducing learners to the scientific process of experimentation. Meanwhile students should do practical work of conducting experiment, reporting their observations and making inferences or conclusions, thus, developing their scientific knowledge and experimental skills and at the same time arousing and maintaining their interest in the subject. It is believed that the youth of today find technology especially the computer as means of recreation and at the same time learning tool. This opens the door of integrating technology in education (Cagais and Villaflor, 2006). Teaching methods need to be improved and appropriate teaching strategies must be employed as the teaching-learning situation may demand.

Teaching methods such as inquiry, project, lecture-demonstration, lecture performance, problem-solving, field trips, cooperative or group learning, excursion, remedial, laboratory and guided discussion and the use of audiovisual materials have been recommended for the teaching of science in schools

2 (Cagais and Villaflor, 2006). There is, however, the need to understand that for different topics in science, the teaching approaches may differ depending on the complexity and structure of the topics. Teachers should be concerned with the use of variety of methods and procedures. The most enjoyable aspect of teaching and learning can occur when a variety of teaching methods are used. In classroom around the world, teachers lecture, students take notes, and then students are tested on what they have learned. Today, experiential or “hands-on” learning is fast replacing or supplementing the traditional “chalk-talks”. Through experiments, simulations, debate, and other participatory activities, students discover concepts on their own. Consequently, experiential learning increases retention motivates students to learn and encourages group cooperation. C

Contrary to the laboratory teaching method, multimedia forces the student to retain focus on the topic at hand. In the classroom, it is easy for the students to simply nod their heads every time the teacher looks in their direction. However, multimedia programs make the students pay attention and

understand by constantly testing them on the information they are being taught (Malone and Gifford et. al, 1995). The students of today are to be prepared for the workplace of tomorrow, so they must become a more integral part of the current curriculum of the school system. Even in the workplace of today, computers are so important that most business could not function without them. To be an effective teacher, one has to be creative in making the lesson interesting to the students. Teachers are expected to devise ways of making their students develop positive attitudes toward science and science-related

3 disciplines. Finding the effective ways in transmitting information and ideas to the learners is one of the important tasks of the teacher. Chemistry, in particular, is central to many of the scientific fields of human endeavors; therefore, the teaching of chemistry should be given serious attention. According to Onwu (1981), teachers of chemistry are expected to make chemistry more relevant, enjoyable, easy and meaningful to students. The relevance and importance of chemistry amongst the science subjects is formidable, hence the need for proper teaching of the subject in the secondary schools so that students’ scores in internal and external examinations will be high, thereby making the candidates’ entrance into higher schools easier. Chemistry teachers should develop in the students manipulative and

experimental skills to make them competent and confident in conducting experiments and/or researches. It is very important that the students will clearly understand the concept of chemistry at the beginning of the study. To promote and enhance the learning system of the students, invented instruments are known and used in teaching secondary chemistry or even other sciences. The researchers wanted to compare the effectiveness of laboratory method with the use of “Do-it-Yourself” instrument to the multimedia presentation approach with the use of presentation software, specifically the Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation.

4 Statement of the Problem This study aims to compare the performance level of the respondents exposed to “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in teaching selected topics in Chemistry. Specifically, the researchers seek answers to the following questions: 1. What are the performances of the respondents in the pretest before they are exposed to: • • teaching with the use of “Do-It-Yourself” instrument teaching with the use of PowerPoint presentation

2. What are the performances of the respondents in the posttest having been exposed to: • • “Do-It-Yourself” instrument PowerPoint presentation

3. Is there a significant difference between the performances of the respondents taught using “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in the posttest? Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference in the performance of the respondents taught using “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in teaching selected topics in Chemistry.

5 Significance of the Study The primary concern of this study is to compare the effectiveness of using the “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation among third year high school students of sections Newton, Einstein, and Masunurin of Iligan City East High School- Sta. Felomina, Sta. Felomina, Iligan City. The results of this study may give interest and encouragement to the teachers in pursuing the use of “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and or of PowerPoint presentation as a medium of instruction in teaching. This is also to promote effective learning and to enhance if not, replace the traditional method of teaching. This study is not only for the benefit of the teachers but also for the students, for better understanding of their lessons. As it has been proven, “hands-on” learning, intensity of light colors and attractive materials help inculcate ideas in the minds of the students.

Scope and Limitations The scope of this study is focused on the basic topic of volume and temperature relationship, atmospheric pressure, boiling point and pressure relationship, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and Tyndall effect. This study is limited to the use of Do-it-Yourself” instrument and the PowerPoint presentation as a medium of instruction. Time factor is not considered because the school was celebrating their “Palakasan (sports events) when the study was conducted.

6 Definition of Terms The following terms are defined to better understand the study. Computer Technology. This prepares students for existing and emerging jobs and careers in the application of information systems and technology to plan, analyze, design, construct, maintain, and manage.

(http://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cit). Do-It-Yourself Instrument. This is the instrument used in laboratory activity, developed by DepEd-NSTIC to address the lack of science equipment in government schools. (http://www.nstic.net.ph) Effectiveness. In this study this refers to the increase in performance levels of the respondents exposed to the laboratory approach and PowerPoint presentation approach. Laboratory Method. In this study, it refers to the method that follows the pre-laboratory, proper laboratory, and post laboratory using “Do-It-Yourself” instruments. Learning. In this study, it refers when there is an increase of scores from the pretest to the posttest of the respondents. Lecture Method. In this study, it refers to the method in which PowerPoint Presentation is used in discussing selected topics in chemistry. Multimedia. It is used in promoting the learning of concepts on volume and temperature relationship, atmospheric pressure, boiling point and pressure relationship, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and Tyndall effect. It allows one to show colored text and images with simple animation and the use of presentation

7 software specifically the Microsoft PowerPoint being one of the operating softwares contrary to the laboratory way of teaching.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multimedia) Performance. It refers to the results in the pretest and posttest of the respondents. Posttest. It is a test given to the respondents after the use of PowerPoint presentation and “Do-It-Yourself” instrument. Pretest. It is a test given to the respondents before the use of PowerPoint presentation and “Do-It-Yourself” instrument. PowerPoint presentation. This refers to the software (sometimes called "presentation graphics") or a program used to create sequences of words and pictures that is used to support a lecture presentation to the class. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint). Respondents. In this study, it refers to the third year high school students of Iligan City East High School – Sta. Felomina, Iligan City.

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