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8lologlcal SysLems ln AÞ ChemlsLry

ln Lhe 2013-14 revlslons Lo Lhe AÞ ChemlsLry currlculum, a slgnlflcanL amounL of language has been
placed ln Lhe currlculum documenL surroundlng Lhe lmporLance of fundamenLal chemlsLry concepLs ln
blologlcal sysLems. 1hese skllls have been expllclLly referenced ln four ouL of slx 8lg ldeas, one Sclence
ÞracLlce, and Lwo Learnlng Cb[ecLlves.

"#$ %&'( )
!"#$%&"' $"#)%*+,"#&"' -./: lorces of aLLracLlon beLween parLlcles (lncludlng Lhe noble gases and also dlfferenL parLs
of some large molecules) are lmporLanL ln deLermlnlng many macroscoplc properLles of a subsLance, lncludlng how Lhe
observable physlcal sLaLe changes wlLh LemperaLure.
!"# %&'%#&()#* '+ ,'-.#-*#. %"/*#* /-. '+ 0/-1 ,&2,)/3 4)'3'5),/3 *(&2,(2&#* /&# .#(#&0)-#. 41 ("# -/(2&# /-. *(&#-5("
'+ ("#*# )-(#&/,()'-*6
!**)"+&,0 1"230)#') -./.4: lnLermolecular forces play a key role ln deLermlnlng Lhe properLles of subsLances, lncludlng
blologlcal sLrucLures and lnLeracLlons.
e. 1he sLrucLure and funcLlon of many blologlcal sysLems depend on Lhe sLrengLh and naLure of Lhe varlous
Coulomblc forces.
1. SubsLraLe lnLeracLlons wlLh Lhe acLlve slLes ln enzyme caLalysls
2. Pydrophlllc and hydrophoblc reglons ln proLelns LhaL deLermlne Lhree- dlmenslonal sLrucLure ln waLer soluLlons


"#$ %&'( *
!"#$%&"' $"#)%*+,"#&"' -./: 8eacLlon raLes may be lncreased by Lhe presence of a caLalysL.
CaLalysLs, such as enzymes ln blologlcal sysLems and Lhe surfaces ln an auLomoblle's caLalyLlc converLer, lncrease Lhe raLe
of a chemlcal reacLlon.


"#$ %&'( +
!"#$%&"' $"#)%*+,"#&"' -./: LlecLrosLaLlc forces exlsL beLween molecules as well as beLween aLoms or lons, and
breaklng Lhe resulLanL lnLermolecular lnLeracLlons requlres energy.
!" $%"& '&'()$' *"+,-+*". -%/.) $,-)01-)' 23,(4 3*,04)$*0%- '&'()$' %"5 '&"(4)(*0 6,-&$)/ '&'()$'78 (4) ","3,"5)5
*"()/%0(*,"' 6-%& *$6,/(%"( /,-)' *" (4) ,3')/+)5 91"0(*,"' ,9 (4) '&'()$':
!**)"+&,0 1"230)#') -./.4: noncovalenL and lnLermolecular lnLeracLlons play lmporLanL roles ln many blologlcal and
polymer sysLems.
!"#$%&"' 5"#)%*+,"#&"' -.!: Chemlcal or physlcal processes are drlven by a decrease ln enLhalpy or an lncrease ln
enLropy, or boLh.
!$6,/(%"(-&8 *" 3*,04)$*0%- '&'()$'8 ',$) /)%0(*,"' (4%( ,66,') (4) (4)/$,5&"%$*0%--& 9%+,/)5 5*/)0(*," %/) 5/*+)" 3&
0,16-)5 /)%0(*,"': ;41'8 % 0)-- 0%" 1') )")/.& (, 0/)%() ,/5)/ 2% 5*/)0(*," (4%( *' ",( (4)/$,5&"%$*0%--& 9%+,/)57 +*%
0,16-*". <*(4 (4)/$,5&"%$*0%--& 9%+,/)5 /)%0(*,"': =,/ )>%$6-)8 $%"& 3*,04)$*0%- '&"(4)')' %/) 0,16-)5 (, (4)
/)%0(*," *" <4*04 ?;@ *' 0,"+)/()5 (, ?A@ B 64,'64%():
!**)"+&,0 1"230)#') -.!.6: LxLernal sources of energy can be used Lo drlve change ln cases where Lhe Clbbs free energy
change ls poslLlve.
7. A Lhermodynamlcally unfavorable reacLlon may be made favorable by coupllng lL Lo a favorable reacLlon, such as
Lhe converslon of A1Þ Lo AuÞ ln blologlcal sysLems. ln Lhls conLexL, coupllng means Lhe process lnvolves a serles of
reacLlons wlLh common lnLermedlaLes, such LhaL Lhe reacLlons add up Lo produce an overall reacLlon wlLh a
negaLlve !C.

"#$ %&'( ,
!"# %&'( ): Any bond or lnLermolecular aLLracLlon LhaL can be formed can be broken. 1hese Lwo processes are ln a
dynamlc compeLlLlon, senslLlve Lo lnlLlal condlLlons and exLernal perLurbaLlons.
! #$%& '()*& +, &-.$/$0'$.1 2+)34()43 $3 5+33$0/&6 +, 5('4$2./(' 3$*)$,$2()2& ('& 47+3& 47(4 ('$3& ,'+1 (2$%80(3& 27&1$34'9:
5('4$2./('/9 (3 &10+%$&% $) 0$+27&1$2(/ 3934&13 #7&'& 47& ;(/.& +, < $3 3.27 47(4 3$*)$,$2()4 (1+.)43 +, 0+47 '&(24()43
()% 5'+%.243 ('& 5'&3&)4=
*++',-"(. /,01.'&#' )2324: ln many classes of reacLlons, lL ls lmporLanL Lo conslder boLh Lhe forward and reverse reacLlon.
(2 Many readlly observable processes are reverslble. Lxamples lnclude evaporaLlng and condenslng waLer, absorpLlon
of a gas, or dlssolvlng and preclplLaLlng a salL. 8elevanL and lnLeresLlng conLexLs lnclude blologlcal examples (blndlng
of oxygen Lo hemoglobln and Lhe aLLachmenL of molecules Lo recepLor slLes ln Lhe nose) and envlronmenLal
examples (Lransfer of carbon beLween aLmosphere and blosphere and Lransfer of dlssolved subsLances beLween
aLmosphere and hydrosphere).
*++',-"(. /,01.'&#' )2524: When Lhe dlfference ln Clbbs free energy beLween reacLanLs and producLs (!C) ls much
larger Lhan Lhe Lhermal energy (81), Lhe equlllbrlum consLanL ls elLher very small (for uC > 0) or very large (for !C < 0).
When uC ls comparable Lo Lhe Lhermal energy (81), Lhe equlllbrlum consLanL ls near 1.
&2 Slnce k ls dlrecLly relaLed Lo free energy, when Lhe magnlLude of k ls of prlmary lnLeresL, lL ls useful Lo conslder
wheLher a reacLlon ls exergonlc (!C < 0) or endergonlc (!C > 0). (LxoLhermlc versus endoLhermlc ls Lhe useful
dlsLlncLlon when Lhe lssue of lnLeresL ls wheLher a reacLlon releases or consumes energy.) ln many blologlcal
appllcaLlons, Lhe magnlLude of k ls of cenLral lmporLance, and so Lhe exergonlc/endergonlc dlsLlncLlon ls useful.
67 )24 1he sLudenL ls able Lo, glven a seL of experlmenLal observaLlons regardlng physlcal, chemlcal, blologlcal, or
envlronmenLal processes LhaL are reverslble, consLrucL an explanaLlon LhaL connecLs Lhe observaLlons Lo Lhe
reverslblllLy of Lhe underlylng chemlcal reacLlons or processes.
67 )248 1he sLudenL can, based on Lhe dependence of kw on LemperaLure, reason LhaL neuLrallLy requlres [P+] = [CP-]
as opposed Lo requlrlng pP = 7, lncludlng especlally Lhe appllcaLlons Lo blologlcal sysLems.


-.#'/.' 01(.2#.'3
!"#$%"$ '()"*#"$ +: 1he sLudenL ls able Lo connecL and relaLe knowledge across varlous scales, concepLs, and
represenLaLlons ln and across domalns. !" $%%&'&(" '( )(""*)'&"+ )(")*,'- .&'/&" )/*0&-'123 -'4%*"'- -/(45% 6* $65* '(
%1$. )(""*)'&("- '( %(0$&"- (4'-&%* )/*0&-'123 -4)/ $- '/* )(""*)'&(" 6*'.**" ,1('*&" -'14)'41* 7,1&0$123 -*)("%$123
$"% '*1'&$128 &" 6&(5(+23 $"% )(9$5*"' 9*1-4- "(": )(9$5*"' &"'*1$)'&("- &" )/*0&-'12




-(456' 78'32#9/3: AÞ ChemlsLry ÞracLlce Lxam and noLes, lall 2013 !"!# %&'#!