qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri
NATIONAL CENTRE OF MANUSCRIPTS

Tbilisi • 2010 • TBILISI

GEORGIAN MANUSCRIPT BOOK
5th-19th centuries

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni
V-XIX ss.

ON-LINE ALBUM

eleqtronuli albomi

Prepared by Maia Karanadze, Lela Shatirishvili, Nestan Chkhikvadze with participation Tamar Abuladze Editor: Nestan Chkhikvadze

Seadgines maia karanaZem, lela SaTiriSvilma, nestan CxikvaZem, Tamar abulaZis monawileobiT nestan CxikvaZis redaqciiT

aRniSnuli proeqti ganxorcielda ssip qarTvelologiis, humanitarul da socialur mecnierebaTa fondSi (rusTavelis fondi), amJamad SoTa rusTavelis erovnul samecniero fondSi, mopovebuli grantis meSveobiT (granti N 016-08). winamdebare publikaciaSi gamoTqmuli nebismieri azri ekuTvniT avtorebs da, SesaZloa, ar asaxavdes ssip rusTavelis erovnuli samecniero fondis Sexedulebebs.

Current project was executed and accomplished by the financial support of the Foundation of Georgian Studies, Humanitiess and Siocial Sciences (Rustaveli foundation) at present Rustaveli National Science Foundation (Grant N 016-08). Any idea in this publication belongs to the author and may not represent the opinion of the Rustaveli National Science Foundation itself.

winamdebare AalbomSi warmodgenilia xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fondebSi (A, H, S, Q) daculi V-XIX ss-is qarTuli xelnaweri wignebi da ucxoeTis (sinis mTAa, ierusalimis berZnuli sapatriarqo) qarTuli koleqciebis is fotoaslebi, romelTa gamoyenebis uflebasac flobs xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. albomSi Sesuli adiSis oTxTavis mxatvruli asli Sesrulebulia avtorTa mier Sedgenili aRwerilobisa da miTiTebebis safuZvelze. yvela es xelnaweri TvalnaTliv asaxavs wignis, rogorc kulturul-istoriuli fenomenis, warmoSobisa da ganviTarebis istorias. Aalbomi Sedgeba oTxi Tavisgan. masSi Tavmoyril masalas axlavs zogadi Sinaarsis sainformacio teqsti da saTanado fotonimuSebi anotaciebis TanxlebiT. alboms erTvis zogadi bibliografia. albomi gamiznulia qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis istoriiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelebisTvis.

albomis dizaini viola tuRuSi fotoebi mirian kilaZe

An on-line album of Georgian manuscript book was created within the Grant project “Georgian Manuscript Book (including website)” financed by Rustaveli research fund. N. Chkhikvadze (scientific research manager), M.  Karanadze, L.  Shatirishvili were working on this project with participation of T. Abuladze. In the album there are represented 5th-19th cent. Georgian manuscript books preserved in the fonds of National Centre of Manuscripts (A, H, S, Q) as well as some items belonging to foreign funds and National Manuscript Centre has the legal right of using photo copies of them. Artistic copy of Adishi gospel is accomplished on the bases of authors’ descriptions and instructions. All this manuscripts show the origin and the development of the book as a cultural-historical phenomenon. Album consists of four chapters. Common informational texts and photos with annotation come with every collected material, as well as main bibliography.

albomSi gamoqveynebuli fotomasalisa da TiToeuli monakveTis raime formiT (eleqtronuli, beWduri) gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod saavtoro uflebis mflobelis werilobiTi nebarTvis safuZvelze.

ISBN 978-9941-0-3093-2

This album will be helpful for readers who are interested in written culture.

© xelnawerTa erovnuli centri © n. CxikvaZe, l. SaTiriSvili, m. karanaZe

qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis saTaveebi. damwerlobis warmoSoba
qarTul xelnawerTa Seqmnisa da gadanacvlebis ruka (V-XVII ss.)

qarTuli xelnaweri tradicia 16-saukunovan istorias iTvlis. misi uZvelesi nimuSebi V saukuniT TariRdeba. es adreuli furclebic ki savsebiT naTel warmodgenas gviqmnian Tanadrouli epoqis inteleqtualuri cxovrebis, mxatvruli azrovnebisa da materialuri kulturis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. qarTuli xelnaweri ar Seqmnila Caketil da msoflio civilizaciisagan mowyvetil garemoSi. mis warmoSobasa da ganviTarebas, erTi mxriv, xeli Seuwyo saqarTvelos kulturulma da politikurma orientaciam da, meore mxriv, saxelmwifoebriobisa da kulturuli identurobis dacvis aucileblobam. am identurოbis erT-erT mniSvnelovan elements ki qarTuli damwerlobis warmoSoba Seadgenda. rodis da ra viTarebaSi Seiqmna qarTuli damwerloba? am kiTxvis pasuxs mecniereba xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi eZebs. qarTuli anbanis Zirebs ukavSireben finikiur, arameul, berZnul damwerlobebs. azrTa sxva­ dasxvaobas iwvevs misi warmoSobis droc. mkvlevarTa nawili qarTul anbans preqristianuli epoqis movlenad miiCnevs, xolo nawili – qristianobis Semdgom Camoyalibebul sistemad. azrTa aseT sxvadasxvaobas xels uw­

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

7

yobs antikuri xanis saqarTvelos Sesaxeb arsebuli berZnuli wyaroebi (apolonios rodoseli, Zv. w. 295-215; svidas leqsikoni, X s.), romelTa Tanaxmad, jer kidev argonavtebis epoqis kolxeTSi arsebobda tyavze naweri wignebi. qarTveli mematiane leonti mroveli (XI s.) ki qarTuli damwerlobis warmoSobas ukavSirebs qarTlis mefe farnavazs (Zv. w. III s.): `ese farnavaz iyo pirveli mefe qarTlsa Sina qarTlosisa naTesavTagani. aman ganavrco ena¡ qarTuli da arRara iZraxeboda sxua¡ ena¡ qarTlsa Sina T¢nier qarTulisa da aman Seqmna mwignobroba¡¡ qarTuli~. magram qarTuli damwerlobis uZvelesi nimuSebi, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, mxolod V saukunidan dasturdeba. maS, ra safuZveli hqonda mematianes werilobiTi kulturis dasawyisi CvenSi Zv.w. III saukuniT daeTariRebina? am kiTxvas erTgvarad exmianeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze mopovebuli arqeologiuri masala, romelzec dadasturebulia Zv. w. III  – ax. w. III saukuneebiT daTariRebuli berZnuli, arameuli da ebrauli warwerebi. es warwerebi gvxvdeba rogorc sakultosaritualo, aseve sayofacxovrebo nivTebze – samkaulebze, sabeWdavebze, Tixis, minisa da vercxlis WurWelze, saflavis qvebsa Tu stelebze. es faqtebi savsebiT bunebriv movlenad unda miviCnioT, vinaidan saqarTvelos – samxreT kavkasiis qveyanas uZvelesi mWidro kulturuli da savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi hqonda rogorc antikur saberZneTTan, aseve mcire da axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebTan. am urTierTobaTa safuZvelze, garda materialuri kulturis nimuSebisa, CvenSi Semodioda am kulturuli sivrcisTvis damaxasiaTebeli codna da gamocdileba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom zogadad damwerlobaTa ganviTarebis istoriaSi xmelTaSuazRvis auzis qveynebs gansakuTrebuli roli ekisrebaT, gasakviric ar iqneba, rom maTTan mWidrod dakavSirebul saqarTvelosac adreve mieRo da gaeTvaliswinebina es gamocdileba, gamoeyenebina ukve arsebuli anbanuri sistemebi. rogorc arqeologiuri masalidan Cans, Zv. w. III – ax.  w. III saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi berZnuli da arameuli damwerlobebi paralelurad gamoiyeneboda; amis

naTel magaliTs warmoadgens armazis xevSi aRmoCenili ax. w. II  s-iT daTariRebuli orenovani epitafia, romelic samecniero literaturaSi armazis bilingvis saxeliTaa cnobili. sayuradReboa erTi garemoeba: bilingvis arameuli anbani Crdilo mesopotamiuri arameulis damoukidebel Stos e.  w. armazul damwerlobas warmoadgens. rogorc Cans, swored igi unda yofiliyo qarTlis saxelmwifo-sakancelario enaca da anbanic. rac Seexeba ebrauls, igi qarTlSi kompaqturad dasaxlebuli ebrauli eTnosis damwerlobas warmoadgenda. am anbanuri sistemebis gamoyenebas arc literaturuli da, Sesabamisad, arc xelnaweri tradicia ar warmouSvia. Tumca armazuli damwerlobis arseboba ukve migvaniSnebs, rom qarTul saxelmwifo da sazogadoebriv azrovnebas erTi biZgiRa sWirdeboda sakuTari anbanuri sistemisa da samwerlobo-dokumenturi kulturis Camosayalibeblad. amgvari biZgi qristianoba iyo. qristianoba CvenSi aRmosavleTidan movida. istoriuli gadmocemis Tanaxmad, moZRvreba qarTvelTa Soris I  sau­ kuneSi gaavrceles svimeon kananelma da andria pirvelwodebulma. unda vifiqroT, mociqulTa Semosvlam Tavdapirvelad Camoayaliba mxolod mcire qristianuli Temi, romelic jer kidev ver gansazRvravda qveynis kulturulsa da inteleqtualur cxovrebas, magram, uTuod, amzadebda didi cvlilebis niadags. axali moZRvrebis SeTviseba axali codnis safuZvelic unda gamxdariyo. Zlier warmarTul miTologiur zepir mexsierebas unda dapirispireboda wignieri, werilobiTi tradicia. albaT, amitomac iyo, rom adreulma qristianobam swored werilobiT daafiqsira ieso qristes gankacebisa da amqveyniur cxovrebasTan dakavSirebuli yvela istoria, yvela qristianul TemSi daculi Txroba, romelTagan zogierTi bibliis kanonikur kodeqsSi Sevida da zogi ki gaformda rogorc bibliuri wignebis paralelurad arsebuli e. w. apokrifuli literatura, romelmac kargad asaxa pirvel qristianTa religiuri warmodgenebi da amitomac dRes qristianobis istoriis kvlevaSi mas mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia. bunebrivia, saqarTveloSi Camoyalibebuli

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qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

9

pirveli qristianuli Temic Seqmnida imgvar apokriful Txrobas, romelSic aisaxeboda qarTvelobis, rogorc erT-erTi adregaqristianebuli eris, sarwmunoebrivi da kulturuli identuroba axal msoflmxedvelobriv samyarosTan. da marTlac, gadmocema jvarcmuli ieso qristes kvarTis saqarTveloSi Camotanisa da dacvis Sesaxeb migviTiTebs swored pirveli qristianuli Temis istoriaze. es zepiri gadmocema qarTvelebma sakuTari moqcevisa da saxelmwifoebrivi istoriis qvakuTxedad miiCnies. saerTod unda iTqvas, rom qristianobam didi roli Seasrula qarTvelTa istoriaSi. igi iqca maTi kultu­ ruli da inteleqtualuri cxovrebis, erTiani saxelmwifoebrivi azrovnebis sayrdenad. qarTuli anbani. 326 wels saqarTvelom aRiara qris­­ tianoba, rogorc saxelmwifo religia. mas Semdgom qar­ Tulma kulturam uari Tqva misTvis ukve kargad cno­ bili anbanuri sistemebis gamoyenebaze da Tavad Seqmna sakuTari anbanuri damwerloba, romlis prototipadac berZnuli anbani ivaraudeba. qarTuli anbani erT-erTi srulyofili weriTi sistemaa, vinaidan masSi grafikul simboloTa (asoTa) raodenoba zustad Seesatyviseba qarTuli enis fonemuri erTeulebis (sametyvelo bgerebis) ricxvs. qarTulma anbanma, kerZod, misma grafikulma moxazulobam, ganviTarebis sami safexuri ganvlo; mis uZveles saxeobas asoTmTavru-

ukavSirdeba sityva `nusxas~, romelic qarTveli mwerlisa da leqsikografis, sulxan-saba orbelianis, ganmartebiT, `Cqarad aRwerils~ niSnavs. da marTlac, Tu Tvals gavadevnebT X-XI ss-is mTavruliT gadaweril qarTul xelnawerebs, SevniSnavT, Tu rogor yalibdeba calkeuli swrafad moxazuli asodan misi kuTxovani grafika. xelnaweri tradiciis mixedviT, X-XI saukunidan ki am ori anbanis paralelurad viTardeba mxedruli anu Tanamedrove qarTuli anbani. saxelwodeba mxedruli dawerilobam imis safuZvelze miiRo, rom igi upiratesad gamoiyeneboda saero Sinaarsis ZeglebSi, maSasadame, ukve

sveticxoveli ieso qristes kvarTis gansasvenebeli; saqarTvelos mTavari salocavi; sapatriarqo taZari; pirveli eklesia aigo IV  s-Si qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis, wm. ninos rCeviT; V s-is II naxevarSi pirveli eklesiis dangrevis Semdgom mefe vaxtang gorgasalma aago bazilika; 1010-1033 ww-Si kaTalikos melqisedekis iniciativiT aigo jvargumbaTovani taZari.

li (igive mTavruli) anu mrgvlovani anbani warmoadgens.
am anbaniTaa Sesrulebuli V-IX saukunis epigrafikuli da xelnaweri teqstebi. X saukunidan mTavrulis paralelurad gvxvdeba kuTxovani anu nusxuri, igive xucuri daweriloba; nusxu-

riT gadaweril teqstebSi saTaurebi da sazedao asoebi
naweria mTavruliT, romelic erTgvar dekoratiul funqciasac iTavsebda da gabmul teqstSi saaqcento monakveTebis gamosayofad gamoiyeneboda. albaT, amitomac ewoda mrgvlovan anbans mTavruli. rac Seexaba saxelwodeba

nusxurs, romelic kuTxovani anbanisTvis ixmareba, igi
10 11

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

sasuliero xelnawerebi

saamSeneblo warwera bolnisis sioni, 492/3-502 ww., samnaviani bazilikis tipis nageboba. samxreT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelo.

X saukuneSi ganviTarebulia qarTuli damwerlobis samive saxeoba. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli anbanis es sami grafikuli forma warmoiqmna weris teqnikis ganviTarebis safuZvelze da ar warmoadgens qarTuli anbanis sistemuri cvlis Sedegs. da bolos, Tu erTxel kidev gavixsenebT uZveles, V-VI  ss-is mTavruliT Sesrulebul qarTul werilobiT Zeglebs, naTeli gaxdeba qarTuli damwerlobis warmoSobis mTavari safuZveli. epigrafikuli Zeglebis paraleRvTismSoblis miZinebis taZris freskuli fragmenti. uSguli.

qarTuli xelnaweri tradicia sasuliero wignebis TargmniTa da gadaweriT iwyeba. igi fexdafex misdevs qarTvelTa mier qristianuli kulturis SeTvisebis, axali codnis miRebisa da gamyarebis process. wignierma qristianobam saqarTveloSi moitana rogorc samyaros axaleburi xedva, miswrafeba misi sulieri wvdomisken, aseve yoveldRiuri cxovrebis, materialuri yofis radikaluri cvlilebebi; man bunebrivad gamoiwvia eris SemoqmedebiTi SesaZleblobebis gafarToveba. qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis ganviTarebis iniciativa eklesiis wiaRidan iRebs saTaves. Tavisi arsebobis dasawyisSi ki qarTul eklesias metad rTuli winaaRmdegobis gadalaxvam mouwia, erTi mxriv, jer kidev SemorCenil warmarTul mexsierebasa da, meore mxriv, mazdeanur ideologiasTan dapirispirebaSi, romelic sparseTis politikuri zewolis Sedegad ikidebda fexs. am winaaRmdegobaTa daZlevis erT-erT yvelaze Zlier iaraRs ki swored werilobiTi kultura warmoadgenda. amitomac Tavdapirvelad qarTuli xelnaweri tradiciis yuradReba mimarTuli iyo iseTi literaturuli Zeglebisken, romelTac safuZveli unda SeeqmnaT qristianobis realuri istoriis Seswavlis, sarwmunoebrivi

lurad arsebuli V-VIII ss-is palimfsesturi furclebi, romlebzec dasturdeba rogorc bibliuri, aseve apokrifuli da agiografiuli teqstebi, aSkarad migvaniSneben, rom qarTuli damwerloba imTaviTve Camoyalibda ara rogorc sakancelario, aramed rogorc samwignobro anbani. uZvelesi qarTuli palimfsestebis, romlebic dRes daculia rogorc saqarTveloSi, xelnawerTa erovnul centrsa (4000-mde furceli) da mestiis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumSi, aseve oqsfordSi, kembrijSi, venis nacionalur biblioTekaSi, asoTa grafikuli daxvewiloba, naweri striqonebis proporciuli ganlagebisa da Sesrulebis manera, maTze daculi teqstebis repertuari savsebiT araorazrovnad migviTiTebs, rom V-VI saukuneebSi arsebobda ukve myari werilobiTi kultura.

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qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

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dabadeba Zveli aRTqmis wignTa erT-erTi pirveli qarTuli Targmani. Sesrulebulia xanmeturi – V-VI ss-is enobrivi normiT. warmoadgens bibliis teqstis uZveles redaqcias. palimfsesti sxvadasxva drois teqstebis nakrebia. zeda fenaze daculia fsalmuni.

xanmeti oTxTavi saxarebis uZvelesi xanmeturi redaqcia, daculia palimfsestis qveda fenaze. teqsti dayofilia muxlebad; axlavs gankveTilobis niSnebi: wertili, ori wertili. zeda fenaze ikiTxeba iovane oqropiris `maTes Tavis Targmaneba~.
VI-VII, XI ss.

V-VI, XIII-XIV ss. etrati, 99 f., gadakecili furc­ lis zoma: 15,2×11,5 sm. H 999

etrati, 439 f., zoma: 2,5×27,5 sm. A 89

moralis Semecnebisa da saeklesio-saRvTismsaxuro praqtikis, anu liturgiis ganviTarebisaTvis. qristianobis gavrcelebisa da qarTuli xelnaweri tradiciis dasawyisSi qarTuli liturgia samrevlokaTedraluri xasiaTisa iyo da, Sesabamisad, saRvTismsaxuro praqtika, upirvelesad, mowodebuli iyo mrevlis ganaTlebisa da RvTismsaxurebaSi misi wignieri CarTvisaken. amitomac qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi moRvawe xelnawerTa Semqmnelebis gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro bibliam, upirvelesad, axali aRTqmis wignebidan – saxarebam da samociqulom, xilo Zveli aRTqmi14

dan fsalmunma, dabadebam da winaswarmetyvelTa (ieremia, esaia, ezra) wignebma. maT paralelurad iTargmna da gadaiwera zogierTi adreuli apokrifi. mazdianur iranTan mwvave dapirispirebis pirobebSi ganviTarda originaluri agiografiuli mwerloba, gaCnda amave Janris pirveli qarTuli Targmanebi. 476-482 wlebiT daTariRebuli originaluri Txzulebis, `SuSanikis wamebis~, Tanaxmad, V  s-is 70-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi ukve arsebobda saxarebis, pavles epistoleebis, fsalmunisa da wminda mowameTa, anu agiografiuli wignebi.

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

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saxareba erT-erTi pirveli bibliuri wignia, romelic qarTvelebma qristianobis miRebisTanave Targmnes. misi uZvelesi Targmanebi gvxvdeba V-VII ss-iT daTariRebul palimfsestur fulrcelbze. es pirveli teqstebi gadawerilia mTavruli anbaniT, maTSi dasturdeba aRniSnuli epoqis enobrivi Tavisebureba – zmnis subieqturi da obieqturi pirebisa da xarisxis formebis `xan~ prefiqsiT warmoeba. Aamitomac aseT teqstebs xanmet redaqciebs uwodeben. palimfsestur furclebze gadawerili oTxTavebi jer kidev ar aris gaformebuli sazedao asoebiTa da sxva ornamentuli elementebiT. amgvar wignebSi xanmeti dekoris funqcias muxlis dasawyisSi gamoyenebuli monumentuli sazedao asoebi asrulebs. saxrebebis mxatvruli elementebiT Semkoba mogvianebiT X-XI ss-dan daiwyo. calkeuli Zeglebis Targmnis paralelurad Sedga saRvTismsaxuro-liturgikuli daniSnulenis krebulebi:

leqcionari – samrevlo da samonastro msaxurebaSi sxvadasxva dResaswaulisTvis dadgenili wesgangeba, romelic moicavs Zveli da axali aRTqmis teqstebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom am saxis krebulis uZvelesi VII saukunis nimuSi, romelic Tavis droze sinas mTis wm. ekaterines monastris wignsacavis sakuTreba iyo, amjerad danawevrebuli saxiT inaxeba gracis universitetSi (avstria, 27 fueceli), birmingemsa (britaneTi, 2 furceli) da safrangeTis nacionalur biblioTekaSi (parizi, 1 furceli). es aris erTaderTi adreuli xelnaweri, romlis furclebic xelaxla ar gamouyenebiaT sawer masalad. leqcionarma, rogorc liturgikulma krebulma, aqtiuri pozicia X s-is dasasrulamde SeinarCuna, Tumca ki SemorCenilia XI s-iT daTariRebuli erTi wignis fragmentic. iadgari – mTeli wlis saRvTismsaxuro teqstebi, fsal­ munisa da bibliis sxva wignebidan Sesabamisi sakiTxavis erTobliobiT. iadgarebi arsebobas inarCunebs X s-is dasasrulamde. Semdgom epoqaSi isini saTaves udeben sxvadasxva Sinaarsis saRvTismsaxuro krebulebs: Tvenebi, marxvani, paraklitonebi da a.S. iadgarebis uZvelesi nimuSebi daculia sinis mTis wm. ekaterines monastris wignsacavSi.

ierusalimuri leqcionari daculia palimfsestis qveda fenaze; asaxavs RvTismsaxurebis adreul, ierusalimur wess. Sesrulebulia VIII s-is enobrivi – haemeturi normiT. am wignis berZnuli pirvelwyaro dakargulia. xelnawerma fragmentulad moaRwia. misi meore, Semavsebeli nawili daculia sxava (Q  333) xelnawerSi. zeda fenaze warmodgenilia gviandeli saRvTismsaxuro krebuli – paraklitoni.
VIII, XIII-XIV ss. etrati, 51 f., zoma: 16×12,5 sm. H 1329

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qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

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leqcionari leqcionaris erT-erTi gviandeli nusxa, gadawerili imgvar samonastro centrSi, romelic XI saukuneSic inarCunebda tradiciuli saRvTismsaxuro wignebisadmi interess. Sesrulebulia mTavruliTa da nusxuriT, muqi yavisferi melniT, saTaurebi gamoyofilia singuriT. moixsenieba XI saukunis cnobili feodali liparit baRvaSi.
1049 w. etrati, 43 f., zoma: 30,5×22,8 sm. gadamweri miqael inCuxi Q 1376

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qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

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tbeTis (svanuri) mravalTavi samonastro daniSnulebis krebuli. Seicavs homiletikuri, agiografiuli, egzegetikuri da apokrifuli 74 Txzulebis adreuli, palestinuri teqstebis Targmanebs. Mmomgeblebi arian mamfali mtbevari iovane da mama Teodore. xelnaweris ZiriTadi nawili Sesrulebulia mrgvlovaniT, nusxuriT gadawerilia 1  Tavi. teqstis samkaulad gamoyenebulia teqstis melniTa da singuriT Sesrulebuli sazedao asoebi; calkeuli gverdebis aSiebze mixatulia sxvadasxva figura.
X s. etrati, 242 f., zoma: 38,5×30 sm. Mmomgeblebi: mamfali mtbevari iovane da mama Teodore. gadaweris adgili: taoklarjeTi A 19

mravalTavi – RvTismsaxurebis damxmare krebuli. aerTianebs saeklesio kalendarze gawyobil wm. mamaTa qadagebebs, agiografiul Txzulebebsa da apokrifebs. bizantiur mwerlobaSi mravalTavis analogs warmoadgens panegirikoni. mravalTavebi adreuli krebulebia. maTi Sedgena ukavSirdeba calkeuli sauflo dResaswaulis Camoyalibebis periods, razec mianiSnebs xelnaweris aSiaze dResaswaulTa sagangebo aqcentirebisaTvis darTuli miTiTebi. dRemde cnobilia IX-XI saukunis rogorc klarjul-palestinuri, aseve aTonuri warmomavlobis qarTuli mravalTavebi.

parxlis mravalTavi. krebulis saxelwodebac warmodgeba xelnaweris damzadebis adgilis mixedviT. igi qarTul xelnawer wignTa Soris gamorCeulia Tavisi sididiT. Sesrulebulia maRali xarisxis etratze, teqsti naweria lamazi, mkafio nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT. samkauli teqsts TiTqmis ara aqvs, sazedao asoebis umetesoba naweria yavisferi melniT, singuriT – sakmaod cota. Seicavs naTargmn da originalur Txzulebebs. Aam xelnaweriT moaRwia Cvenamde `SuSanikis wamebisa~ da `abos wamebis~ teqstebma.
X s. etrati, 658 f., zoma: 45,5×33,5 sm. Ggadamweri: gabriel patarai gadaweris adgili: parxlis monasteri A 95

20

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

21

red monastrebi warmoadgendnen mTavar skriptoriumebs, romelTa saqmianoba Tanamedrove qristianul samyarosTan mWidro kulturul-sarwmunoebrivi kontaqtebis safuZvelze viTardeboda. qarTuli saxelmwifoca da, bunebrivia, werilobiTi kulturac mudam gaxsnili iyo mravalerovani qristianuli sivrcis inteleqtualuri da kulturuli gamocdilebis misaRebad. amgvari kontaqtebi ki qarTul eklesias hqonda rogorc sakuTriv saqarTveloSi Camosuli moRvaweebis, aseve uSualod qarTveli ber-monazvnebis qristianobis wiaRTan – siria, palestinasTan – mWidro urTierTobis wyalobiT, rasac jer kidev V-VI ss-Si Caeyara safuZveli, rodesac qarTvelma moweseebma mimarTes rogorc palestiniaSi arsebul sabawmidis lavras, aseve Crd. siriaSi, antioqiis maxloblad mdebare svimeon mesvetis monasters. gasakviri arc isaa, rom VI saukuneSi saqarTveloSi Sua­ mdinareTidan Semovidnen da damkvidrdnen asureli mafsalmuni cnobilia `mcxeTis daviTnis~ saxeliT. savaraudod, warmoadgens fsalmunis adreul, aleqsandriul redaqcias. gadawerilia asomTavruliT; ZiriTadi teqstis garda, wignSi Setanilia fsalmunTan dakavSirebuli sxva Txzulebebi. xelnawers boloSi dekoris funqciiT darTuli aqvs savaraudod stilizebuli albanuri anbani (246r-v).
X, XI ss. etrati, 261 f., zoma: 19,8×15,3 sm. A 38

mebi (qarTuli tradicia maT camet asurel mamad moixseniebs), romelTa gamocdilebam sagrZnoblad Seuwyo xeli samonastro cxovrebis organizaciasa da xelnaweri tradiciis ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT ki mis aRmosavleT regionebSi, sadac qarTuli xelnaweri tradicia, rogorc aRvniSneT, jer mazdeanuri

mravalTavebSi

gaerTianebuli

Txzulebebi

ume-

tes SemTxvevaSi dReisaTvis daculia mxolod qarTul Targmanebis saxiT. isini warmoadgenen adreqristianul teqstebs, romelTac sagangebo mniSvneloba eniWebaT qristianuli mwerlobis istoriis kvlevaSi. mravalTavi arsebobas inarCunebs X-XI saukeneTa mijnamde. Semdeg igi gardaiqmneba Sereuli saxis krebulad, romelsac ar axlavs miTiTeba saeklesio kalendarze da warmoadgens ara saRvTismsaxuro praqtikisaTvis gankuTvnil, aramed samrevlo-samonastro ganaTlebisaTvis gankuTvnil sakiTxav wigns. qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi Casaxuli xelnaweri tradiciis ganviTareba, ra Tqma unda, mWidrod daukavSirda CvenSi samonastro cxovrebis organizaciis faqts. swo22
Sio MmRvimeli, asureli mama
XVIII s-is miniatiura

S 3269

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

23

daviT garejeli
XVIII s-is miniatiura S 3269

saeklesio-samonastro centrebSi. iq moRvawe qarTvelma berma ioane-zosimem Seadgina umniSvnelovanesi enciklopediuri xasiaTis liturgikuli krebuli Sin.  geo. O.   34 da Targmna erT-erTi uZvelesi astrologiuri traqtati – ezra winaswarmetyvelis `kalanda¡~. swored iovane-zosimes mier Seqmnil xelnawerSi vxvdebiT erovnuli msoflmxedvelobis erT-erT qvakuTxedad cnobil Txzulebas `qaba¡ da dideba¡ qarTulisa enisa¡~. dRes es

Wil-etratis iadgari gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs, upirvelesad, saweri masalis TvalsazrisiT, vinaidan masSi erTdrouladaa gamoyenebuli Wilisa (papirusis) da etratis furclebi. teqsti asaxavs VII-VIII saukuneebis ierusalimur praqtikas; misi berZnuli modeli dRes dakargulia. gadawerilia A kuTxovani mrglovaniT, axlavs marginaluri niSnebi. erT-erT minawerSi moixsenieba iovane, savaraudod, gadamweri.
X s. etrati, papurusi, 313 f., zoma: 11,2×10 sm. gadamweri: iovane gadaweris adgili: sabawmidis monasteri H 2123

iranisa da Semdgom ki muslim arabTa mZime zewolis pirobebSi viTardeboda. aRniSnuli periodis qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis ganviTarebaSi sagangebo roli daekisraT palestinis kerebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki sabawmidis monasterSi, moRvawe qarTvel ber-monazvnobas, romelic iq intensiur samwignobro saqmianobas eweoda X-is 70-80-ian wlebamde. ­ sabawmiduri qarTuli xelnawerebi TviT am lavris samwignobro tradiciis saukeTeso sabuTs warmoadgenen. swored aq Seiqmna oTxTavis, samonastro wesgangebis, anu tipikonisa da saRvTismsaxuro krebulebis sabawmiduri redaqciebi, romlebic gavrcelda saqarTvelos

24

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

25

xelnawerebi inaxeba sinis mTis wm. ekaterines monastris sacavSi, vinaidan X s-is dasasrulidan, sabawmidaze muslim arabTa momZlavrebis Semdgom, qarTulma koloniam sinis mTaze gadainacvla da iq gaagrZela moRvaweoba. wm. ekaterines monastris sacavSi 239 qarTuli xelnaweri da fragmenti inaxeba. es erT-erTi uZvelesi da umdidresi koleqciaa. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom klarjuli da sinur-palestinuri qarTuli xelnawerebi kargad asaxaven adreuli xanis qristianul mwerlobasa da zogadad werilobiT kulturaSi ara mxolod berZnuli, aramed qristianuli arabuli da siriuli kulturebis did rols. am periodis mwerloba Tavisufalia romelime konkretuli centris diqtatisagan. igi Tanabrad iRebs da areklavs qristianul arealSi gaerTianebuli tradiciuli kulturebis mxatvruli da simbolur-alegoriuli azrovnebis umniSvnelovanes tendenciebs. VIII-X saukuneebSi garda sabawmidis lavrisa, qarTvelebi palestinaSi moRvaweoben xaritonis lavraSi, imave palavraSi. VIII s-dan saqarTvelos politikurma da kulturul­ ma centrma qveynis samxreT-dasavleTiT, am istoriul qarTutao-klarjeTSi, gadainacvla. periodidan

li werilobiTi tradiciis udides kerad iqca swored tao-klarjeTis samonastro centrebi, romelTac mWidro kavSiri hqondaT sabawmidis lavrasTan. tao-klarjeTis samonastro kolonizaciis sulisCamdgmeli mama grigoli xancTis monastris wesgangebis Sedgenisas sabawmidur tipikonsac iTvaliswinebda. xelnaweri wignis repertuari gafarTovda. man moicva sasuliero mwerlobis yvela dargi. Tu adreuli xanis qarTul xelnawerebSi vxvdebiT Zveli aRTqmis calkeul wignebs, swored tao-klarjeTis erT-erT lavraSi, oSkSi, gadaiwera moses xuTwigneulis qarTuli redaqciis sruli teqsti. himnografiul da agiografiul krebulebSi Targmnili Zeglebis paralelurad Tavi moiyara originalurma qarTulma mwerlobam. TandaTanobiT Sedga Sereuli tipis, SemecnebiT-saganmanaTleblo xasiaTis krebulebi. Camoyalibda rogorc xelnaweris mxatvrul-dekoratiuli gaformebis, aseve marginaluri da liturgikuli daniS`iovane oqropiris cxovreba~ giorgi aleqsandrieliseuli teqstis qarTuli Targmani, Sesrulebuli palestinaSi tao-klarjeTidan wasuli moRvaweebis mier. ganekuTvneba sagangebod gadaweril wigns. naweria kaligrafiuli nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, saTauri – mTavruliTa da singuriT. rveulebrivi saTvalavisTvis gamoyenebuli qarTuli da berZnuli asoebi Savi da wiTeli melniTaa dekorirebuli. teqsts uZRvis ioane oqropiris miniatiura.
968 w. etrati, 257 f., zoma: 15×12 sm. gadamweri iovane safareli; momgebeli miqael fanaskerTeli gadaweris adgili xaritonis lavra H 2124

26

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

27

nulebis niSanTa sistemebi. qarTuli xelnaweri wignis iluminirebuli, anu moxatuli egzemplarebis arseboba ganapiroba wignis Seqmnis materialuri, anu finansuri SesaZleblobebis zrdam. swored tao-klarjeTSi Caeyara safuZveli samefo dinastiisa da didi feodaluri saxlebis mzrunvelobas. mwognobarTa materialuri uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi. grigol xanZTelisaTvis didaznaur gabriel dafanCulis mier naTqvami sityvebi - `aw Cuen Tana ars £orcieli keTili da Tquen Tana ars sulieri keTili, da ese SevzavneT urTierTas~ – Tavisi gamovlineba ara marto saeklesio-samonastro mSeneblobis, aramed wignis Seqmnis saqmeSic pova. IX-X ss-dan qarTuli xelnaweri wignis xelovnebam ganviTarebis aRmavali gziT iwyo svla. bizantiur sivrceSi arsebuli mxatvruli motivebis aTvisebisa da gadamuSavebis Sedegad daixvewa. teqstis sazedao dekorirebuli; gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmo oTxTavebis moxatulobas. Seiqmna feradovani, mravalfiguriani kompoziciis mdidruli miniatiurebiT Semkuli sagangebo – `sazeimo~ wignebi,
grigol xancTeli
qarTuli eklesiis cnobili mama tao-klarjeTis samonastro mSeneblobis iniciatori XVIII s-is miniatiura S 3269

drnic rwmenis WeSmaritebiT utoldebian berZnebs; isini Tanasworni arian, rogorc marTa da mariami. X saukuneSi, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, iqmneba qarTuli enis saxotbo nawarmoebi `qeba¡ da dideba¡ qarTulisa enisa¡~, xolo X s-is 70-ian wlebSi xelnawer tradiciaSi ukve

Satberdis krebuli sasuliero mwerlobis mniSvnelovan TzxulebaTa Semcveli saganmanaTleblo funqciis pirveli Sereuli krebuli, romelSic Sesulia qarTvelTa gaqristianebis istoria `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡~. naweria mTavruliTa da nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, saTaurebi – singuriT. ar axlavs samkaulebi. teqstis dasawyisis mimaniSnebeli ramdenime striqonis an zogjer naxevari gverdis gaswvriv CamogrZelebuli aso `qanis~ anu qanwilisa da varskvlavis formis niSnebi.
X s. etrati, 286 f., zoma: 28×22 sm. gadamwerebi: iovane-bera¡, ori anonimi gadaweris adgili: Satberdi S 1141

xolo samonastro daniSnulebis egzemplarebi Seimko dekorirebuli ornamentuli sawinamZRvre jvrebiT. amave dros, aq, am wiaRSi safuZveli Caeyara qarTuli saeklesio-samonastro tradiciis konstantinepoluri wesisken orientacias. es procesi, ra Tqma unda, TviT qarTuli saxelmwofos politikuri orientaciis Tanmdevi movlena iyo. VIII saukuneSi saqarTvelos samxreTdasavleTiT Camoyalibebulma tao-klarjeTis samefom X s-is 80-ian wlebSi samefo-samTavroTa gaerTianebis gziT safuZveli Cauyara erTian qarTul saxelmwifos. saxelmwifoebriv erTianobas eklesiuri erTobis ganmtkicebac mohyva. xalifatis orsaukunovanma dapyrobiTma politikam da muslimuri ideologiis Zlierma zewolam gamokveTa qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis erovnuli tendenciebi, gaRviveba daiwyo mesianisturma ideam. VIII  saukunis agiografiuli Txzulebis, `abos wamebis~, avtori ioane sabanisZe qadagebs qarTlis, rogorc muslimuri samyarosagan qristianobis damcavi jebirisa da wminda mowameTa mSobeli qveynis Sesaxeb, romlis mkvi-

28

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

29

miqael modrekilis iadgari X s. sagangeboda Sedgenili adrebizantiuri xanis himnografiuli krebuli, romelmac Semoinaxa X saukuneSi qarTul enaze arsebuli yvela sagalobeli, rogorc originaluri, aseve Targmnili. teqstSi, striqonebis zemoT da qvemoT singuriT miwerilia Zveli sanoto niSnebi – nevmebi, rac musikis istoriisTvis mniSvnelovani movlenaa. xelnaweri gadawerilia klasikuri nusxuriT, sityvaTa Semoklebis, anu daqaragmebis tradiciuli wesis gareSe, Savi melniTa da singuriT; gaformebulia feradi sazedao asoebiTa da sworxazovani ornamentirebuli TavsamkaulebiT.
978-988 ww. etrati, 727 f., zoma: 26×21 sm. gadamwerebi: miqael modrekili da ori anonimi gadaweris adgili: Satberdi S 425

Cndeba qarTvelTa gaqristianebis qronika: `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡~. paralelurad savsebiT naTeli xdeba Zlieri qristiani mokavSiris arsebobis aucilebloba. aseTi mokavSire ki bizantiis imperia iyo, romelmac, Tavis mxriv, miaRwia aRmavlobasa da hegemonias aRmosavleTis qristianul samyaroSi. X s-is 80-iani wlebidan qarTuli kultura da masTan erTad xelnaweri tradiciac aRmavlobas ganicdis. saRvTismsaxuro-samonastro paralelurad originaluri, viTardeba aseve daniSnulebis mwerlobis rogorc kerZod, sxvadasxva Janris

naTargmni

literatura,

sasuliero poezia, ganmartebiTi anu egzegetikuri Zeg­ lebi, dgeba saeklesio samarTlis wignebi, yalibdeba dogmaturi literaturis gamaerTianebeli krebuli – dogmatikoni. XII s-dan saqarTveloSi Zlierdeba samwignobro-saganmanaTleblo centrebi – gelaTisa da iyalTos akademiebi; iqmneba maTTan arsebuli wignsacavebi, romlebSic Tavs iyris sxvadasxva samonastro centrSi gadawerili xelnawerebi; farTovdeba xelnaweri wignis SemecnebiTi funqcia; dgeba Sereuli saxis krebulebi, romlebSic sasuliero mwerlobis Zeglebis paralelu-

30

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

31

sZlispirni da RvTismSoblisani himnografiuli krebuli, romelSic mkveTradaa aRniSnuli sadeklamacio-liturgikuli niSnebi, Tanamedrove TvalsazrisiT, sanoto sistemis adreuli eqvivalenti. xelnawerebSi dadasturebuli amgvari niSnebi miuTiTebs X  s-is saeklesio musikis ganviTarebis myar sistemaze. Nnaweria nusxuriT, dasawyisi asoebi, saTaurebi, ZlispirTa garkveuli jgufis saxelwodebebi – singuriT.
EX s. etrati, 229 f., zoma: 17,2×11,3 sm. gadamweri: iordane A 603

parxlis oTxTavi samonastro daniSnulebis wigni. ar aris ilustrirebuli. gadawerilia SatberdSi da Sewirulia iovane naTlismcemlis saxelze axalaSenebuli parxlis monastrisaTvis. teqsti gadawerilia mTavruliT, yavisferi melniT; sazedao asoebi da saTaurebi – singuriT. xelnawers uxvad moepoveba minawerebi, romelTa meSveobiTac iqmneba misi Semdgomi gadanacvlebis naTeli suraTi. XVIII saukuneSi xelnaweri ganaaxla da nakluli adgilebi qaRaldze gadawerili teqstiT Seavso qarTlis mefe vaxtang VI-is qaliSvilis, anuka batoniSvilis vaJma, mTavardiakvanma, nikoloz abaSiZem.
973 w. Eetrati, qaRaldi. 260 f. (238 f. etrati, 22 f. qaRaldi), zoma: 22,9×19,9 sm. gadamweri: iovane bera, aRmdgeneli – nikoloz abaSiZe gadaweris adgili: Satberdi A 1453

32

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

33

jruWis I oTxTavi qarTuli oTxTavis uZvelesi redaqcia, erTerTi pirveli klasikurad ilustrirebuli xelnaweri. naweria mTavruliT, Savi melniT, saTaurebi da sazedao asoebi singuriT. maTesa da markozis saxarebaTa daboloebi, romlebic miniatiurebian furclebze gadadis, mxatvars daumTavrebia. am epoqis erTaderTi xelnaweria, romelSic moxseniebulia mxatvari Tevdore kamaraTmwerali. xelnaweris Semkulobas warmoadgens jvrebi, kamarebi, 8 kanoni da amdenive ilustracia. win uZRvis kvadrifoliumis moyvanilobis sawinamZRvre jvari. TaRovan CarCoSi Casmuli RvTismSobeli yrmiTurT, maxareblebisa da kurnebis scenebi.
936-940 ww. etrati, 297 f. zoma: 26×21 sm. gadamweri gabrieli, momxatveli Tevdore, momgebeli grigol mirdatis Ze gadaweris adgili: Satberdi H 1660

wyarosTavis I oTxTavi taoklarjuli saliteraturo skolis erT-erTi gamorCeuli wigni. oTxTavis teqsti Zveli opizuri redaqciisaa. xelnaweri Semkulia kamariani kanonebiTa da miniatiurebiT, romlebic Sesrulebulia e. w. xalxuri xelweriT. msgavs grafikul formas vxvdebiT svaneTSi dacul adreul xatebze. xelnaweris gadamweria gabriel patara¡.
X s-is miwuruli etrati, 216 f., zoma: 22×19 sm. gadamweri: gabriel patara¡ dagaweris adgili: tao-klarjeTi A 98

34

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

35

rad gaerTianebulia astrologiuri Sinaarsis Txzulebebi. werilobiTi kultura saxelmwifo zrunvis sagnad iqca. xelaxla iTargmneba da berZnul dedans uaxlovdeba sasuliero mwerlobis adre Targmnili Txzulebebi. am periodSi gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTa qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis erovnuli Sinaarsi; gaCnda berZnul samyarosTan erTgvari metoqeobis tendenciac, rac ganapiroba konstantinepolis diqtatma qristianuli aRmosavleTisa da maT Soris saqarTvelos mimarT. swored

metoqeobis gancdam ganawyo qarTuli wignieri sazogadoeba dainteresebuliyo da safuZvlianad aeTvisebina bizantiuri kultura. axla ukve mTavari yuradreba miipyro imperiis centrSi arsebulma samonastro centrebma. swored IXs-dan daiwyes aq moRvaweoba qarTvelebma jer berZnul, xolo Semdgom sakuTriv qarTul monastrebSi. Tavdapirvelad qarTvelTa yuradreba miipyro ulu­ m­ bos anu olimpis mTam, romelzec IX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi daemkvidra cnobili qarTveli moRvawe ilario-

gelaTis biblia uwodeben katenebian bibliasac, radganac teqsts axlavs katenebi anu Bbibliuri teqstisBganmartebani. Sesrulebulia mxedrulze gardamavali nusxuriT, baci yavisferi melniT. sawer masalad gamoyenebulia maRali xarisxis aRmosavluri qaRaldi. xelnaweri, savaraudod, gadawerilia gelaTis monasterSi, romelSic XII s-Si gaaqtiurda saRvTismetyvelo saqmianoba da daarsda gelaTis akademia.
XII s. qaRaldi, 302 f. zoma: 37×27,6 sm. A 1108

36

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

37

ni. man sxva monazvnebic miizida da safuZveli Cauyara qarTvelTa kolonizacias. olimpze qarTvelebi moRvaweobdnen ramdenime savaneSi: RvTismSoblis eklesiaSi– `quabsa sayofelsa qarTvelTasa~, lavra kraniaSi, `sayofelsa wmidaTa kozman-damianesaTa~. ilarin qarTvelis mowafeebma imperator basilis winadadebiT 876 wels konstantinepolis maxloblad, bosforis srutis evropuli sanapiros centrSi daaarses romanas (hromanas) monasteri. saqarTvelos samefo karis, kerZod, Tamar mefisa da Semdgom erekle II-is sagangebo zrunvis sagans warmoadgenda kunZul kviprosze arsebuli Jaliis imave Raliis qarTuli monasteri. 980-983 wlebSi daarsda qarTuli werilibiTi kulturis istoriaSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi samonasdaviT IV aRmaSenebeli 1089-1125 gelaTis freska

tro centri aTonis iverTa monasteri, romelSic Camoyalibda gansakuTrebuli samwignobro-mTargmnelobiTi da kaligrafiuli skola. swored am skolam, misma mesveurebma – eqvTime da giorgi aTonelebma da maT irgvliv Sekrebilma mwignobar berTa jgufma – iovane grZelisZem, arsen ninowmindelma, iovane xaxulelma da sxvebma X-XI saukuneebSi warmarTes qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis farTo saganmanaTleblo-SemecnebiTi mimarTuleba; maT Semoitanes da daamkvidres dasavluri-bizantiuri kulturis yvela mniSvnelovani monapovari da amave dros SeinarCunes da ganaviTares qarTuli literaturis erovnuli Sinaarsi. aTonelebis periodis qarTuli sasuliero xelnaweri gamoirCeva Janrobrivi mravalferovnebiT, saeklesio-samonastro cxovrebis axleburi reglamentaciiT, samecniero codnis damkvidrebis tendenciiT. ar darCenila sasuliero mwerlobis arc erTi dargi, romelsac ar Sexeboda eqvTime da giorgi aTonelebis xeli. maT saxelebs ukavSirdeba oTxTavis axali, berZnulTan Sedarebis gziT Seqmnili redaqciebis Camoyalibeba, qarTuli eklesiis saRvTismsaxuro cxovrebis ganaxlebis anu konstantinepolur wesze gadasvlis procesi. eqvTime aTonelis iniciativiT dgeba enciklopediuri xasiaTis saganmanaTleblo krebulebi. dRes aTonis ivironis wignsacavSi 86 qarTuli xelnaweria daculi.
1188-1210 ww. qaRaldi, 214 f., zoma: 23×30.5 sm. erTi nawilis gadamweri: esaia A 65

Sereuli krebuli pirveli TariRiani qaRaldze daculi xelnaweri wigni, romelic yuradRebas ipyrobs Tavisi SedgenilobiT. saeklesio cxovrebisaTvis mniSvnelovani teqstebis paralelurad masSi CarTulia arabulidan Targmnili astrologiuri Txzuleba, romelic ilustrirebulia. Lilustraciebi – diskoSi Caxatuli mTvare fazebiTurT, varskvlavTa sidide-simciris amsaxveli diagrama, zodiaqoTa gamosaxulebebi – darTulia teqstze ara misi mxatvruli Semkobis mizniT, aramed astrologiuri codnisaTvis saWiro TvalsaCinoebis Sesaqmnelad. zodiaqoebs ornamentis saxiT win uzis mxatvruli gemovnebiT Sesrulebuli qufuri Srifti, xelnawerSi aseve warmodgenilia jvarcmis kompozicia. wigni ekuTvnoda qarTlis mefe vaxtang VI-s.

38

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

39

martvilis oTxTvi martvilis oTxTavi, gadawerili WyondidSi (martvilSi). damkveTi ivane farjaniani. xelnawers amkobs ornamentirebuli sazedao asoebi da maTesa da markoz maxareblebis miniatiurebi. teqsti naweria yavisferi melniT, saTaurebi da mniSvnelovani adgilebi – singuriT. hyavs ori gadamweri. mwared codvili arseni eSisZe da ioane mesvete.
1050 w. etrati, 186 f., zoma: 23×19 sm. gadamwerebi: ioane mesvete da arseni eSisZe. gadaweris adgili: martvili S 391

40

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

41

oTxTavi gadawerili kaligrafiuli mTavruliT, maRali xarisxis etratze, yavisferi melniT, sazedao asoebi singuriT. wigni Semkulia kamarebiT, feradovani sazedao asoebiTa da TavsamkaulebiT. Bbolosamkaulad gamoyenebulia moxatuli jvari berZnuli warweriT. axlavs markozisa da lukas gamosaxulebebi. moxatuloba savaraudod Sesrulebulia Savi mTis saliteraturo skolisTvis damaxasiaTebeli xelweriT.
1054 w. Eetrati, 266 f. zoma: 14,59×11,4 sm. Ggadamweri: miqaeli S 962

jruWis II oTxTavi cnobilia axali jruWis saxelwodebiT. XII-XIII ss-Si unda iyos rogorc mxatvruli stilis TaviseburebebiT, aseve miniatiurebis siuxviT qarTul ilustrirebul oTxTavTa Soris erT-erTi gamorCeuli wigni. 334 miniatiura da wignis dekoratiuli sistemis sxva elementebi originaluri qarTuli samxatvro tradiciis sawyisebze dgas. kompoziciebi warmodgenilia or an sam iarusad, an darRveulia miniatiurebis CarCoTi SemosazRvruli sivrce da figurebi teqstSia SeWrili. cnobilia xelnaweris momxatveli miqaeli, romelic imavdriulad wignis gadamweria.
XII s. Eetrati, 278 f., zoma: 24,5×18,6 sm. Ggadamweri da momxatveli: miqaeli H-1667

42

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

43

jruWis II oTxTavi

jruWis II oTxTavi

44

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

45

Mmaqsime aRmsarebeli, RvTismSoblis cxovreba RvTismSoblis cxovrebis amsaxveli yvelaze sruli Txzuleba, romlis berZnuli an sxvaenovani analogi cnobili ara aris. ukavSirdeba uZveles qristianul Zegls – iakobis pirvelsaxarebas. MTxzuleba iTargmna aTonis mTis qarTul skriptoriumSi; mTargmnelia eqvTime MmTawmideli. gadawerilia etratze kaligrafiuli nusxuriT, saTaurebi da sazedao asoebi mTavruliT, oqromelniT. Semkulia ornamentuli wnuliT, teqsts uZRvis lukasa da iovane maxareblebis miniatiura.
X-XI ss. eEtrati, 332 f., zoma: 16,5×11,4 sm. Ggadamweri: mowese benediqte gadaweris adgili: aTonis mTa A 40

`gamocxadeba wmidisa maxareblisa da RvTismetyvelisa iovanesi~, andria kesaria-kapadukielis Targmaneba¡ apokalipsis pirveli qarTuli Targmani. vinaidan axali aRTqmis es wigni yvelaze gvian Seitanes saxarebaSi, qarTul tradiciaSi iTargmna X s-Si. Targmani Seasrula aTonis skolis damaarsebelma eqvTime mTawmidelma. wigni imiTacaa saintereso, rom nusxuriT gadaweril xelnawerTa Soris igi yvelaze adreuli TariRiani krebulia. xelnaweris anderZSi daculia cnoba basili da konstantine keisrebis winaaRmdeg barda skliarosis amboxebis Sesaxeb.
978 w. etrati, 210 f., zoma: 17,5×12,5 sm. gadamweri: saba kuti gadaweris adgili: olimpi, lavra krania. H 1346

46

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

47

mcire svinaqsari am krebulma safuZveli Cauyara qarTul eklesiaSi axali, konstantinepoluri tipikonisa da kalendaruli sistemis SemoRebas, moZravi ciklis axali gegmisa da Sedgenilobis gansazRvras. mcire svinaqsarma warmoSva saRvTismsaxuro-himnografiuli krebulebis axali saxeobebi – Tveni, marxvan-zatikni, paraklitoni. xelnaweri Sesrulebulia etratze nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, sazedao asoebi da saTaurebi – singuriT. is aris yvelaze farTod ilustrirebuli saRvTismsaxuro

krebuli. 400 furcliani wignidan amJamad SemorCenilia 144 f. Semkulia 72 miniatiuriT, romlebzedac gamosaxulia rogorc siuJetebi saxarebidan, aseve wmindanebi. wignis Seqmna finansurad uzrunvelyo banas episkoposma zaqariam.
1030 w. etrati, 144 f., zoma: 27×21 sm. gadaweris adgili: konstantinepoli, xoras monasteri A 648

48

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

49

vanis oTxTavi wignis xelovnebis gamorCeuli nimuSi gansakuTrebul Rirebulebas iZens, vinaidan igi Seiqmna mefe TamarisTvis misive dakveTiT. gaformebis xarisxiTa da SesrulebiT erT-erTi upirvelesTagania `sazeimo~ xelnawerebs Soris. Ggadawerilia maRali xarisxis TeTr etratze, nusxuriT, uxvadaa gamoiyenebuli oqromelani. Semkulia mdidruli kamarebiT, TavsamkulebiT, saxarebaTa Tavebis dasawyisSi warmodgenilia oriarusiani miniatiurebi. xelnaweris Seqmnis organizatori da gadamweria konstantinepolis romanas monasterSi moRvawe iovane, momxatveli – bizantieli miqael koreseli.
XII-XIII ss. etrati, 274 f., zoma: 29,1×21 sm. gadamweri: iovane mxatvari: miqael koreseli gadaweris adgili: romanas monasteri A 1335

50

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

51

mcire sjulis kanoni eqvTime aTonelis Targmani, es aris saeklesio samarTlis pirveli qarTuli Targmani, Sesrulebuli avtokefaluri qarTuli eklesiis aRmavlobis periodSi. aerTianebs sxvadasxva kanonikuri xelnaweri wignis masalas, maT Soris qarTulsac. gadawerilia cnobili kaligrafis, basilis, mier. wignis Seqmnis iniciatoria banas episkoposi zaqaria.
1031 w. etrati, 204 f., zoma: 19×15,5 sm. gadamweri: basili S 143

didi svinaqsari saeklesio kalendarze gawyobili es saRvTismsaxuro wigni aerTianebs msoflio da qarTuli eklesiebis wmindanTa mokle cxovrebebsa da wamebebs. Mmisi meSveobiT vecnobiT sofiawmidis, stodielTa savanisa da aTonis iverTa monastris liturgikul praqtikas. Ddidi svinaqsari 1036 wels berZnulidan Targmna da qarTuli masaliT Seavso giorgiM mTawmidelma. es xelnaweri dafinansebuli da gadawerilia Sav mTaze XI s-Si moRvawe cnobili kaligrafebis, daviT da iovane jibisZeebis, mier. naweria nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, saTaurebi – asomTavruliTa da singuriT. Semkulia sworxazovani TavsamkaulebiTa da sazedao asoebiT.
X s. etrati, 452 f., zoma: 22×17 sm. gadamwerebi da damfinansebelebi – iovane da daviT jibisZeebi gadaweris adgili – Savi mTa, romanwminda H 2211

52

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

53

sagangebo yuradRebas imsaxurebs antioqiis maxloblad Sav mTaze arsebul qarTvelTa samonastro kolonizacia, romelic XI s-is 30-iani wlebidan intensiurad amoqmedda. qarTvelebi moRvaweobdnen svimeonwmindis, kaliposis, kastanas, barlaamwmindis, romanas, lerwmisxevis, ezrasa da TualTas monastrebSi. qarTvelTa samwignobro saqmianobas warmarTavdnen XI s-is cnobili mTargmnel redaqtorebi: giorgi aToneli, giorgi Seyenebuli, giorgi mcire, efrem mcire, kaligrafebi: ioane da miqael dvalebi. qarTvel mwignobrebs metad mWidro kontaqti hqondaT adgilobriv berZnul-asurul-arabul wreebTan. isini sargeblobdnen Teodore patriarqis mier svimeonwmidaSi daarsebuli mdidari biblioTekiT. swored Savi mTis qarTul xelnawerebSi Camoyalibda teqstebis Teologiuri da samecniero komentirebis principebi. amave xelnawerebSi konstantinepoluri tradiciis paralelurad aisaxa uZvelesi siriuli kulturis kvalic. amave periodSi bizantiis karTan daaxlovebulma taoelma didebulma grigol bakurianisZem bulgareTSi daaarsa qarTvelTa monasteri petriwoni seminariiTurT. aq ioane petriwis TaosnobiT Camoyalibda umniSvnelovanesi filosofiur-Teologiuri skola. XI saukunidan qarTvelTa yuradReba kvlav miipyro palestinam, romelSic axali ZaliT ifeTqa qarTulma samonastro-samwignobro saqmianobam. am saqmianobis saTaveSi idga qarTvelTa jvris monasteri da misi damaarsebeli giorgi proxore, romelic zrunavda axali xelnaweri krebulebis Sedgena–gamravlebaze; swored misi TaosnobiT Sedga palestinis gamoCenil moRvaweTa `cxovrebebis~ krebuli, romelic palestinis paterikis saxeliTaa cnobili. DdRes es krebuli londonSi britaneTis muzeumSia daculi, Addit 1181; jvris wignsacavi swrafad ivseboda saqarTveloSi moRvawe mwignobarTa monawileobiTac, amave dros iq gadawerili xelnawerebi igzavneboda sxva qarTul samonastro centrebSi. monasteri qarTuli samefo karisa da feodaluri aristokratiis sagangebo yuradRebas imsaxurebda; saqarTveloSi Seiqmna jvris metoqi anu Tanamdgomi saeklesio centrebi,
alaverdis oTxTavi

54

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

55

alaverdis oTxTavi

56

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

57

alaverdis oTxTavi klasikuri xanis qarTuli xelnaweri wignis erT-erTi gamorCeuli egzemplari. Seqmnilia Savi mTis kaliposis lavraSi. ganekuTvneba im iSviaT oTxTavTa ricxvs, romlebsac erTviT macxovris xelTuqmneli xatis Txroba – `avgarozis epistole~. wigni gadawerilia maRali xarisxis etratze nusxuriTa da mTavruliT XI s-is cnobili kaligrafebis mier. Semkulia ornamentuli sazedao asoebiT, sawinamZRvre jvriT da kanonebiT, furclovan oqroze Sesrulebuli cxra miniatiuriT. es aris erTaderTi qarTuli xelnaweri, romelSic

gvxvdeba macxovris tiloze aRbeWdili xelTuqmneli xatis, anu mandilionis gamosaxuleba. Ees sagangebo wigni bagrat IV-isadmi morCilebis niSnad 1054 wels saqarTveloSi Camoitana liparit baRvaSis Zem ivanem.
1054 w. etrati, 330 f., zoma: 24×19 sm. gadamwerebi: giorgi da ioane dvali gadaweris adgili: Savi mTis kaliposis RvTismSoblis lavra A 484

58

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

59

grigol RvTismetyvelis Txzulebani filosofiur-Teologiuri krebuli. Seicavs 19 teqsts. qarTuli Targmani ekuTvnis efrem mcires. Ees aris komentirebuli xelnaweris erT-erTi saukeTeso ilustrirebuli egzemplari. gadawerilia qaRaldze, nusxuriT, yavisferi melaniT, saTaurebi da dasawyisebi – singuriT, Semkulia ornamentuli sazedao asoebiT,

marginaluri niSnebiTa da mxatvruli kompoziciebiT. XVIII s-Si ekuTvnoda erekle II-is SviliSvils, daviT batoniSvils.
XII s. qaRaldi, 280 f., zoma: 42,5×31 sm. gadamweri da gadaweris adgili ucnobia. A 109

60

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

61

grigol RvTismetyvelis Txzulebani

grigol RvTismetyvelis Txzulebani

62

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

63

gelaTis oTxTavi

64

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

65

gelaTis oTxTavi XII saukunis wignis xelovnebis unikaluri nimuSi, sazeimo oTxTavi; gadawerilia sagangebod damuSavebul etratze nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, singuriTa da oqromelniT. gamoirCeva rogorc mxatvruli SesrulebiT, aseve SedgenilobiT. saxarebis teqsts erTvis sadeklamacio-liturgukul niSanTa ganmartebebi berZnul da qarTul enebze da `avgarozis epistole~. Semkulia svetovani kamarebiT, 254 miniatiuriT, natifi oqromelniT Sesrulebuli sazedao asoebiT. TiToeuli miniatiuris fonad furclovani oqroa gamoyenebuli. TiToeul Tavs uZRvis maxareblebis portretebi. saxarebis oTxive Tavis saTauri Casmulia xaliCiseburi ornamentiT Semkul CarCoSi. saxareba giorgi mTawmideliseuli Targmanis Semcveli pirveli nimuSia.
XII s. etrati, III, 293 f., zoma: 26×18,8 sm. Q 908

66

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

67

wyarosTavis II saxareba xelnaweri wigni gadawerilia Tamar mefis zeobis dros. naweria etratze klasikuri nusxuriT, yavisferi melniTa da singuriT. mis Semkulobas warmoadgens maxarebelTa 4  portreti. ioane safareli-mtbevari episkoposis dakveTiT wigni gadauweria or pirs. wignis ydis ostatia beqa opizari.
1195 w. etrati, 277 f., zoma: 25×18 sm. gadamwerebi: ioane fukaralisZe, giorgi seTa¡sZe. Q 907

biWvinTis oTxTavi xelnaweri Seiqmna XII s-Si, dasavleT saqarTveloSi, mogvianebiT ganekuTvna biWvinTis RmrTismSoblis eklesias. Ggadawerilia etratze, nusxuriT. saxarebis teqsti naweria yavisferi melniT, xolo asomTavruliT Sesrulebuli saTaurebi – oqromelniTa da singuriT. xelnawerSi SemorCenili wm. Mmaxareblebis – markozisa da lukas– ori miniatiura. wignis moxatuloba metyvelebs qarTuli miniatiuruli mxatvrobis TviTmyofad xasiaTze.
XII s. Eetrati, 230 f., zoma: 31×23 sm. Gadaweris adgili: dasavleTi saqarTvelo H 2120

68

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

69

romlebic Ffinansurad uzrunvelyofdnen sazRvargareT arsebul qarTul monasters. qarTvelebi moRvaweobdnen aseve golgoTa – uflis saflavi – aRdgomis, kappaTas, derTufas, dertavis dedaTa, geTsamaniis, Ralias, basilis, Teodores, nikolozis, samoelis, Sehanis monastreb­ Si. dRes cnobilia ierusalimuri qarTuli koleqsiis 161 xelnaweri. paralelurad qarTuli xelnaweri wigni iqmneba saqarTveloSi arsebul eklesia-monastrebSi. samwignobro saqmianobam moicva rogorc saqarTvelos didi samonastro centrebi, aseve calkeuli eklesia-monastrebi. Mmdidrulad moxatuli da SinaarsiT mravalferovani wignis floba rogorc sasuliero, aseve saero wodebis Rirsebad iqca. XIII-XVI ss-is qarTuli xelnaweri mihyveba ganviTarebis tradiciul gzas, romlis dacvac am periodis werilobiT kulturas iseve, rogorc qarTul saxelmwifos, monRolebis, osmaleTisa da iranis politukuri zewolis pirobebSi uwevs. XVII-XVIII ss-idan gafarTovda qarTvelTa kulturuli urTierTobis wre. qarTulma werilobiTma kulturam yuradReba mimarTa evropuli codnisa da gamocdilebisaken, rasac xels uwyobda am epoqis politikuri urTierTobebi. erTi mxriv, kaTolike misionerebis gamoCena saqarTveloSi da, meore mxriv, ruseTTan politikuri kavSiris damyarebis mcdelobas bunebrivad mohyva am sivrceebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli samwignobro gamocdilebis Semosvla CvenSi. gadaiwera kaTolikuri Sinaarsis wignebi, rusulidan iTargmna sasuliero mwerlobisa da saeklesio istoriis laTinur samyaroSi gavrcelebuli Zeglebi, daarsda pirveli stamba. qarTuli xelnaweri wignis Sedgenisa da gaformebis tradiciam Tavdapirvelad nabeWd wignSi gadainacvla. beWduri produqciis momZlavrebam ki erTgvarad Seaviwrova qarTuli xelnaweris gavrcelebis areali, romelic piradi sakuTrebis mcire formis wignebiT SemoisazRvra. met-naklebi intensivobiT qarTulma xelnawerma wign­ ma XX s-is dasawyisamde SeinarCuna arseboba.
oTxTavi ierusalimSi, geTsemaniis monasterSi (eklesiaSi) gadawerili samonastro daniSnulebis wigni. naweria etratze nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT, saTaurebi da dasawyisebi – singuriT; xelnaweris bolo nawili palimfsestia. gadamweria mwiri miqaeli, warmoSobiT mcxeTeli, romelmac aRniSnuli samuSao Seasrula stefane xucesis, palavrelis, SekveTiT.; wigns erTvis XII s-Si mxedruliT jvarosnebis – tamplierTa ordenis wevrebis mosaxsenebeli warwerebi.
1048 w. etrati; 243 f., zoma: 22×16,5 sm. gadamweri: miqaeli gadaweris adgili ierusalimi, geTsemania H 1741

70

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

71

ioane sineli, klemaqsi `klemaqsis~ anu `saTnoebaTa kibis~ eqvTime mTawmideliseuli Targmani, gadawerili XII-XIII ss-Si ori kaligrafis mier: erTis vinaoba ucnobia, meorea nikra¡s. Mmisi naweri gamoirCeva teqstis sadeklamacio niSnebisa da mxatvruli ornamentebis mravalferovnebiT: sityvebs Soris dasmulia gankveTilobis niSnebi, mZimeebi, striqonebs zemoT da qvemoT – talRovani xazebi. sazedao asoebi SeWrilia teqstSi, Semkulia foTlovani ornamentiT, zogSi adamianTa saxeebia Caxatuli, zogSi ki mTeli sityvaa Cawerili. teqstis farTo

arSiebze uamravi sqolioa, romelTa striqonebis ganlageba figurebs qmnis. wignis gaformebaSi Tavs iCens xalxuri nakadi. teqsti dawerilia nusxurad, Savi da yavisferi melniT, sazedao asoebi – teqstis melniT an singuriT.
XII-XIII ss. qaRaldi, 223 f., zoma: 36,5×29 sm. Ggadamwerebi: ucnobi da nikra¡ H 1669

72

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

73

oTxTavi klasikuri periodidan gviandeli tradiciisaken gardamavali periodis xelnaweri wignis saintereso nimuSi. Ggadaweris konkretuli adgili ucnobia, magram wigni Seqmnilia saqarTveloSi erT-erTi feodaluri ojaxis – glonisTavisZeebis dakveTiT. wignis mxatvruldekoratiuli sistema Seqmnilia klasikuri xanis qarTuli wignis nimuSebis mibaZviT, Tumca gansxvavebuli ferTa palitriT, konkretulad, mWaxe wiTeli saRebavis gamoyenebiT.
XII-XIII ss. etrati, 316 f., zoma: 23,6×18 sm. gadamweri: iakobi A 516

varZiis oTxTavi maRali xarisxis TeTr etratze Sesrulebuli xelnaweri wigni yuradRebas iqcevs mdidruli, natifi originaluri morTulobiTa da klasikuri kaligrafiuli nusxuriT, saTaurebi – singuriTa da mTavruliT. sazedao asoebi da teqstis mniSvnelovani adgilebi naweria oqromelniTa da feradebiT. maxareblebis gamosaxulebani teqstian furclebzea Sesrulebuli da mcire adgils ikavebs. miniatiurebi Semkulia originaluri ornamentebiT. varZiis oTxTavi sazeimo xasiaTis xelnaweria, romelic savaraudod Tamar mefes ekuTvnoda. XVI saukunemde wigni varZiaSi inaxeboda, sparselebis mier varZiis Zarcvis Semdgom igi gamousyidia leon kaxTa mefis vaJs da kvlav varZiisaTvis Seuwiravs. wigns hqonia vercxlis yda RvTismSoblis minanqriani xatiT, romelic SemouZarcvavT.
XII-XIII ss. etrati, 289 f., zoma: 23×18 sm. Q 899

74

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

75

oTxTavi XIII s-Si gadawerili da moxatuli wigni. erT-erTi im mcirericxovan saxarebaTagani, romelTac axlavs `avgarozis epistolis~ teqsti gvianbizantiuri xanis elinofiluri tradiciis Targmani, sadeklamacio-liturgikuli niSnebis TanxlebiTurT. oTxTavi moxatulia. yoveli Tavis dasawyiss amSvenebs maxareblebis gamosaxulebani oqros fonze, romelTac sacavad gakeTebuli aqvs qsovilis safari. teqsti Semkulia saucxood gaformebuli TavsamkauliTa da sazedao asoebiT. Mmxatvari maTe (3r) mtkiced inarCunebs individualuri, TviTmyofadi qarTuli wignis xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel erovnul tradiciebs. mogvianebiT wigni ganuaxlebia da cxaotis Tavis RmrTismSoblisaTvis Seuwiravs qsnis erisTavis meuRles, rodams (3r).
XIII s. etrati, 190 f., zoma: 25,5×20 sm. A 496

oTxTavi XIII s-is erT-erTi saukeTeso kaligrafiuli nimuSia da Sesrulebuli unda iyos sagangebod didgvarovani feodaluri wris warmomadenlisTvis. naweria nusxuriT, saTaurebi – wiTel fonze oqromelniT. oTxTavis Semkulobas warmoadgens ornamentuli morTulobis calkeuli elementebi, kamarebi, sazedao asoebi, oqromelniT Sesrulebuli miniatiurebi markozisa da lukas gamosaxulebebiT, xarebis, Sobis, ierusalimSi Sesvlis kompoziciebiT.
XIII s. etrati, 268 f., 23,5×17,5 sm. gadamweri: nikoloz katarawisZe A 26

76

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

77

moqvis oTxTavi wigni warmoadgens qarTul oTxTavTa Soris erT-erT bolo ilustrirebul wigns, romelSic gamovlenilia qristianuli xelovnebis paleologosuri xanis (1261-1361  ww.) bizantiuri xatwerisa da winarenesansuli evropuli mxatvrobis elementebi. sazeimo xasiaTis es wigni gadawerilia dasavleT saqarTveloSi – afxazeTSi, moqvis monasterSi. misi damkveTia moqvis eparqiis mTavarepiskoposi danieli. gadamweri da mxatvari efremi. naweria etratze mxsvili nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT. warmodgenilia 10 kamara, 152 siuJeturi miniatiura, romelTa Soris interess iwvevs Cviledi RvTismSoblis winaSe vedrebis pozaSi mdgomi moqveli mTavarepiskoposi danieli. xelnawerSi ikiTxeba 531 sazedao aso.
1300 w. etrati, 329 f., zoma: 30×23,5 sm. gadamweri da momxatveli: efremi damkveTi: moqvis eparqiis mTavarepiskoposi danieli gadaweris adgili: moqvi Q 902

asli

78

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

79

ioane oqropiris Jamiswirva, XIII-XIV ss. gragnili, Semdgari sami erTmaneTze gadakerebuli etratis furclis, anu kefisagan. naweria nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT. saTauri feradi saRebavebiT, lamazad moxatuli sazedao asoebi mTavruliT. adgilebi gacxovelebulia Savi melniT. xelnaweris gadamweri yofila gabrieli, romelsac nusxuriT Seusrulebia teqsti. gragnili naweria orive mxareze. ioane oqropiris Jamiswirva, anu kondaki daxveulia xis joxze, anu kondakze. teqstis dasawyisSi moTavsebulia ioane oqropiris gamosaxuleba, romelic Casmulia wnuli ornamentiT Semkul CarCoSi.
XIII-XIV ss. etrati, 3 kefi, zomebi: 64,5×20,8 sm.; 74×20,8 sm.; 70,5×21,1 sm. gadamweri: gabrieli A 922.

kurTxevani krebulSi gaerTianebulia sxvadasxva tipis locvebi, maT Soris bevria samkurnalo Sinaarsisa. Zvel qarTul krebulTa Soris aRniSnuli wigni unda mivakuTvnoT e. w. gardamavali tipis krebuls, romelic farTo sociumisaTvis moiazreba. gadamweri da gadaweris adgili ucnobia, magram, savaraudod, Zalze Zveli dednis asls warmoadgens. teqstebi uaxlovdeba klarjul Targmanebs. naweria aRmosavlur qaRaldze. teqsti dawerilia nusxuriT, saTaurebi da sazedao asoebi – singuriT. xelnawerSi uxvadaa feradebiT Sesrulebuli Tavbolokazmulobebi, da yvavilovan-mcenareuli gamosaxulebebi, mxatvrulad adamianis, frinvelTa, cxovelTa

gaformebuli sazedao asoebi da vardulebi.
XIV-XV ss. F118 f., aqedan qaRaldi – 116 f., etrati – 2 f.; zoma: 24,5×20,5 sm. A 1110

80

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

81

largvisis zatiki, XV s. zatiki liturgikuli wignia da aRdgomis periodis sagaloblebs niSnavs. naweria nusxuriT, saTaurebi singuriT. moxatulia TavsamkauliT, sazedao asoebiTa da miniatiurebiT, romlebzec gamosaxulia scenebi sauflo dResaswaulebidan.
EXV s. etrati, f. 175, 25,6×20,2 sm. gadamweri: barnaba, damkveTi: Salva erisTavi A 25

82

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

83

fsalmuni gadawerilia samcxeSi aTabagTa feodaluri saxlis Taosanis – yvaryvaresa da misi vaJis – mzeWabuk II-is sagangebo dakveTiT. momcro zomis xelnaweri saojaxo biblioTekisTvisaa Seqmnili. naweria etratze nusxuriT, sazedao asoebisaTvis gamoyenebulia asomTavruli, gaformebulia oqromelniT. Mfsalmunebs win uZRvis feradebiT Sesrulebuli miniatiura daviT winaswarmetyvelisa, romelic qnarze ukravs, xolo teqstis dasawyiss amkobs Tavsamkauli originaluri ornamentiT. A1494 w.
etrati, 168 f., zoma: 9,8×7,6 sm. gadaweris adgili: samcxe, samxreTi saqarTvelo A 351

fsalmuni mdidrulad gaformebuli es xelnaweri wigni sagangebod maRali aristokratuli ojaxisaTvis unda yofiliyo dakveTili. Seicavs giorgi mTawmideliseul redaqciis teqsts. uZRvis daviT winaswarmetyvelis gamosaxuleba, darTuli aqvs teqstze adreuli maRalmxatvruli miniatiurebi. suraTebi, romlebic ufro adreulia, vidre teqsti. gadamweris mxedrulad Sesrulebuli anderZiT irkveva, rom xelnaweri daukveTavs zilixan batoniSvils.
XVII s. qaRaldi, 236 f., zoma: 25×17,5 sm. H 1665

84

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

85

fsalmuni wigni gadaiwera dasavleT saqarTveloSi, sof. RvaraSi TeTrosanis saxelwodebiT cnobil eklesiaSi qaixosro gurielisa da misi dedis, dedofal aTabagis qal Tamaris dakveTiTa da finansuri uzruvelyofiT. Ggadawerilia aRmosavlur qaRaldze nusxuriT. Semkulia 55 teqstze adreuli miniatiuriT.

XVI s. qaRaldi, 144 f., 23×17,5 sm. gadamweri: germanozi gadaweris adgili: Rvaras TeTrosnis eklesia H 75

86

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

87

biblia wigni, romelsac `mcxeTur xelnawers~ uwodeben, bibliis yvelaze srulyofili qarTuli xelnaweria. Zegli naTlad metyvelebs XVII-XVIII ss. mijnaze qarTvelTa mniSvnelovan codnasa da gamocdilebaze bibliologiisa Tu samecniero-filologiuri saqmianobis Sesaxeb. biblia naweria qaRaldze Savi melniT, nusxuriT. gairCeva ramdenime xeli. saTaurebi Sesrulebulia mTavruliT, zogjer wiTeli melniT. redaqtirebulia mxedruliT da axlavs amave xeliT Sesrulebuli saZieblebi, romlebic ekuTvnis redaqtors, sulxan-saba orbelians. xelnawerSi CarTulia vaxtang VI-is stambaSi dabeWdili teqsti `winaswarmetyvelTa wignebi~.
XVII-XVIII ss. qaRaldi, 668 f., zoma: 21×29,5 sm. gadamwerebi: sulxan-saba orbeliani, lazare A 51

samoTxis kari sulxan-saba orbelianis `samoTxis kari~ kiTxva-migebiT dawerili moZRvrebaa. igi avtograful nusxas warmoadgens da 1701 wliT TariRdeba. am xelnawerSi, romelic avtoris ubis wignaki unda yofiliyo misive xeliT Setanilia sxva masala, romelic Seicavs locvebs, RvTismsaxurebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxavebs. wigni naweria qaRaldze mxedruliT. teqsti adgil-adgil avtoris mier unda iyos nasworebi, rasac mowmobs qaRaldis viwro naWrebi, romlebic wignakSia Cakruli.
1701 w. qaRaldi, 90 f., zoma: 20,8×11 sm. gadamweri: sulxan-saba orbeliani A 303

88

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

89

qarTuli saero xelnawerebi

Sua saukuneebis qarTul saero xelnawerebSi war­ mo­ dge­ nilia Janrobrivad da Sinaarsobrivad mraval­ fe­ rovani mwerlobis nimuSebi, mxatvruli da samecniero Sina­ arsis Txzulebebi. es xelnawerebi TavianTi Sedge­ ni­ lobiTa Tu mxatvruli gaformebiT imdroindeli sa­ zo­ gadoebis sulieri interesebisa da moTxovnebis Sesabamisad iqmneboda da asaxavda axloaRmosavleTis saerTo kulturuli arealis ZiriTad tendenciebsa da mimarTulebebs. misi mxatvruli saxe da Seqmnis teqnika emyareboda Zveli qarTuli xelnaweri wignis tradiciebs, romlebic sasuliero wreebSi, qarTul da ucxour skriptoriumebSi yalibdeboda.
Ggulani SedgenilobiT originaluri qarTuli krebulia, romelSic Tavmoyrilia saRvTismsaxuro yvela wigni: saxareba, saqme mociqulTa, pavleni, Tveni, Jamni, daviTni, marxvani, zatiki, svinaqsari. eklesiaSi is ikiTxeboda mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi. Ees gulani daukveTavs kaTalikos nikoloz amilaxvriSvils 1681 wels. Nnaweria qaRaldze nusxuriT, yavisferi melniT. sazedao asoebi da saTaurebi mTavruliTa da singuriT. xelnaweri moxatulia, teqstsa da xelnaweris kideebze uxvad gvxvdeba wmindanTa gamosaxulebebi, aseve scenebi sauflo dResaswaulebidan. F
1681 w. qaRaldi, 345 f., zoma: 35×24 sm. gadamwerebi: miqaeli, saba, abeli A 30

qarTuli werilobiTi kulturis saero xelnawerebis saxis Camoyalibeba damoukidebeli da Zlieri feodaluri monarqiis, politikurad da ekonomikurad mowinave qar­ Tuli saxelmwifosa da brwyinvale samefo karis ar­ sebobis pirobebSi daiwyo. Semdgom ki, erTiani saqar­ Tvelos daSlisa da politikuri Znelbedobis Jams, qar­ Tuli samonastro kerebis Sesustebis periodSi, swo­ red saero xelnawerma itvirTa wignis SemecnebiTi arealis gafarTovebisa da progresuli codnis Semotana-gavrcelebis funqcia. Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom

90

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

qarTuli xelnaweri wigni

91