First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !

"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
Bicycle Wheel: A Surprising Wind Turbine
© J. Manuel Feliz-Teixeira
December !!"
#mail: $eliz%$e.up.p&
'rl: h&&p:(())).$e.up.p&(*$eliz
+#,W-.DS: .ene)able energy/ )ind p0)er/
1c0n2ergen&3 &urbines/ m0men& 0$ iner&ia/ angular
m0men&um/ mechanical accumula&0r/ inexpensi2e
s0lu&i0ns.
ABSTRACT
This is &he &hird in a series 0$ ar&icles ab0u& &he
c0ncep& 0$ convergence in &urbines / in par&icular in
&h0se used $0r )ind p0)er cap&ure. 4erein )e
presen& a discussi0n and s0me c0nclusi0ns ab0u&
&he design 0$ &he bicycle )heel c0n2er&ed in&0 an
easy-&0-assemble convergent )ind &urbine. The
resul&s 0bser2ed in prac&ice ha2e been s0 pr0mising
&ha& )e sugges& &ha& &his c0uld be an excellen&
design $0r a )ind &urbine. We als0 expec& 0nce
m0re &0 pr0m0&e rene)able energies s0 &ha& &hey
de$ini&ely bec0me a s&r0ng al&erna&i2e &0 genera&e
elec&rical p0)er. A sh0r& 2ide0 0$ a small bicycle
)heel running )i&h )ind can be seen a&
h&&p:(())).$e.up.p&(*$eliz.
1.Introduction
1
Ac&ual )ind sys&ems are 0$ di2erse 5inds/ bu&
m0s& 0$ &h0se dedica&ed &0 genera&e elec&rical p0)er
are 0$ &he divergent &ype. As alleged in Feliz-
Teixeira / &hese sys&ems &end &0 enlarge &he $l0) 0$
&he )ind/ &here$0re in&r0ducing n0& 0nly a
reduc&i0n in &he )ind speed bu& als0 a cer&ain
dispersi0n a& &he sys&em6s b0undaries. Due &0 &he
&endency $0r m02ing &he )ind $l0) $r0m &he
cen&ral regi0n &0 &he peripheral z0nes/ and als0 due
&0 &he blades6 design and &he expensi2e &echn0l0gy
1
&e w"uld li'e t" state that an$ n"(el ideas presented in this
article are t" be c"nsidered anti)patent, that is, the$ are "ffered
t" the public d"main b$ its auth"r and an$"ne ma$ implement
them freel$ with"ut the need f"r an$ special permissi"n, "ther
than a s$mb"lic c"ntributi"n in "rder t" c"(er the auth"r rihts.
!lease c"ntact the auth"r in this case.
used/ &hese sys&ems are suspec&ed &0 be less
e$$icien& and much m0re expensi2e &han cer&ain
easy-&0-build convergent 0nes. -n &he c0n&rary/
convergent &urbines seem &0 c0ncen&ra&e &he $l0)
ins&ead 0$ dispersing i&/ &here$0re a20iding s0me 0$
&he e$$ec&s &ha& c0n&ribu&e &0 reducing &he e$$iciency
0$ &he sys&em. These sys&ems ha2e a &ransparen&
cen&ral sp0& )here &he )ind can pass $reely/ and
&ha& is belie2ed &0 crea&e a l0) pressure resp0nsible
$0r suc5ing &he peripheral )ind &0 &his cen&ral z0ne.
This is als0 belie2ed &0 c0n&ribu&e &0 a higher
e$$iciency &han expec&ed in &he usual &urbines.
7n &he las& &)0 ar&icles/ discussi0ns ha2e been
carried 0n regarding &he design 0$ s0me
convergent sys&ems/ $0r single and d0uble
&urbines / and &he ad2an&ages and challenges &ha&
&hey imply. Bu&/ in nei&her case )as &he issue 0$
accumula&ing &he )ind energy addressed/ as &he
pr0blem 0$ $inding a m0re e$$icien& resp0nse &0 &he
)ind $l0) )as als0 n0& addressed/ since s&andard
&urbines s&ar& &0 run 0nly ar0und 8 Km/h/ and
&here$0re a subs&an&ial am0un& 0$ energy is simply
l0s& 0n days 0$ l0) )ind. 7& is/ s0meh0)/
in&riguing $0r m0s& pe0ple &ha& huge machines
ins&alled al0ng cer&ain m0un&ains spend m0s& 0$
&heir &ime s&0pped. We 0b2i0usly unders&and &ha&
&he p0)er c0n&ained in l0) )inds is 2ery small/
bu& i$ )e calcula&e &he energy l0s& 0n s0me 0$ &h0se
days 0r e2en )ee5s i& is 0ur belie$ &ha& &his energy
is als0 0$ 2alue. A simple calcula&i0n sh0)s/ $0r
example/ &ha& a single day 0$ a s&0pped 8 me&res
radius &urbine 9)i&h :!; 0$ e$$iciency< )hile &he
)ind c0n&inu0usly bl0)s a& = Km/h 9>?/@ m/s<
)0uld represen& less /@ +Wh 0$ energy inAec&ed
in&0 &he public ne&)0r5: :!! Wa&& x 9:!;< > ?!!
Wa&& during @ h0urs > /@ +Wh. Tha& is/ less @8
lamps 0$ ?!! Wa&& 0pera&ing in &he illumina&i0n 0$
&he s&ree&s/ alm0s& &he illumina&i0n 0$ a small
2illage. Tha& is/ less B" lap&0p c0mpu&ers 0pera&ing
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
during a day 0$ )0r5/ in a medium size en&erprise.
7$ 0ne &hin5s 0$ ?!! s&0pped &urbines/ &hen )e
&hin5 0$ ?!! 2illages )i&h0u& public ligh&ing 0r ?!!
medium size en&erprises )i&h &heir lap&0ps 0$$/ $0r
ins&ance. We ha2e c0nsidered a single day. 7& is n0&
rare/ h0)e2er/ &0 see &h0se &urbines s&0pped $0r a
)ee5/ 0r e2en m0re.
7n &his ar&icle )e )ill n0& 0nly presen& a )ay 0$
c0n2er&ing &he bicycle )heel design in&0 an
e$$icien& convergent )ind &urbine/ bu& als0 discuss
&he idea 0$ accumula&ing &he )ind energy in a
mechanical $0rm/ in &he )heel i&sel$/ and )ha& such
a m02e )0uld imply in &erms 0$ e$$iciency in &he
02erall pr0cess 0$ energy pr0duc&i0n. S0me
sys&ems based 0n &he bicycle )heel design are als0
0$$ered as in&eres&ing )ays 0$ c0llec&ing &he energy
$r0m &he )ind.
2.Bicycle wheel, the perfect design?
Apar& $r0m all &he $ascina&i0n dra)n by )heels/
)hich ha2e since $0r e2er a&&rac&ed &he a&&en&i0n 0$
a large number 0$ &he curi0us/ in2en&0rs/ mys&icis&s
and scien&is&s/ i& is in $ac& a s0r& 0$ magic &0
apprecia&e a bicycle )heel running 1al0ne3 by
means 0$ &he )ind. FreCuen&ly/ as )e ha2e g00d
5n0)ledge 0$ &he )eigh& and &he dimensi0ns 0$
such an elemen&/ )e $ind 0ursel2es as5ing &he
Cues&i0n: h0) is &ha& p0ssible/ &0 run s0 $as& )i&h
alm0s& n0 )indD The ans)er lies in &)0 aspec&s:
&he convergent design )hich le&s &he &urbine s&ar&
running a& l0) )ind speedsE and &he abili&y 0$
accumula&ing energy in a mechanical $0rm/ in &he
)heel i&sel$. We )ill $irs&ly &al5 ab0u& &he $irs&
aspec&.
Any a&&en&i2e 0bser2a&i0n 0$ &he s&ruc&ure 0$ a
bicycle )heel )ill bring ligh& &0 0ur spiri&s: in
e$$ec&/ &he s&eel )ires c0nnec&ing &he me&alic ring &0
&he cen&ral axis 0$ r0&a&i0n are m0un&ed in a )ay
&ha& resemble &he convergent &urbine design. 7n &he
cen&re/ &hese &ense )ires are inser&ed alm0s& parallel
&0 &he direc&i0n 0$ &he )ind $l0) 9perpendicular &0
&he plan 0$ &he )heel</ )hile &hey gen&ly &urn
ar0und as &hey appr0ach &he periphery/ )here &hey
$inally bec0me prac&ically perpendicular &0 &he
)ind $l0) 9see Fig. ?<. This is prac&ically &he same
design as &he 0ne pr0p0sed in &he pre2i0us &)0
ar&icles c0ncerning &his subAec&. This is/ &here$0re/ a
2ery nice c0incidence/ )hich ha2e br0ugh& l0&s 0$
A0y &0 0ur experimen&s. S0/ &0 c0n2er& &his sys&em
in&0 a &urbine 0ne 0nly needs &0 c0ns&ruc& &he
blades/ &ha& is/ &0 &igh&ly )rap s0me T#SA
F
adhesi2e &ape/ a surprising resis&an& and ex&remely
ligh& ma&erial/ ar0und &he appr0pria&e )ires:
Fig. 1 *ic$cle wheel c"n(erted int" a convergent
turbine.
Figure ? sh0)s a real &urbine made )i&h &his
simple &echniCue. G0&ice &he 0b2i0us &ransparency
0$ &he cen&ral sp0&/ and &he area 0$ exp0sure 0$ &he
blades increasing &0)ards &he periphery/ in 0rder &0
&a5e &he ad2an&age 0$ a superi0r &0rCue. The )ind
is &h0ugh& &0 slide d0)n &he blades in &he direc&i0n
0$ &he cen&ral &ransparen& sp0& due &0 &he l0)
pressure pr0duced in &his z0ne. The radius 0$ a
n0rmal bicycle )heel is ar0und !/H me&res/ and s0
0ne expec&s such a sys&em &0 be exp0sed &0 ar0und
?/B + !/!H: + /H@@ > !/@ Wa&& 9= +m(h< and ?/B +
!/!H: + ?!!! > ?:B Wa&& 9:= +m(h<. Thus/
c0mmercially &his )0uld easily be c0nsidered a
sys&em 0$ near ?!! Wa&&s/ &ha& is/ en0ugh &0 $eed
&)0 lap&0ps.
I0nsidering P
0
&he p0)er spen& 0n &he $0rces 0$
$ric&i0n a$$ec&ing &he 02erall s&ruc&ure/ including &he
air and e2en &he iner&ia 0$ a p0ssible genera&0r/ 0ne
can say &ha& &he )heel )ill s&ar& &0 &urn )hen &he
02erall &0rCue per uni& 0$ &ime 9P
w
< induced in i&s
blades surpasses P
0
/ &ha& is:
P
w
J P
0
>J )heel s&ar&s &0 &urn
F0r a cer&ain P
0
/ &his 0$ c0urse )ill m0s&ly
depend 0n &he blade design and 0n &he radius 0$
&he )heel. S0/ in principle i& )ill n0& be di$$icul& &0
build 0ne 0$ &hese &urbines &0 &urn )i&h a 2ery l0)
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
)ind/ since &he pr0cess 0$ c0ns&ruc&i0n all0)s i& &0
be ex&remely ligh& and &he blade design cap&ures
&he superi0r &0rCue near &he sys&em b0undaries.
The ra&e by )hich &he )heel appr0aches &he $inal
speed )ill 0b2i0usly depend 0n &he di$$erence
be&)een P
w
and P
0
/ since &his is &he p0)er
&rans$erred in&0 m02emen&: 9P
w
KP
0
<. F0r &his &0 be
achei2ed in prac&ice/ &he )heel mus& be per$ec&ly
calibra&ed/ 0$ c0urse.
The me&alic ring ar0und &he blades )ill increase
&he 02erall )eigh& 0$ &he &urbine/ and &here$0re i&
)ill als0 c0n&ribu&e &0 &he increase 0$ P
0
/ bu& e2en
s0/ i& d0es n0& in&er$ere &00 much )i&h &he sys&em6s
abili&y &0 s&ar& r0&a&ing/ any m0re &han sl0)ing a bi&
&he pr0cess. -n &he 0&her hand/ &his ring )ill be a
g00d accumula&0r 0$ r0&a&i0nal energy/ as )e )ill
see s00n. We may $0r n0) c0nsider &ha& &he
change in angular speed 9e< induced by &he )ind
force 9F
w
< in &he &urbine c0mes $r0m &he simple $ac&
&ha& torque 9τ< is )ha& changes angular momentum
9L<:
τ = dL / dt = I de / dt 9?<
)here I is &he moment of inertia 0$ &he &urbine/
)hich is dependen& 0n &he design and 0n &he mass.
Fr0m &his )e can )ri&e:
de = ( τ / I dt 9<
G0)/ since i& h0lds:
τ
w
= F
w
x ! > )ind $0rce + dis&ance 0$ ac&i0n > )ind &0rCue
τ
0
= F
0
x e > resis&i2e $0rces + dis&ance 0$ ac&i0n > an&i
&0rCue
We easily deduce &ha& &he ne) angular speed
9e< induced by &hese &)0 &0rCue c0n&ribu&i0ns a&
&he ins&an& 0$ &ime t"dt is:
e(t"dt = e(t " ( F
w
! / I dt # ( F
0
e / I dt
9:<
G0&ice &ha& &he $ac&0r 9F
0
e is used here as a
simplis&ic appr0xima&i0n $0r &he resis&i2e $0rces
in20l2ed/ and mus& be c0nsidered null )hen &he
&urbine is n0& r0&a&ing 9e = 0<. -&her)ise/ &he
&urbine )0uld s&ar& &0 m02e in &he 0pp0si&e
direc&i0n i$ s&0pped. The 02erall expressi0n sh0)s/
h0)e2er/ &ha& $0r a cer&ain le2el 0$ &0rCue/ a &urbine
)i&h higher moment of inertia )ill &end &0 resp0nd
sl0)er. A mass l0ca&ed $ar $r0m &he cen&re
increases &he m0men& 0$ iner&ia/ $0r example/ bu&
&he sys&em )ill al)ays s&ar& &0 r0&a&e as l0ng as i&
h0lds τ
w
$ τ
0
% G0&ice als0 &ha& e2en i$ &he &)0
$0rces F
w
and F
0
)0uld be c0mparable/ &he $ac& is
&ha& usually 0ne has ! $$ e/ since m0s& 0$ &he
resis&i2e $0rces c0ncen&ra&e near &he cen&re/ and
&here$0re &he c0n&ribu&i0n 0$ &he )ind $0rce $0r &he
r0&a&i0n is m0re superi0r &han &he c0n&ribu&i0ns 0$
&he resis&i2e $0rces $0r &he 1an&i-r0&a&i0n3. S0/ &he
convergent design is als0 an imp0r&an& $ac&0r $0r
minimizing &he e$$ec& 0$ resis&i2e $0rces/ since i&
&ends &0 cap&ure &he )ind &0rCue $ar $r0m &he cen&re
9! large<.
:.A mechanical accumulator of energy
Accumula&ing &he energy $r0m a rene)able
s0urce )i&h &he uncer&ain&y 0$ &he )ind 0r 0$ &he
s0lar radia&i0n is usually a challenge/ and &hus
g00d managemen& 0$ &he energy in2en&0ry is
essen&ial. 'sually/ large )ind sys&ems are prepared
&0 inAec& &he genera&ed elec&rical p0)er direc&ly in&0
&he public ne&)0r5/ bu& smaller sys&ems are
$reCuen&ly c0nnec&ed &0 ban5s 0$ ba&&eries )here
&he energy is accumula&ed be$0re usage/ in 0rder &0
pre2en& sh0r&ages and ensure a s&eady 0u&pu&. The
ba&&ery/ h0)e2er/ ac&s as a capaci&0r/ and &here$0re
als0 as a low#pass $il&er $0r &he elec&rical signal
pr0duced by &he genera&0r/ as sh0)n in $igure :
Fig. 2 ,he effect "f a capacit"r in an electrical sinal.
G0&ice &ha& in principle &he ba&&ery )0r5s as a
capaci&0r and s0 &he 0u&pu& le2el is m0re s&able &han
&he 0riginal signal. Such s&abili&y depends/
h0)e2er/ 0n &he load &he sys&em is supp0r&ing in a
gi2en m0men&. Wi&h n0 ex&ernal l0ad 0r a& l0)
le2el l0ads &he s&abili&y is high/ 0$ c0urse/ bu& i&
time
Energy
Original signal
Filtered signal
(low load)
Filtered signal
(high load)
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
&ends &0 de&eri0ra&e $0r higher ra&es 0$ c0nsump&i0n
0$ energy 9>high l0ads<. The 0nly )ay 0$ a20iding
such a pr0blem is ei&her cap&uring m0re energy 0r
c0nsuming less energy/ 0b2i0usly.
Bu& )e may n0) recall &ha& &he rela&i0n be&)een
angular speeed 9e< and angular momentum 9L< is:
L = I e (4)
S0/ l005ing )i&h a&&en&i0n &0 eCua&i0n : and
mul&iplying i&s &)0 members by &he moment of
inertia 9I< leads us &0 &he $0ll0)ing eCua&i0n $0r &he
incremen& 0$ angular momentum:
L (t"dt = I e(t + F
w
! dt & F
0
e dt (5)
As )e 5n0)/ angular momentum is c0nser2ed
in &he absence 0$ ex&ernal &0rCue ac&ing in &he
sys&em/ and &his eCua&i0n can &here$0re als0 be seen
as an accumula&0r/ in )hich &he &erm 9F
w
! & F
0
e
c0n&ribu&es &0 &he increase in accumula&ed energy/
and 9F
0
e< represen&s i&s na&ural decline due &0 &he
02erall resis&i2e $0rces/ including &he genera&0r6s
resis&ance. The energy accumula&ed is 0$ c0urse
pr0p0r&i0nal &0 Ie(t, meaning &ha& )heels )i&h a
higher m0men& 0$ iner&ia )ill accumula&e m0re
energy/ and/ 0nce &he si&ua&i0n ! $$ e is
main&ained/ &he )heel )ill easily be $0und running
1al0ne3 e2en a$&er &he )ind has 2anished. Tha& is
due &0 &he energy in &he mean &ime accumula&ed in
&he $0rm 0$ angular momentum. Wi&h a cer&ain
hum0r/ )e may pr0udly say &ha& &his is a )ind
&urbine )hich can e2en run )i&h0u& )ind.
Fig. 3 ,he ener$ accumulated in the f"rm "f tensi"n
due t" the centrifual f"rces.
7n &he absence 0$ &he )ind $0rce/ &he small
&0rCue $r0m resis&i2e $0rces is )ha& )ill &ry &0 s&0p
&he )heel. The energy is/ in e$$ec&/ $0r a )hile 5ep&
pris0ner 0$ a s0r& 0$ 2ir&ual gra2i&a&i0nal $ield
parallel &0 &he plan 0$ &he )heel/ )hich is crea&ed
by cen&ri$ugal $0rces. Thus/ a larger ring6s mass
implies &ha& &he sys&em 1sees3 &he resis&i2e $0rces
less/ and s0 i& appr0aches &he ideal si&ua&i0n/ )hich/
0$ c0urse/ )0uld imply &he c0n&inu0us m0&i0n.
G0&ice/ h0)e2er/ &ha& &he accumula&i0n 0$ energy
by &his me&h0d is limi&ed &0 &he resis&ance 0$ &he
ma&erials empl0yed. Bey0nd &ha&/ &he )heel )0uld
simply disin&egra&e. Figure @ sh0)s h0) 0ne 0$
&hese )ind &urbines c0uld l005 )hen m0un&ed 0n
an American mill s&ruc&ure.
Fig. 4 *ic$cle wheel turbine m"unted "n a t$pical
%merican mill structure. &ith 2 m "f radius, this w"uld
recei(e - .&att "f wind p"wer at 10 m/s wind speed.
@.Angular speed
The pre2i0us discussi0n )as mainly ab0u& &he
sensibili&y 0$ &he bicycle )heel rela&ed &0 &urning/
&here$0re )e &al5ed 0$ &he rate of change 0$
angular speed. #2en i$ s0me c0nclusi0ns c0uld be
achie2ed/ n0&hing )as deduced ab0u& &he angular
speed i&sel$/ under a cer&ain )ind regime. 7ns&ead
0$ &he angular m0men&um c0nser2a&i0n la)/ )e
)ill n0) ma5e use 0$ &he la) 0$ c0nser2a&i0n 0$
energy. 7n &his case/ )e may s&a&e i& by saying &ha&
&he total torque eCuals &he change in 'inetic energ(:
τ
w
& τ
0
= ) I e
*
9"<
Fr0m )here 0ne ge&s/ during a &ime At:
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
9P
w
# P
0
< At = ) I e
*
9H<
And $inally:
e

> L ( P
w
# P
0
At / I M
N
98<
S0/ i$ &he )ind bl0)s in a c0n&inu0us regimen
)i&h p0)er P
w
/ and i$ P
0
> N P
w
meaning &he
e$$iciency 0$ &he sys&em is =!;/ &hen/ $0r a bicycle
)heel 0$ m radius/ mass 0$ = +g/ and a )ind
p0)er 0$ 8 +Wa&&/ &he angular speed 0$ &he )heel
)ill increase )i&h &he &ime by means 0$ &he rela&i0n
9n0&ice &ha& I = m r
*
is &he m0men& 0$ iner&ia 0$ a
ring<:
e

> L * + 0+, + -000 + At / (, + .M
N
> !/! + At
N
And/ $0r ins&ance/ B sec0nds a$&er s&ar&ing )e
)0uld ha2e:
e

> !/! + : > "!/! rad(s
$ > e

( 9t< > B/== 4z > =H: rpm
The genera&0r )0uld &here$0re be pr0ducing
@+Wa&& a& =H: rpm. The nex& graph sh0)s h0) &he
angular speed 9rpm< )0uld &end &0 increase )i&h
&ime/ i$ n0 increase 0$ &he resis&i2e $0rces )i&h
angular speed )0uld be c0nsidered.
anular speed /rpm0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
1000
1500
0.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 6.0
time /min0
bic$cle /5.0
3# mill /50.0
Fig. 5 4deal anular speed resp"nses f"r a bic$cle
wheel "f 5., 2 m radius, and an e5ui(alent %merican
windmill "f 50., when recei(in a c"nstant p"wer "f -
.&att, with efficienc$ "f 506.
-b2i0usly/ a )indmill )0uld per$0rm be&&er i$
0$ &he same )eigh&/ bu& in e$$ec& &he )eigh& 0$ an
American )indmill 0$ me&res radius is n0& = +g.
7& can be ar0und ?! &imes &ha& 9=! 5g</ a& leas&/ i$
)e ma5e an es&ima&i0n )i&h an a2erage densi&y 0$
=!!! 5g(m
:
$0r &he me&alic ma&erial used in i&s
blades. This 0b2i0usly dic&a&es an ad2an&age $0r
&he bicycle )heel. We mus& be a)are/ h0)e2er/
&ha& &he pre2i0us graph d0es n0& &a5e in&0 acc0un&
&he increase 0$ &he resis&i2e $0rces )i&h &he increase
0$ r0&a&i0nal speed/ due &0 drag e$$ec&s and als0 due
&0 &he increase in air $ric&i0n a& &ip speeds
appr0aching &he speed 0$ &he pr0paga&i0n 0$ s0und
9match#I<. A& &hese speeds/ air bec0mes
inc0mpressible/ and s0 i& ac&s as i$ appr0aching &he
s0lid s&a&e/ &here$0re in&r0ducing a high resis&ance
agains& &he m02emen&. 7n &he case 0$ &he pre2i0us
&urbine/ match#I )0uld be reached a& ar0und ?"!!
rmp. A& &his speed/ &he &urbine &ips )0uld be
m02ing )i&h a 2el0ci&y 0$ :@! m(s > ?@ +m(h/
much $as&er &han a c0mmercial airplaneO Thus/
)ha& is usually accep&able is &ha& &he sys&em )ill
n0& surpass a &ip speed 0$ ar0und ?!! m(s/ )hich/
in &his case/ c0rresp0nds &0:
2 > e r > t $ + > ?!! m(s
$ > ?!!(9@t) > H/B" 4z > @H8 rpm
We may &here$0re c0nclude &ha& )e can build a
bicycle )heel &urbine much ligh&er &han an
American )indmill/ ye& )i&h an in&eres&ing m0men&
0$ iner&ia gi2ing i& &he capaci&y $0r accumula&ing
energy. The ad2an&ages are mainly in &he increase
0$ r0&a&i0nal speed/ and &he abili&y 0$ helping &0
accumula&e energy/ and &here$0re i& may be used
$0r elec&rical genera&i0n &00. Figure " sh0)s &he
c0mm0n American )indmill/ used $0r )a&er
pumping/ bu& cer&ainly n0& $0r genera&ing elec&rical
energy due &0 i&s l0) r0&a&i0nal speed.
Fig. 6 % t$pical %merican windmill st$le turbine, installed
s"mewhere in 7hina.
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
5.Some images and some comments
4ere )e )ill c0nsider s0me 0&her aspec&s
rela&ed &0 &hese c0n2ergen& &urbines/ mainly
in20l2ing &he design/ )ays 0$ implemen&a&i0n and
curi0usi&ies.
We may s&ar& by s&a&ing &ha&/ in 0ur p0in& 0$
2ie)/ &he American )ind mill &urbine su$$ers $r0m
&)0 small pr0blems: excessi2e )eigh& due &0 &he
large Cuan&i&y 0$ me&al used in i&s blades/ and a
sub&le pr0blem 0$ design/ )hich d0es n0& le& &he
&urbine &a5e ad2an&age 0$ a &ruly convergent
sys&em. A g00d 0bser2er )ill de&ec& such a design
$ailure )hile inspec&ing $igure H:
Fig. 7 ,he %merican windmill turbine, slihtl$ different
fr"m the pr"p"sed c"n(erent desin.
An0&her image )e sh0) here 9Fig. 8< is 0$ a
n0rmal bicycle )heel &rans$0rmed in&0 a &urbine
and simply m0un&ed &0 a &ree/ )hich r0&a&es )i&h
ex&remely l0) )inds. Pe0ple may &ry &0 ma5e &his
experimen& and n0&ice &ha& s0me&imes &he )heel is
running s0 much &ha& i& seems alm0s& imp0ssible/
0r li5e s0me&hing magical.
Fig. 8 % bic$cle wheel fi+ed t" a tree runs with e+tremel$
l"w wind speeds.
The nex& image 9Fig. B< is a m0n&age )i&h
)hich )e expec& &0 help &he reader &0 imagine h0)
a small-medium genera&0r ins&alled in a li&&le
c0&&age c0uld l005. G0&ice &ha& a &urbine
c0ns&ruc&ed based 0n a bicycle )heel s&ruc&ure can
be made 2ery ligh& and is 2ery easy &0 ins&all. This
)ill als0 ma5e &he supp0r& s&ruc&ure much simpler.
Besides/ &he 0u&side aluminium 90r 0&her ligh&
ma&erial< ring may be &h0ugh& 0$ as a pr0&ec&i0n
agains& hazards. 7$ &here is an acciden&/ &he resul&s
)ill pr0bably be less signi$ican&/ a& leas& c0mpared
)i&h &he hazards due &0 a n0rmal &urbine )i&h i&s
s&r0ng and s0lid blades.
Fig. 9 % pr"bable (iew "f a wind s$stem, m"unted t"
suppl$ electricit$ t" a small h"use.
An0&her simple )ay 0$ cap&uring &he )ind $0r
genera&ing elec&rici&y is &he scheme sh0)n in $igure
?!. The ad2an&age 0$ &his is &ha& &he s&ruc&ure can
be made 0$ s&andard bicycle )heels/ )hich are easy
&0 0b&ain. G0&ice/ h0)e2er/ &ha& &he resis&i2e $0rces
are n0) ac&ing als0 a& signi$ican& dis&ances $r0m &he
axis 0$ r0&a&i0n/ meaning &ha& &he sys&em is in
principle less e$$icien&. This may 0$ c0urse be
impr02ed. G0&ice als0 &ha& an0&her )ay &0 c0nnec&
&he )heels is using li&&le s5a&e )heels be&)een &he
bicycle 0nes/ s0 &ha& &he &urbines )0uld r0&a&e all &0
&he same side. This scheme c0uld e2en be m0un&ed
a& &he &0p 0$ cer&ain buildings/ 0r 0n a $arm in &he
$0rm 0$ an ex&ensi2e )all )hich na&urally cap&ures
&he )ind energy.
First published at http://www.fe.up.pt/~feliz in 15 December 2006, and reistered with the !"rtuuese #"ciet$ "f %uth"rs
Fig. 10 %n"ther scheme usin n"rmal bic$cle wheels
f"r pr"ducin electricit$.
7n $igure ??/ 0ne sh0)s &)0 p0ssible Cuasi-
s&a&ic sys&ems based 0n convergent &urbines/ )hich
)0uld simply adap& &heir p0si&i0ns by means 0$ a
c0mpu&er c0n&r0lled base s&ruc&ure.
Fig. 11 8+amples "f tw" 5uasi)static convergent
s$stems, with sinle and d"uble turbines.
Finally/ in $igure ? se2eral &ypes 0$ d0uble )ind
c0n2ergen& sys&ems are sh0)n/ s0me 0$ )hich
ma5e use 0$ &he pre2i0us idea 0$ a ring $0r
accumula&ing energy. 7n e$$ec&/ a 2arie&y 0$ &hese
sys&ems can be ins&alled $0r pr0ducing elec&rical
energy.
Fig. 12 #e(eral t$pes "f wind s$stems ta'in
ad(antaes "f rins and "f d"uble c"n(erent turbines.
".Conclusions
A$&er ha2ing buil& and apprecia&ed se2eral )ind
&urbines made $r0m s&andard bicycle )heels/ )e
belie2e &ha& &his is a g00d and simple design &ha&
can als0 be used in larger )ind &urbines/ e2en in
&h0se dedica&ed &0 genera&ing elec&rical p0)er. The
l0) )eigh& 0$ &he &urbine achie2ed )i&h such a
me&h0d )ill lead &he sys&em &0 be able &0 r0&a&e a&
signi$ican& speeds/ and &he ring ar0und i& )ill
mainly c0n&ribu&e &0 &he accumula&i0n 0$ &he
energy n0& direc&ly &rans$0rmed by &he genera&0r
in&0 elec&rical p0)er. S0/ )e n0& 0nly belie2e &ha&
&his design is in&eres&ing $0r c0ns&ruc&ing e$$icien&
sys&ems/ bu& als0 &ha& such sys&ems )ill n0& be as
demanding in &erms 0$ ba&&ery s&abili&y as &he
presen& 0nes. Besides/ )e c0nsider &he design Cui&e
beau&i$ul and easy &0 adap& &0 se2eral di$$eren&
circums&ances.
Author Biography:
J. anue! Fe!i"#$ei%eira raduated in !h$sics in
the Facult$ "f #ciences "f 3ni(ersit$ "f !"rt", !"rtual,
and recei(ed an 9#c and !hD fr"m the Facult$ "f
8nineerin "f the same uni(ersit$. :is w"r' has been
related t" (ari"us matters, fr"m "ptical c"mmunicati"ns,
s"lar ener$ and seism"l"$ t", m"re recentl$, the
simulati"n "f c"mple+ s$stems in manaement science,
li'e wareh"use and suppl$ chain. :is !hD thesis is "n
;Fle+ible #uppl$ 7hain #imulati"n<.

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