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Chapter #14: Forging the National Economy Big Picture Themes 1.

. A wave of immigration came over starting in the 1840s, headed up by hungry Irish and Germans seeking a better ife. !oth of these groups were ooked upon with suspicion, but they were hard workers and did we for themse ves. ". #he factory system was in its infancy, ed by $ i %hitney&s 'interchangeab e parts( )yrus *c)ormick&s mechanica reaping machine paved the way for modern agricu ture. +. )hanges were foreshadowed inc uding women beginning to work outside the home. 4. #he nation became 'sma er( and tied together more c ose y thanks to ,a- rai roads being bui t, ,b- cana s such as the $rie, ,c- steamships, and ,d- the .ony $/press.

IDENTIFIC TI!N": American Industria 0evo ution #he 1nited 2tates3 deve opment with becoming a most y agricu tura nation to an industria one. *any factors, such as natura resources and geography, affected the rise of this industria revo ution. *any inventions made their debut and the 1nited 2tated began to rapid y change. 4ativism movement centered on aggression towards immigrants, it was driven by re igious pre5udice and ethnic tensions. 6o owers of 4ativism thought of immigrants as autocrats deposing the American repub ic. )ana Age #he )ana Age was brought on by the creation of the $rie )ana . *any cana s were bui t, which great y improved transportation and owered transportation costs. *any peop e immigrated to cities that were c ose to ma5or cana s. #he )ana Age ended when rai roads and steamboats were created. 2amue 2 ater 7e brought te/ti e techno ogy to America from !ritain, considered the father of the American Industria revo ution. $ i %hitney8)otton Gin $ i %hitney was the creator of the cotton gin, mi ing machine, and interchangeab e parts. #he cotton gin made separating seeds from cotton much faster and reduced the need for s ave abor for obtaining more cotton

$ ias 7owe Invented the sewing machine in 1849, which made sewing :uicker and more proficient. ;owe 8%a tham 2ystem factories had as much machinery as possib e, so there weren&t as many ski ed workers needed< a most a of the workers were young farm women. Commonwealth v. Hunt #he creation of abor unions was ega i=ed, as ong as they were created on y for peacefu protesting. $rie )ana )ana between the A bany and !uffa o< finished in 18">. #he cana was considered a marve of the modern wor d at the time. %estern farmers were ab e to ship surp us crops to se in the 4orth and northern manufacturers were ab e to se finished goods in the %est. #$IDED %E DIN# &$E"TI!N": The 'est(ar) *o+ement ?now@ A2e fB0e ianceA 1. %hat were sett ers of the frontier ikeC Life for the settlers of the frontier was very grim and harsh. Many of these settlers were poorly fed, ill-clad, lived in feebly-constructed homes. They were perpetual victims of disease, depression, and premature death. Ralph aldo !merson"s #$elf-Reliance% made settlers seem as though they were isolated, #lone-wolf% &inds of people. "haping the 'estern ,an)scape ?now@ ?entucky ! uegrass, 0ende=vous, !ison, George )at in ". A#he westward movement a so mo ded the physica environment.A $/p ain. 'ioneers left behind barren fields as they e(hausted all of the nutrients from the soil with their tobacco growing. )entuc&y bluegrass made ideal grassland for livestoc& and was e(tremely popular with western settlers coming into )entuc&y. The fur-trapping empire was based on traders and *ndians rende+vousing to trade furs for manufactured goods from the east in the #rende+vous% system. The fur trade e(pended the beaver population, which led to virtually the annihilation of the vast herds of bison roaming the west. ,eorge Catlin was one of the first -mericans to promote the conservation of nature as a measured national policy.

The *arch o- the *illions

?now@ )hicago, Irish and Germans, America ;etters +. 7ow and why did American demographics change from 18"0 to 1890C -merica"s population had more than doubled by ./01. *n !urope, they were simply running out of room. -merica was seen as #the land of freedom and opportunity,% and there was abundant land. 2early a million and a half *rish and ,erman immigrants came to settle in -merica. Letters sent to one"s homeland from -merica, called #-merica Letters,% described how new life was li&e in -merica3 low ta(es, no compulsory military service, and #three meat meals a day.% The Emeral) Isle *o+es 'est ?now@ *o y *aguires, #ammany 7a , .addy %agons, #wisting the !ritish ;ion3s #ai 4. After reading this section, does it seem ogica or unbe ievab e that an IrishB American became president in 1D90C $/p ain. 2o, because there were already so many *rish immigrants coming into -merica. The *rish were forced to fend for themselves in -merican society. -n *rish Miners" union called the #Molly Maguires% dominated the 'ennsylvania coal districts. $oon later, *rishmen dominated politics and city machines in 2ew 4or&"s Tammany Hall, and police departments in several ma5or cities, driving #'addy agons% that had once carried their own ancestors to prison. The #erman Forty.Eighters ?now@ )ar 2chur=, )onestoga %agon, ?indergarten, !eer >. Eid the Germans make as arge a contribution to America as the Irish didC $/p ain. *n some places yes, but in some places no. 6ealous ,erman liberals, such as Carl $chur+, contributed richly to -merican politics. ,ermans also made many contributions to -merican culture, such as the Conestoga wagon, the )entuc&y rifle, and the Christmas tree. They supported public schools, including &indergarten, and they dran& large amounts of beer, affecting the temperance movement. Flare.$ps o- nti-oreignism ?now@ 4ativists, Frder of the 2tarB2pang ed !anner, American ,?nowB4othing- .arty 9. %hy were immigrants from Germany and Ire and feared and hatedC *rish and ,erman immigrants were feared and hated because the -mericans feared that they would outbreed, outvote, and overwhelm the original -merican stoc&. The people who believed this were called 2ativists.

Creeping *echani/ation

?now@ 6actory 2ystem, Industria 0evo ution 8. %hat barriers stood in the way of the industria 0evo ution in the 1nited 2tatesC The 7ritish *ndustrial Revolution brought forth the factory system. The 8nited $tated had difficulty with entering into its own *ndustrial Revolution because producing goods 9uic& enough and with as much 9uality compared to 7ritish goods was difficult. 'hitney En)s the Fi0er Famine ?now@ 2amue 2 ater, $ i %hitney, )otton Gin, ?ing )otton D. 2amue 2 ater and $ i %hitney caused the 4orth and 2outh to deve op in opposite directions. $/p ain. $amuel $later was &nown as the #:ather of the :actory $ystem%. He created the first -merican machinery for spinning cotton thread. !li hitney invented a device that separated seeds from cotton fiber, also &nown as the cotton gin. The south heavily depended on cotton, so much that they called it #)ing Cotton,% 7ut the 2orth was not able to produce any, and so they relied heavily on machines. *ar+els in *anu-acturing ?now@ Interchangeab e .arts, Isaac 2inger, ;imited ;iabi ity, 6ree Incorporation ;aws, 2amue 6. !. *orse 10. %hich were more important in Antebe um America, new inventions or changes in business forms and ega statusC $/p ain.

2ew inventions were more important because new inventions motivated and inspired for more new inventions. *nterchangeable parts came to be the basis for modern mass-production. These new inventions then spurred changes in business reform and legal status. Limited Liability permitted the individual investor to ris& no more than his own share of the corporation"s stoc&. :ree *ncorporation allowed businessmen to create corporations without the need to apply for individual charters from the legislature. 'or1ers an) 2'age "la+es2 ?now@ %age 2 aves, 2trikebreakers ,2cabs-, Commonwealth v. Hunt 11. %hat demands did abor have in the 18+03s and 18403sC age $laves wor&ed for long hours and for low wages and bad meals. They were forced to wor& in unsanitary and distressing conditions. or&ers demanded higher wages, shorter hours, and the ability to smo&e while wor&ing. !mployers could import stri&ebrea&ers fresh off the boat from the old world. *n the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, labor unions were ruled to be legal, as long as they were peaceful.

'omen an) the Economy

?now@ ;owe *i s, )atherine !eecher, )u t of Eomesticity, 6erti ity 0ate, )hi dBcentered 7omes 1". %hat types of work were done by women in Antebe um AmericaC ,!e carefu on this one.:arm women and girls played a significant role in -merica"s preindustrial economy. :actory 5obs assured greater economic independence for women-fter the revolutions, the fertility rate of women had drastically decreased, and in the course of the nineteenth century, it had halved. $ince families were smaller and there were fewer children, the children were given more attention in child-centered homes. 'estern Farmers %eap a %e+olution in the Fiel)s ?now@ )orn, Gohn Eeere, 2tee . ow, )yrus *c)ormick, *echanica *owerBreaper, )ashB crop Agricu ture 1+. %hat factors ed to increased productivity for farmersC Corn was one of the ma5or during this time due to the fact that it was ama+ingly versatile and easy to transport. ;ohn <eere made a steel plow that bro&e the soil. Cyrus McCormic&=s mechanical mower-reaper could do the wor& of > men using sic&les and scythes. Cash-Crop -griculture dominated the west and resulted in larger crop harvesting than in the south. 3igh(ays an) "team0oats ?now@ ;ancaster #urnpike, 4ationa ,)umber and- 0oad, 0obert 6u ton 14. %hy were turnpikes and steamboats importantC

Turnpi&es made everything faster and safer. The Lancaster Turnpi&e brought rich trade to 'hiladelphia and resulted in a turnpi&e-building boom that lasted about ?1 years. The 2ational, or Cumberland, road recommenced construction and the passing of federal grants. Robert :ulton brought about the steamboat cra+e when he created the Clermont, the first steamboat. The creation of the steamboat made rivers much more navigable and raised the speed of traveling along rivers. 2Clinton4s Big Ditch2 in Ne( 5or1 ?now@ $rie )ana 1>. #he $rie )ana brought revo utionary change to two regions. $/p ain. The cost for the transportation of goods between the 2ew 4or& and the Midwest fell drastically. *n 2ew 4or&, the price of goods that had to be shipped before the !rie Canal was made dropped drastically as well. *n contrast the value of land around the canal s&yroc&eted and new cities grew along it.

The Iron 3orse


4ame some of the advantages and disadvantages of ear y rai roads.

Railroads were fast, reliable, and cheaper to build. They were able to go almost anywhere and they defied terrain and weather. The creation of railroads rapidly industriali+ed the 2orth. 7ecause the use of railroads was a much more sufficient than the use of canals, canal supporters opposed the railroads. 2ew 4or& prohibited railroads from carrying freight to protect its investment in the !rie Canal. !arly railroads were also dangerous as well because there was always a chance that flying spar&s could set fire to nearby houses or haystac&s. The bra&es of the trains were also so feeble that the conductor would have trouble not missing the station. Ca0les6 Clippers6 an) Pony %i)ers ?now@ #ransBAt antic )ab e, ) ipper 2hips, 2tagecoaches, .ony $/press 1H. #he c ipper ship, stagecoach and .ony $/press u timate y fai ed because they were not forward ooking. $/p ain. Clipper $hips were ultimately replaced with the steamboats because steamboats were more sufficient. $tagecoaches were immortali+ed by Mar& Twain"s Roughing *t. The 'ony !(press was meant to carry mail, and it did for eighteen months. The 'ony !(press was replaced with $amuel Morse"s clac&ing &eys in which delivering messages much faster than the 'ony !(press ever could. These inventions did not loo& towards the future and could not see the possible invention of newer, more sufficient inventions. The Transport 'e0 Bin)s the $nion ?now@ Eivision of ;abor 18. $/p ain the effects of division of abor on a nationa and persona basis. <ivision of Labor allowed each region to be speciali+ed in a particular type of economic activity. This then lin&ed stated together and made them somewhat dependent on one another. *f one state were to secede, then the states that it was associated with would have to secede as well, or they would all fall. The *ar1et %e+olution ?now@ Gohn Gacob Astor, 2ocia *obi ity 1D. #o what e/tent was socia mobi ity possib e in the 1nited 2tates in the years before the )ivi %arC 7efore the civil war, social mobility was not as easy to gain as compared to after the civil war. Millionaires were rare before the civil war, but after the Civil ar, there was a number of people who gained tremendous financial success.

Chapter #17: The Ferment o- %e-orm an) Culture Big Picture Themes 1. #he A2econd Great AwakeningA began in the 18+0s. It3s purpose was to wake peop e from ack uster re igion and, ike the 6irst Great Awakening, was ed by passionate and emotiona preachers. ". #he *ormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great 2a t ;ake. +. 6ree pub ic schoo s began in arge measure. 4. #here was push to ban a coho ca ed Atemperance.A #his was ed by the adies< they fe t the way to save the fami y was to ban a coho . >. #he first women3s rights convention was he d at 2eneca 6a s, 4I. #hey asserted that a men, and women were created e:ua . 9. *any Autopia e/perimentsA began. #he overa mission was to perfect society and create true e:ua ity. *ost simp y fai ed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned. IDENTIFIC TI!N": 2econd Great Awakening it was a series of re igious reviva s beginning in 1801, based on !aptism and *ethodism. It was based upon re igious phi osophy of sa vation through to erance and good deed. It a so affected mora movements such as mora reasoning against s avery, the temperance movement, and prison reform. 2hakers they were a 0e igious assemb age that estab ished sma communities. In the midB 1800s, there were a most 9000 2hakers. #he 2hakers didn&t have chi dren, and so, to e/pand the community, they converted peop e. *ormons 0e igious group created by Goseph 2mith in 18+0 in 2a t ;ake )ity, 1tah. $mphasi=ed temperance, preserving, di igent work, and taking risks. !righam Ioung ;eader of the *ormons after Goseph 2mith&s death. %ith Ioung as the eader, #he *ormon community became a thriving frontier churchBstate and a supportive commonwea th. #ranscendenta ists .hi osophy created by 0a ph %a do $merson< no need for organi=ed churches because

each person has direct communication with nature and God. It encouraged individua ity, independence, the emphasis of emotion, and freedom from socia imitations. 0a ph %a do $merson 7e was an American transcendenta ist who was against s avery and encouraged independence, optimism, se fBimprovement, confidence, and freedom. 7e was an idea transcendenta ist and he ped to advance the movement. 7enry Eavid #horeau 7e was an American transcendenta ist who was against antiBs avery governments. 7is be iefs were recorded in %a den. 7e began the civi Bdisobedience movement when he refused to support the *e/ican war by paying ta/es. 1topia )ommunity of a cooperative, communistic, or 'communitarian( nature !rook 6arm %here individua s met to form a society that wou d a ow every member to have fu opportunity for se fB rea i=ation, but eventua y tension between individua freedom and the demands of a communa society took a to and residents eft and destroyed the e/periment. 4ew 7armony was mean to be a 'Ji age of cooperationA, where every inhabitant worked and ived in tota e:ua ity, but the community was economica y unstab e, but other Americans were inspired by its vision. Fneida )ommunity 6ounded by Gohn 7umphrey 4oyes, it was another communistic e/periment founded in 4ew Iork in 1848 that practiced comp e/ marriage, birth contro , and the eugenic se ection of parents to produce a superior offspring. It asted for a most +0 years. #emperance )rusade It was the most efficacious reform movements where !eecher distributed homi ies against drinking the Ademon rumA. A coho was viewed as a menace to pub ic mora ity. 2eneca 6a s )onvention It was an assemb y he d from Gu y 1DB"0, 1848, at 2eneca 6a s, 4ew Iork, that sprung the woman suffrage movement in the 1nited 2tates. American )o oni=ation 2ociety It was an association that founded ;iberia, a co ony on the coast of %est Africa, in 18"1 and moved free b acks there from the 12.

%i iam ; oyd Garrison A mi itant abo itionist, he became known as #he ;iberator in 18+1. 1nder his eadership, he gained nationa popu arity and infamy due to his :uotab e and inf ammatory anguage, confronting everything from s ave ho ders to reasonab e abo itionists, and encouraging northern secession Eavid %a ker An outspoken African American activist who ca ed for the immediate end of s avery in the new nation. A eader within the ! ack enc ave in !oston, *assachusetts, he pub ished in 18"D his Appea to the )o ored )iti=ens of the %or d a ca to Aawaken my brethrenA to the power within ! ack unity and strugg e 7udson 0iver 2choo 6ounded by #homas )o e, it was the first native schoo of andscape painting in the 12. It attracted artists defying against the neoc assica tradition, painted many scenes of 7udson 0iver.

#$IDED %E DIN# &$E"TI!N": %e+i+ing %eligion ?now@ A e/is de #oc:uevi e, #he Age of 0eason, Eeism, 1nitarians, 2econd Great Awakening, )amp *eetings, )har es Grandison 6inney 1. In what ways did re igion in the 1nited 2tates become more ibera and more conservative in the ear y decades of the 1Dth centuryC 'eople started reading and thin&ing for themselves. They became more accepting of the ideas of others, ma&ing it more liberal. The Republicans refused to accept any religion other than their own, ma&ing it more conservative. <eism was reason over Revelation $cience over the 7ible yet still believing in a higher power3 a concept which many of the founding fathers believed in@ Amany of the founding fathers embraced this conceptB. 8nitarians believed that ,od didn"t e(ist in the trinity, but in one person. They believed in the good side of human nature. The $econd ,reat -wa&ening was a series of religious revivals mostly &now by the emotional mass Ccamp meetingsC and widespread conversion.

Denominational Di+ersity ?now@ !urnedBFverBEistrict, *i erites ,Adventists". %hat effect did the 2econd Great Awakening have on organi=ed re igionC The $econd ,reat -wa&ening resulted in the conversion of many people to many new religions, many bro&en-up and reorgani+ed churches, and numerous new sects3 also encouraged active evangelicalism that was a part of many areas of -merican life. Desert 8ion in $tah 9%ebsite if interest@ http@88www.pbs.org8mormons8view?now@ Goseph 2mith, !ook of *ormon, !righam Ioung +. %hat characteristics of the *ormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighborsC Mormons were a supportive group made up of alienated ran&-and-file -mericans, who were individualistic and devoted to free enterprise. The Mormons stimulated further irritation by voting as a unit and by openly but supportively training their militia for defensive drives. Free "chools -or a Free People ?now@ #hree 03s, 7orace *ann, 4oah %ebster, *cGuffey3s 0eaders 4. %hat advances were made in the fie d of education from 18"0 to 18>0C $chools were created due to ta(-supported public education, but these schools usually only taught the three R"sD #readin", Eritin", and Erithametic".% Horace Mann attempted to win political election for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an e(panded curriculum. 2oah ebster provided improved te(tboo&s. illiam H. Mc,uffey"s Mc,uffey"s Readers gave lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism. 3igher #oals -or 3igher ,earning ?now@ 1niversity of Jirginia, Fber in )o ege, *ary ;yon, ;yceum, *aga=ines >. In what ways did higher education become more modern in the antebe um yearsC The religious enthusiasm of the $econd ,reat -wa&ening led to the establishing of many small, liberal arts colleges3 adults could learn more at libraries. Fberlin College was the first to allow both men and women to attend. Mary Lyon founded a school for women, Mount Holyo&e $eminary, in the same year. n ge o- %e-orm ?now@ 2y vester Graham, .enitentiaries, Eorthea Ei/ 9. 7ow and why did Eorthea Ei/ participate in the reform movementsC <orothea <i( sent petitions to the Massachusetts legislature, e(plaining the need for asylums with improved conditions. $he brought up the concept that the demented were not willfully pertinacious but mentally ill.

Demon %um..The 2!l) Delu)er2 ?now@ American #emperance 2ociety, 4ei 2. Eow, *aine ;aw of 18>1 H. Assess the successfu ness of the temperance reformers. The temperance reformers, a part of the -merican Temperance $ociety, were antialcoholic3 they believed alcohol to be ruinous. 2eil $. <ow funded the Maine Law of ./>., which prohibited the creation and sale of li9uor. 7y ./>G, a do+en states had already passed similar prohibitory laws, but within a decade these laws were repealed. 'omen in %e+olt ?now@ 2pinsters, A e/is de #oc:uevi e, )u t of Eomesticity, )atherine !eecher, ;ucretia *ott, $ i=abeth )ady 2tanton, 2usan !. Anthony, $ i=abeth ! ackwe , *argaret 6u er, 2arah and Ange ina Grimke, Ame ia ! oomer, 2eneca 6a s, Eec aration of 2entiments 8. Eescribe the status of women in the first ha f of the 1Dth century.

*n the first half of the .Hth century, women were merely 5ust the property of their husbands. They were unable to vote, they were abused by their husbands, which was legal, and they could not own property after being married. However, -merican women were still better off than women from !uropean countries. -le(is de Toc9ueville from :rance noted that the crime of rape was one of the few crimes punishable by death in the 8$, while in :rance there was only a light punishment. <espite these small advantages, women were still considered #the submerged se(.% -bout .1I of women were spinstersJ omen who

did not marry. The #Cult of <omesticity% was a woman"s special place at home, where the role of homema&er was revered. The supporters for the movement for women"s rights included a handful of notable womenD Lucretia Mott, !li+abeth Cady $tanton, $usan 7. -nthony, !li+abeth 7lac&well, Margaret :uller, the ,rim&K $isters, -melia 7loomer, and several more. -t $eneca :alls, the omen"s Rights Convention in which the #<eclaration of $entiments% was revealed, too& place. 'il)erness $topias ?now@ 1topias, 4ew 7armony, !rook 6arm, Fneida )ommunity, )omp e/ *arriage, 2hakers D. In what ways were utopian communities different from mainstream AmericaC 8topias had a more communistic approach as compared to mainstream -merica. Robert Fwen founded a utopian society of about .,111 in 2ew Harmony, *ndiana. *n 7roo& :arm, Massachusetts, another utopian society was created by twenty intellectuals. $ha&ers were the first to set up religious communities, but since their customs prohibited marriage and se(ual relations, they became virtually e(tinct. The Da(n o- "cienti-ic chie+ement ?now@ !en5amin 2i iman, Gohn G. Audubon 10. %as the 1nited 2tates a eader in the wor d in scientific pursuitsC $/p ain. The scientific pursuits of the 8nited $tates mainly stimulated economy, safety, and speed, but much of the technology used in -merica was borrowed and adapted from its !uropean prototypes. The most influential -merican scientist of the first half of the nineteenth century was 7en5amin $illiman, who taught at 4ale College for more than >1 years. ;ohn ;. -udubon was a :rench naturalist whose paintings of wildfowl in their natural habitat gained him much popularity. *a1ers o- merica: The !nei)a Community ?now@ Gohn 7umphrey 4oyes, !ib e )ommunism, *utua )riticism 11. #he word AutopiaA is a word that is Aderived from Greek that s y y combines the meanings of Ka good p ace3 and Kno such p ace3.A Eoes the Fneida )ommunity fit this definitionC $/p ain. 4es, because the Fneida Community, founded by ;ohn Humphrey 2oyes, was supposed to be an ideal society. 2oyes believed that to be truly happy, one must get rid of all selfishness. 2oyes preached polygamous relationships, in what was called #7ible Communism.% Members of the Fneida Community also engaged in #Mutual Criticism,% in which one member would stay silent while the others discussed his or her faults.

rtistic chie+ements ?now@ #homas Gefferson, Gi bert 2tuart, )har es %i son .ea e, Gohn #rumba , 7udson 0iver 2choo , Eaguerreotype, 2tephen ). 6oster 1". A#he antebe um period was a time in which American art began to come of age.A Assess. Throughout the e(pansion of nationalism of the ar of ./.?, -merican paintings increasingly changed from portraits of people to romantic impressions of landscapes. Thomas ;efferson was considerably one of the greatest architects of his generation. ,ilbert $tuart was ran&ed with some of the best artists in 7ritain. Charles ilson 'eale was also an artist that painted several portraits of ashington. The Hudson River $chool e(celled in romantic paintings of landscapes. The daguerreotype was an invention of a crude photograph that competed with portrait painters. $tephen C. :oster, although a white 'ennsylvania, created some of the most famous blac& songs. The Blossoming o- a National ,iterature ?now@ ?nickerbocker Group, %ashington Irving, Games 6enimore )ooper, %i iam )u en !ryant 1+. In the ear y 18003s American writers emerged, who were recogni=ed wor dB wide for their abi ity. %hat made them uni:ue y AmericanC -merican themes were used in their writing, as well as different styles typical to -merican writers, such as pleasing, delicate charm and 9uiet humor. The )nic&erboc&er ,roup e(celled in literary achievements, giving -merica the ability to boast about its literary masterpieces as well as its landscapes. ashington *rving was the first -merican to receive international recognition as a literary figure. ;ames :enimore Cooper was the first novelist to gain international fame as well and ma&e 2ew orld themes respectable. illiam Cullen 7ryant was well &nown for his poetry and he influences the style of 5ournalism for over fifty years. Trumpeters o- Transcen)entalism ?now@ #ranscendenta ism, 0a ph %a do $merson, 7enry Eavid #horeau, %a den@ Fr Life in the oods, Fn the <uty of Civil <isobedience, %a t %hitman 14. %hich of the transcendenta ists mentioned here best i ustrated the theory in his ife and writingsC $/p ain. Ralph aldo !merson influenced thousands of lives through his vibrant and philosophical essays. He emphasi+ed optimism, self-confidence, self-improvement, selfreliance, and freedom. !merson was one of the best &nown followers of transcendentalism, which was reflected in much of his wor&. Henry <avid Thoreau was a close follower of !merson"s and was well &nown for aldenD Fr Life in the oods. alden and Fn the <uty of Civil Conscience, both by Thoreau, heavily influenced -merica and abroad with idealistic thin&ing. alt hitman"s poetic style heavily influence and impacted -merican literature.

#lo(ing ,iterary ,ights ?now@ 7enry %adsworth ;ongfe ow, Gohn Green eaf %hittier, Games 0usse ;owe , F iver %ende 7o mes, ;ouisa *ay A cott, $mi y Eickinson 1>. 4ame si/ important American writers and e/p ain the significance of each. 'rofessor Henry adsworth Longfellow became one of the most popular poets in -merica. ;ohn ,reenleaf hittier influenced social action with his poems and anti-slavery crusade. ;ames Russell Lowell was a distinguished poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat who succeeded 'rofessor Longfellow. <r. Fliver endell Holmes was especially popular in a group of literary lights. Louisa May -lcott wrote Little omen, which is still e(tremely popular. !mily <ic&inson was a popular poet who e(plored universal themes through her poetry. ,iterary In)i+i)ualists an) Dissenters ?now@ $dgar A an .oe, 4athanie 7awthorne, 7erman *e vi e 19. %hy do you think .oe and *e vi e were not appreciated as much in America at the time as they were in other times and p acesC 7ecause they were from the south, which was more concerned with agriculture, they were not as appreciated. !dgar -llan 'oe invented the modern detective novel. He was pri+ed more by !uropeans than by -mericans. 2athaniel Hawthorne grew up with heavy puritan influences and the memory of his father"s death. Herman Melville"s charming tales of the $outh $eas instantly became popular. Portrayers o- the Past ?now@ George !ancroft, %i iam 7. .rescott, 6rancis .arkman 1H. 7ow did the geographic background of ear y historians affect the history they wroteC ,eorge 7ancroft, secretary of the 2avy who helped found the 2aval -cademy at -nnapolis, published a patriotic history of the 8$. illiam H. 'rescott published classic accounts of the con9uest of Me(ico. :rancis 'ar&man chronicled the struggle between :rance and 7ritain during the times of 2orth -merica"s formation. These historians were heavily influence by their profession, what they did, where they fought, what impacted them, in their younger years.