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Chapter #14: Forging the National Economy – Big Picture Themes 1. A wave of immigration came over starting in the 1840s, headed up by hungry Irish and Germans seeking a better life. Both of these groups were looked upon with suspicion, but they were hard workers and did well for themselves. 2. The factory system was in its infancy, led by Eli Whitney’s “interchangeable parts” Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaping machine paved the way for modern agriculture. 3. Changes were foreshadowed including women beginning to work outside the home. 4. The nation became “smaller” and tied together more closely thanks to (a) railroads being built, (b) canals such as the Erie, (c) steamships, and (d) the Pony Express.

IDENTIFICATIONS: American Industrial Revolution The transition to a manufactured process, instead of being handmade. Nativism Anti-foreignism, it was the fear of new immigrants coming to America and would bring a higher birthrate and more poverty but also lowering wages. Canal Age Construction began in 1817 and completed in 1825, between the Great Lakes and the Hudson River which led to Canal Age. Samuel Slater British mechanic, memorized factory layout and built his own textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, “Father of the Factory System” Eli Whitney/Cotton Gin Cotton Gin separated seeds from the cotton fibers, constructed by Eli Whitney, he also made interchangeable parts. Elias Howe Made the sewing machine in 1846, later perfected by Isaac Singer. Lowell/Waltham System Textile mills of Lowell Massachusetts in 1820s, as much machinery as possible used, few workers almost all young single farm women. Commonwealth v. Hunt Case in Massachusetts Supreme Court 1842, legalized unions for peaceful and honorable protest. Erie Canal Urged by Clinton, a canal in NY that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Eerie, resulted in a mass population surge and commerce. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Westward Movement Know: "Self-Reliance" 1. What were settlers of the frontier like? Settlers where individualistic, superstitions, and ill –informed about current matters.

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Shaping the Western Landscape Know: Kentucky Bluegrass, Rendezvous, Bison, George Catlin 2. "The westward movement also molded the physical environment." Explain. Tobacco overgrowth exhausted the land and forced them to move on, Settlers trapped beavers, sea otters. And bison for fur. George Catlin became an advocate for national parks. The March of the Millions Know: Chicago, Irish and Germans, America Letters 3. How and why did American demographics change from 1820 to 1860? The population was doubling every 25 years and by 1869, 13 more states were added to the union making it 33 in all. The Emerald Isle Moves West Know: Molly Maguires, Tammany Hall, Paddy Wagons, Twisting the British Lion's Tail 4. After reading this section, does it seem logical or unbelievable that an Irish-American became president in 1960? Explain. It would seem unbelievable if an Irish-American became president at the time because the Irish were not of the older American group, instead they immigrated at the time and became low wage workers.

The German Forty-Eighters Know: Carl Schurz, Conestoga Wagon, Kindergarten, Beer 5. Did the Germans make as large a contribution to America as the Irish did? Explain. Yea, the Germans contributed greatly to the American culture. Carl Schurz helps to elevate the US political sense, they bought land, votes were crucial, urged for public education, and promoted freedom.

Flare-Ups of Antiforeignism Know: Nativists, Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, American (Know-Nothing) Party 5. Why were immigrants from Germany and Ireland feared and hated? The Nativist were mostly older Americas who feared newcomers and political religion, they feared that Catholicism challenged Protestantism and for this reason formed the Order of the Star Spangled Banner.

Creeping Mechanization Know: Factory System, Industrial Revolution 6. What barriers stood in the way of the industrial Revolution in the United States? Britain’s long established factory system as a monopoly that forbade travel of craftsmen and export machines. Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Know: Samuel Slater, Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin, King Cotton 7. Samuel Slater and Eli Whitney caused the North and South to develop in opposite directions. Explain. Samuel Slater caused the industrial North to grow into an industrial revolution whereas Eli Whitney promoted the souths cotton industry and helped their production double with the cotton gin. Marvels in Manufacturing Know: Interchangeable Parts, Isaac Singer, Limited Liability, Free Incorporation Laws, Samuel F. B. Morse 10. Which were more important in Antebellum America, new inventions or changes in business forms and legal status? Explain. Changes in business forms and legal status were more important. A principle began of limited liability in a corporation that stimulated the economy. Also

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laws of “free incorporation” came about saying there was no need to apply from a legislature to start a corporation. Workers and "Wage Slaves" Know: Wage Slaves, Strikebreakers (Scabs), Commonwealth v. Hunt 11. What demands did labor have in the 1830's and 1840's? 10 hour work day, higher wages, tolerable condition, ban of imprisonment of the debt, and a public education. Women and the Economy Know: Lowell Mills, Catherine Beecher, Cult of Domesticity, Fertility Rate, Child-centered Homes 12. What types of work were done by women in Antebellum America? (Be careful on this one.) Women toiled in factories under poor conditions. In Lowell, a model textile mill employed young single women under a watchful eye. Opportunities were rare and women mainly worked in nursing, domestic service, teaching (Catherine Beecher). After marriage they became housewives and mothers, fertility rate dropped this was called “domestic feminism”. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields Know: Corn, John Deere, Steel Plow, Cyrus McCormick, Mechanical Mower-reaper, Cash-crop Agriculture 13. What factors led to increased productivity for farmers? The trans-alleghny region became the nations breadbasket, they planted corn and raised hogs. Their production increased with the help of the steel plow and mechanical mower-reaper. Highways and Steamboats Know: Lancaster Turnpike, National (Cumberland) Road, Robert Fulton 14. Why were turnpikes and steamboats important? The Lancaster turnpike was a hard road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA which brought economic expansion westward. Roads were made with state and federal money. Robert Fulton created the first steamboat that cause an increase of trade and contributed to the development of Southern and Western economies. "Clinton's Big Ditch" in New York Know: Erie Canal 15. The Erie Canal brought revolutionary change to two regions. Explain. Brought change to the East and West, it shortened the expense and time of transportation, cities grew along the canal and price of food was reduced. The Iron Horse 16. Name some of the advantages and disadvantages of early railroads. The advantages were that 30,000 miles had been laid out, and it would increase capital and trade. The disadvantages were afraid of losing money from Erie Canal traffic; railroads also caused fires to houses from their embers. Early trains were poorly constructed and the gauge of tracks varied.

Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders Know: Trans-Atlantic Cable, Clipper Ships, Stagecoaches, Pony Express 17. The clipper ship, stagecoach and Pony Express ultimately failed because they were not forward looking. Explain. Clipper ships were crushed by Britain’s iron steamers and the Pony express was short lived because it was soon replaced by telegraph wires. The Transport Web Binds the Union Know: Division of Labor 18. Explain the effects of division of labor on a national and personal basis. South gave cotton to New England, west made grain and livestock for the East and Europe, the east had machines, textiles for south and west.

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The Market Revolution Know: John Jacob Astor, Social Mobility 19. To what extent was social mobility possible in the United States in the years before the Civil War? Social Mobility existed, although the rag-to-riches were extremely rare. The standard of living did rise, however the wages did not rise. Chapter #15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture – Big Picture Themes 1. The "Second Great Awakening" began in the 1830s. It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and, like the First Great Awakening, was led by passionate and emotional preachers. 2. The Mormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great Salt Lake. 3. Free public schools began in large measure. 4. There was push to ban alcohol called "temperance." This was led by the ladies; they felt the way to save the family was to ban alcohol. 5. The first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, NY. They asserted that all men, and women were created equal. 6. Many "utopia experiments" began. The overall mission was to perfect society and create true equality. Most simply failed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned. IDENTIFICATIONS: Second Great Awakening Liberalism in religion started in 1800 spawned the awakening, Resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement, women’s rights movement and abolition of slavery. Shakers Communistic community led by Mother Ann Lee, they couldn’t marry so they became extinct . Mormons Joseph Smith claimed to have found gold tablets in NY with the Book of Morman inscribed on them, the came up with the Mormon or Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Brigham Young Mormon leader, led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846, they became prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth.

Transcendentalists consisted of mainly modernizing the old puritans. Owes its beliefs to a lot of foreign influence and greatly resembles the philosophies of John Locks, truth transcends the body through sense, well known people are Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Ralph Waldo Emerson Transcendentalist who was popular since the ideal of the ideal of the essay reflected the spirit of the US who was influential as practical philosopher who stressed self government, self reliance. Henry David Thoreau Poet, mystic, transcendentalist, non conformist, and friend of Emerson. He condemned the government for supporting slavery and was hailed when he refused to pay his poll tax.

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Utopia An idealistic view of society, a perfect community. Brook Farm Massachusetts experiment in 1841 where 20 intellectuals committed to transcendentalism and lasted until 1846. New Harmony An idealistic communal society set up by Robert Owen in 1825, there had been around 1000 people at the settlement but later failed due to confusion. Oneida Community Practiced free love, birth control, eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring, it survived ironically as a capitalistic venture, selling baskets and then cutlery. Temperance Crusade Most successful reform movment where Beecher published sermons against drinking the “demon rum,” viewed alcohol as a threat to public morality. Seneca Falls Convention Women’s rights convention held in NY, it was a major landmark in women’s rights, wrote the declaration of sentiments. American Colonization Society People who expressed moral and religious concern over slavery, 1812, this group established Liberia where Africans migrated to if they were free of emancipated. William Lloyd Garrison American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, one of the founders of the American Anti-slavery Society, he promoted “immediate emancipation of slaves. David Walker A daring outspoken black American activist who demanded the immediate end of slavery in the new nation., Hudson River School A style of painting with a romantic, heroic, mythic style that flourished in the 19 th century. Painted a lot of American landscape as a beautiful yet brooding image.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Reviving Religion Know: Alexis de Tocqueville, The Age of Reason, Deism, Unitarians, Second Great Awakening, Camp Meetings, Charles Grandison Finney 1. In what ways did religion in the United States become more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century? The second great awakening promoted Deism in America, and Liberalism was spread through camp meetings. Denominational Diversity Know: Burned-Over-District, Millerites (Adventists) 2. What effect did the Second Great Awakening have on organized religion? Puritans preached hellfire and was known as “burned over district” militates predicted Christ to return to earth. Conservatives were made up of propertied Episcopalian, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians. A Desert Zion in Utah (Website if interest: http://www.pbs.org/mormons/view) Know: Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Brigham Young 3. What characteristics of the Mormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors? Because of their choice for polygamy, drifting milita and voting was a unit, also the issue of polygamy prevented Utah’s entrance to the US until 1896. Free Schools for a Free People

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Know: Three R's, Horace Mann, Noah Webster, McGuffey's Readers 4. What advances were made in the field of education from 1820 to 1850? Free publid education was brought about in 1828 along with the voting power in the Jackson election Horace Mann became the father of public education, important educatiors were Noah Webster, Blueback speller, and William H McGuffey. Higher Goals for Higher Learning Know: University of Virginia, Oberlin College, Mary Lyon, Lyceum, Magazines 5. In what ways did higher education become more modern in the antebellum years? The Second Great Awakening led to the building of small schools. The curriculum focused mainly on Latin, Greek, Math and moral philosophy. University of North Carolina was the first state supported university. Emma Willard established the Troy Female Seminary An Age of Reform Know: Sylvester Graham, Penitentiaries, Dorthea Dix 6. How and why did Dorthea Dix participate in the reform movements? She fought for reform of the mentally insane in her class petition of 1843.

Demon Rum--The "Old Deluder" Know: American Temperance Society, Neil S. Dow, Maine Law of 1851 7. Assess the successfulness of the temperance reformers. American Temperance Society was created in Boston and were all for anti-alcoholism, Neal S Dow became the father of prohibition, they sponsored Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited making of and the sale of liquor. Women in Revolt

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Know: Spinsters, Alexis de Tocqueville, Cult of Domesticity, Catherine Beecher, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell, Margaret Fuller, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Amelia Bloomer, Seneca Falls, Declaration of Sentiments 8. Describe the status of women in the first half of the 19th century. Women stayed home without voting rights, many avoided marriage altogether and became known as spinsters, they were seen as weak both physically and emotionally but fine for teaching.

Wilderness Utopias Know: Utopias, New Harmony, Brook Farm, Oneida Community, Complex Marriage, Shakers 9. In what ways were utopian communities different from mainstream America? They had different types of rules but many of them failed due to confusion, their goals were to become a utopian society. The Dawn of Scientific Achievement Know: Benjamin Silliman, John J. Audubon 10. Was the United States a leader in the world in scientific pursuits? Explain. The Americans were interested in practical science more than pure science. They practiced navigation and oceanography. Benjamin Silliman was a pioneer in chemistry geologist who taught at Yale. Makers of America: The Oneida Community Know: John Humphrey Noyes, Bible Communism, Mutual Criticism 11. The word "utopia" is a word that is "derived from Greek that slyly combines the meanings of `a good place' and `no such place'." Does the Oneida Community fit this definition? Explain. It does fit the definition because there was no other place as such, the society practiced free love, birth control, eugenic selection of parents to reproduce superior offspring, it survived as a capitalistic venue. Artistic Achievements Know: Thomas Jefferson, Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, John Trumball, Hudson River School, Daguerreotype, Stephen C. Foster 12. "The antebellum period was a time in which American art began to come of age." Assess. The US has traditionally imitated the European styles of art, but American art stated to emerge such as painting of Washington and landscape paintings. The Blossoming of a National Literature Know: Knickerbocker Group, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant 13. In the early 1800's American writers emerged, who were recognized world-wide for their ability. What made them uniquely American? The Knickerboxer Group in NY wrote the first truly American literature. Washington Irving wrote The Sketch Book, and James Fenimore Cooper wrote Leatherstocking Tales. William Bryant wrote Thanatopis. Trumpeters of Transcendentalism Know: Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walden: Or Life in the Woods, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Walt Whitman 14. Which of the transcendentalists mentioned here best illustrated the theory in his life and writings? Explain. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote Self-Reliance. He also stressed self-government, self-reliance, depending on self. Glowing Literary Lights Know: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson

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15. Name six important American writers and explain the significance of each. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote poems popular in Europe such as Evangeline. John Greenleaf Whittier wrote poems that cried against injustice, intolerance, and inhumanity. James Russell Lowell was a political satirist who wrote Biglow Papers. Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote The Last Leaf. Louisa May Alcott with transcendentalism wrote Little Women Emily Dickinson wrote of the theme of nature in poems and didn’t publish any until she died Literary Individualists and Dissenters Know: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville 16. Why do you think Poe and Melville were not appreciated as much in America at the time as they were in other times and places? Poe invented modern detective novel and “psychological thriller. He was fascinated by the supernatural and reflected a morbid sensuality which was more prized in Europe than it was in America. Portrayers of the Past Know: George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, Francis Parkman 17. How did the geographic background of early historians affect the history they wrote? William H. Prescott published on the conquest of Mexico, Peru. Francis Parkman published on the struggle between France and England in colonial North America.