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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

One of the objectives of science education is to develop students’ interest

in science and technology. Since most of the people of this generation are

exposed to technology to the extent that this almost become a part of their way of

life, teachers should find ways of teaching that would arouse the interest of the

students. Science teachers have always recognized the importance of practical

work as a means of introducing learners to the scientific process of

experimentation. Meanwhile students should do practical work of conducting

experiment, reporting their observations and making inferences or conclusions,

thus, developing their scientific knowledge and experimental skills and at the

same time arousing and maintaining their interest in the subject.

It is believed that the youth of today find technology especially the

computer as means of recreation and at the same time learning tool. This opens

the door of integrating technology in education (Cagais and Villaflor, 2006).

Teaching methods need to be improved and appropriate teaching

strategies must be employed as the teaching-learning situation may demand.

Teaching methods such as inquiry, project, lecture-demonstration, lecture

performance, problem-solving, field trips, cooperative or group learning,

excursion, remedial, laboratory and guided discussion and the use of audio-

visual materials have been recommended for the teaching of science in schools
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(Cagais and Villaflor, 2006). There is, however, the need to understand that for

different topics in science, the teaching approaches may differ depending on the

complexity and structure of the topics. Teachers should be concerned with the

use of variety of methods and procedures. The most enjoyable aspect of

teaching and learning can occur when a variety of teaching methods are used. In

classroom around the world, teachers lecture, students take notes, and then

students are tested on what they have learned. Today, experiential or “hands-on”

learning is fast replacing or supplementing the traditional “chalk-talks”. Through

experiments, simulations, debate, and other participatory activities, students

discover concepts on their own. Consequently, experiential learning increases

retention motivates students to learn and encourages group cooperation. C

Contrary to the laboratory teaching method, multimedia forces the

student to retain focus on the topic at hand. In the classroom, it is easy for the

students to simply nod their heads every time the teacher looks in their direction.

However, multimedia programs make the students pay attention and

understand by constantly testing them on the information they are being taught

(Malone and Gifford et. al, 1995). The students of today are to be prepared for

the workplace of tomorrow, so they must become a more integral part of the

current curriculum of the school system. Even in the workplace of today,

computers are so important that most business could not function without them.

To be an effective teacher, one has to be creative in making the lesson

interesting to the students. Teachers are expected to devise ways of making their

students develop positive attitudes toward science and science-related


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disciplines. Finding the effective ways in transmitting information and ideas to the

learners is one of the important tasks of the teacher.

Chemistry, in particular, is central to many of the scientific fields of human

endeavors; therefore, the teaching of chemistry should be given serious

attention. According to Onwu (1981), teachers of chemistry are expected to make

chemistry more relevant, enjoyable, easy and meaningful to students. The

relevance and importance of chemistry amongst the science subjects is

formidable, hence the need for proper teaching of the subject in the secondary

schools so that students’ scores in internal and external examinations will be

high, thereby making the candidates’ entrance into higher schools easier.

Chemistry teachers should develop in the students manipulative and

experimental skills to make them competent and confident in conducting

experiments and/or researches. It is very important that the students will clearly

understand the concept of chemistry at the beginning of the study. To promote

and enhance the learning system of the students, invented instruments are

known and used in teaching secondary chemistry or even other sciences.

The researchers wanted to compare the effectiveness of laboratory

method with the use of “Do-it-Yourself” instrument to the multimedia presentation

approach with the use of presentation software, specifically the Microsoft

PowerPoint Presentation.
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Statement of the Problem

This study aims to compare the performance level of the respondents

exposed to “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in teaching

selected topics in Chemistry.

Specifically, the researchers seek answers to the following questions:

1. What are the performances of the respondents in the pretest before they are

exposed to:

• teaching with the use of “Do-It-Yourself” instrument

• teaching with the use of PowerPoint presentation

2. What are the performances of the respondents in the posttest having been

exposed to:

• “Do-It-Yourself” instrument

• PowerPoint presentation

3. Is there a significant difference between the performances of the respondents

taught using “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in the

posttest?

Null Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant difference in the performance of the respondents


taught using “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation in teaching
selected topics in Chemistry.
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Significance of the Study

The primary concern of this study is to compare the effectiveness of using

the “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and PowerPoint presentation among third year

high school students of sections Newton, Einstein, and Masunurin of Iligan City

East High School- Sta. Felomina, Sta. Felomina, Iligan City.

The results of this study may give interest and encouragement to the

teachers in pursuing the use of “Do-It-Yourself” instrument and or of PowerPoint

presentation as a medium of instruction in teaching. This is also to promote

effective learning and to enhance if not, replace the traditional method of

teaching.

This study is not only for the benefit of the teachers but also for the

students, for better understanding of their lessons. As it has been proven,

“hands-on” learning, intensity of light colors and attractive materials help

inculcate ideas in the minds of the students.

Scope and Limitations

The scope of this study is focused on the basic topic of volume and

temperature relationship, atmospheric pressure, boiling point and pressure

relationship, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and Tyndall effect.

This study is limited to the use of Do-it-Yourself” instrument and the

PowerPoint presentation as a medium of instruction.

Time factor is not considered because the school was celebrating their

“Palakasan (sports events) when the study was conducted.


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Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined to better understand the study.

Computer Technology. This prepares students for existing and emerging

jobs and careers in the application of information systems and technology to

plan, analyze, design, construct, maintain, and manage.

(http://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cit).

Do-It-Yourself Instrument. This is the instrument used in laboratory

activity, developed by DepEd-NSTIC to address the lack of science equipment in

government schools. (http://www.nstic.net.ph)

Effectiveness. In this study this refers to the increase in performance

levels of the respondents exposed to the laboratory approach and PowerPoint

presentation approach.

Laboratory Method. In this study, it refers to the method that follows the

pre-laboratory, proper laboratory, and post laboratory using “Do-It-Yourself”

instruments.

Learning. In this study, it refers when there is an increase of scores from

the pretest to the posttest of the respondents.

Lecture Method. In this study, it refers to the method in which PowerPoint

Presentation is used in discussing selected topics in chemistry.

Multimedia. It is used in promoting the learning of concepts on volume

and temperature relationship, atmospheric pressure, boiling point and pressure

relationship, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and Tyndall effect. It allows one to

show colored text and images with simple animation and the use of presentation
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software specifically the Microsoft PowerPoint being one of the operating

softwares contrary to the laboratory way of teaching.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multimedia)

Performance. It refers to the results in the pretest and posttest of the

respondents.

Posttest. It is a test given to the respondents after the use of PowerPoint

presentation and “Do-It-Yourself” instrument.

Pretest. It is a test given to the respondents before the use of PowerPoint

presentation and “Do-It-Yourself” instrument.

PowerPoint presentation. This refers to the software (sometimes called

"presentation graphics") or a program used to create sequences of words and

pictures that is used to support a lecture presentation to the class.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint).

Respondents. In this study, it refers to the third year high school students

of Iligan City East High School – Sta. Felomina, Iligan City.