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R. H . KENNETT
THE SCHWEICH LECTURES OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY '93'
PUBLISHED FOR THE BRITISH ACADEMY By HVMPHREY MILFORD, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
AMEN HOUSE, E.G.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS AMEN HOUSE, E.C. 4
L O N D O N E D I N B U R G H GLASGOW LEIPZIG NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPETOWN BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI
HE Lectures contained in this volume were delivered in December, I 93I, by the late Professor Kennett, and the preparation of the MS. for the printers was far advanced at the time of his regretted death last year. In fact, there was only a small section (pp. 79-89) where the full notes were wholly unrevised. The perorationwas alsowholly unwritten, as it was taken from the late Mr. Austin Kennett's description of an actual Ordeal by Fire. The work required, when the papers were put into my hands, was therefore little more than verifying the quotations and correcting the proofs. The labour of making the Indices I was able to entrust to the careful hands of Mr. G. A. Yates, B.A, of St. John's college, Cambridge, who is the last of Dr. Kennett's pupils. I was the first, having begun to learn Hebrew from him in the summer of I 886. The many pupils who came in between Mr. Yates and myself will recognize in this book the characteristics of Kennett's spoken voice, the amazing fullness of detail, so easily and so lightly employed to illustrate and not to confuse, and the happy mixture of critical boldness with appreciation of what is preserved in the text. Kennett was above all things what the Gospel calls an instructed scribe, and in this book he brings forth out of his treasure things new as well as old.
F. C, BURKITT.
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
L E C T U R E I1
BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS
HOUSES F U m R E FOOD
. . .
MEALS AND BANQUETS
CLOTHING MOURNING DEATH
L E C T U R E I11
MANLY OCCUPATIONS: WARRIORS OWNERS OF FLOCKS AND HERDS HUNTING
WORKERS IN WOOD WORKERS IN METAL GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS
PHYSICIANS AND APOTHECARIES JEWELLERS AND WORKERS IN PRECIOUS STONES ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE AND LAW INDICES
3. Accordingly. and from the customs of peoples of more or less primitive culture in various parts of the world. 20.P. The present treatment of it therefore is no pioneer work.ADDENDA PAGE19. but is rather. before attempting to illustrate an ancient Hebrew phrase or story by modern usage. ed.. in the main. it is desirable to subject such a phrase to careful scrutiny in order to determine whether the proposed illustration is suitable to each occurrence of it. That light should be thrown on a nation's social life and custom by its laws and by its stories of its past is indeed self-evident .note 3. but it is too often overlooked that equal light B T . add ed. accordingly. In this connexion it is particularly important to emphasize the paramount necessity of a careful study of Hebrew metaphor. of 1903. In this course of lectures it is proposed to consider only the evidence supplied by the Hebrew Scriptures. Although much useful illustration can be gained both from the Near East as it exists to-day. and therefore that it must not be assumed that what may be observed at the present time is in all respects identical with what existed in the age covered by the Hebrew Scriptures. who attempts to deal with such a subject is indebted to the labours of many predecessors. Any one. of 1903.. and his only justification for traversing the path which they have trodden is that even the most carefully constructed and most frequented roads sometimes prove inadequate to the exigencies of modern heavy traffic..p. 207 . . . and need in places both widening and strengthening by the application of fresh material. I94 LECTURE I INTRODUCTION HE subject of ancient Hebrew social life and custom must of necessity attract all serious students of ancient Hebrew literature. the treading of a path trodden in many generations by many earnest explorers. it must not be forgotten that even the ' unchanging East' has changed in the course of centuries .
It is surprising. it will be evident that in the use of metaphor we have a store of evidence bearing on life and custom. considerations of time forbid reference to more than one of its special characteristics. however. one of which in connexion with our present subject must be clearly understood. Even the word commonly rendered ' glory '. and that this is particularly true in connexion with Hebrew metaphor.S. very little attention has been paid to this leading characteristic of Hebraic metaphor and to its strongly marked difference from. This is what is known as 'divided parallelism ' in which the ideas expressed in the two parallel clauses must not be taken separately . a Hebrew could combine in one sentence two or more figures of speech which to our English minds are totally irreconcilable. This peculiarity is due to the fact that in the Hebrew mind the idea conveyed by each metaphor was immediately separated from the particular figure of speech which illustrated that idea. of course. for example. But though it would be easy to devote a whole lectureindeed a course of lectures-to the subject of Hebraic metaphor. I t is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the serious differences of belief and outlook among religious people at the present day are in most cases due to a literalizing and a consequent misunderstandingof Hebraic figures of speech. Yet it should surely be evident even to the casual reader that whereas among ourselves consistency is insisted upon. Every one is aware that the most prominent feature of Hebrew poetry is parallelism. which in their original connexion were understood by those to whom they were addressed as not intended to be taken au pied de la lettre. Disregard of this characteristic of Hebrew diction has had most deplorable consequences. Inasmuch as a considerable portion of the ancient Hebrew literature which has come down to us is in poetry. pigs were frequently carried to market in sqcks. before the activities of the R. be overlooked that there are various kinds of parallelism. that in times past. it is essential that some of the common characteristics of this poetry should be clearly understood. though in its ext~mal characteristics that which is used as an illustration may appear to be quite dissimilar to that whichit is intended to illustrate. In particular. Hebraic diction is essentially a metaphorical diction. even among the most learned exponents of the Hebrew Scriptures. for example. Thus. and though a metaphor may become crystallized into a proverbial expression. and mixed metaphors greeted with ridicule. if in such an august audience as the present it is not out of place to use a very homely illustration. Even in words which we translate by abstract terms a careful examination of the original roots will frequently show that in these words we have metaphors not as yet completely crystallized into abstracts. has not entirely lost its earlier meaning of that which is valuable.P. Metaphors must. and its use may continue after the passing away of that which suggested it. be taken from what is familiar. If such a deduction is once accepted as reasonable.. attention is almost invariably directed towards the efect of what is used as an illustration rather than to its progress or to its external characteristics-with the result that a Hebrew may illustrate the idea of something which he has in mind by anything of which the e$ect is similar .C. English figures of speech. A caution is here necessary. which in turn-perhaps in consequence of the weighing of uncoined gold and silver-is associated with the idea of heaviness. it must always be possible to infer from it the state of things which originally caused it to be used as an illustration of an idea. It may. the common maxim that it is unwise to ' buy a pig in a poke ' may be accepted as evidence that at one time. in view of the abundant use of metaphors in Hebraic speech.2 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM HEBREW METAPHOR 3 may be found to proceed from a careful study of the metaphors which are commonly used. a statement in one clause being followed by a parallel clause containing a similar idea.A.
to use Daniel Defoe's sarcastic term. should make the young men and maids flourish.it must be emphatically stated that under this heading a considerable diversity of usage will be included. but it must be recognized that the Hebrew-speaking population of David's kingdom was composed of many ethnic elements representing different stages of culture and of what is intimately connected with culture. it does not follow that such customs were observed by all who called themselves by the name of Israel. a period during which more than one foreign influence must have made itself felt. among which may specially be mentioned The Witch Cult in Western Europe. 22. it is increasingly difficult to find water that is not to some extent contaminated. Isa.4 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM DIVERSITIES OF BELIEF AND PRACTICE 5 but combined together. the one clear. religion. and new wine the maids '. there may well have been as great a difference. In connexion with the title of this course of lectures. and the contemporary aristocracy-not necessarily rich-who cherished the tradition of the higher religion of their forbears during the sojourn in the wilderness under the leaderZech. have made us familiar with the extraordinary vitality of pre-Christian rites and beliefs in our own country. Not only are the canonical Hebrew Scriptures spread over a period at least as long as that which has elapsed between the poet Chaucer and our own time. The clear stream may to some extent purify the muddy: but in so doing its own volume of clear water must be diminished-with the result that after the confluence of the two streams. Between the servile and totally illiterate peasantry of Palestine. A good example of this is found in the anticipation that 'corn shall make the young men flourish. by Miss Margaret Murray. signeing the abundant satisfaction of physical needs. there must of necessity be a certain amount of blending after they have come in contact. the subjects of King David were even more heterogeneous. It is just as unreasonable to suppose that an Amos or Hosea or Isaiah-not to mention the rest of the goodly fellowship-practised some of the customs the existence of which in their days is abundantly proved. it must be recognized that when two streams meet. the other turbid and muddy. . viz. ' Hebrew Social Life and Custom '. It is important therefore to emphasize the fact that though it may be considered proved that certain veryprimitive customsexisted in Palestine during the period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures. i x . I 7. But as it is impossible rightly to reconstruct the social life and custom of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in our own country without recognizing the diverse elementswhich Mr. John Buchan has made to live in his novel Witch Wood. in the days of the Hebrew monarchy. though some have responded to higher civilizing and religious influences. alike by a careful examination of the Hebrew Scriptures. as there was between a Richard Hooker or a George Herbert and the rabble who assembled for their primitive pagan rites on All-Hallows Eve or on May Day. xlix.I The author certainly did not hope that the young men should have all the corn and the maids all the new wine-a most undesirable arrangement-but that corn and new wine. and by archaeological exploration. Recent researches.2 must not be understood to mean that boys were carried in one way. and girls in another. Similarly the prophet's hope that the non-Jewish peoples should bring Zion's sons in their bosom and that her daughters should be carried upon their shoulders. while on the one hand the mud gradually becomes less evident. ship of Moses. as it is to imagine that a Bishop Fisher or a Thomas More took part in the orgies ofwitches' sabbaths. and heterogeneous as is the pedigree of the 'true-born Englishman '. both in belief and practice. so we cannot reconstruct the social history of Israel without recognizing the presence in the population of elements differing almost as widely in belief and practice as may exist to-day in a country the inhabitants of which are in the main illiterate pagans. Further.
of the existence of which there is evidence in the Greek period. iv. In accordance with this policy the Assyrian government during the seventh century B. the omission of which is mentioned by Ezekiel in the case of an infant neglected from birth. i. 26. Exod. g.16 The purification ceremonies prescribed for the mother 3 J. due allowance being made for such a far-reaching reform in the religious cult as the limitation of sacrifice to one altar.IO sometimes from the father. the contact with Hellenism undoubtedly exercised no small influence on city life and also directed Hebrew thought into fresh channels. xvii. . 4. 20. 12 (P). ' I Sam. xxiv. the Palestinian population was subjected to a number of external influences which must have affected to some extent social life and custom. Ezra iv.7 and then wrapped in swaddling bands. Exod. v.. It is not intended to consider modern customs or even the discoveries of archaeological excavation. We cannot m m that customs. 20 . Hos.I standing in a crouching postureYz or supported on a small stool resembling a potter's revolving wheel. iv. 9 Ruth iv.5 After the cutting of the umbilical cord. cf. 16. pp. iv. it is proposed h this course of lectures. except in so far as they make clear what might otherwise be deemed uncertain. groupsof settlers from other conquered regions . cf. I Sam. 19. 21.C. I6 Joshua v. 29). g f. '3 Gen. =v. 59. 157. '5 Exod. 30 (Heb. 29.6 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM NAMING AND CIRCUMCISION BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS 7 Moreover. Sam. 15 . &v. xxxviii. sometimes from the mother. v. nor that what may have been prevalent in the early days of the Israelite conquest of Palestine. still survived in the Hellenistic period. I . g . 26. 5-7.C. " Ruth iv. 3. 24-41 . Exod. 5 I . 28.14 The story of the vicarious circumcision of Moses 15 was perhaps told as a precedent for such a practice. " Gen.1 in addition to which the successive political changes in Western Asia can scarcely have been without effect on the population of Palestine. Roscoe. iv. particularly after the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 332 B. 18. and if not carried at the breast. c f . xxxv. Ordinarily the child seems to have received a name at birth.12 The circumcision of male infants on the eighth day appears to have been a comparatively late development. 16.9 the infant was presumably laid on the floor or on a bed. especially on the edge of the desert. Ezek. even after the incorporation in Israel of various ethnic elements. iv. 4. 242. however. 28. Gen. 25. 7 Ibid.6 the infant was washed and rubbed with salt. 20. Although we may well believe that the life of the peasantry remained comparatively little changed. contrast xxii. Kings xvii. 2 At the birth of a child. xvi. had come down from more ancient days.13 only becoming general when the sacrifice of the firstborn on the eighth day was entirely prohibited. i. 18. solely on the evidence of the Hebrew Scriptures. With this proviso. 23~ Bakitara.3 We read of professional midwivesf but in many cases the attendants were probably merely some experienced married women. 29. " Gen. viii. On thewhole. 2. * Ibid. and for the political changes before mentioned. 24. introduced into Northern and Central Palestine.8 There is no mention of a cradle. i. Isa.Job xxxviii. It was the policy of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings to prevent revolt in the districts which they had conquered by breaking down nationality.^^ and sometimes from those who officiated at the birth or to whom the child was first presented. I 7. as among the modern Bakitara. i . and to give an account of the various activities in which they might engage. iv. 6. cf. the mother was delivered either. At any rate. Gen. to sketch the life of Hebrew men and women from birth to the grave. fromwhich the leading and influential inhabitants had previously been transported. the Hebrew Scriptures present to us a fairly persistent culture. when the book of Joshua took shape it was believed that those who had grown up under Moses' leadership were uncircumcised.
e. I Sam. ii. 246. xlix. Isa. 13.4. 12 . of servants Judges vii. &. i. 20) . 25 . above three. she and her husband lived apart. as in colonial usage. i. Isa. Ruth iv. xiii.viii. also Isa. whose genealogies are not above suspicion. 12. whether very young or adolescent. I t is uncertain precisely what period of childhood this covered. 9 2 Sam. 12. iv. compared with i. xxxvii. I ) . g. 4. 16. " Num. i. xv. 23. xi.8 Children belonging to the wealthier classes. " J. xiv.g. xxi. xvii. Isa. lxvi. xliii. I3 Isa. sing. 16. Zech. 3 f. 21. The Bakitura. 27. who were not weaned for a considerable period.z but it is not stated whether they were all by one wife. See Exod. This is stated by the mother of the seven brothers martyred under Antiochus Epiphanes to have been three years. 9 I Sam. I Sam. two daughters.Io who may be compared respectively to the Indian ayah and bearers. weaned children (Heb. 5. x l i x . ii. I0 Num. T h e Bangarhol. according to our notions. This fact explains why seven children were commonly regarded as the maximum number that a woman might be expected to bear. h.5 thirdly. 8. 3 Gen. both below and above the age of three had nurses both female9 and male. 16.14 I Sam. " Isa.8 During the time when a mother was suckling a child.e. 23. 8.6 Another term in use to denote a child was 'blil or '61~1. 23. 10. is also applied to servants and subordinates of various ages. ybnzk). sing. I 12 . p. vi. 11. ii. a I Chron. h i .3 I t may be noted that the various stages of childhood were designated as those of: first. and. may be trusted." Thus Leah had six ' Lev.8 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM after giving birth to a child are found only in the later stratum of Pentateuchal law. viii. Baby children were carried in the arms. 1 7 . Jesse indeed had eight sons. ii. 2. 16 (Heb. Ruth iv.7 which doubtless indicates the date at which her father Hosea predicted the realization of the miseries suggested by her name.Joel ii. but it seems certain that a child so designated would be classified by a modern Board of Education as an infant. pp. at all events of an heir. but. Jer. Mic.' and though there is good reason to believe that the law in this respect is in accordance with ancient Palestinian custom. 7 See Hos. 16. 2 Kings X. vii. and the before-mentioned mother of the martyred brothers seven sons. viii. Unless a wet nurse was employed. Rebekah 3 and Joash 4 were thus suckled-the mother suckled her own children. 8. boys and girls (Heb. The Bakitara. cf.6 The length of time that intervened between birth and weaning gives point to the mention of Lo-ruhamah's weaning. children under three years of age .' and. xii. Roscoe. 24. gimdl). yiledh. 4 secondly.10 consequently there would normally be an interval of from three to four years between the births of children of the same mother. 7 Hos. 247. sing. i. 8.7 The Hebrew d a r answers generally to the English boy. sucklings (Heb. I . vii. C . 3.9 as is the case at the present day among various African tribes . still in infancy . 14. The weaning of a child. pp. Gen. i. 5 2 Macc. 22-4. p. 14. I 2. " I Sam. a Purificatory ceremonies after childbirth survive to this day among primitive people : see J. 22.2 i t is not evident whether such customs belonged originally to what may be called the Mosaic as well as to the Canaanite elements of the population.s and as long a period is implied by the fact that the infant Samuel was actually given over to the sanctuary at Shiloh as soon as his mother had weaned him. xv. xxiv. 245. For a similar indication of a date cf. yaldi) able to take care of themselves. 6 . 4 I Sam. 21 (Heb. 4 2 Kings xi. I Kings xx. I . STAGES OF CHILDHOOD 9 sons and one daughter. 59. 4 . I I. 3 Gen. Jer. Isa. ii. I4 Isa. 8 . 2 . was the occasion of a feast.13 It is pleasant to know that children sat on the lap and were played with. Roscoe. 12 .I1 older children astride on the hip Iz or on the shoulder. Bagesu. if the Chronicler. 5 . 5 Gen. ix. ii. xlix. xxi. 24 and Hos. g . 4. xi. as was apparently sometimes the case with the wealthier classes-e.
the Hebrew Scriptures do not afford much evidence. xxii. xxix. xi. Deut. Many will wonder how under such conditions a pawnbroker's business could be canied on. who delighted to watch children's games. when young boys and girls will play in the more open parts of Jerusalem 1 was surely written by a child-lover. The anticipation of a good time coming.Joshuaiv. 4 I Sam. 12.3 In like manner Jesse bids David bring back from his brothers at the front some article or articles as a proof that they are alive +-which reminds one of Rowland Hill's discovery of a blank letter sent to a sister by a brother. Gen. 6 .+ overlooking sheep and cattle. and he. Of the way in which those children who were taught to read received their instruction we have no direct informa7 there tion.5 This injunction. ' Isa. are to take the place of written amulets whether bound on the a.2 Thus Judah gives Tamar his signet with the cord suspending it and his staff as a pledge till he sends her the promised kid.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Concerning childhood and its interests. At an early age both boys and girls appear to have taken their part in the various activities connected with their homes. 22 . g. For love of children as such-apart from the great desire to keep the father's name in remembrance and to maintain the family in power-there are not many examples. xi. 32). viii. Reading and writing were not.22 . iv. Zech. 18. 10 3 2 Kings iv. 16. Hag. however. 5 I Sam. even if it was intended to be taken literally. xvii.~ and the poems in which the prophets set forth their teaching. 8. 17. however.2 Similarly the story of the little Shunammite boy who went out to his father to the reapers 3 implies a love of the presence of children. 19.Heb. 15 ff. 3 Gen. 21. It is at least possible that the original meaning of this passage is that the words of t6ri (or Jehovah's direction as to what is right and wrong). I 7." is no proof that most children learned to write. I ' Isa. 23. ii.6 and fetching water. vi. as we understand the term. 7 Gen. xvi. and likewise the ideal picture of infants playing without risk of hurt. Of professional teachers (Heb. I I. was almost non-existent in the days of the Hebrew monarchy. viii. mdrl is not a teacher of secular accomplishments. ii.or written on the door-posts. I t is possible that an argument as to a general ability to write may be urged from the statement that words of t6ri will be written on the door-posts of the houses. vi. 19. such as the song of Deborah. 7. which had to be returned at nightfall. received not only moral instruction from their parents's but were also taught historical ballads.~0 ment that the trees of the (Assyrian)forest would be so few that a child could write down the number of them. xxxi. I I. 33 . 9 Judges v. 18. h i i . iv. and the metaphorical stateuniversal accomplishments. in order that she might then know that her brother was alive. 3.s driving them to the watering place. who could not afford postage. 8. The great importance attached to the signet-ring I must originally have been due to the fact that the owner of the ring could not necessarily sign his name. and probably to a much later period. Heb. Exod. xxxi. by the return of the letter might have the same assurance about his sister. 5. 7 The . 18. &C. which should be written on the heart (cf. however. Cf. Children. Prov. X. vii. Jer. but happily there are some. Indeed the of presence of an official at the royal palace styled s6phe'rYI2 which perhaps 'secretary' would be the best rendering. xxiv. d i . Ia 2 Sam. 18.6 which is doubtful. 24 . melammedhim) ' Jer. l0 Isa.7 General education. 4 EDUCATION II makes it not improbable that at all events in the early days reading and writing were not necessarily royal accomplishments. This will explain the giving of garments in pledge. Jer. such as gathering fuel. . xxix. Further evidence of a common inability to write may be found in the custom of giving some article of personal property in lieu of a written IOU. 11. does not prove that each householder could write. g. PS. 5 Deut.
2 Kin@ xxii. Deut. . Kings v. 14.koph wiw spell kB. I .. and with the consequent change in vocalization. vii. 2 10. and his answer when given is made the basis of a lesson.d . 27 . and with merely a slight separation of some of the letters now joined into words.5 It is to be noted that ' to read ' sometimes means to ' hear read '. iii. but in the older Hebrew literature we do not find inculcation of severity towards children such as characterizes and disgraces the Hebrew literature of the Greek period. 9-13. 4 Judges viii.iw lqiw. In addition to Isaiah's hint as to the sort of spelling lesson given to children. I Kings i. I 1-14. this may be by way of reform. and the punishment of a son who flouted his parents or struck them was as severe as that which in Europe in comparatively recent days was inflicted on a soldier found guilty of similar disrespect to a superior officer. Lam. 99. the syllables ~ 1 and 2 kd being chosen as examples of spelling.e. k. Deut. xltr. Ecclus. 16. Prov. 18-21. 2. v. The prophet Isaiah states that his jeering opponents complained that he dinned the same lesson into their ears over and over again. Happily there is another side to the picture. viii. 2 Kings iv. 14. 12 3 5 ISAIAH AND THE SPELLINGBOOK '3 Amos I and Jeremiah. yet in certain passages which have no direct connexion one with another. however. xxi. Judah in an earlier period is represented as ordering his daughter-in-law Tamar to be burnt.4 I t had not occurred to Hebrew legislators that parents might wantonly and unjustly provoke their children to wrath. 13. xxviii. 24. I t is. 2 Sam.. such as exists between Hosea and Jeremiah. not improbable that we have a reference to a spelling lesson given to children. they are understood as an elementary spelling lesson. Exod. 8. I Kings xvii.B. because the sound of them would suggest connexion with the words for ' filth ' and ' vomit '. 24. the prophet's books also contain lessons. 15. PS. they follow a formula which in all likelihood was derived from some common experience. if without any correction of the consonantal text.3 Respect for parents. xxi. 6 . Isa. x x i . 5. g. 7 Gen.5 Parental power over children was almost unlimited. 2 .'' . as in the Middle Ages. The Deuteronomic law. at all events in earlier times. based on some external object. and as is evident from ' the use of the word kdri. Judges xix. Prov. There is no close relation between the teaching of " Isa. 13. and the love of a mother for her children is implied in more than one passage. kiw lfkiw. 9 Deut. We may reasonably suppose that.ti '--or. as we should say. xxxviii.' and the abominable suggestion of Lot and of the old man in Gibeahp are Amos vii. nevertheless. xxx. concerning which Isaiah says that all tables are full of them.2 Apparently it was always fairly strict. Ixvi. xxiii. ' spell . become both intelligible and pertinent. . Gen. In general the discipline of a child was mainly in the hands of his father. 8.iw l@iw. reading was a somewhat more common accomplishment than writingf though we find writing where we should scarcely expect it. and reflects the growing sense of individual rights. 13 . thus : ' jidM wciw (i.6 In any case. as though he regarded them as mere infants. 7. it is true. kdjh wiw spell kB '. limmddhim). does not allow the parents themselves to put their children to death : 6 but like much else in Deuteronomy.3 The curious words . 16. 18-21. which have long puzzled commentators. which are probably imitations of the mode of teaching given to children in schools. was insisted upon to an extreme extent. 3 4 5 Isa. xix.ad& wiw spell .Jer. 17 ff. viii. 1 9 ff.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM is no mention before the Greek period. which occur in the preceding verse. the letters of the alphabet) are for .' We hear indeed of disciples (Heb.2 but the term would be applicable to the recipients of oral instruction. all reading was reading aloud. 15. The prophet is asked what he sees. cf. 14. compared with xxii. kiw likiw. viii. i. 17 .
4 Exod.S but there is no evidence that he could voluntarily sell his sons. ver. 14. the story of Abrahamr without making it clear that Abraham's determination to sacrifice his son was due. 29. Deut. xxviii. 53-7 . . at all events in what may be regarded as the more Canaanite section of the community. 3. Neh.3 The later law mitigated the rigour of ancient custom. can be based on exceptional cases. In like manner the narrator of the story of Jephthah clearly recognizes Jephthah's determination to sacrifice a human victim.6 The Deuteronomic law.' It may. No argument. 15-17. or they were brought up as slaves of the sanctuary.3 and it is also to be observed that the Elohistic version of the law claiming all firstborn for God4 makes no distinction between the firstborn of men and cattle. hod. Jer. 2 Kings iv. God. 20. 5 ff. his Midianite wife concludes that he has incurred the Divine wrath by omitting to be circumcised. 3 I. Lam. at some later period.8 There is pretty clear evidence that. safeguards the rights of children. Jer. he underwent an initiation ceremony of which circumcision was a prominent feature. which among her people was a sine qua non before marriage. It is. xxiv. however. Not that we are justified in concluding that all the firstborn males were actually sacrificed. or if not then. Similarly no one who cherished the teaching found in the great Prophets could have told 2 Kings vi. not to a divine command. 7 Ezek. 7 . I n the Jahvistic recension of the law 5 a rider is added to the effect that all human firstborn must be redeemed. 30. xxv. Lev.26. such as from time to time occurred in the stress of famine. See e. " hod. In any case a father might voluntarily sell his daughters into bondage. a Judges xi. 25. 20. 5 Exocl. I . as noted above. xxi.g. xxvi. 7 .26 . xxii. 39 . but this rider is doubtless the work of the redactor who combined the two documents. vii. not only in forbidding that they should be punished for their father's offences. v. Deut. Obviously no one who felt towards human sacrifice the burning indignation of a Jeremiah 6 or a Micah could have drawn up ab initio the lawsjust referred to in the form in which we have them .2 Fatted calves do not ordinarily go out of the door of a house to meet a returning conqueror. The primitive character of this ceremony is sufficiently indicated by the fact that it was performed with flint knives. iv. but to Abraham's superstition. 19. 25.9 When Moses is taken ill in the first years of his married life. note that the word rendered in the English version ' dam ' is the ordinary word for ' mother '. xx.I 4 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM HUMAN SACRIFICES I5 related without reprobation. 25. before he married. however. in the earlier period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures. for doubtless in many cases a price was paid to redeem them. ii. as indeed the father himself might be . to be noted that Micah's vehement denunciation of the sacrifice of the firstborn 2 was uttered at a time when the brother of the reigning King Hezekiah had been sacrificed by his father Ahaz . He says that such laws were given as a punishment for the people's sin. 28 . 2 I f . 12. xxxiv. demanding the sacrifice of the firstborn. 2-5.Joshua v. children could be sacrificed on the eighth day from birth. 2 6 . She therefore decides on bringing about the vicarious circumcision of Moses in the manner described in the account of Moses' return to Egypt. xix. vi. ' Mic. Lev.10 The story of the circumcision of the 3 5 7 9 Gen. xxii. Deut. when a boy reached manhood. 29 . Deut. be considered certain that before the reforming movement which originated in the eighteenth year of King Josiah.' A man's sons might be seized by his creditors. cf.' but in insisting that a firstborn son by a hated wife must not lose his birthright in favour of a younger son by a beloved wife. xv. ii. 16. iv. 3 2 Kings xvi. g . of course. and indeed the prophet Ezekiel7 shows that he is acquainted with laws professing to emanate from Jehovah. among the Canaanite elements of the population. and the contrary is implied by Jeremiah. xxi. Jer.
Isa.7 who. Ruth i. Adonijah at the beginning of Solomon's reign was an applicant for the hand of Abishag.7 T h e training of youths for war by letting them slay prisoners is suggested by Gideon's bidding his elder son slay Zebah and Zalmunna. Of the sport of youths there is little direct evidence. that truly marvellous dexterity in the use of the sling was gained by many a friendly contestf Similarly we cannot doubt that Asahel's fleetness of foot 5 had been proved in many a race. 28.6 If we may accept the number given in 2 Sam. who had married when his father was a hundred years old." and presumably was married. ii. 14. m See 2 Kings xvi. I I. For a discussion of an historical incident underlying this story. 24. Gen. 3.Iz is said to have been twenty-five years old when his father died at the age of Gen. was older than Solomon. a admit the probability that Rebekah. The rendering of the English version is a dishonest attempt to harmonize Exod. The correct rendering is. in taking to wife a Hittite lady. 4f. xxvii. 20. as arrived at by a combination of various passages of the Pentateuch. see Old Testament Essays. The ages of the patriarchs when they inarried. I Sam. 8. and gain the masteryY6 that it was not 'playing the game ' to grip ' below the belt '. 9 2 Sam. xxxiv. xxxii. Hezekiah. by the present author. xxv. cf. can obviously not be used as a criterion. however.2 The reference to circumcision by Jeremiah 3-which in the unqualified injunction ' Be ye circumcised to Jehovah ' may show signs of modification by a later hand in accordance with later orthodoxy-implies that circumcision which is outward in the flesh is of no avail. 5 2 Sam.IO Absalom had his own establishment. 5. he can scarcely have been much more than twenty at the time of his death . ii. 18 . when her husband Isaac was extreme old age'-Isaac is said to have lived to the age of one hundred and eighty=-should have represented herself as weary of her life from anxiety lest her darling son Jacob-born when his father was sixty 3-should follow the bad example of his twin brother Esau. Gen. 4 Gen. xxxii. x x v i i . ii. iv. 22. 28-9. 26 . Few people will Gen. 5. 4 Judges xx. 4. pp. 20. 13. The comct text is undoubtedly 1 9 I Kings ii. " Judges xiv. a Gen. ' When Moses was grown up ' is a harmonizing mistranslation. Jer. xiii. 26. " I Kings ii.8 and something of the nature of a tournament seems to be implied by Abner's proposal to Joab that the young men should come and #1uy before them '. for Adonijah. xii. 'Q Sam. I 2 ff. Deut. Judges viii. I I. 23. cf. xxxvi. v. Yet for five years before his death. 3 Jer. 7 Adonijah. xxxv.I6 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM AGE OF MARRIAGE I7 ShechemitesI has doubtless been modified in accordance with later orthodoxy. 46. 6. however.8 was not born till after Absalom's untimely death. ' It came to pass in those days that Moses grew up and went out '.P A certain amount of betting is implied by the story of MARRIAGE There is no decisive evidence in the Hebrew Scriptures as to the average age of a man at the time of his marriage. It is implied that Nahlon and Chilion were still young men when they died leaving widows. xvii. 25. cannot have been born at Hebron. 2. 41. ii with Acts vii. who was not the eldest son of Ahaz. 5 Exod. I 6 . 40-5 1. according to what is evidently the true text of I Kings i. The story of Jacob's wrestling and the device resorted to by his opponent when the latter found himself unable to suggests definite wrestling rules. 3 . as approximately correct and may suppose that Absalom was born in Hebron.4 Moses according to the correct translation of the Hebrew text 5 seems to have married soon after he arrived at man's estate. xxv. I t may be taken for granted.9 and therefore cannot have been much less than twenty when David died. cf. . g. &c. 5 (not in$). 7 Gen.
I I. 18. xxiv. Mal. 3 Compare 2 Kings viii.c. .' but this is obviously impossible. 2 . 3. The prohibition in Lev. 2. i. i. 2 Sam. I Sam. Ezek. While polygamy and concubinage were taken for granted in the narrative of the Hebrew Bible. 18.7 it may well be that the prohibited degrees as stated in the latter were not at first generally accepted. in the fact that a man could marry his half-sister on his father's side. xxviii. Isa. however. we can scarcely take the age of royal princes at the time of their marriage as a sure indication of the age at marriage of the average peasant.6 but from the contradiction between the marriage laws in Deuteronomy as compared with the Law of Holiness.4. g. I 6. 25. that ' the husband is conceived as adopted into his wife's kinat any rate he goes to live with her people '. xxv. iii. compared with viii. l' Cf. in which his wife remained with her people and he visited her from time to time.4 I n any case. 5. xxix.3 and Joash when his father was sixteen. in the words of Robertson Smith. p. son of Jehoram of Judah.6 the age of marriage would doubtless depend upon the time when the prospective bridegroom could raise the purchase money. 4 2 Kings x i . as we should put it.28. Hos. 2 Sam. B Gen. 5 Sec Num. 26. xvi. 12 . 5 ff. xv. xviii. 26. 4. I 76. for example. I Sam.S This. 7. cf. is at least a great improvement on the sort of marriage which Sarnson contracted. ii. however. 1 8 I0 Deut. xviii. xxix. xi. viii. and is more likely to have been a mere child. 3. 3. Lev. 21. 1618. It is somewhat remarkable. 24. 7 Deut. 15. Kinrh* and Mam'age in Early Arabia. compared with xvi.2 Ahaziah. 7 I Sam. Happily it is clear that marriage was not so sordid a business as might appear from the custom of buying the bride. S Gen. xxi. even when the form of marriage on which it was based was probably obsolete. Lev. Robertson Smith. ii. and the Chronicler. and it is implied. and traces of mother kinship are found. 9 Gen. xiii. Thus the statement in connexion with Adam and Eve that a man is to leave father and mother and cleave to his wife and that they are to become one flesh. 16. xviii.. 8 . Kings xviii. blood relations. xx. 14 ff. Since in ordinary cases a man purchased his wife from her father. ~ also of love at first sight. xviii. 2. Gen. Cf.4 In this sort of marriage kinship was of necessity reckoned not with the father's but with the mother's people. iii.2 is directed against an obsolescent custom of certain exogamous clans. Ezek. concerns only sisters. ii. 27 . and the lower to the Canaanite elements. 1-6. and we have examples. 18. contrasted with Lev. In the more primitive strata of Hebrew literature we find distinct traces of forms of marriage of which there is no evidence at a later date. 4 Judges xiv. he cannot therefore have been twenty-five years old at the time of his accession. not only of married I o v ~ but . The Law of Holiness. 2. The transition from the reckoning of I Esther ii .8 In the matter of marriage generally there was evidently a wide diversity of custom. and there are several which apparently presuppose monogamy. 3 W. 10. 2 ' Cf. 5 . xxix. 19. 2 Chron.' the author of the book of Esther. I Chron. it is true. or.9 and the former at all events is definitely recognized in Iaw. which from our point of view is not a very satisfactory arrangement. xiv. i.I8 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM MARRIAGE AND CONCUBINAGE I9 thirty-six. 13. 21.g . 26. 5 . I Sam. xviii. xxiv. 21. x v i i i .'o there is no passage in the canonical Prophets which so much as hints at the recognition of such practices. was born when his father was about eighteen. a Gen. 20. 20. I ." Here as in much else we may doubtless trace the higher ideal to the Mosaic Hebrews.~ twenty was regarded as the lowest age for military service. i i . xxx. 12. 3 (P). 18-21. Isa. xiii. 2. that nowhere is polygamy regarded with more complacency than by certain late writers. I n the fifth century B. 16.s but not on his mother's side. 16. 19. l i v . forbids marriage with the daughter of either father or mother.
xxxi. xxii. 23. 15 ff. 20. ver. X . 12 E.. though it is not improbably hinted at in the presentation of valuables to her brother and mother.3 Laban is afraid that Jacob may decamp leaving on his (Laban's) hands a daughter not legally married. Deut. xxix. xxiv. insists that Jacob has no right to take them away from him. xxxi.4 the father of the woman he has espoused considers the marriage as null.9 10 ff. xxiv. iii. 31. ii.1 The mention of certain girdles worn by the bride suggests that the unfastening of these by the husband was a ceremonial act. and Samson having left before the week is up. 18 is not before the sun went down ' but before he went in to the (bridal) chamber '. xxix. 14. xxiv. 22 . '"Judges xiv. iii. 23 ff.9 but it may doubtless be regarded as a common custom. 45 ff. see W. A feature common to the stories both of Jacob and Samson is that the marriage contract was not final till the bridegroom and bride had cohabited for a week. 7 Gen.7 In the Greek period when the magnificence of Solomon was popularly related as a set-off against both Persian and Greek splendour. xxiv. doubtless was only brought about very gradually. Gen. 58. I 2.6 and that their children belong to him. whereas Leah and Rachel. 33 . xxiv. 2 I ff. 16. 12 f. 32. xviii. maintain that their father by accepting a price for them has forfeited any claim to them. 9 Cant. 17 . cf. and gives her to another husband. Kinship and Marriage. 9 Gen. 4-8 . 14 ff. In the betrothal of Isaac and RebekahI it is not clearly understood at the time that Rebekah shall go to Isaac. vii. . 3 ' Judges xiv. 5 Judges xiv. 53.10 The association of bridesa Gen.8 the bridegroom seems to have played the part of Solomon. Gen. I Sam.20 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BETROTHAL 2I kinship through the mother to the reckoning of it through the father. xxix. 1 5 ~ 4 3Exod. Gen. 25. 34. xxii. 4 The correct rendering in Judges xiv. . 2 Sam. 34 f. . reasonably enough from our point of view. cf. xlv. . The fact that she does so is represented as her own decision. 6-1 I. 14 a Jer.* The earliest record of a wedding being celebrated by a feast is the story of Jacob. a riddle and a wager. maids with the bride is found as early as the story of Samson. 27 ff. 7 Gen. Judges iv.7 Betrothal was regarded as binding.5 The comparative novelty of a wife's accompanying her husband instead of remaining with her own people is clearly shown in the story of Jacob. not the husband's. 43 . Robertson Smith.17. 67. xxxi.* Another trace of the time when the wife normally remained with the clan is found in the fact that the nuptial tent is regarded as the wife's.Judges i. I Sam.6 though Esau married in defiance of his parents. 1-4. I Kings iv. cf.xxviii. Jer. I 8. 168. 4 Gen. p. xxvi. Of some of the ceremonies at such a feast we get a glimpse in the account of Samson's wedding. I E . PS. xxxiv. and his procession to fetch his bride was an imitation of a royal progress.Judges xiv. though he cannot deny that Jacob has paid a price for Leah and Rachel.3 The later nuptial canopy (huppa) may be regarded as a survival of this. . In any case. a purchase price was paid to her father or male guardian. Gen. 23 f. whether the bride remained with her clan or took up her abode with her husband.4 This indeed is not definitely stated in the story of Rebekah. xiv.. 14-16.5 I n any case the parents normally arranged the marriage. xxxi. S Gen. 8 Gen. Laban.
* or of unhewn stones cemented with clay. 10. Judges xix. xxxviii. a household consisted of more than one tent. i. commonly built. I I . 5. C f .9 It See Jer. xii.' In the matter of permanent houses there was evidently nearly as wide a diversity as existed in the British Isles down to the beginning of the Tudor period.h and their structure is referred to as something familiar.z who continued to live a nomadic life in tents. 7.xci. a I N what sort of a home did a young couple setting up . 66. from the single-roomed cabin of the peasant to the mansion of the wealthy. not necessarily all regarding themselves as the spiritual sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab. 10. I.Judges iv. I Kings viii. As noted above. m. Cant. cf. liv. 12. Gen. 16 . even when the reference is not to any temporary encampment. That baked bricks were not commonly used in the construction of houses is probable from the fact that it is mentioned as a peculiarity of the people of Babylonia that they burnt their bricks which served them as stone. i. PS. 9 Gen. The majority of poor houses were constructed either of unbaked bricks. xxxi. 3 Cf. This is perhaps indicated in the metaphor used by Job (iv. 5.LECTURE HOUSES independent housekeeping take up their abode ? At least as late as the exile there were a considerable number of people. of black haircloth. xviii. round one. g .6 It is to be noted that the word 'tents' (in the plural) continued to be used in the sense of ' home '. 5 Isa.5 At the entrance to such a tent there would commonly be a projecting awning.3 Such tents were similar to those of the modern Bedouin.Isa. Gen. 19). or even more courtyards. 33. 2 . Cant. xi. 3. like a fifteenth-century Manor House.
viii. those who wanted fresh air I 0 or desired to see what was going on outside the house naturally went on to the roof. 2. xxii. XI Isa. 34 . 5 5. Jer. I . d v . which drank out of the poor man's cup and lay in his bosom. and may still be seen in the East.s or more solid summer houses. 11 . xxi. a land to which Jehovah's eyes are directed likewise is safe. ix. g.2 A like state of affairs has lasted in Irish cabins till recent times. 14. 2. 2 . 38. ii.14 Roofs were also used for other purposes . 10. g. x x i i . in the Hebrew phrase ' dig through '4 the wall. Hag. as pavement. Ezek.16. xiv. 2. Job xxiv.24 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ROOMS AND ROOFS 25 was also noted as a Babylonian peculiarity that they used bitumen in lieu of clay as cement. 39. 'Prov. iv. '3 Judges xx. Isa.12 but the better class of house might have an upper floor.8 and a staircase leading from the roof to the ground -the existence of which is presupposed in St.' A parapet to the flat roof is made compulsory by the Deuteronomic law.13~XKVii. which was rolled or beaten hard. Isa. Isa.~O which might be painted or even inlaid with ivory. Nathan's parable. 8. ii. 8 the word ' beam ' is used in the sense of ' roof'. ix. 2. The little ewe lamb of ' Exod. 3 Isa. '3 2 Kings i. g. xi. i.9 Such houses might have the inner walls lined with wood. h.7 Some sort of superficial plaster to hide bad building is mentioned by Ezekiel. 7 Deut. " Jer. for the unorthodox construction of altars.9 Since no outlook was afforded by the windows. Ezek. The witch of Endor had a fatted calf in the house. xxviii. 8. This metaphor was so common that the word ' corner ' could even be used alone to denote prorninent men. would leak in heavy rain. 4. " I Kings vii. in use in Palestine. 7 h v . 15.1g. xxiii.xii.13 An upper room apparently not covering the whole roof seems to be indicated in the account of the guest chamber constructed for Elisha. 10.8 Houses of hewn stone were regarded as a mark of wealth and luxury. Judges iii.12 Stone quoins in the superior sort of buildings are referred to metaphorically as that which insures stability.. where. Deut. and the annoyance caused by the continual dripping is used as a graphic illustration of the misery of living with a nagging wife.15. Amos ii. cf. the part of the floor occupied by the human inmates is generally on a somewhat higher level. Brushwood was laid above these and covered with earth. h . Isa. whether of unbaked bricks or of unhewn stone cemented with clay.4 On such roofs arbours (Heb. 3. x x i i . xxxiii.6 With or without such a shelter the roof afforded an asylum to a harassed husband. Baked bricks were. A house. though it might resist a shower. " 2 Sam. The roof was ordinarily flat. ' I Sam." The house was commonly of one story.' and in the latest period. " Cant. 12. " I Kings xxii. 2 . 12. 13. in the absence of a courtyard they could be utilized for various 2Sam. Hence darkness became a natural metaphor for a time of danger and light of security. g. 2 Kings iv. 20. 4. Jer. 4 hod. sNeh.xix. xxvii. and it seems rather to have been used in whitewash or to form a thin coat of plaster. sukkdth) of interwoven boughs could be constructed.I was evidently housed with him and his children. r 7-is perhaps indicated in the account of the proclamation of Jehu as King.viii. The comparison of seven lamps to Jehovah's eyes is to be explained as follows : a house brilliantly lighted up would be safe from attack. however. xiii. xix. afforded little protection from night attack by a burglar who could. Matt. however. I Sam. 2 f .5 Lime is mentioned as produced by burning: but there is no reference to its use as mortar. 16 . 9 Amos v. 10 (Hcb. xxiv. 12.). constructed of beams 3 laid in the walls. 2. xxii. 24.13 The poorer one-roomed house or cabin commonly sheltered cattle as well as the family. 14 . I. Such a roof.= The bricks mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah 3 may have been either baked or unbaked. 7 ff. 7.1o. 9 2 Kings ix. xxii.Zech. In Gen.I. I 3 . xii.
xviii. the smoke of the fire escaped. 8. 5. A brazier with a fire is. 9 Cf. g. 3 I Chron.4 and contained a number of apartments.~.' A projecting window in a house built on the city wall is probably indicated as that through which the spies were let down. 22. at least this is the natural inference from such expressions as ' to go up upon a bed '. xxii. cf. 16. 14.3 might be built round one or more courtyards. I3 Judges xv. 25 . g. 2 Sam. 3 I 4 2 valuables. is best understood as the dormitory in which the female servants and attendants slept. xxvii.4 The larger houses sometimes had a porch or vestibule. 13. 2 Sam. ii.2 We may be sure that Solomon's daily menu required extensive kitchen premises and larders. v. 2 Kings xiv. g. 5 2 Sarn. 2 Kings xviii. xi. hewing out for themselves cisterns-broken cisterns at that-which cannot hold the water. so that Rechab and Baanah slipped past her and murdered Ishbosheth in his bedroom. 5 I Kings vii. Bedchambers are mentioned at various periods. Matt. houses which could not depend on a well or a perennial spring in the neighbourhood stored water in rock-hewn cisterns. also St. 30.6 Windows were closed in with lattice. 15.' A few fortunate people have wells in their I Kings xv. Isa. 12. 2. ii. and of the royal palace at Jerusalem.I and in the later days of the monarchy we even read of altars upon them. to be ground in a hand-mill. according to the more correct reading of the LXX. 2 Kings i x . g. mentioned in the royal palace.9 I n the poorer houses the fire was doubtless on the floor.I5 I n addition to sitting-rooms and bedrooms. 27. " 2 Sam. Hence to drink the water of one's own cistern was a proverbial expression meaning to be content with what home afforded. cxxxii. which would frequently be constructed of hewn stone. Jer. .26 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM FIRE AND WATER SUPPLY 27 domestic needs such as the drying of flax. 2 Kings xi. I I.l2 in which case the inner room would presumably be the bedroom. in much the same way as the incumbent of a present-day parish is.I and even lumber-rooms. xxii. 15. xix. vi.10 The unsatisfactory character of such cisterns as compared with a spring is the point of the emphatic words which Jeremiah puts into the mouth of Jehovah :11 ' Me they have forsaken. i x . iv. 19. 22. xxxviii. xxxvi. Jer. The bedrooms of the larger houses would seem to have been as a rule on the upper floor. 3I . 4 . Zeph. Ishbosheth's portress was sifting wheat.8 In the latter case the key of the palace is part of the insignia of office with which the chief official of the palace is invested. x i i i . 8-12. 8. Judges iii. however. 6. 7 Deut. and we have mention of wine-cellars 3 and oil-stores.xvi. xvii. 2. in which Joash as a little child was hidden from Athaliah. 3. " Jer. Hosea xiii. i. 18. The ' chamber of beds '.6 The outer door-posts seem to have had inscriptions probably originally of a magical character to protect the house. Isa. 7 Cant. given the key of the church door. XI Prov. xvi. upon his induction. Kings vii. 25 . viii. 6. 22. 28.11 The slightly superior houses seem to have been ' but and ben '. 3. I t was in such a vestibule 5 that. Jer. I Kings xx.' We read of locks and keys in connexion with the palace of Eglon. 1 8 . PS. and doubtless other mansions. since there was no chimney. Amos v. g . Sam. 2 Kings vi. King of Moab. 15. I . into which a man would not penetrate. 23. '5 2 Kings i. xxxvi. I I . xxvii. had store-rooms for Jer.7 through which. 9 Joshua ii.IO and one is perhaps implied in Amnon's bedroom. a spring of fresh water. 13. iv. Joshua ii.2 The large houses.'. 23.9 For their water supply. I 5. when overcome by the noon-day heat she dozed and fell fast asleep. Neh. cf.5 The very wealthy had different residences for summer and winter. 4 I Chron. 7 . royal palaces. Amos iii.
and large reservoirs were also constructed. 5 2 Kings X. perhaps of basalt. Ezek. 12. Deut. 18. Such bedsteads. xvii. cf. xiv. 26. 4.13. Eglon. 2 Sam.) is the same word as is translated c bed' in the passage referred to above . 15. 27. Amos iii.3 has been explained as a sarcophagus. ate the flesh of lambs and fatted oxen. Gen. The table (shulhdn) in the ordinary houses was not necessarily more than a mat or skin spread on the ground and reserved for food. iii. Valuables. however. 11. 5. xxxv. but merely to megalomania. such as may still be seen in what remains of the apartment in which Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. the huge size of which was not due to the stature of the king. and a chest for the recepcalled ' ark of the covenant ' tion of contributions to the restoration of the temple. Ezra vi.. as in the days of Samuel Pepys. and.vi. 2 Kings iv. Esther i . such as uncoined silver.s and was probably on a ledge by the wall. 17. xlviii. FURNITURE Furniture.s the so.1' We have no mention of linen sheets. in the description of the Temple furniture certainly implies that it might be a table in our sense of the word . x x i i i . 31. but they are not actually mentioned. and a like inference is to be drawn from Amos's picture of those who.5 It is probable that there were sewers. 9 Cant. Amos vi. 24. ' Litter' (R. 3. as we understand the term.' The water from such wells appears to have been drawn by means of a rope and pulley. I Sam. " Amos v i .XX. " Amos iii. 12. which might be of rich materials. Earthenware jars. 6. could satisfy his natural wants without leaving his cool sitting-room. I 2.1. Such seems to be the meaning in the description of the careless feasting in Babylon 4 where by fciphith we are perhaps to understand the carpet spread on the floor round the mat or skin on which the food was placed. 23 . and perhaps into other large towns also. Isa. 41. 26. xxi.l appears to have been lifted off the floor. however. The richer houses appear to have possessed some sort of portable bedsteads.^^ suggests that the kind of thing indicated by the word was not unknown. 27 . were probably placed in earthen vessels. 9 Exod. 2. which might be used as divans during the day.28 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BEDS AND TABLES 29 courtyards. vii. 6. xxii. cf. 41. and that his coverlet is of maggots. vii.6 and. by means of a conduit. Sam. 7 Exod. or some permanent arrangement in the outer wall. 10.' I t is somewhat strange that we have no mention among household furniture of anything of the nature of a chest . which was often a mere rug on which the clothes worn in the day-time did duty as bed-clothes. 10. " 2 Kings xii. was not neglected. . I I . cf. xxiii. 4 Isa. xii. divans.2 Water was brought into Jerusalem. * Prov. G e n . 16. . 20. Ezek. whether open or closed. and one or Eccles. xlix. 4 . 4 . 19. as the word is nowadays understood. in the poorest houses scarcely existed. 3 2 Kings xviii.V. 7-1 I. 5 7 " a . of various sizes and shapes. hidden in the ground. The bed. while reclining on ivory couches and sprawling on divans. but the use of the same word to denote a coffin. 4 Judges iii. I t may. King of Moab. xix. Og's c iron bedstead '. used in commercial transactions.5 In houses where there was a raised table there would be stools or chairs for those who sat at it. which was long to be seen in Rabbah of Ammon. in the houses of the wealthy. The sanitary regulations to be observed by an army in the field6 doubtless represent what was the rule in country districts at home. iii. xxviii.'+but it is not clear whether in this connexion some portable contrivance is meant. I Sam. iii. 3 Deut. xxiii.*O were sometimes of elaborate workmanship inlaid with ivory.' It is contemptuously said of the King of Babylon in his death that his under mattress consists of worms. but there would be a mattress or rug to lie upon. The use of the same word shulhdn. have been a state bed. 33. There were public conveniences.3 There are 'several indications that sanitation. I I. 2 more coverlets. cf. 12.
wood fires depended on dead branches and sticks that could be picked up. vii. 6. iv. 2 . 6. 9 Gen. CUPS. 14. Where wood was unavailable the thorns 9 and moor plants 10 in which Palestine abounds would be used. 23. 4 2 g. i.3 or storing grain. 19. 12 . Job xviii.Jer. cxx. mention of skins for holding liquids in passages both pre-Deuteronomic 7 and late. and hence considered degrading. 33. Kings iv. and (probably by the poorest) dried cattle dung.2 The poor man. Hag. Jer. xxii. could probably not afford to keep more than one lamp burning at a time. except the skins of game. 7 Gen. 2. Lam.30 HEBREW LIFE AM) CUSTOM regarded as of little value. could scarcely have been in use before the publication of the Deuteronomic law. '4 I Kings iv. so that the light of seven lamps3 would be considered a very brilliant illumination. 3. 9 Eccles. for boiling meatwhich seems to have been the most usual way of cooking it in earlier times-and for heating water. '4 Isa. 22. '"PS. 3. 5 Jer. 20. and the wash-basin 10 may well have been used for many purposes. " Ezek.11 Wood specially hewn was doubtless expensive and was mainly used for the altar fire. In general. ii. 25.8. 3. and was a Gen. 10. xliv. So likewise the bowls which were used to contain intoxicating liquor 12 served other uses. xxi. &v. It is remarkable that there is no mention of kindling a fire ab initio by striking flints. 2 Macc. xiii. h ..~sand to avoid the necessity of so doing a lamp was kept always burning.12 Hewing and carrying wood for fuel were unskilled occupations. but even so the poor could scarcely have kept fires of wood continually burning. xxiv. Prov.cxix. There is.8 While drinking vessels and the like in the houses of the rich were not uncommonly of precious metals. v. xlii. 13. 5 3 Zech. 2. sufficient of itself to safeguard the house from attack by nocturnal burglars. 15. 14. and also the somewhat flatter bowl in which Sisera was given curds and milk. but also as receptacles for such things as documents.I4 I 3 2 Kings xi. for the skin of a domestic animal which had been presented at the altar would have been sacred and unavailable for ordinary use. l POTS. who was compelled most carefully to husband his supply of oil. 16. 38. xiii. '3 Joshua i x . 14. xii. 2. I Kings xvii.6 Skins for containing liquids. xxx. however. 14. Lam. " Zech. 20.5 Pegs were affixed to the walls of the house on which various articles could be hung. 2 Sam." Even to-day guests who partake of the courteous Bedouin hospitality may be offered milk from the vessel out of which he has seen the goat drinking a few minutes before. xxxii. 12. 15. meatf &C. " 2 Sam. xii.6 As late as the time of Haggai 7 the district about Jerusalem was evidently far better wooded than at the present day. Eccles. Sam. xv. 27 . ' Isa. 7 . 19. We hear of a brazier in the royal palace in December. 21. xii. Isa. 23. Ia Gen.8 and the scarcity of fuel would necessitate great economy. 6 . LAMPS 3I indeed the sign of the occupation of a house. X. In Nathan's parable the lamb drinks out of the poor man's cup. 2. xvi. 83 : see also Prov. Candelabra supporting more than one lamp were used by the wealthy.I4 but there is no indication of the material of which they were made. I Sam. 2 Kings viii. 8. xxxvi. 4 .1 Such a lamp was presumably of earthenware with a wick of flax. iv.s and Amnon's bedroom seems to have been warmed in a like manner. vii.13 Among what we should regard as the kitchen utensils were pots. iv. 18.9 the supply of crockery in the poorer houses was extremely limited. xiv. 3. l 0 PS.24. xxii.13 Besoms for sweeping were in use. vi. 14 . Fires specially for heating appear to have been a luxury. 4 I Kings xvii. and the hospitable couple of Shunem4 provided one for Elisha's room. 36. PS. '5 Cf. I Kingsx. '3 Judges v.' were used not only for holding water 2 or 0il. of various sizes and shapes. 8. 10. 23. 4.
Lam. Gen. 33. was known as ' cleaning '. I I . 8 . 5.32 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ' CLEANING ' AND GRINDING CORN 33 For baking. xlvii. Isa. but is shown to be correct by a like metaphor of Ben Sira : In the shaking of a sieve the refuse remaineth. xi.16 f. iii. 2. x x v i . It is reasonable to suppose that the counterpart of some of the utensils mentioned in connexion with the Temple would also be found in domestic kitchens.3 Normally every household would have home-made bread. xii. 38. 3. g . ' Num. 2 . The Revisers of the Authorized Version have entirely missed the point in Amos i x . So the filth of man in his reasoning. iv. There is no mention of any dish specially intended for holding cooked meat.2 they were presumably of coarse earthenware. portable ovens I were used. 2 . 12. Each household would possess one.11 4 Among the necessary utensils. Jer. 4. and this suggests a frying pan. 2I. I Sarn. Ecclus.g and a similar utensil is used in one sort of cereal oblation. Since they started with the preconceived idea that ' to fall to the ground' must necessarily be something bad. iv. 5 2 Sam. Compare the mention of bakers. I Sam. where there were female slaves. I I. Eccles. The staple food of nomads is milk. Neh. they have translated the word which means ' pebble ' 6 by ' grain '. 3. xii.3 Preliminary to grinding it was necessary to sift the grain to separate from it any pebbles which might have been taken up with it from the threshing-floor. Although great reliance cannot be placed on the text of the passage concerning the cakes which Tamar cooked for Amnon. 13. Gen. or round them. 4. 7 2 Sam.IO and also of some comparatively small jugs or jars. x l . Deut. 26. like the old English ovens. xxxvii. each household would possess millstones for grinding. n53b9 is to be connected with the Syriac b. . apparently a ' girdle'.'. 13. xv. 6 . Ezek. " Job xxi. for which of course a sieve was required.5 Since in Nehemiah's time there was a 'tower of the ovens ' 6 a guild of bakers may have found some form of cooperative baking more economical.4 though it is not improbable that in the more prosperous times the shops in the street would have sold what we should rather classify as confectionery. though such doubtless existed. according to the more correct Hebrew text underlying the Septuagint account of Ishbosheth's murder: the word is the same as is used in Isaiah's parable of the vineyard 5 to denote the cleaning of the ground. xvii. which were heated by a fire lighted within them. 2 I.2 it was ordinarily done by the women of the household. As in 2 Sam. m i i . 9 Lev.7 FOOD In the food of the inhabitants of Palestine during the period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures there was doubtless as much variety as in their homes. v. I 7. and it is a sign of the breaking-up of households by war and famine when the women bake their bread in one oven. xxiv.4 This process. Since they were breakable. and the pebbles and other refuse be retained in it. Judges xvi. 13. In addition to the various appliances for cooking there would necessarily be various vessels for holding both liquid and solid food . Amos ix.= The grinding of corn was considered derogatory to manly dignity. a Lev. xiii. is mentioned by Ezekie1. ii. g. 35. and it is likely that even among those who 5 3 Lev. xi. xxvi. viii. 6 . 24. but in the reign of Zedekiah Jerusalem had a 'street of the bakers' where ordinary bread was ~0ld. g. Isa.? it seems to be meant that they were cooked over a brazier in some sort of liquid. This is not only suitable to the metaphor which Amos uses. I Kings xvii. 6. and.xix. At any rate a flat iron plate. by them. But the purpose of sifting corn is that the grain may fall through the meshes of the sieve. a 3 P . and we read of pails or pans for milk. v.
iv. I Kings iv. ix. 29. and that it should be sin.6 Inferior cereals were also used. 6. xxv. 13. that the ward commonly rendered 'bread ' is frequentlyused in a much wider sense. I I . xxvii. 22. who having failed to repeat some lesson by heart before breakfast. xvii. 25. 4 .g. were probably better fed than the children in many English schools a century ago. g. 15. of Deut.34 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM cultivated the land milk formed a considerable portion of their diet. m. xxviii. 8 . 22. Ezek. Prov. I g.5 Abraham gave his guests curds and veal to eat. 19 . 2 . 3 ' Jer. were sometimes boiled into some form of porridge. and the meal so obtained might be hastily mixed into dough. i. iv. xix. but in this context cream does not appear very probable. 1 8 . 2 Sam. Ewes may have been milked. xxiii. Judges v. 25 . l a Deut. We know that to the end of the Jewish monarchy the Rechabites cultivated neither cereals nor vineyards. 5. xvi. .9 What is meant by the skjhdth bdkdr which was brought to David at Mahanaim I0 is very doubtful. 1 4 . 9. 5 Isa.6 In addition to milk was also made into gbfna. Gen. xxxii. 5 Deut. g . " 2 Sam. ~ ' a modern . I1 I Sam. XXX. x v i i . 19.~and this is the view taken by the R. 28.8 millet. 19. Fine flour (so'kth) was also used.Judges vi. The most common cereal appears to have been barley. 2 Sam. 13 Gen.7 Since the curds (.V. xvii. since milk in a vessel which has contained curds would curdle of itself without being shaken. Gen. 3 'Prov. 6 . a Judges viii. 33. 4. Isa. 18. Gen.10 We read also of what may perhaps be some sort of cereal called 'ahdth (plural) : the meaning of the word is.2 I t is remarkable that nowhere is there any reference to the process of milking. Milk would ordinarily be consumed in the form of curd (Heb. Exod. xviii. 15. Various sorts of grain were sometimes roasted whole and eaten "--as formerly both in England and Scotland. straw chopped up by the threshing-sledges. g . 7. but n the collecinasmuch as se (the nomen unitatis of which ~ d is tive) may denote either a sheep or a goat. It might mean cream if we suppose that the pointing as sMn is incorrect. xxiii. Ezek. Gen. Grain entirely uncooked was sometimes eaten.4 Wheat was naturally more prized than barley. " I Kings d. xxxii.hmYa) latter was produced by squeezing the skin which contained the milk 8-presumably in different parts. Hos. &i. 14. together with tkbhn. 27 . Deut. leben). The prophetswhom Obadiah supplied with 'bread and watery 1notwithstanding MILK AND CEREALS 35 the prevailing scarcity.* this cannot be positively asserted. 28. '"Exod.' from which apparently the bran was not separated. 2 Kings iv. 2 (E. iv. 14. iii. compressed curd. 2 Sam. 10.e. 9 . 7 Job X . 25 . 34. Ruth ii. vii. i. Cheese. 28 .I4 or kikprdth Ubm. xxv. . beans. iv.7 lentils. seems to have been known. 22) . xxiii.2 but this was a luxury. Ezek.s and we may assume that the fine flour mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare was of wheat. was sometimes by the very wealthy given even to horses.12 Lentils. 5. 3 . 9 Ezek. xviii. The non-nomad majority of the population doubtless subsisted mainly on various sorts of bread. 9 I Sam. The ordinary bread was made of meal. I Kings v.Is baked into loaves of various shapes. thus causing a shaking up of the milk as in a chum-we should perhaps understand butter to be intended. i. and doubtless other sorts of grain also.3 which. I I . I Sam. very uncertain. xvii. and while still unleavened. xvii. 28. I t must not be forgotten. cf. 'uggdth. 4 I Kings iv. 7 Ezek. e.15 The unleavened 'uggdth would ' Judges vi. and milk to drink. vii. V. 17. 24. however. Exod. 2 I . Corn was usually ground as required.e. but the former seem to have been far more numerous. Ruth ii. iv. 32 . 17.1 Both goats and cows were kept for milking. Gen. iii. were punished for the rest of the day by being given nothing but bread and water. Isa. however. 42. Joshua v. 14.9 spelt. xviii. xii.
since there is no mention of bee-hives or of apiculture. NU^. I t is. wild honey is implied. 6. 39. cf. I t is noteworthy that the Hebrew gtphen denotes ' bine ' as well as ' vine Certain vegetables. 3 ' Gen. " The cultivation of such vegetables in Palestine is certain from I&. Ezek. xiv. 8. I Sam. I I . The former (hime) probably refers to the method of leavening mentioned above. Amos iv. 22 . and even juniper root. was bread. since they required to be turned in baking. 19. 7 Prov. sometimes by 3 2 5 7 9 'O the men. xxxii. I . The story of the baking by the Israelites of the unleavened dough which they brought out of Egypt 7 is clearly aetiological. Exod.Jer.9 That they were not synonymous may be inferred from their occurrence together in the same . vii. xvi. 25.g. Some sort of mallow.2 Oil and honey were used in cooking. 27 . but it is not quite certain what is to be understood by the word translated honey. gourds or cucumbers. xiii. v.5 . 8. 15. xv. viz. viii. It is therefore likely that honey is everywhere to be understood in the natural sense of the word . 5 I Sam. 15.~~ were '. 13. xl.= and professional bakers or confectioners were of both sexes.6 Although we may suppose that the staple food. " Exod. x i . it must have happened from time to time that the produce of one year's harvest was exhausted before that of the next harvest was ready.1 The modern Passover cakes would perhaps have been called r'kEkim. 23 . I Sam. xiv. Two terms are used to denote leaven.context. 5 . In this connexion it is interesting to recall that the late Patriarchof Antioch stated when he visited Cambridge that his flock were reduced to digging up thistle roots in the lack of all other food. Baruch vi. Under such circumstances a ' portion of green herbs ' 7 was all that the poor man could get.12 The home baking was done sometimes by the women. however. other than milk. 38. " 2 Sam.xiii. Lev. 8 . 8 . 9 2 Kings iv. 16. but of this there is no proof. very remarkable that the narrator saw nothing unusual in first mixing meal into dough and afterwards adding the leaven. l" Num. 6. xix. 3.3 Bread was baked in an ovenf or on a girdle. but we cannot decide with certainty how they differed. I Kings xiv. I Kings xix. Job xxx. Deut. l x x x i .2 What sort of cake is denoted by k l l a is uncertain. Lev. 34.36 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BAKING : OIL.s and also run honey. 4. . xviii." and what appears to have been a kind of pancake cooked in liquid. 7 . 3. 15. honey. 3. 7. Sam. 19. I I . vi.* was eaten by those who were famishing. ii. ' Exod. hdm@8 and S'Gr. Exod. PS. xii. VEGETABLES 37 appear to have been somewhat thicker than the modern Passover cakes. I 7. Cant. Deut. possibly some sort of perforated cake or biscuit. Isa. At any rate the taste of manna is compared to that of some sort of sweetened flat cake. 4 . e. e. i. Hos. vii. xxvii. was made by Tamar in order to tempt the appetite of her malingering and rascally half-brother Arnnon. I. and. 17. the mingling with the fresh dough of a piece of the fermented dough from the last baking.9 into which wild gourds (pakkzir6th s d h ) had been put in mistake for kishWEm-some sort of cucumber or gourd 1°-a mistake which recalls the not uncommon confusion in modern times between poisonous fungi and mushrooms. 31. Exod. 26. HONEY.4 Honeycomb is definitely mentioned. Since associated with d c b h h . Exod. Judges xiv. 13. xvi. 39.6 Leavened bread naturally took longer to make than unleavened. In times of dearth the prophets of Elisha's time concocted a stew of wild vegetables. presumably oil. and due to an attempt to connect the feast of unleavened bread with the Exodus. I t is possible that in some cases 3 it denotes boiled down fruit juice. xxvi. xxk.Io we find the latter (SYGr) it may be that some mixture containing honey or grapejuice was sometimes used to promote fermentation. 3. xliii.g. 8.^ or on hot stones. The leavening in this connexion is in accordance with a method still used in Europe. ' Gen. iv. 2. Ezek. xii. 70. xli. x i i i . 27 . vi. xii. Gen.
The eating of such flesh. v.7 but allows it to be eaten by the stranger that is 'within the gates ' or to be sold to foreigners who may eat it. xii. xi. 6. W. Gen. 23). Ezek. 20. Gen.12 I t is somewhat strange that although doves and pigeons are never mentioned among the ordinary food in ancient Palestine. 5. v. 2nd ed. Isa. Of wild birds partridges. Exod. xv. " Amos vi. iii.19 and small birds other than beasts of prey were eaten. The . '3 " 2 Sam. xxiii. forbids the eating of it by man and directs that it should be thrown to the dogs. xxvi. xii.s and possibly moufflon. w a s the flesh of stall-fed fattened animals. The later legislation on the subject 8 puts that which dies a natural death and that which is killed by a beast of prey on the same level. ii.6 The Deuteronomic legislation prohibits the eating of that which dies a natural death. and goat's flesh. xxvii. xxxix. " Deut. 4 . g. xlvi. 5 Exod.11 The term ' fatling ' seems to denote beef. Deut. d . xxxiv. Deut. and leek. xiv. 14 . 13.16 Of domestic poultry there is no mention. 3 (E. '5 Jer. ' 9 Exod. 4 Deut. garlic. 24. 8. 7 . '7 I Kings iv. 22. 3I. strange to say. xvi.2 animal food scarcely-entered into the diet of the poorer section of the population. xiv. 18. 5 . 27.. The earliest legislation. 18. xii. xxii. except on the occasion of an obligatory sacrificial feast. 3). * Exod. i. 34. Cant. Isa. xiv. 9 Gen. Isa. which deals only with that killed by a wild beast. 23 (Heb. xxii. Ezek. xliv. ' Deut. ' I Kings v.Jer. Jer.21 Fish is not mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare. g.' Before the publication of the Deuteronomic law. Isa. 15. xv. Lev. 20 (iv. vi. xii. xiv. ii. I 1-20. 22. 26 . 24.3 but even when account is taken of the absence of game laws. Various sorts of game could be eaten when it was available . li. 6 . 5. g. xii. Ezek-xxxix. 5 Deut. ii. viii. could not often have contained flesh or fowl. E. HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM cultivated and were evidently as luxuries. Deut.. xvii.10 The beef more ordinarily eaten would be the flesh of oxen which might have been used for ploughing. lx. " Isa.l. the poor man's larder. cf. 7 . 4 .7. 19. whether Israelite or stranger. Mal. 12. or that which served as such. I Kings v. 5. 3 Deut. or has died a natural death. they could be sacrificed. g . 24. iv. S Deut. i. 2 I. When flesh was eaten it seems to have been originally boiled in water or milk. 2.14 Turtle doves are mentioned as migrating. 22. 20. . xiv. 7.9 Beef.V. only any one who is guilty of it.5 The legislation in regard to that which had been killed by a beast of prey. 14. 23.xi.) . 21 . 4 Exod.13 and were apparently kept in dovecots.3 various kinds of wild goat 4 and antelope. g. suggests a growing fastidiousness in the matter.V. xlvi. 23.ls quails. x x i i . xxii. such as gazelles.15 and therefore it is the more surprising to find them specified as sacrificial victims.z roebuck. 7 Deut. 15. must wash himself and his clothes and be unclean till the evening.6 Of the flesh of domestic animals the most commonly eaten was probably mutton. 15. I Sam. 22 and probably I Sam. xiv.4 At a later period it was roasted. xiv. 5. xxxi. p. is not prohibited as stringently as the eating of blood . Amos v. Lev. 13.regarded popular taste inclined to strongly flavoured vegetables such as onions. xxix. 13. " I Kings iv. ix.7 of which the fat tail 8 was esteemed a great delicacy. 7 I Sam. as well as of the fact that Palestine in the days of monarchy afforded more cover for game than the ~ e b r e w at the present time. 15. ' Num. Exod. 3. 22. Deut. unless certain fatted creatures called barbidm 17 were birds. l6 Cf. 22.20 The eggs which were eaten must have been those of wild birds.22 although ' Deut.cf. Religion ofthe Semites. 'g I Sam. 38. 6. Robertson Smith. 8. 17. cf. 17 ff. xiv.~deer. ANIMAL FOOD 39 A considerable variety of game existed in Palestine. I Sam. and of pretty general skill in the use of the bow and the sling and in the setting of snares.xxxiv. 21 . I 6. I 5 . 5 . 219. x i i . xiv. 11. Cant. when eaten by the rich.
is by no means certain. xvii. x i i i . and in the E. however. Lev. " Judges iv. Num. Here the unfamiliar word. Has. however. vii. of course.12 I t was an ideal of peace and plenty that every man should possess a vine and a fig-tree. 15he says that he has been taken from following the flock. 10 . such as figs 6 and raisins. The staple drink among the nomads would be water 10 or milk. cf. 9 Num. Ezek.8 and may originally have had a ritual significance. 3 ! I t is possible that the word taMzPh was once applied to some other tree. Prov. Job xli. 5 Cant.8 Of fruits au nature1 we read of the following: grapes9 naturally head the list. xvi. Isa. 22. 23. 20. I . 8 is at first sight somewhat surprising. xxiv. Jer. however. Ezek. 2.13 The so-called ' sycomorefigs '. 16. 5 . in the shade of which he might sit. xvi. vi. i. 10. be interpreted as meaning that the scent of the fair lady's breath is as delightful in its way as are apples in their way: compare the simile in PS. Cant. xiii. commonly used. xxv. needless to say. but the uplands were too cold for them. What is meant by rQho"th9 is uncertain.rendered ' sheepmaster '. 46. 5. x l . 14 is commonly supposed to refer directly to this fruit. viii. 2. ii.^^ wine not being drunk by those who. Mic. Applesf if the word tapp2i"h should be so understood. The trees are mentioned as abundant in the foothills west of the main mountain range of Judah. iii. and as covering for the Tabernacle (Exod. I2 Hos. IO). vii. 4 is applied to Mesha. v. I . Isa. 22. ix. 7 (sic). '4 Amos vii. 25. King of Moab. 12.I and were evidently prized for their fresh juice. in districts sufficiently warm for their growth. Num. xxiv. ii. 4 . 18. xxv. misread.5 Dried and preserved fruits were also known." of which the first ripe fruit was considered a great delicacy. xlvii. both ritually6 and as a condiment. I . The text of the passage. and it is not improbable that. 10. cxxxiii. 4.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM there are a considerable number of references to fishing. 10. 'O Gen.14 Pomegranates seem to 40 2 . Next to grapes were figs. m. .1 Cetaceans. xiii. 2 Sam. freshly pressed out grapejuice10 was sometimes taken as a beverage. though they were eaten by the poor. 15. xi. iii. are mentioned among various other fruits. xxvi. Isa. b * ~ p W~h is then an incorrect gloss to 733. were not highly prized as fruit. Salt was. xvi. 19. 0 ' Amosiv. xxviii. The Greek translation of Kings transliterates the Hebrew. 19. 7. 7 I Sam. 3. 19. Num. Gen. h s was a LOCUSTS. 3 Leather from the dugong is Lentioned (Ezek.3 There is. 12. xvi. were regarded as fish.7 Raisin cakes of some sort are mentioned. 11. 4 Joel i. 14). understood 733 to mean pricker '. 2 . xii. 9 Hos. 2.7 The supply seems to have come from the Dead Sea and its neighbourhood. 23. Hab. 40. 18. xviii. It should probably. I I.5 The precedent for this may have arisen when the locusts had stripped the land of all other food. and says nothing about sycamore-figs. g. s familiar with the process but udhmiliar with the technical use with reference to sheep. xlvii. v i . " Jer. I Chron. or possibly bruised grain. I I. 14 the Greek has mi[wv. In post-exilic times the Tyrians carried on a fish trade at Jerusalem. vii. 2 Sam. The word for which bdkb is a misreading is probably nS&ih. a Cant. The simile in Cant. 13 . a tender of oxen. 19 . xxx. We also hear of nuts. ' scraping ' or ' pricking '. for in ver. 7 Job vi. v. 4 Neh. ' Num. xiii. SALT. ix. I . 5 Lev. xi. In Amos vii. 12. '3 Zech. Mic. FRUIT 41 have been fairly common. cf. iii. no proof that the flesh was eaten. &c. 16.V. xxvii.4 I t is remarkable that locusts were regarded as legiti&ate food. 6. 9 2 Sam.2 Water-melons are mentioned as growing in Egypt 3 and were evidently not unknown in parts of Palestine. and the fish-spears of which we have mention2 may have been harpoons used in spearing the dugong. being removed by nipping or pricking. apart from the manufacture of wine. like the certainly not a b G k * . I Sam. which in 2 Kings iii. It may have meant some kind of fruit dried and pounded. The sycamore-fig is commonly infested by an insect which must be o that the Greek translator. is taken by the Greek translator as a proper name. In the later title of the book Amos is described as ' one of the ndpdhtm from Tekoa '.
From the warnings against the misuse of wine in the Book of Proverbss the temptation to drunkenness would seem to have been somewhat greater in the Greek period. xxix. was not confined to the nomadic population. 24 . Gen. 14 ff.2 I t isnot improbable that there are some still living. 2 Kings xviii. PS. i. yiShar).1 Water dri-ng. i. LCV. " Prov. cf. iv. 18 ff. and such people will readily conjecture what the water collected in the rock-hewn cisterns was like when the supply was getting low ! It is therefore probable that all who could afford it mixed wine with the water. 7 . 13 . 14. at all Zech. 24 . Isa. ii. which is always sltmen. 14. I. 4. ' the two oil-abounding ones '. Vinegar was taken as a condiment : it was forbidden to Nazirites.X. i. 5 Isa. 3 Isa. was much prized. 14 is an exception. with a more intelligible translation of the idiomatic Hebrew phrase. Judges xiii.I2 and the guests at a feast. d i . Ruth iii. 7 .Jer. 11. It is noteworthy that this word is newer used of the sacred anointing oil. Although drunkenness is unsparingly denounced in the Hebrew Scriptures. 20. but in many places fresh spring water was not available throughout the year.+ I t is noteworthy that the word for a banquet or feast is literally a drinking. See W. xxxv. 8 .5 MEALS A N D BANQUETS The chief meals of the Hebrews appear to have been at noon and in the evening.42 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM WINE AND OIL 43 Rechabites. 22. v. 11. needless to say. 23. . 2nd ed. xxv.6 Ordinary wine was sometimes mixed with spice7 to make it more palatable.10 At feasts to which guests had especially been invited it was customary to send servants to fetch them. . 7 for unction. Lev. 6. 1 2 . 32 . 6 ff. I. 13. 3 Amos vi. like ' old crusted ' port. v." Before a meal began hands were washed by having water poured over them. i. cf. I Jer. Judges xix. as being fermented. I. ii. 6.= but its original meaning seems to have been animal grease. xxx. Isa. I Sam. Whether any kind of alcoholic liquor (Heb. xxiv. Gen. xxviii. The two 'sons of oil ' or.. " 2 Kings iii. m.3 especially of the kidney fat . Judges ix. Ruth ii. xxviii. viii. Prov.^ Commonly mentioned in connexion with food and drink.9 The topers whom Isaiah denounced began their potations in the early morning and continued till evening. 17. 5 . Saul took leave of Samuel in the early morning without partaking of any breakfast. 11. v. 15 . Wine which had been kept for a considerable time and had been carefully strained. maintained unchanged the nomadic mode of life. which provide a continual supply of oil to the reservoir of the lampstands. 4. g . shkhir) other than grape-juice was drunk is uncertain. ix.1 Sltmen is actually used of olive oil. 7 Gen.6 .* Presumably some light refreshment was taken in the morning before work was begun. though perhaps more frequently used in lamps and "er. 3 . 16. Cant. ' Deut. 2 . and when it was possible it was stored in rock-hewn cisterns. Robertson Smith. I I . I Sam. 2. cix. are the two olive-trees mentioned above (ver.7 though hospitality to guests was bound by no set rules. I I ) . hence the metaphorical expressions ' the kidney-fat of the oil ' and ' the kidneyfat of the vintage and of the corn '. 29-31. 4. but there happens to be no reference to such a thing. xix. ix. xxxi. Hag. xliii. Mic. 3. i. cf. 34 . but it is suggested by the combination of shkha'r with yuyin (wine) otherwise than in parallel ism. 12.3 it is evident that a certain amount of alcoholic exhilaration at a feast was not only condoned but regarded as proper. XX. 4 Num. 6 . Exod. xliii. Exod. 6 . Zeph. ix. who remember -r whose fathers have told them-what the water used to be like in the days of the old sailing vessels. Religion ofthe Semites. ' Isa. v. 6 . viii. 25 . xxvii. 26.4 The Hebrews liked rich greasy food and also sweet things. 'O Isa. xviii. 4 Gen. xxv. Prov. ii. even when we should expect it. was olive oil (Heb. 5. Isa. XXXi. 6 . p. xxx. xlviii. 2. Prov. I I . xviii. 383. 9 I Sam.
8.9 were frequentlyenlivened with music. 2 Kings iii. and we find Ruth eating with the reapers. I f. I t is nowhere stated that the sword was directly attached to it. the izdr. was a special feature in the sumptuous banquet when the physician Bochtyeshua entertained the Chalif Mutawakkil. there is evidence of as much diversity between poor and rich as in our own country in the Middle Ages between the peasant and the prince. Deut. Elijah's W r is of skin or leather. ' " Isa. 40. Gen. unlike the latter appears to have been a fairly tight belt or sash. was fetched from the top of Hermon and took the place of ices with us. 21 . Aii.7 mentioned as something rare and acceptable. 15 . was something tied round the waist and seems to have developed in different ways. 2 Kings l. i Sam. 41 f. 2d. xviii. Chronicurn Syrianrm. 4. 3. 11. g . a BANQUETS. X k .? On the other hand. It is not impossible that the 'snow in the time of harvest '. .g worn round the waist to gather in the coat or mantle. it would afford some protection to the lower part of the body. xii. 24. 5. Amos vi. N o r t h JVigcria. 2 4 Amos vi. Meek.9 Ruth ii.4 The portion of each guest was separately served. If made of leather. I Sam. iii. " ROV. ix. cf. I I. 13. Mic.3 The simplest clothing appears to have been the girdle (Heb. I I. as at the present day. xliii. 3. 7 Prov. Sarah does not eat with Abraham and his guests I2 and it is implied that Elkanah takes his meal apart from Peninnah and her children and from Hannah. 5 .6 In the Greek period the wealthy delighted in that which was rare. 4. Some sort of Pgdri was also worn by warrion. d. xiii. I Sam. I 2 . '3 I Sam. 5. 32.8 Feasts. 2.3 At such a feast grace was said before meat. 6. See Barhebraeus. i. *gdrd). 4 f.44 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM events those who had come from a journey. Isaiah 5 contrasts the pgdrb of such with the rope or leash with which the ladies captured by the enemy will be tied together and carried into slavery. (m) .I0 but it is not clear whether this was during the actual progress of the meal. Gen. PS. it seems naturally essential that all the guests should be consecrated. I Kings ii. x l i i i . v. CLOTHING 45 ample of Hebrew usage. a t least among those who could afford them. X w t h Nigeria. Zech.13 Esther can scarcely be quoted as an exGen. See Meek. Isa. 5 Isa. i.6 It was. 24. cf. 3 I Sam. Jer. and I King 1 Cf. xiii. ba'al sirdr).* but also the elaborate broad sash worn by wealthy ladies. Paris ed. but he is described as a 'hairy man' (Heb. pp. strictly speaking. xviii. was common2 and these would naturally be provided for guests. i x . 8. Dan. vi. xliii. which were often held in the open air." In earlier times it would seem that women took their meals apart from the men. pp. 9 Gen. had their feet washed. 7. loc. 7. xxv. as might be expected. 3 4 . more than a mere belt and rather of the nature of an apron hung from the waist and reaching to the thigh. v. xxiii. xvi. i. xix. 20. 2 Sam. cf. 10. xxiv. which in form is identical with the Arabic kdr. . The story of Adam and Eve's girdles of fig-leaves2 is due perhaps to the knowledge that somewhat similar girdles were worn by various tribes in Africa. xviii. XX.1 The use of unguents. 1 3 . Such conventionswould not be observed by the poorer classes. Gen. Dan. vol. when every great feast was a sacrifice held in the vicinity of an altar. In the later period good manners at meals are insisted upon. 5 Gen. which. 5 . 3.s and the amount of food sent to each was in proportion to the honour it was desired to pay him. in summer time. 157 f. In pre-exilic times. 8 . At any rate many centuries later snow. iii. iii. X. 6 . 4 I Sam.. 14 a Gen. iii. 34. xxviii. apparently. xviii. till the word covered not only the simple loin-covering.1 CLOTHING In clothing. 10.
Under the simla' or next the skin a tunic (ktho'tuth or kutto'ruth)I0 was worn.13 perhaps inferred this from a knowledge of some primitive African tribes. was the simlti or salma'. x v i . 3 . It is scarcely possible to interpret this law otherwise than literally. 3 5 . 17. As worn by the gentry it was a long-sleeved garment reaching to the ankles.* The & was open down the front. 2 Sam. and similarly the camel's hair worn by John the Baptist was distinct from his leather belt. not open down the front.I6 and also weaving. 3. " Gen. 27.11 For active exercise the tunic would be pulled up above the knees and tucked into the belt. 6 . which was perhaps sometimes worn merely over a loin-cloth.7 Varieties of linen seem to have been used. 11. 6 f. the chief official in Hezekiah's palace. '5 Jer. since in addition to the ordinary word for flax 8 we find badh 9 and shsh 10 used to denote some sort of linen. 6. Ezek. and the priests when not engaged in sacrificial ritual. 4.2 It is not suggested that the hair is on the leather Zzdr. vi. Isaiah pictures Jehovah enthroned as King. The part between the folds above the strap served as a pocket. x x i i . 3 I 4 Joshua i i i . who states that the tunics were of skin or leather. 14.vi. xiii. 42 . 23. I s a . 9 I S a m . 30. I . I s a . Dyeing was practised .24. wrapping oneself up in the outer covering (simli). iii. x v i . Ezek. 27. d. X. 18. . g. xxiv. 26.Jer.12 also t6la-"3). x i i i . xxxi. xxvii. i. 18. 18.I and not like Esau growing his own hair. I s a . which served as bedclothes. 2 Sam. Deut. 3 .iii. Cant.xii. What the material called dshi 11 was is quite uncertain. xxii. we read of scarlet (shcini.xxiv. 3I . i. xiii. 21. purple.Job i. 4 Num. xxii. x i i i . It is probable that there were many recipes for dyeing homely stuffs. 18f. Prov. and in a royal robe might be extremely voluminous. 5. 13. 12. Prov.e.'. 7 Dem. at least. Judges viii.Zech. It had wide skirts which would fall into folds. iii. " Ezek.V. ix.2 The upper classes. 18. xxxvii. 2 Sam.xxii. Jer.3 It appears to have been slipped over the head. iv. xxxix. iv. Prov. 7 Prov.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM that is.5 The ordinary outer garment. xxxi.24 . i. xli. Ezek. I. the word in the plural being used for clothing generally. Deut. '7 Judges x v i . 38. I. 22. It is not impossible that they were originally amulets or charms to which a new significance was given. '3 Gen. ver. A person wearing such a tunic was fully dressed. On the extremely probable suppositionthat Jeremiah went not to the Euphrates but to Wady Fara. 13. Spinning was done at home. although the superficially similar Exod.12 The tunic was of woven fabric. " Gen. 18 Num.39 . x i i i .6r in order to remove the coat which it fastened. " Gen. 4 . 24. xv. 13. Shebna.17 The stringent and curious law which prescribes twisted thread tassels on the corners or flaps of the outer garment 18 is difficult to explain. but the narrator of the story of Adam and Eve. iv. I I. * Prov. This is. 13. 3. wore a tunic with a girdle or sash round the waist. 20. 4. I' Joshua ii. Jer. 21. ix. 13. Judges m. v. xxxi. Zech. wearing a garment of woven hair. I I. 25 (E. 13. the skirts of His robe covering the Temple floor. 10. 21. 7. ' Gen. 5 I s a . Jer. I C f . xxxi. '3 Isa. 19.Is but these seem to have been used for costly fabrics. Jonah iii.xlii. 23. 21. 20. Cant. Certainly the hairy mantle worn by the later prophets 3 was of woven hair. g . the natural appears in inference from the fact that the word &cth general to be a woven fabric.4 i.14 and vio1et. the one &p being pulled over the other and secured by the strap or sash. 13. and with the object of doing some manual labour.' but it was the custom entirely to undress. xxvii. iv.4 Jeremiah's Zzdr was of linen. 26 . Exod. 11 . we may suppose that he took off the G. 46 I 47 CLOTHING The tunic was not worn in bed. xviii. 13. X. viii.4. Deut. 4 Exod. xxii. Isa. It was worn both by men 6 and by women.xxii. Exod. 18. i i . 9 Exod. 26) . xv.5 Woven fabrics were composed of wool6 and of flax. d. 26 .7 and appears to have been practically unshaped. wore as an outer garment a long robe (m"t4. Sam. 2.
xix. 1 2 . cxli. meaning that Jehovah's teaching written on the heart is to take the place of amulets bound on the arm and of magic formulae inscribed on door-posts and gates. Eztk.7 Jezebel has frequently been blamed unjustly for what in her days. I. Isa. 26.Io but it cannot safely be argued that this law refers Deut. laymen as well as priests. Some sort of elaborate coiffure seems to be referred to in Isaiah's threat to the Jerusalem ladies of the fate in store for them. 18. For the reading p o t & h of the Massoretic text we should probably readf'at&hZn. Isa. xx. 3 (LXX). iii. 6. 3 5 '. 30. Isa. 37. " Deut. 30 . In fairness to her memory let it be said that nothing so became her in life as the dignified and courageous way in which she left it. Isa. for it is associated with a prohibition of laceration of the flesh in mourning.48 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SANDALS. x l i . 9 Mic. cf. however. iv. ICY. which we may perhaps translate 'their shingled hair 7 Lev. xiv. however. iii. xxviii. Jobi. impossible to accept as accurate the weight of his yearly growth of hair! Two hundred shekels must be equivalent to nearly three pounds and three quarters-enough to stuff a very large sofa-pillow. was de rigueur. 6. Although in Old Testament times women in general were freer and held a higher position than under Islam. appear to have worn some sort of turban or headband. however. ' 2 Sam. 3 . a . G . in the case of men. 18. ' Gcn. xlviii. 3 Deut. 12. In regard to many of these. cf.Jer. 5. 23 . 20. Jer. xxiv. xiv. 31 . 6. xlviii. 24.' I t would seem that in general men left their heads uncovered. 5 Amos ii. Sv. 15. 16. 23. Esther vi.5 Considerable attention seems to have been given to hairdressing. Ezek. xv. Prov.xvi. i.6 A large number of articles pertaining to ladies' dress and adornment are enumerated in Isa. xii. 3 . 27 . 37. lxii. men had their hair cut from time to time. as ' Jer. 25 (E.9 Shaving the hair on the forehead is forbidden in the Deuteronomic law. 5. 17.s which was also worn by women. 2 Kings i x . 30 . xliv.vii.20. 5. if with nothing to guide him but etymology he attempted to interpret a catalogue of an Oxford Street or Regent Street drapery firm ! Mention may be made of the common practice among women of blackening the edges of the eyelids to increase the apparent brilliancy of the eyes.4 They were usuaJly of simple construction.Jer. Jer. xvi. we have no guide to the meaning except etymology. 5. xxii. HAIRDRESSING 49 injunction to bind certain commandments on the hand and to write them upon the door-posts and on the gates I may be metaphorical. If we may take Absalom as an example of what was usual. 5. xxv.2 This may be inferred not only from actual references to the covering of the head in mourning. g.26). o n . a ' pair of shoes ' being a proverbial expression for something of little value. 27. 29. the corner of the beard also. Men of rank. 6 . xv. 2.= On the feet were worn sandals. for a woman in her position. In the days of the monarchy and even later the head was shaved in mourning. but from other indications also. xvi.6 The point is that that which they regard as an adornment will be shorn off when they are sold as slaves. 8. iii. xxiii.V. xli. except in mourning. 4 . There was a fashion (condemned as foreign and heathenish)' to clip the hair short on the temples and. i x . Joshua ix. Compare the similar metaphor in PS. and this latter injunction was certainly not enforced before the exile. and etymology in such a connexion may well prove an ignis fatuus. or perhaps shoes which covered merely the front part of the foot. I=.3 if it were always covered ? Moreover the anointing of the head 4 with oil implies that the head to which the unction is applied is bare. xiv. viii. r Sam.3 These were fastened by a thong. v. 2. How could a hoary head be generally regarded as a crown of gl0ry. 2 Sam. It would be interesting to see the conclusions at which an expert etymologist would arrive. 4 PS.* It is. cf. a to a very limited shaving of the head. vi.
s we read of both music and dancing . Nevertheless many women were people to be reckoned with. though even in this case the dancing may well have originated in some religious or superstitiousideas. which would of course be celebrated with a great amount of eating and drinking. Isa.xiv.Ps. 29 .viii.'.I I . xxx. Isa. and one possessing no small amount of influence.10but the music mentioned on the occasion of David's attempt to bring the Ark from the house of Abinadab. Ezek. clearly had a religious significance. 13. Sad's daughter.1 Apparently. 2. We read of professional musicians both in the early 7 and late periods .ii. 5 .s would have stood no nonsense. The ' strange woman '. 42. prostitutes could be distinguished by their dress. PS. 4 I Kings xi. 5 . I t would seem that except young girls at work women habitually were veiled in public. 15.2 The fiht lady in the land. 31. 65. Jer. 12. the foreign woman against whom the Book of Proverbs contains such earnest warn50 Gen. 26. in which men and women danced separately. cf.12 . Job d. 4 Gen. 4 .6 but in connexion with both it is difficult to say what was merely the expression of jou & vivrt. v. had quite as much spirit as any of Jane Austen's heroines. when his cowardly brother sends his wives and children on before him. was the Greek Cralpa.2f. d . Huldah. 14. g. vi. so charmingly described in the Book of Proverbs..16ff. Neh. Abraham does not introduce Sarah. Lam. Prov. was apparently the expression of jou & Uivre. Gen.3 This is also indicated by the historian's care to give the names of the mothers of kings. cl. would doubtless have found a common bond of sympathy. xxxi. cf. 7 Gen. David's dance ' before the Lord ' 14 was Prov. 2 S 7 Sam.vii. Eccles. 10. xviii. neither asks to be introduced to his sisters-in-law nor shows that interest in his nephews and nieces which might have been expected from a new-' found uncle. DANCING 51 ings.xxxviii. and others.~g-21. 1-12. 16. howesco rtf~tm. 21 .12 So with dancing : on some occasions '3 the dancing. 14. xiv. v.8 but music was not confined to professionals. while the music of the ecstatic prophets obviously was used to stimulate the prophetic ecstasy. xxiv.. 8. Prov.d . the wealthy Shunammite lady who showed hospitality to Elisha. 7.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM is instanced by such characters as Deborah. WOMEN. 2 Sam. xxvi. &c. 34 .9 The music mentioned in connexion with social festivities may perhaps be regarded as due to joie & Uivre.16. 6 f. and her mother-in-law Naorni has to ask who she is. v. 10. Moreover. X. xix. xxii. S I Chron.v. Cant. x i x . I 5. 35.4 Apropos of festive occhions. 16. 9 I Sam. I Sam. 4. '3 Judge x i . v. they were nevertheless subject to a considerable amount of social disability. 2 . xlvii. i. Ruth iii. Isa. 2 Kings iii. Job d.19. nor would any one have attempted it with her. what it was to be henpecked.vii. 15.xvi. ii. 21.3qYxxi. 3 rKingsii." being ' before the Lord '. who took precedence of the Queen Consort.9. 14. though we have a full appreciation of the blessings of married love..e. xxi. " 2 Sam. xvi. was the Queen Mother. xviii. could he have compared experiences with several patriarchal characters.3ff. xxiv.Pmv. 15. and the sage who compared living with a contentious woman to the misery of experiencing a continual dropping of water from a leaky roof 7 seems to write from experience. though both in her case and that of Rebekah 3 an introduction by the husband might have saved the wife from insult and mortification. Michal. d . MUSIC.6 we have also descriptions which show that the Hebrews knew.2 A woman was not introduced to her husband's guests. xv. xxxi. The ch%telaine of a mansion. Lam.10.1 Ruth keeps her veil on when she returns home after spending the night at the threshing-floor. iv. . and what had a quasi-religious significance and was due to superstition. 22 . Similarly Esau. Bishop Proudie. 18. v i . 27. Judgesxi. 3 Gen. " Gen. Pmv.5ff. xxxviii. xx.
19. i x . xxii. 2 Chron. 5 . " 2 Sam. I 2 . Previous to the introduction of the Deuteronomic law. '5 2 Chron. xiii. vii. Isa. cf.12 We read also of the covering of the head '3 in mourning. 7 . 13 ff. the head was shaved-apparently entirely ~I-and the beard clipped. xxxv. 28. I Sam. 17. 12. iv. Jer. naturally. their food being regarded as unclean. I . xiv. a Hos.15 which normally ' Isa. For the dead. 30. i. 15. Ig ff. Isa.9 . 10. The dances of girls in the vineyard. xiii. x x i . 3 Exd. Lev. 6. I o.2 as well as the dancing after a sacrificial feast. 4 . xx. i. 3 . 4. xxxiv. vii.s probably had their origin in nature-worship superstition. xli. 12.7 was regarded as a painful indignity. Ezek. 34 .4 . 16 . xiv.V. 2. death . 9 2 Kings xix. iv. Another sign of mourning. Amos vi. '4 Mic. iii. 6. Jer. xli. 17. 5 . and also of the lips. 'O Jer. iii. xxiv. 17-27.Joshua vii. X. i x . 31. 18. 30. LAMENTS 53 In the strongest contrast to occasions of rejoicing were those of mourning. Gen.2 Mourners beingregarded as under Divinedispleasure. I 7 . clothes should be rent 8 and audible lamentation made. 2 Sarn. likewise forbidden by the Deuteronomic law.Jer. I . 45. even of heroesf were regarded as unclean. xlviii. was the laceration of parts of the body. it was customary to rend the clothes4 and to sprinkle earth or ashes upon the head. Jer.5 Hair cloth (' sackcloth') was adopted as clothing. 25. " Mic.5 To be unburied. 27 .1 It seems also to have been a sign of mourning to go barefoot. The most common cause of ceremonial mourning was. 7 2 Kings i. Zech.15 ' Jer. xxxv. 19.Jer. Ezek. xxii." Besides the Book of Lamentations (over Jerusalem) we have David's ktndth over Saul and Jonathan I 2 and over Abner '3 : there is also a mock lament in the form of a ktna over the King of Babylon. 18. i. 8 . I 4 Isa. 7 9 2 Gen. Gtn.Io which forbids the shaving of the front part of the head. 4.HEBREW LIFE A N D CUSTOM obviously apotropaic and was intended to avert an occurrence of the catastrophe when Uzzah died.13. 33 f . " Amos v.7 was worn next to the skin. 31. xv. &c. 8 . 12. 16. '3 2 Sam. I Kings xxi. 8. 2 .' like the vintage songs. 18. 6 . xv. xix. xxxi. 2 Sam. iv. usually women (mekdn'no"th) employed to sing the lament or wake-song (kfna). I Kings xx.14 Among those who habitually wore some covering to the head it was a sign of mourning to let the hair go loose. * 2 Sam. but others also joined in. 2 Kings vi. iii. Joshua vii. cf. Sam. 6 . &C. 5 . 30. Ezek. 5 . xix. xxxvii. xxiv. v#. xxiv. 2 Sam. 24.3 DEATH Dead bodies. xiv. 5 Num. 2 f. I Sam. 4 (like the hair of an orthodox Greek priest) would be coiled up. 11. xvi. contrast Lev. 3 ' 2 Sam. iv. Jer. Ezek. d .14 At burials there were also burnings of spices. but great catastrophes produced in many respects like manifestations of grief. 33 f. xix. xiii. 37 . I 7 ) .6 This. 4-21.8 but sometimes apparently over other clothing 9 or at least externally. which resembled the outer covering of the professional prophets. ?S Lev. i. 2. 3I . Isa.22 . Ezek. Ixv. 34 . 1 4. 'O Deut. cf. xvi. 10. 52 MOURNING M O U R N I N G .6 or buried without due form and ceremony. xv.Jer. were subject to various taboos. xxv. . iii. Job xvi. 30 . 2 Chron. 16 (E. cf. Upon the receipt of bad news or in the presence of sudden calamity. c f .I0 were Professional wailers. I Sam. Judges xxi.
? for our own English history affords. loses all sense of military force. The word seems to have come to mean one who belongs to the knightly class.g. Saul's father 4 is similarly described. Ezek. I . that of the expert warrior. the most honourable career was.* which in their original significance suggest martial prowess. sometimes seem merely to denote high rank. 5 I Kings xi. for a considerable period after the final settlement in Palestine of the Hebrew invaders. or ben ' son '. 28. 7 . or in other words a gentleman. who up to the time of the Theophany vouchsafed to him seems to have led an agriculturalist. as we should expect. I Sam-ix. and p P which Z is then rendered ' valour followed by & a This word. So likewise it is clear from several passages6 that the gibbdr is not necessarily identical with the man of war. 2 Kings xv. The same term is applied to Jeroboam 5 also. I Sam. . too Commonly rendered in the English version ' mighty man'. I 8 . which seems originally to mean ' force '. e. 20.when used to qualify M ' man '. This is indeed evident h m the fact that the words gibbdr I and &yr'I. even when there is no hint of a military career. and consequently those who had won their possessions by the sword became the aristocracy of the land. 20. It is no argument that in later.I . alas. more plutocratic days the expression could be used of the wealthy. life.g. 3 Judges xi. xiv. xxxix. or perhaps agricultural and pastoral. 52. whereas the base-born Jephthah is evidently so called 3 because he is already recognized as a doughty warrior.LECTURE MANLY OCCUPATIONS : WARRIORS Hebrew Scriptures afford several indications that. e. xvi. THE '. though there is no hint of his having distinguished himself in war. although we find him employed in a civil occupation. Thus Gideon. is addressed by the angel as gibbdr &y'I .
&c. 2. 46. 6. Lam. carried his sword on his right side.4 The selection of a mere youth to slay notable prisoners of war 5 is evidently to. PS. xxii.7 In addition to these was a bow (kbsheth). 12. I Kings xviii. I0 Deut. 20 . 6. Jer. the organization of which she keeps in her own hands and in the work of which she takes a prominent part. lix. ordinarily consisted of a sword (hbrebh). 38) . By reason of his social pre-eminence Boaz is styled gibbdr hayil. Num. iii. Lam. 5 .16 but the art was doubtless developed normally in hunting rather than in war. Judges v. 16. I4 Isa. 5 ff. Isa. 5 . PS. hardships which to some extent explain. 12 f. I Sam. 9 Isa. accustom him to the use of the sword. 20. xxxi. 3 4 3 5 7 9 e. and while being held for stringing was kept in place by the foot : hence ' to tread the bow ' 14 means to string it. xlviii. Judges xx. 33. 4. however. 5 Judges iii. Ruth ii. xx. xx. &c. Defensive equipment consisted of a helmet (ko'bha') '7 and a breastplate (shirydn or sirydn)18. Gen. the head of a large household. xxvii. Slingers are mentioned as taking part in warfare. 45. 16. I I .6 and Abram's 318 home-born slaves are ' trained '.z acquires the meaning of that which entitles to respect.). and those to whom the term is applied are gentlemen and ladies.56 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM GENTLEMEN. I Kings xxii. 13 ff. 54.8 and a quiver (ashpa) 9 containing arrows (hi. xviii. 28. xvii. being lefthanded. (see also uer. 16 . 33. 39.IZ and (at least sometimes) were poisoned. v. xix. EQUIPMENT 57 many examples of purchased aristocracy. iii. I2 Isa. 20. I Sam. and therefore above suspicion. 28.5 I n either case it was kept in a sheath attached to a belt worn round the waist and carried on the left thigh. &c. &c. I Sam. Job xvi.10 I The offensive equipment of a warrior. Judges viii. 28 . 4. xxv. for warfare. xvii.'s and the use of the sling was brought to as high efficiency as the use of the boomerang among Australian aborigines. Prov. . 16. I.g. if they do not extenuate. 4 . xvii. Gen. ' 5 2 Kings iii.e. 47. the latter was sometimes ' Judges xx. 2.. 4. Note that Ehud. Ruth iii. 4 I Sam. when not in use. xx. 7 . and a spear or pike (rimah) 3 used like a modern bayonet at close quarters.13 The bow. xxii.Io which were sharpened I1 and rubbed smooth. was of course left unstrung. Amos v. 2 . cxxvii. Thus there are indications of archery practice at targets. I6 Judges xx. 34. v. 3. the whole male population might be called up. the military. xviii.e.gfm). 6 (Heb.. cf. 25 . xiv. 17. unit being the contingent furnished by a particular town. I8 I Sam. 2. I .8 The Deuteronomic law 9 lays down regulations for mitigating the hardships of conscription. v. the savage brutalities and the looting which were allowed after the capture of a besieged city. a lady.7 i. xlvi.4 The sword might be of full length. 10 we can keep the rhythm of the English version by substituting c Who can find a Lady Bountiful ? ' for the pessimistic (and inaccurate) query ' Who can find a virtuous woman ? ' But to return to the warriors. 7 Judges iii. Moreover Goliath is described as a warrior from his youth. xvii.' a javelin (hanfth) for hurling at the foe. xlix. xx. I 4 . 10 f. ix. 12. 8 . The ideal matron whose praise is sung in Prov. In war-time.' though of his fighting proclivities we find no hint. That the ro'mah was much shorter than a modern lance is implied by the fact that ecstatic dervishes used it to lacerate their own bodies. Thus Boaz declares that Ruth-about whom there is nothing virago-like-is a woman of hayil. xx. I7 I Sam. Similarly the word hayil. 3) is uncertain. Prov. a I Sam. is a lady. Judges viii. cxlix. 44. 22 . or short and two-edged. xvii. which originally denoted warlike efficiency. '3 Job vi. Of actual training for war we have no precise description. Gen. cf. xlix. Judges xviii. WARRIORS. 9 f. 32. I' Isa. 5. thus disarming suspicion. I0 2 Kings xix. In ver.3 i. though there are a few hints of some such training. Whether there was any difference between the warrior's quiver and that of the hunter (tdli. Deut.
28. Isa. The former interpretation best suits the description of Goliath's breastplate. xvii. seem to have been employed by the Hebrew kings in early times. I Kings X. Mic. 39 . Eccles. 5 2 Kings iii. Judges iii. 11. 16 . ver. v. 27. 7.7 Cavalry. The former interpretation has been inferred from Jer. 8 (E. I Sam. I Sam. xvii. 2 Sam. According to the former explanation of the breastplate the arrow that killed Ahab penetrated between the overlapping plates and the frame to which they were attached. and that sdrt'ph. xxi. xxxi. Goliath) was carrying the great shield in front of him '-consequently no part of him was exposed except his face. is equally applicable to one who smelts any sort of ore. rendered ' goldsmith '. iv.8 Goliath were of bronze. iii. xiv. 5. however. a rendering a Isa. 3 Isa. 5. 2 I . but were imported from Egypt. 5. 4 Judges ix. Judges v. when used of a warrior. X. WAR-HORSES 59 formed of overlapping plates (kaskassim) I attached to the the point of junction breastplate with rivets (ma~merim). ver. 3. 13 . v. where the ass was the ordinary beast of burden. 4 (E. 8 . and fought best on foot. 5 I Kings xx.* That division of the army which may be regarded as cavalry seems to have consisted of two classes. I I. I Kings xx. i. 4 (cf. however. 7 is directed towards the making of idol images to help in the crisis. Deut. xvii. 16 . 7. suit that passage equally well. Shoes. xxii. 7. The Hebrews being highlanders rather than dwellers in the plains. Amos iv. did not originally possess cavalry. 10) . appear to have been of the ordinary kind. 3) . 23. and there is no evidence that the plates hung down below it. or towards the manufacture of armour. 7 Deut.. xv. I .V. I Sam. Unfortunately it is not quite clear whether the sarcasm in Isa. Isaiah mentions a belt. xiv. ii. 16.3 This seems large shield (~inna) to have been part of the equipment of the ordinary soldier. I . 4 I Kings xxii. 41 . 3 .3 Another interpretation. xvii. 6. I Sam. 1 In addition to the armour which he wore the warrior carried a shield (mtfghZn).~ of the plates with the frames of the breastplate being called dibhek (pl. &c. 41 is ' the man (sc. g (E. xli. however. 28). 7 . The shoes mentioned in Isa. Zzo"r. 10. g. xli 7 does not seem applicable to the beating of gold plates. Hos. 27. to be noted that the word hdrkh. xii. 6. Isa. which receives some support from Jer. 12 ff. Isa. may equally well mean ' smith '. 2 I. those who fought from chariots and those who rode on horseback. that the corresponding verb 6 is used for putting on various sorts of equipment. I Kings v. Kings ii. however. though commonly used of one who refines precious metals.V. The legs were somewhich in the case of times protected with greaves (mi~ha). i. xli. 2 Sam. 7 Isa. xli. v. 37. I . ' I Sam. when worn.7 to which the sword was probably attached. Isa. i. xliv. xviii. 4. ' Rivets ' would. d'bhakim). xxv. 26.V.4 It is not quite clear what is to be understood by the warrior's girdle (hago"ra). 5 . xvii. 2 Sam.5 Their later emulation of their neighbours in this respect called forth many an indignant protest from the prophets. X. Besides the mtfghZn there was a very covering the whole body. 54. and when not needed in actual conflict it was carried before the warrior to whom it belonged by a person called a gear-carrier (Scottice 'caddie ') . xvii. 4 (E. xli. 41. 2 Chron. xvii.58 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ARMOUR. rendered ' carpenter' in Isa. 3 I Kings X. .V. 5) are those worn by foreign soldiery. This word is usually rendered ' nails '. Isa. 1 Sam. Deut. I . xxiii. 4.z which was greased to make the surface more slippery. have a somewhat wider meaning. The mention of the anvil in Isa. so that it required an expert marksman to hit a vulnerable spot. It is. I t is to be noted. ver.). 7. and also I Chron. is that the overlapping plates were attached to the lower edge of the breastplate and formed a protection for the lower part of the body. and the word hagdra may therefore.6 Horses were not bred in Palestine.4 I t was pointed out by Robertson Smith that the right translation of I Sam.swhich perhaps formed some protection for the lower part of the body. xi. however. who saw with alarm the growth of a jingo spirit . 34. 16 . ix.
4. Judges xx. I Sam. the possession and care of flocks and herds seems to have been regarded as altogether superior to agriculture as a livelihood. X.g a hundred. 10.3 The shiltshtm of Pharaoh4 belonged apparently to the cavalry. Cavalry (in our sense of the term) evidently existed. Of military organization we have a few hints. It is to be noted that there is a word pirhsh. Gen. 2 Kings iii. 4. as is instanced by Abel. Gen. are large sheep-owners.ix. 2 Sam. . 2 Kings xxv. 2 Kings xiii. Isa.II but merely that such agriculture as they undertook was not their main source of wealth. xuii. iv. 2 Sam.3 Abrahamf Isaac. Of the sieges carried out by Israelites I we have no precise information. 10. xvii. Camels were a source of wealth to those who continued to lead a nomadic life. I Kings i. xxviii. however. and to make the attack at three points simultaneously. Among those elements of the population of Palestine who could trace their lineage back to the people whom Moses had led out of Egypt. " Gen. 7 Gen. and therefore need not be discussed here. 3 Gen. 21 . xxvi. 24). xlvi. The verb. Shepherding is regarded in that document of the Pentateuch known as J as one of the earliest occupations. OWNERS OF FLOCKS AND HERDS ' 2 Kings ix. Although the owner might. 2. I 6 . Gen. 32. 32.' but if we may trust the pointing of the Hebrew the same word elsewhere is used of a rider on horseback. In fact. We may be pretty certain that flocks and herds had been seized by the Chaldeans.ibhi)B together with a number of subordinate officers. The connexion in which we find the word. 37 . it would seem. 14. I Kings xx. xv. g-H. 2. xiv. 9 Exod. I 7 . 5 I ff.~ Jabal. 7.6 and the numerous references to infantry 7 make it clear that. xi. 4 Exod. .8 Nabal. " 2 Kings i. Jer. " See. employ slaves to oversee his flocks and herds. xlvi. xiii. The King was.~~ The siege opera' I Kings xxii. 43. " I Kings xxii. 5. xxx. the next in importance to the life of a warrior. 7 Exod. . having under them respectively a thousand. xi. xii. 4 . to the rank and file. 3 See 2 Kings vii. of course. xxxvii. in later times. I ff.Io fifty men. the war-lord. 25. 16. I0 I Sam. 5 Gen.6 Jacob and his sons. iv. But under him there was a chief of the army (sar ha. xxii. but otherwise it is unlikely that they were in general use. scarcely favours such an etymology. and it may originally have denoted the third man in a chariot. xxxvi.12 The favourite tactics in attacking seem to have been to divide the attacking force into three.g. 55 . however. 23. horses.10 This must not be understood as meaning that those who led the life of Bedouin never cultivated land. the most common source of livelihood and. xxv. for example. xvi. S I Sam. I I .60 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TACTICS : FLOCKS AND HERDS 61 Ahab rides in a chariot driven by a charioteer (rakkibh). since there is no mention of infantry. socially. xxx. tions of which we read are for the most part directed against Israel by foreigners. 17.2 Besides the rakkibh of a chariot we hear of a warrior called shilish.s but not." &c. meaning ' horse '. like Abraham. I Sam. I 5. and the possession of them would be almost a necessity to those who lived on the edge of the desert. * E. 7. xv. 25. Num.9 &C. xi. 7 . 25 ff. 9 I Sam.. l' Gen. Jer. 19. . xxx.7 and. cf. 8 . iv. 12. In Jer. 31 ff. 2. Isa.. not horsemen. 29 . cavalry formed an important part of an army. and it has evidently come to be the title of an officer. xlv. 2 . connected with the noun rakkibh is also used of the rider of the ass behind which apparently the Shunammite lady rode pillion (2 Kings iv. 5 See Exod. This word apparently means ' a third man '. 21. 4. I Sam. xiii. xlvi. was the possession of sheep and goats and cattle. I g.~ Laban. xviii. cf. Jesse. 11. are indicated. We read also of cavalry officers. g. 28. 34. 20. '3 Judges vii. for example. 2. 6 . at all events when the narratives took shape. Isa. xii. 19. which the Mmsoretes always understood in the sense of ' horsemen '. Judges ix. xiv. there was nothing derogatory to his rank in tending the animals himself with the help of his family. I 7.
xliv. xii. Hab. 5 Ezek. 3.Ij There is no certain evidence that hyenas existed in Palestine in Old Testament times. e. however.9 Occasionally. 13. I 3 7. xxxiii. xxvi. 9 Isa. I . ii. were either caught in pits 7 or ensnared in nets. 4. I I. I I. PS.g. 10. 1. 17. 4.62 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SHEPHERDS. xvii. Prov. in addition to the staff (matte)6 which served as an alpenstock. X = . '4 Gen. xxrrviii. 4." Leopards appear to have been as much. and we read also of towers 4 as a protection for the shepherds. I corresponds to the harvest or vintage in that of the husbandman. &c. xxxi. 8. however. 2 I. 13-20. xl. HUNTING T o a certain extent. 6 ff. v. 13. HUNTERS 63 Young boys and girls were employed to overlook flocks in their pasture-ground and to lead them to the watering place. 6. 6 .I2 but also the still more dreaded bear. though the latter was not despised. 20 . xiii. He had to guard not only his sheep.3 The warm garments made of the yarn spun by the great lady of the house and her maidens were evidently woollen . xxiii. xlix. Wool was in great request for clothing. 38. We have in later literature mention of watch dogs. I Sam.* Incredible as it may appear to those acquainted with the African lion. 10. but by no means always.5 For this purpose. Shepherding involved watching in the cold of the night and in the heat of the day. xii. Zeph. Gen.4 and the express prohibition of wool in the garments of the priests 5 is a clear indication that it was normally worn by others. xxxi. PS. such as lions. Jer. cf. xix. feared than lions. 16. I Sam. A better translation. 4 2 Chron. xxvii. Isa. '3 Amos v.* nor indeed in pre-exilic times is there any hint of domestic dogs.9 which were evidently sheep dogs. 20 . 6. would be mace. 16 . 20 .'2 and wolves were evidently a continually recurring scourge. however. xvii. Zeph.13 He has to take care that the flocks were not overdriven.' I n the wilderness pasture-grounds folds2 were constructed. Job xxx. '3 Jer. xvi. 18. was shearing-time. xxii. cf. xix. 44. 8 . xiii. cf. which Gen. lvi. xvii. 8 . i. Prov. xxix. 4 . Jer. I Sam. Hos. Jer. 8 . g. I I .15 The occasion of merry-making in the pastoral life. '"mos iii. 40. which gives the Hebrew equivalent for ' out of the frying-pan into the fire '. 13. 7 This when used as part of the insignia of royalty is commonly rendered sceptre. I t would seem that noxious beasts. . l0 Gen. 26. xxxi. 8. ii. The hot valley through which the Jordan flows with its thickets afforded cover to lions6 and other wild beasts. if not more. 8 . 4. '5 Isa. xxxi. 19. iii. 12. Gen. 5 Cf. much to be done in a shepherd's life beyond taking care that his sheep should not stray and bringing them to the watering: as a matter of fact a shepherd's life was a hard and strenuous one. 7 . xvii. Jer. I X Exod.xi. Prov. though the Septuagint translators found a reference to them in Jer. not merely for the sake of obtaining food. xlv. he carried a club (shibet)7 as a means of defence against both man and beast. lions and the still more dreaded bear were sometimes attacked and killed with a club. " 2 Sam. Sheep dogs are not mentioned till the Greek period.14 and frequently to carry the lambs. Hab.10 The shepherd was held responsible for keeping the flock intact." so that he would attack in defence of the sheep not only the lion.IO a lion might be scared away with shouts. xviii. That they did once exist there. xxxiii. . 34 f. Job i. 6 . xxiv. 7 2 Sam. into which the sheep could be gathered for counting 3 or other purposes. 12 . Job xxxi. v. 13 .' Incidentally it may be noticed that the value of sheep lay in their wool 2 rather than in their flesh. Ezek. Exod. cf. A bear robbed of her whelps is an example of the fiercest of living creatures. i. hunting was a necessity. I g. xxv. Tobit v. 17. 10 9 I Sam. but also in order to keep down the number of beasts of prey. Hos. There was. S Ezek. and in certain districts. 12. 2 Kings iii. but also himself from raiders who sought to take possession of his flocks. 34.
fishing.64 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SOCIAL POSITION OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURE 65 is evident from place-names. 10 and the true text of 2 Kings xxiii. i. g f.3 I n any case it is likely that in the days of the Hebrew monarchy the small cultivators were to a large extent descended from the Canaanite population. 8 . certainly pre-exific. 25 R. and we know how frequently both in Britain and on the Continent primitive paganism has survived with. 18.18 but this does not appear to have been a n Israelite industry. iii. xi. This might mean that the Israelites will no longer be obliged to maintain themselves by hard work : nevertheless Ben Sira seems to consider husbandmen of least account among those who live by manual labour. 5. 1 0. 5. 9 Gen. . xiii. I n the greater part of the country. with its vehement denunciations of the superstitions surviving among the agricultural community. xxxviii.4 is sufficient evidence of this Canaanite element in the population . 23) imply that the dogs only attack the dead or dying. 3 (Heb. and fishhooks. 10. 12.12 and traps were also used which sprang u p with the weight of the bird and caught it. vii.2 whose dismal howling suggested the wailing of mourners.2 husbandmen together with shepherds held a subordinate position in society. 2 . Neh. '"Job vi.5 and that the three obligatory feasts ' 2 Kings xxiv. ix. i. xii. 'Vrov. 15. xlvii. must not be exaggerated or unduly insisted upon. '4 Jer. " Isa. Ecclus. K 5 Gen. xxv. i. 7. an indication of the great importance of agriculture in primitive times that the year ended after the ingathering of the summer fruits. Isa.1 Other wild creatures. the greater part of the population was engaged in agriculture. xxvii. I I . xxv. and that seed-time and harvest. 2 0 : Lrviii. The Book of Hosea. "er. 2 Chron. such as jackals (tannfm). ' Zeboim '. 9 E The ' Fish Gate ' was I6 Neh. since. 4 . Isa. the cultivators of which lived within the walls. xv. though even these had their fields. 16. or even without. xiii. 3 Apart from the large towns. ' 5 I Kings iv.I4 and it may be assumed that fishing was always a n important industry in the neighbourhood of the Sea of Galilee. xiv. I Sam. PS. Jer. 2 Kings ix. are the most ancient divisions of the year. for example. ii. 5. cxli. Boaz. xi. the ' ploughman ' and the ' vine-dresser '. I 7. 12. Lev. 8 . 34. cf. iv. viii. I g . Exod. '7 Job xli. however. lxi. the latter being apparently sometimes poisoned. Mic. 10. I t is significant that fish is not mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare. Eccles. but were not regarded as a menace to the living. xxxiv.' This general truth. 39 . See Deut. 14. Isa. cf. 3.3 foxesf and pariah dogs.g. seem to have been regarded as socially somewhat inferior. 16. . I t is. 19. It is possible that the same word was also applied to jackals. 4 . Neh. in the late post-exilic ideal of peace after victory. the father of Saul. E. I8 Ezek. ii. a veneer of Christianity.6 and would not normally be hunted unless they were a nuisance in the vineyards. 22. The references to dogs in the Psalms (xxii.13 There are various references to fishers. 7 2 . 4 Ezek. especially for birds. xvi. 35). mix. 4 ff. PS.7 I n the hunting of game (including antelopes and various kinds of deer and wild goats). I t is noteworthy that those who cultivated the land. 13 . Ezek. Mic.8 bows and arrows 9 were used. Nevertheless. and Kish. and were accordingly regarded by the conquering Hebrews much as the Norman settlers regarded the pre-Conquest inhabitants of England. xxxvi. however.s were plentiful. 4 See especially Hos. I I (Heb. 36. iii. there were no streams in which fish could live. are evidently regarded as belonging to the gentry. summer-used also to denote the fruit which ripens in summer-and winter. 14. see Zeph. 10). the trade being in the hands of Syrians. xvi. li. ix.10 Snaring by means of various contrivances of nets 11 was extensively employed. 5 I Kings xiv. 7 Cant. xiii. 22 f. xxxiii. Amos iv. '3 Amos iii.15 I n post-exilic times there was apparently a fish-market a t Jerusalem. 3.16 The dugong was harpooned 17 for the sake of its skin. xliv. Ezek. 3. 2 . however. 20 . 4 .
lviii. which the English versions here render ' young asses ' rather means ' fine ass stallions 4 Lev. The beasts of burden used in agriculture were the ox and the ass. 4. of course. ' in rows' is merely an incorrect form of the word for barley. half-way between the above-mentioned pairs of rods. Hos.s and these were not bred in Palestine. but it is probably merely an example of the impossible. cf. and similarly the word rendered ' in the appointed place ' is a mistaken form of that rendered ' spelt '." Jer. ' Deut. Jer. and therefore was not to be yoked with the stronger OX. X. stout projection to which the plough was fastened. Isa. X. 3 Nurn.V. 24. xix. and Hosea draws a picture of a humane husbandman. in lieu of a whip a goad (dorbin) 7 was used to drive the oxen. 4. In any case the horses mentioned are not thought of as used in agriculture. There can be little doubt that the vocalic punctuation here should be amended. There is no reference here to planting the seed in any sort of shallow furrow.^ The yoke for animals ('61) must not be confused with the n o " !or mo'ta.~ and in dragging loads ropes ('abhdthim or habhilim) were used as trace^. 3 Isa. 13 .6 is mentioned . Joel iii. 21. also translated 'yoke '. The only horses mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures were cavalry horses. 7 I Sam. 10. 5 I Sam. which was of course broadcast. xi. 18. 10) . Israel) draw '. After ploughing some sort of harrow was used for breaking clods and levelling the surface. which was some sort of pole borne on the shoulders of two men. xiv. xxviii. Prov. 10. The word rendered in the E. 25. 12. A ploughshare. viz. We should therefore read ' I (sc. with two pairs of short thick wooden rods mortised into the beam and projecting downwards from it at right angles to it. ' arbours'. . 25. The latter was of little use for really heavy work. xxx. ii.4 and it is therefore probable that the word pkredh. The yoke ('61) used in ploughing or drawing loads was presumably like that which is still in use in Palestine. Jehovah) made them (sc. 4. 25. (mdsirdth). Hos. 22. pirda. v. 24. xxviii. xxii. Hos.4 Of agricultural implements the one of primary importance was. 14-16. " Deut. commonly rendered ' mules '. for running in such a case would be out of the question. 10 (Heb. 9 Isa. xxviii. The wooden rods would be apt to press on the back of the oxen's jaws. each pair serving as a collar. 20 f. was a short. Jehovah is not compared to an ox which draws a wagon--a comparison scarcely compatible with reverence--but. to a husbandman who takes kindly care of his beasts. the feast of the ingathering of summer fruits.^ though it is mentioned as used in tillage. SOWING 67 of the oldest legislation l are the feast of unleavened bread a t the beginning of barley harvest. xi. Isa. For the figure.* Of the process of sowing. presumably so arranged on a man's shoulder that a load could be fastened to the projecting ends in front and hehind. 18. '" Isa. i. xiii.s but the text of the passage in which the word occurs is too corrupt to speak with certainty. xxiii. 10. This was perhaps known as a mahartsha. originally denoted asses specially broken in for riding. The word 'aycirfm. 12 is not quite clear. '. iv. iv. 4.3 Hybrids are forbidden by the law.o we have no precise information. Isa.66 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM YOKES. Job xxxix. the feast of weeks about the conclusion of wheat harvest. Isa. of metal (R&. 19. except that the inferior seed-crop was sown a t the border of the plot of ground.6 The yoke was fastened beneath the neck with bands Exod. 23. Hos. 10 . xxiii. 5 The exact point of Arnos vi. a wooden beam slightly shaped where it rested on the neck. as the subsequent context shows. xxviii. I I . xiii. Above the beam. the plough. who takes thought for his beasts and lifts the yoke away from their jaws to enable them to eat. Eth) .e. and sukkdth.10 so that the wheat and the barley when in ear might escape being plucked by passers-by. PLOUGHS. xxxiv. fem. including the vintage. &c. 6. I I . xiii.3 The word is also used of a similar contrivance intended to be borne by one man. xxx. 8.
24. 3 . 24. I 7. in Judges v. " Deut. and some sort of digging-stick (ya'tbdh) is mentioned among other implements (azznfm) In connexion with vine-culture we have mention of mam&dth. xlii. 25. xvi. This was drawn by oxen 16 over the corn strewn on the threshing-floor. xhr. xxx. 3.* and were not only used for carrying sheaves 9 and the like.10 When used for carrying persons or valuables they were sometimes covered. the ground so enclosed being beaten hard. 3 Hos. pl. xxii. The effect of the sharp stones or iron 68 Deut. somewhat as brewers' 'grains ' are nowadays given to cows. g.Judges ' Jer. 32. xxiv. !1~@6th. 19. d i . Num. The wordydthc'dh seems to have been used to denote a variety of utensils. however. vii. used in the making of wine were sometimes mixed with the provender. of a word from the same root denoting apparently snuffers for trimming the wicks of lamps may xix.. Isa. 1. &C. 25.Joel " . g. 32 .* The mention of mixed provender.6 suggests that grape-skins. though in much of the land the nature of the ground would make their use almost impossible.12 Threshing. possibly. 5 Isa. xix. THRESHING. xxviii. like shocks in an English cornfield.8 Fodder. Some sort of hay is mentioned. 3. xiii. the barn or store. xli.~sfrom the fact that sharp stones or iron teeth were fastened to its under surface. Jer. and winnowing was effected by throwing into the air with large shovels (which seem to have been of somewhat varied forms2) the mixed grain and chaff. iv. Isa. ' Gen. have been impossible in gardens. pl.Judges xv. 22 . and in Judges xvi. 22 . xliii. xi. Job vi. I I . iii. 14). cf. Dtut. 7 Ruth ii. After the corn was bound. 24. Gen. 13 (Hcb. Isa. 7. cxxvi. 7 . 27. They would usually be drawn by a pair of oxen. '3 Judges vi. and should be deleted). vi. 10 (Hcb. xiii. 5 Job v. 5) . xxiii. 13(Heb. h i . Isa. 24. unbound corn were collected into some sort of heap (gh-dsh)4 in the field. PS.6 We may perhaps infer from the story of Ruth7 that all harvesters were not as kindly as Boaz. xxiv. 19 . so that the chaff and fragments of straw were blown away.Amos i. This chopped straw (tlbhen) served as provender. 27. 27. 7 Prov. 3. 16 . cxxix. 4. The lifting up from the ground of such a heap or shock is compared to the burial of a man in a good old age. xxx. 3 Gen. xxviii. 13). 14 the shut& (hti-'rrcgh is it s a gloss. 10). xxx. 4 Isa. 27. 2 Sam. when not done on a small scale with a flail or rod. xxiv. xxv. 25. Thus. gleaners were allowed to collect all that was left on the ground and to take standing corn in corners which could not easily be cut with a sickle. like threshing-sledges.28. " Joel iii.. vii. projected at the top on one or both sides.I3 was effected by means of a threshing-sledge (mbragh. is called micpB. O ' Isa.s which might be seasoned or leavened (ha'mQ). 5. xxxvii. 6. xxviii. 2. which was a circular enclosure bounded by big stones. " Gen.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Corn was reaped with a sickle (magga'l or !wmZsh2). Isa. 5. to beat out the grain. xxiii. excluding tlbhm. 26 e e m s to mean a hammer.I4 sometimes called merely ' sharps ' (@@). 25. but hlso to chop up the straw. 19. xxiv. I 5. " Num. however.s where the point of comparison seems to be the bringing of it to its final resting-place. 21. It is not only used of a tent-peg. with which Delilah tapped to summon the Philistines.l1 The use. 4.1 The threshing-floors were in exposed situations. 9 Amos ii. The heavier threshing-sledges or carts were not used for the softer grains. 7.7 and it is implied in the food taken into the Ark for the animals.9 Of the breaking up of the ground for cultivation otherwise than with the plough there is no definite mention. The plough would. FODDER 69 teeth was not only to loosen the grain from the chaff. after which it was bound into bundles. Lev.3 These bundles or sheaves and. CARTS. '5 Isa. Ruth ii. like a tent-peg. Deut. rndriggfm). as Robertson Smith pointed out. but of other articles which. 26. generally translated ' pruning-hooks '. 24. 13. Carts were in use. iv. 4 Exod. but also. 6 (Hcb. ii. 9 Gen.
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM
MANURING, SEEDS, HARVEST
perhaps indicate that the maznzZr6th were not 'bill-hooks, but rather shears for pruning. I t may be noted that the word zdm&,I often rendered ' the singing of birds ', more probably means ' the pruning ', sc. of the vines. The peasant cultivators of the land in Palestine were for the most part poor, and doubtless many possessed but one ox or cow.2 The Deuteronomic code-in strong contrast to what may too often be seen in the East at the present time-is remarkable ininculcating a kindlycare foranimals,3 forbidding the muzzling of the ox when treading out the corn 4 or the yoking together of animals of such unequal strength as the ox and the ass.5 From the mention of a muzzle6 it may be inferred that there was a use of the muzzle which was regarded as legitimate, probably to keep it from eating standing corn in the field of another.? For riding-animals some sort of bit (dthgh)8 was in use. There are some slight indications that some attempts to manure the arable lands were made in both pre-exilic and post-exilic times ;9 and a dung-heap is rnentGned.10 Every seventh year the land was allowed to lie fallow." After the ploughing, which took place in autumn and, except in the case of the lazy, was mostly finished before
Cf. Isa. vii. 2 I. Cant. ii. 12. 4 Deut. xxv. 4. Cf. also Hos. xi. 4. 5 Deut. xxii. 10. Since this prohibition is immediately followed by a law forbidding the weaving together of wool and linen, it may perhaps be imagined that it is due not so much to humanitarian considerations as to some ancient and perhaps forgotten taboo. The conjunction of the two laws, however, may be reasonably explained by their general similarity, and the latter is enjoined for a reason totally distinct fmm the former. We know from Ezek. xliv. 17 that woollen garments were forbidden to the priests while ministering in the inner court, and a similar prohibition may have been in force for the laity when taking part in holy rites. It would therefore be essential that there should be no risk of mistake. 7 Exod. xxii. 5. PS. ruorix. I (2). Prov. xxvi. 3 ; Isa. xxxvii. 29. 9 2 Kings ix. 37 ; Jer. viii. h, i x . 22, xvi. 4, xxv. 33Exod. xx%. 10 ff. 1s. xxv. 10.
the beginning of winter,^ the sowing naturally followed. I t would seem from the corrected text of Hag. ii. 19, which if we may accept the date given in W. 10, 18, was uttered on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month-i.e. apparently, mid-December-the seed was then not yet sown, and agricultural operations were at a standstill. The ordinary sowing-time therefore would appear to have been not earlier than mid-December. The seeds sown were wheat, which was naturally most prized,2 barley,3 lentils,4 millet,s spelt,s and beans.5 The bread which Ezekiel baked, by way of illustrating what might be expected in a siege, was made of mixed meal and was evidently not unlike the composition which was called by courtesy bread during the late War. Agriculture was considered a somewhat hard life ;6 in fact, work in general was regarded as a necessary evil.7 Barley harvest began as a rule before the end of April,8 and wheat harvest was usually finished about seven weeks later.9 The corn was reaped with a sickle, and afterwards bound into sheaves.10 As in England before the invention of reaping-machines, much corn was left on the ground, which was eagerly sought by gleaners.11 The harvesters were also expected to leave on the stalk corn growing in corners not easily cut with the sickle." Of domestic animals other than those used for ploughing or for drawing loads the -ordinary peasant possessed but few. Indeed even his cows were, when possible, used for ploughing.12 The rnilch cows which drew the cart containing the Ark,13 being sacred, were offered as a whole burntoffering, but the oxen with which Elisha had ploughed provided a meal,14 which, at that date, was of course at a sanctuary.
Prov. xx. 4. a Exod. xxk. 2. 3 Isa. xxviii. 25. Gen. xxv. 34 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 28. 5 Ezek. iv. g. Gen. iii. 17 f. Prov. xvi. 26; Eccles. vi. 7. Exod. xxiii. 15. 9 Deut. xvi. g. '" Gen. xxxvii. 7. 11 Lev. xix. g, xxiii. 22. " Hos. X. 1 1 . I3 I Sam. vi. 14. 4 I Kings xix. 21.
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM The animal called in the English versions a ' fatted calf' ('kghl marbtk),~ beings pecially fattened and not used for work, was a delicacy. In general, beef when it was eaten must have been pretty tough. Two or three sheep or goats were kept by the small holder.2 I t is unlikely that unclean animals, such as pigs, were kept to any extent before the Greek period, when there were not only many Greek settlers, but also a considerable number of lax, if not actually apostate, Jews.3 The comparison of the beauty of a fair woman without discretion to a gold ring in a swine's snout4 suggests that, as at the present time, pigs were ringed to prevent them from routing. Of domesticated birds we read of the dove and the pigeon : the words so translated (t6r and ybna) being, apparently, used somewhat less specifically than the English renderings would imply. It may certainly be inferred from a late passage 5 that dove-cots were in use. According to Jeremiah,6 however, the t6r (i.e. turtle-dove) is a migratory bird, and this seems inconsistent with its domestication. On the other hand, doves and pigeons are prescribed as the victims in certain sacrifices,l and such a prescription can scarcely apply to wild birds. Perhaps the explanation is that the same words were applied both to domesticated an& to wild doves and pigeons. Those doves or pigeons which constituted the 'sinoffering' as distinct from the ' burnt-offering' were, of course, holy, and could therefore only be eaten by priests in a holy place. I t has been suggested that the reason why,
72 The 'ighel m a r b E k was not a c d f (i.e. its flesh was beef rather than veal) but a w b dcvcloped beast, which not having been worked was ft and tender. The word rendered ' gambol ' (Mal. iv. 2j means rather ' to tread heavily'. The point of Hab. i. 8 is not that the horses (read pCrcIsh6w for pa'rcSsh6w) rear, but that those who are prostrate before them are crushed. Similarly, the cow that trod on the corn (Jer. 1. I 11 trod heavily and not like a mere calf. 4 Prov. x i . 22. 3 Cf. I Macc. i. 13 ff. a Isa. vii. 21. Jer. viii. 7 ; cf. Cant. ii. I 2. 5 Isa. Ix. 8. 1 Lev. i. 14, v. 7, xii. 8, xiv. 2 2 ; cf. Gen. xv. g.
CALVES, PIGS, DOVES
in the case of birds as victims, two were required, whereas in the case of mammals one sufficed, was because birds were deficient in those portions (kidney-fat, &C.) which were normally burnt on the altar, and that this deficiency was compensated by the burning of one bird as a ' burnt-offering '. This will also account for the fact that they could not be used for the ordinary ' peace-offerings '. Moreover in connexion with sacrifice they were prescribed for the poor, who could not afford as much as a lamb. The evidence, so far as it goes, suggests that before the adoption of the Deuteronomic law, that allowed the nonritual slaughter of creatures which previously could only be slain at a sanctuary, doves and pigeons were only kept to supply sacrificial victims. In later times there was no objection to their consumption as ordinary food. Of other domesticated birds there is no hint, with the possible exception of the fatted barbdrtm (A.V. ' fowl ') mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare.1 It is, however, very uncertain what the barbtinin were.
L A N D DIVISION
At this point it is desirable to treat of the division and ownership of the cultivated land. There are three terms applicable to the ownership of land, yemhsh6, a&.zzQ',and nahala'. The first of these words need not necessarily apply to land, and merely denotes property, the existing owners of which have acquired it either by what we should call inheritance, or by dispossessing its former owners-by fair means or by foul. The word ahu.f;zdis nearly equivalent to ' freehold ', though not necessarily the freehold of an indiuidual owner. The third term nahala' has no exact equivalent in modern English, and requires more careful consideration. The verb nihal (from the same root as naha16) in its various conjugations is in frequent use : in the causation conjugation it has the
Kings iv. 23 (Hcb. v. 3).
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM
sense of apportioning land,' and both in the primary and intensive reflexive conjugations it means to receive land as apportioned.2 The familiar renderings ' inherit ', 'cause to inherit ', are entirely misleading. Even in the law respecting a man's apportionment of his land among his sons 3 it is contemplated that such apportionment will take place in the father's lifetime, and there is nothing to prove that the reference is to inheritance after his death. The apportionment of the land of Canaan after the Hebrew conquest is said to have been made by casting lots ;4 and centuries after the conquest the same method of apportioning land is seen to be still in use.5 It will be remembered that the result of lots cast with due formalities was regarded as a divine decision.6 Land so apportioned was known as nakld, and each of the parts into which it was divided was known as a ' portion ' (glek).7 Both the verb ntihal and the noun nahald are frequently used metaphorically of Jehovah and Israel, Israel being represented as Jehovah's nahald, that is as the portion of land which He, so to speak, specially cares for and cultivates. The locus classicus of this metaphor is Deut. xxxii. 8, g. According to the reading of the Hebrew text, followed in the English versions, the meaning is that when the Most High allotted to the various nations their territory He so divided the earth as to give to Israel sufficient land. According to the reading of the Septuagint, however, which harmonizes much better with ver. g, the passage should be translated as follows : ' When the Most High allotted the' Nations '-the nations being
compared to land which is to be allotted to various cultivators-' when He separated mankind, He set the boundaries of peoples according to the number of the gods.' For His people is Jehovah's portion (klek), Jacob is the measure (lit. ' line ') of His nahali ' : that is to say, Jehovah has allotted to each god a nation as a nahali, but He has reserved Israel to be His own nahali. If Deuteronomy may be dated in the sixth century B.c., or even if it be as early as the eighth century B.c., it is sufficiently far removed in time from the allotment of land after the Hebrew conquest of Canaan to make it extremely improbable that it was this which suggested the poet's metaphor. We may therefore conclude-which is indeed pretty clearly indicated-that the apportionment of land was a familiar process long after the first allotment of the conquered territory. A metaphorical expression may indeed be used proverbially after the usage which originally suggested it has become obsolete ; it will,
Literally, ' sons of EIBhim '. The word ' sons ' is frequently used to denote members of a class, e.g. ' sons of the prophets ', ' sons of the door-keepers' (Ezra ii. 42). The sons of the el6hfm (Job i. 6, ii. I ) are obviously not regarded as sons of Jehovah, but as members o f the class o f supernatural beings, subordinated to Jehovah, whom He is represented as taking into His confidence (Gen. i. 26 ; I Kings xxii. 19). In such a connexion the rendering ' gods ' is the best. It is, however, a wholly gratuitous and unwarrantable assumption that the a lettre. poet quoted above intended his words to be taken au pied de L When Gustave Dord painted ' The Triumph of the Cross ', and depictedJupiter with his thunderbolts falling from heaven, it would be doing the French painter a gross injustice to argue from his picture that he believed in the objective reality of Jupiter. The author of Deut. d . 8, g, is poetically stating the undoubted fact that Jehovah was not worshipped by nations other than Israel or regarded by them as caring for their we&re. Such nations, if they had used the Hebrew metaphor, would have represented themselves each as the na!iulci of some pagan god. The poet of Deuteronomy evidently felt it hard to understand why Jehovah has not always asserted His right over all nations, as the poet ofps. lxxxii (cf. ver. 8) believes that He will ultimately do. Compare Acts xiv. 16, xvii. 30.
' Deut. i. 38, xix. 3, xxxi. 7 ; Joshua i. 6.
xxiii. 30, xxxii. 13; Num. xviii. 20 ; Deut. x i x . 14. Deut. xxi. 16. 4 Num. xxvi. 55, 56, xxxiii. 54, xxxiv. 13 ;Joshua xviii. 6, &C. Joshua xviii. 6 ; Prov. xvi. 33. 5 Mic. ii. 5. 7 It is noteworthy that the word Gle&, which originally means merely a portion or share of anything (e.g. of booty of war, Gen. xiv. 24), may be used of land without h t h e r qualification (e.g. Hos. v. 7 ; Mic. ii. 4).
" d .
in the allotment of the land in the township of Anathoth). 5). I7. when he was arrested on the charge of deserting to the Chaldeans. xxiii. &ut. Gomme. I* 145. I t was an ancient custom that Hebrew slaves should be released in the seventh yearf and we may take it as practically certain that the septennial year of fallow normally coincided with the year of liberty or release . xvi. 'Thou holdest my lot '-that is. lhs Village Commwn'l~. Prov. I I f. scarcely survive indefinitely. cf. If. those used in measuring. 33. 5) have fallen for me in pleasant places . That this was the septennial year of fallow appears certain from another statement. 28. when we find metaphors derived from the allotment of land used at a very late period. In Prov. X. xvii. Thou insurest that the lot which represents my claim comes out of the garment into which the various lots are cast. xv. I am pleased with my nahala". ' Jer. but we must not expect to find that ancient customs. 2. by the way. 12. 12. xxii. Joscphus. xvi. whose language. will be ruler over a good-for-nothing son. This. 2. where it is said that a slave-who of course has no claim to a share in the mWi-if he be prudent. xxvii. 5. L. I h c Village Comrnunily. The frequent references to the apportionment of land by lot in a document as late as the Priestly code certainly makes it probable that such allotment was the regular usage. yea. I t is remarkable that after the Chaldeans had raised the siege of Jerusalem 2 Jeremiah was leaving the city in order to receive his portion 3 (SC. &v. 7 (5 3). Jer. . . Accordingly. is no proof that it had not existed at an earlier period. M. It may be well to 76 HEBREW LIFE COMMON m 77 remember that even within sight of Cambridge the inconvenient system of open fields continued till swept away by the Enclosure Acts of the beginning of the nineteenth century.the land has perhaps become fnehold. we may assume that the village communities of ancient Palestine formerly held land in common like the former village communities of Western Europe. in such order that I get a good share of ground I-and he goes on to say 'The cords ' (viz. we may be pretty sure that such land (mhald) was periodically1 divided into set portions and allotted to those freemen of the village who possessed the right to cultivate it and enjoy its fruits . J. It is noteworthy that the verb here used is the that which is used in comexion with nuw in Prov. 17. The facts mentioned above make it extremely probable that there once existed in ancient Palestine a system of land-tenure similar to that which once prevailed in regions as widely separated as India and Britain. 3 same as Cf. Reader in Rabbinic in the University of Cambridge. Thus the poet of PS. 10. pp. 4 Exod. shows Aramaic influence. we may fairly conclude that at such a period the usage on which the metaphor was founded had not very long passed away. Loewe. and will actually have a portion of nu?~~Id (sc. Primitive man's customs are not dictated by economic considerations. at least as late as the end of the Jewish monarchy. xxxvii. Nor is it any argument against the existence of such a system that it is uneconomic. and I am informed by my friend Mr. cf. says (ver. also Isa. xxi. It is easy to understand why an uneconomic system should ultimately be given up.AND CUSTOM however. H. and the guess may be hazarded that the re-allotment took effect after the septennial year of fallow. inasmuch as in a year when no ploughing or sowing could be done the release of slaves would cause the least See in particular Gomme.3 I t is true that the evidence for this is inferential rather than direct. will conform to the ideas of the modern economist. fimsirn. Mic. that there is no trace of this system in the Talmud. In this connexion the law against removing a neighbour's landmark is most significant. 3 See G. then. by earning his freedom) among the kinsmen who have this right by birth. and these Acts were not passed without a considerable amount of opposition. Ant. Deut. whether at home or in Palestine. however. ii. xxxvii. and in ages when all custom was closely connected with religious tradition it would be long before utilitarian considerations could sweep away age-old customs.
xxxvii. There is a difference of one year in the dating followed in 2 Kings xxv. xi. 205. is unrevised. vii. xxiii. where the unenclosed fell lands. such as leopards. but belonged to certain localities. the danger was temporarily over. for no one would go to the expense of building a surrounding wall. the raising of the siege of Jerusalem. in the cessation of agriculture wild animals. 23 f. When. xrt. 16. 8. lii. to which it is unfortunately impossible from the evidence to give a quite certain answer. may all have occurred within a twelvemonth. i. I Chron. 4 Cf. In the pre-exilic account of Judah is clearly regarded aspossessJudah (Gen. 8. 5 Isa. Prov. each farm is 'stinted ' to a particular number of sheep which may graze on the fell. and the people of Judah can habitually drink wine enough to make their eyes bloodshot. Zedekiah had tried to set aside this ancient custom. Balaam in eastern Palestine rides From this point onwards the MS. 1 0 ~ 1 1 . ing such a multitude of vines. 8-1 Q). but which will not be trodden down by oxen and sheep. v. that people do not hesitate to tie to the vines their riding-animals. "er. a Cf. Gomme. I t is difficult. but traces remain of the existence of terraces in districts so widely removed as Great Britain and Ireland. though of course the language is poetical hyperbole. clearly refers to fencedin vineyards.78 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TERRACING. Note that the diting of Ezek. and the probability that it goes back in this country beyond the Celtic periodf makes it at least not improbable that it had been long known among the Mediterranean agricultural peoples generally. 95. which suggests that in parts of it the rock was pretty near the surface. 29. I t is noteworthy that Palestinian vineyards were not apparently scattered all over the country. though now freehold. pp. The vineyard of Isa. Ihc Village Community. The 1 mention of vineyards raises another question. 3 See for example. C. Was it only arable land that was nahali. Such a vineyard as that which is described in Isaiah's parable is evidently freehold. . v. can find cover. however. I I .xlix. I f. with only such a rainfall as the land now possesses. I h e Village Community.4 Did nakld ever include vineyards ? One's first impulse is to answer in the negative. China. From the first appearance of the Chaldean army in Palestine to the temporary raising of the siege of Jerusalem was apparently less than a year: hence the refusal to release the slaves. 5. are apportioned to the various farms by a system of ' stints '. to resist the conjecture that the hill-slopes were formerly terraced. Only the piece concerned with the administration of law and justice was actually given in the lectures (F. 206. 3 See Dtut. Gomme. and the re-allotment of the land of Anathoth.2 I t is impossible to apply such a description to modern Judaea. the soil being thus prevented from being washed away in heavy rain. and India. 29. p. could scarcely produce the best grapes without artificial irrigation. 2 . &v. FERTILITY 79 inconvenience. as above. therefore. xx and xxi (cf. and constructing a wine-press in a vineyard of which he had the use fbr only six years. Judaea.3 So far as I am aware there is no direct reference in the Bible to terracing.I but being panic-stricken at the presence of the Chaldean army outside Jerusalem he entered into a solemn covenant to comply with it. 30.). and a tower. the freeing of them under pressure.e.3 I n the exilic and post-exilic literature we read of various open lands surrounding the various townships and apparentIy belonging to them. I) is in harmony with Jer.5 Moreover the prediction in Isa. x l v . v has a rock-hewn wine-press. or were the grazing grounds of the village community allotted in a similar way ? There are traces of the former allotment of pasturage even in the British Isles : such a trace may be found in the Lake District. since they are pictured as places in which ' Jer.* those who under pressure had released their slaves reclaimed them. If then all the soil were shallow. B. and there can be little doubt that the fertility of Judaea in the days of the Hebrew monarchy was very much greater than is possible on the present hill-slopes with their scanty soil. Ezek.
' It was for a kitchen garden that Ahab desired to get hold of Naboth's vineyard. ii. GARDENS 8 1 originally something more than an encouragement not to relax activity . The initial preparation of a vineyard is described in Isa. 5 Exod. xxiii. I 2. as well as being used for anointing the body and perhaps in cooking. This Feast of Arbours is stated 7 to be a memorial of the fact that the Children of Israel dwelt in arbours when they were brought out of the land of Egypt.4 Just as the arable land lay fallow every seventh year. g that there were vineyards in the district of which Bethel was the chief sarictuary. cf. 43. xxv. I 2 . 9 Num.8 Similarly the shout of those who trod the grapes may have been 80 VINEYARDS. I 2 . 3 5 Num. See Isa.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM between walled vineyards.3 It may be inferred from Amos iv. 2 (cf. for the olive oil was the only source of artificial light. Cant. but in general it seems to have meant plantations of other fruit-trees. . a strong probability that both the Shiloh maidens and the Thanet little girls were alike celebrating something that did not originate in mere joie de vivre.Job xxvii. 7 For the fi-uits and vegetables grown in gardens. 7 Lev. 6 . i. 20. however. when all the work was over. vii. 2 I. 5. was a time of rejoicing and merry-making. Isa.z and there are vineyards in the district of Shiloh. xxiv.8 The gardens of the wealthy appear to have been frequently irrigated artificially.6 These arbours were continued for the feast of the summer ingathering. vii. xlix. Jer. Cant. 23. 15. the most highly prized being that which produced grapes of a reddish colour. 4 Deut. 6 Jer. Of the operations of viticulture we have some indications. iv. Eccles. however. i . 4 M . ii. xxxi. 10 . xxv. See Jer. the later legislation of Lev. I0 See 2 Kings i x . Isa. Cant. and when this was done any that remained could be gleaned by the poor. I Kings xxi. I I . xxiv. Gen. 30. 30. I 5 . see above on Food. xxk. 40-2. 2 8 . 5 E.9 It is evident that the gardens of the rich were mere pleasances and possessed buildings in which feasts could be held. just as the little girls who in my early days danced round a garland on May Day were in intention innocent of perpetuating a pagan rite. Cant. Mic. I ff. When the grapes were ready for the vintage there came the most joyous and-inevitably it would seem-the most pagan festival of the year. is clearly an afterthought. I I . 5. This. I 8 .2 In like manner in the dances of the girls at Shiloh 3 the original meaning of the dances was probably forgotten. 2 Kings ix. I I . 8 . lxi. xxiii. 3 Judges mci. v.6 The word ' garden ' may have included olive plantations. also xvi. 16). vi. i .' and Samson in the foot-hills of Judah meets a lion at the vineyards of Timnah. and there was more than one variety of vine. cf. Isa. OLIVEYARDS. pp. or of vegetables. ' Judges ix. vi. and the value of a vineyard may be gathered from Isa. Those who took part in the vintage constructed temporary arbours (sukkcth)in thevineyards. The olives were beaten off the trees as we beat walnuts. &c. I 2. I I. Judges x x i . I I . ii.5 The charm of the vineyard in springtime is indicated in Cant. xi. Isa. including both the gathering and the treading of the grapes. 18.4 The olive oil was trodden out. viii. 24. There is. h . 13. 5 is more stringent. 8) . so the vines at the same time were left unpruned. 27 . 2 . also 2 Kings xxi. v. for whence would the boughs for the arbours be procured in the desert ? The vintage. 21. 10f. After vineyards we naturally consider plantations of solives. it was followed by a religious feast at the sanctuary. iv. Deut. 25.Jer. 8 . Olives were an important crop. The cutting of the first grapes was apparently accompanied with what was doubtless in origin a ritual act. 27. v. ' Judges xiv. Iviii.10 It would seem that in pleasure-gardens aromatic plants were chiefly grown for their scent wafted by the wind (Cant. d. 8 . and such fruit as they produced was left for the poor. 19.5 Next in importance to the olive plantation was the fruit garden.
it is impossible to say. Jer. xliv. furniture. ' See also Cant. 1 4 . 2 I. see Jer.82 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Cant. 7 f. somewhat doubtful. Isa. 5-7. Are the peoples in their panic manuhcturing gods. vii. Amos vii. liv. I 2 .IZ of what cannot be Isa.10 We read of nails or rivets. cf. ii. xli. 13. 9 Isa. 19. 4. Isa. 20 . cvii. 15. xxii. 3 . xliv. . X . Ezek. xxii. xxxiv." of what is unbreakable. xi.7 The fuel used by smelters generally appears to have been charcoal (pe!zdm). and the non-Israelite Gibeonite slaves who performed this necessary service 3 for the Temple at Jerusalem were evidently held in inferior estimation as compared with the rest of the Temple personnel. " Ma&pta. 2 mentions the gathering of lilies : it is. xxviii. Isa. 22. and. 5 2 Kings xxi. and were therefore able to deal easily with larger trees than the Hebrews commonly had to cut.6 mara@lh. 18. 48 . or not. xxii. 13 . The first of these is naturally the axe (kardCm. rather than that for other metals. 20. g . 13. A skilled worker in wood-a carver and more than a mere carpenter-is' mentioned in Isa. 1 2 . 3 stredh. 18. and owing to its comparative novelty its use was forbidden in the construction of stone altars. 51. or weapons? The which is not used of smelting iron. 4. 6 (Hub. as also presence of the word ~GrZflh. is figuratively used of great oppression. ii. They were all used in felling trees. ' Jer. X. 14. xliv. however. The handling of the word commonly rendered nails will to a great extent depend upon the view taken of Isa. I Kings viii. I Iron. I Chron. apparently to rule a straight line. judging from ver. All the different sorts of work involved in the hshioning of an axe are there described. Deut. 7 Jer. The reference to the skill of the Sidonians in timber work 5 indicates that in consequence of their large forests on the Lebanon they were able to supply timber to countries producing none.' of a compass or divider. 25. 'I Jer. 4 Lam. xliv. WORKERS IN METAL For the relative values of metals see Num. 5. *O Exod. See Jer. 16 . 5 (tdmcr m i w ) . 2 7 Deut. and even the timber linings of walls were sometimes adorned belong to the art of the goldsmith. xliv.9 For the relative value of iron compared with other metals. " Jer. 17 . h. 16 . Saws were in use.6 and the iron-smelting furnace. whether the lilies are in the garden. X. Isa. Jer. xx. 48 . Isa.II and of a hammer 3 Joshua i x . 8 .10 It was not unnaturally often used in metaphor to denote what was a symbol of strength. On the other hand the mention of hammer and anvil and the soldering or riveting hvours the other.z and of what appears to be a sharp engraving tool 3 for marking out the design. Deut. 20. &C. Ezek. the general resemblance between this passage andJer. iv.Jer. i. 3. X. B Isa. I I . I 2 mcrrs~a'dh is probably to be retained. 2 . 17. v. x .Job xxviii. 4 TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 83 for fastening them. In general each household in which there were not slaves would provide its own fuelf and fetch or draw its own water. Isa. in Isa. . 29 . ver. 5 I Kings v. xx. Iron ore is mentioned as plentiful in Palestine. xxii. though the text is unsound. 20. xl. Isa. Jer. 16. 70. 28. xlvi. xix.' Scarecrows were put up in gardens. cf. 13.9 and also some sort of chisel.Isa. Iron was apparently not in general use in the early days of the Hebrew conquest. cf.' The plumb-lines mentioned 5 were probably masons' rather than carpenters' tools. Judges i x . viii. xxviii. Baruch vi. PS. The gold plates with which wooden figures.= WORKERS IN WOOD Hewing wood for fuel and drawing water is unskilled labour. xxxi. vi.8and the bellows are mentioned several times. The carpenter also made use of a cord. From various sources we learn something of the tools used in working wood. Ezek. xliv. vi. 4. xlv. X. 21. favours the former suggestion. Deut. 22. 20).7 garzen 8) : whether the implements denoted by these different names differed one from another.
In vain do they go on refining.iv. The massoretic text of the latter passage is unfortunately somewhat corrupt. 7 f. * Ps. 2. 3 Deut. 3. 12. was the hardest metal known.84 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 85 pierced by arrows. xxviii.3 Of manufactured iron.15 Hebrew coppersmiths in the early days of the monarchy were apparently not capable of making very large casts in bronze. Jer. Eccles. 2 . 18. but the bad are not outed. xlv. it was a natural metaphor for the strong or indestructible. I 6. Y I Sam. 12. I. v. 6 Prov. cxlix. Jobvi. as at the present time. 16. I 0. is referred to in Proverbs and Job. For armour. xxii. 29. l0 Amos i. was obtained from mines in or close to the borders of the Holy Land itself. or roughly smelted gold.13 Bronze was used for armour. in addition to the carpenters' utensils already mentioned. 2.5 GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS Gold ore. 7. which in the Hebrew form ant~kh occurs in Amos vii. The false concord rimy an is a sign of corruption. 4 Isa. I Kings xiv. cvii. the indestructible gate-posts on each side of the road to Jehovah's palace. I1 Deut.6 of a pan or griddle for cooking. Isa. 18 ff. 7. iv. xxvii. which without their capitals were some twenty-seven feet high and nearly six feet in diameter. as it were.?. which to the Hebrew evidently included bronze.. X.46. iv. Obviously *?D (omitted by LXX) is an incorrect anticipation of the following D~TVD. 8 . 27. the lead still remains. see Joshua xvii. iv. 4 In Zech. All of them brass and iron. Hence the two verses should read a blunder for m ' Isa.'' The two mountains of copper or bronze in Zech. 7 Ezek. rwriii. like iron. g .Job xxviii.* of fetters. 3 Exod. 14. Before iron came into common use bronze. 4.' Copper. Jer. [Behold. 5 ' 2 Kings xxv. 24 . Hence. 15. ' a heavy block '.] they are all revolters going with slander. 22 . xvii.3 From Job xix.~and of iron instead of stones under the threshing-sledge. It is mentioned as heavy. '3 Gen. Isa.7 of the bars of the city gates. I . Prov. 6 . 10 is corrupt (derived from the following M) : contrast Zech. 3. xxii. 3. xlviii. 25 . we read of the blacksmith's sledge-hammer ( pafftsh) .' ofwhat is hard or unyielding. lead.12 Iron and copper were apparently forged by the same smith. xlv. 7. as noted above. I 7 . see Job xx. 5 &ek. xxxi. The bellows blows up the fire. cf. 24 we may infer that. PS. Job xxviii. and perhaps 2 Sam.2 L a d was also in use. contrast sadd. vi. and presumably elsewhere.Job xiii. taking the place of the more primitive stone rnas~zbdth. 8. viii. 5.6 and references to the refining of it are I Kings v i i . was used as an alloy. I 8 . and the parallel I p n J ~5 D-YTl suggests that an is m . 7 . 3. xxiii. 7. xxvii. 21 . 9 PS. 28. It is stone. 5 Isa.'4 Many of the vessels used in the Temple. an early foreshadowing of the modern armoured car. Ezek. they do the damage .s of knives. 16. and of a sharpening steel. cf. The first word of the line beginningJer. ' Ezek. are probably to be understood allegorically and not of actual mountains : they are. vi. 6. The two great pillars for the Temple. vi. i. xvii. Judges iv.4 Like lead and iron it was imported into Palestine by Sidonian merchants. 29.=of earth which through drought cannot be ploughed. and tin. Isa. and is rendered in the Peshitta by ankhd.cvii. I I . A metal used as an alloy (b"dhz"1) mentioned in Num. Zech. Copper. but since it is in poetry we have both parallelism and the kfna-rhythm as aids in its restoration.10 For the plates of warchariots. xxvii. xli. xii.4 of an anvil. Ezek. 28 is missing : perhaps it was n?. xli. 3 1 . 2 2 . 2 7 . needless to say. 10. 1sa. Isa. were made of it. . Copper. xv. V. it was used to fill up letters engraved in may be Tin.xli. as well as iron. were cast in Palestine by Tyrian workmen. xli. 3. 23.
cf. they carried on their business in some particular street.:app&ath. xix. equally forbidden by the Deuteronomic law. I . a 4 The shaving of the head in mourning. 6 . 10 . were the potters (ydfdrn). xxxii. I .= and from their brittle nature broken earthenware was used as a figure of irreparable damage.8 and then for circular vessels was worked on a revolving disk fixed to an upright piece of wood which turned on a pivot : ' Jer. xiv. X. xxx. which the potter turned with his feet. only mentioned incidentally to describe a particular sort of razor.11 It is indeedjust possible that the laceration in mourning. I Kings xviii. was the ordinary medium of exchange . 34) . as we should expect. iii. Isa. We have no account in the canonical Scriptures of the firing of earthenware. xxxviii. 28. xii. Isa.4 The mention of the ' Earthenware Gate ' (Jer. I 2 ff. 7 2 Sam. 4. The poor man's cup could scarcely be of more costly material. 29 f. i. 19. xv. This may have been because of its use in exchange. 2. 48. also Isa. xlvi. They are. xxi. xli.both together. Judges xvii. Zech.? and not improbably. 16. MECHANICS below this disk was another somewhat smaller. iv. 3 I Kings ix. xviii. &c. i. The craft of the goldsmith was an ancient one in Palestine. 6 . xxxviii. ' Jer. however. Kad. There is no mention of gold being found in Palestine. xxvi.4 found himself quite unable to pay Hiram's bill. which as savouring of heathenism is forbidden by the Deuteronomic law. 25 . 29 .Jer. 9 Deut. Lev. Gen. vi. xxiv. Lev.12 was performed by barbers. 6. Jer. 23.9 was in pre-exilic times general .lxvi. and the potters apparently formed guilds or communities. g. I that the poet was acquainted with mining for silver. xix. cf. 16. 32. I Kings xvii. cf. xxix. 6 . uncoined. I. There is no clear indication of what the Palestinians gave in exchange for it. 23. 33 (Heb. but supplying a universal need. xxii. I I (Hcb. Mic.5 It may perhaps be inferred from Job xxviii. 5. It was used for articles of choice manufacture. Isa. I Kings v. XI. xiv. 5 I Kings i x . xlix. g . 5 Isa.s also jars of various shapes for holding water. a Lam.7 besides various sorts of bowls and boiling utensils. 3. X. 3 .Jer. 4 . Naturally the articles made of earthenware were of many different forms and designs for different uses. Earthenware jars were also used for preserving documents. xviii. cf.6 cups. 14.1 Gold is said to come from Havilah 2 and from Ophir. which may have been of earthenware. apparently. 4 . 10. 2) implies a locality given up to the pottery industry. ii. 25) . Jer. I I . 4 Ecclus. hence the price had to be weighed out to the vendor. Gen. xxi. " Deut. X.xli. The potter's clay was first worked with the feet to make it equally plastic. that articles of common personal adornment were constructed of it. though he could pay for Hiram's work by the agricultural produce of Palestine. 14. 16.6 In the time of Nehemiah they seem to have formed a guild. cf. I . 6. Ezek. xiii. which included the cost of much gold work. X I . 7.~ but the situation of these districts is much disputed. I I ff. g as coming from Tarshish. Arnos viii. 25 .* BARBERS Of an inferior status evidently. but we do not hear. Gen. Silver beaten out into thin plates is mentioned in Jer.I0 hence a barber must have been needed whenever there was a death. 3 . 30. Various sorts of bottle are mentioned. Solomon. 14. and was compelled to cede to Hiram a portion of his kingdom. xii. but some sort of glazing with silver dross is mentioned. Jewels appear to have been mainly of gold. Prov. xvi. 5.3 and in the Apocrypha both the glazing and the furnace. Eccles. I Kings xix. PS.86 HEBREW LIFE AM) CUSTOM TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 87 frequent.. and it seems almost certain that it was all imported.' Earthen vessels were cheap. Jer. Judges vii. 2. 20. 7 Neh. like the bakers. Silver. Ecclus. v.
Those mentioned in Gen. Zech. ii. '3 Jer. m Job xxviii. viii. xxiii. xxxi. 18.e. 32. Some sort of bitter drink.8 In addition to precious stones." necklaces. PS.3 Even in the Greek period the popular estimate of the healing art is summed up by Ben Sira : ' He that sinneth before his Maker-let him fall into the hands of the physician. xxxviii. xv. ' Acid ' and ' bitter ' seem not to be distinguished. vi. iii.2 the latter implying some decoction of bitter herbs. 18. Ixi. long been a famous product of Palestine. 7 Jer. 11. Jer. whom in the days of Nehemiah we find forming a guild. Ezek. but we do not hear of it as jewellery. 3 4 Susanna 17. cf. If we may estimate the importance of any factor of national custom from the frequency of references to it in metaphor there can be no doubt that the administration Deut.14 2 Kings x v i i i . 4 Ecclus. 15. i. 1. Clothes were washed. a Exod. . but whether the art of extracting the scent of blossom was known is uncertain.' who perhaps not only washed clothes but bleached fabrics. ii.9 They were mixed with oil for unction. xix.i. xxxix. 10. xxxii. I 7. 10.6. 50. 22 and in 2 Chron. 25. ashes of vegetable substance. i. Lam. PS. 2 Sam. xi. Cant. xxxviii. The preparation of perfume was carried out both by men. ' Jer. m 4 15 Gen. 7 I Sam. PHYSICIANS AND APOTHECARIES What in later times was worn merely for adornment 5 was in many cases originally connected with religion. Job xxviii.2 The soap used was made of carbonate of soda (nkther). Soap-balls are mentioned in the story of Susanna.= PERFUMERS 89 Other vegetable drugs may perhaps be implied by the ' tree ' of Exod. xxix. 3.i. Jer. xli. 23. &c. B. cf. " Isa. 8. 7. 17.3 presumably mixed with oil or melted-down fat.) N ." There was salve. ii. parallel with wormwood. 3 See also Deut. Hag. d .21. 2 I. xxx. 10. cf. 2 are Egyptians rather than Hebrews.6 and by women. 22. li. Among the trinkets made were crowns and tiaras. 16~30. 9 I Kings X . 15. Prov. 10. xvii. I 5. 15. 14. v. C. Exod. 5 Isa. 5 Set the tales of Bathsheba (2 Sam. I . Neh. Ordinary washing appears to have been done at home. There were lapidaries who could cut and engrave precious stones. seems to be implied in Lam. i. 13. xxviii. Hos. (F. 14-16.I2 perhaps chains of beads. 6. 25. 10.7 The scents used appear to have been derived from spices or sweet gums. xxviii. I I. V Gen. 12. xlvi. by treading upon them. v. they used also corals 9 and glass.7 which might be set as signet-rings.10 ivory was in use. In addition. 14. iv. viii. 42. Lev.I2 also the which came from Gilead 13 and had resinous gum (M).' 4 TRADES AND PROFESSIONS JEWELLERS AND WORKERS IN PRECIOUS STONES Of luxury trades may be mentioned that of the perfumer. i. xix. 22. by a method still practised in the British Isles. 8. H m the r~llhed MS. 5.6.I and gall-water. 9 Prov. xlv. Isa. vii. xvi. xxi. 58 . viii. just as was the case in rural districts of England almost within living memory.88 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM FULLERS Another common trade was that of the fuller. iii.* which were for the most part imported from South Arabia.6 From a number of references it is clear that the jeweller's art had been brought to a high pitch of perfection. 10. PS. 4. 2) and of Susanna. Num. 13. 15. 8. There is also wormwood. iv. " Isa. 13. 13.26. '3 Cant. iii.13 and armlets perhaps worn above the elbow. I I . We read also of poultices 10 and of bandages. some of which cannot be identified with certainty. xiii. ix. viii. I 2. 2 Sam. 'O Isa. xliii. I I .begins again. lye was used. 13.4 Personal washing done in courts or gardens appears to have been restricted. xlv.'* ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE AND LAW IS We hear of physicians or apothecaries in Jer. " 2 Sam. 24.
What was the exact function of the k e A n . 24. after the institution of the monarchy. Samuel's rebuke of the people for asking to have a king is clearly the work of one who perhaps belonged to the age of. iii. Sam. who is accused of blasphemy (which will bring Num. I. iii. unless indeed the word is here used of those who have arrogated to themselves power. and in contrast to such organized government we have the well-known description of the anarchy which sometimes prevailed in the days of the 'Judges '. I t is extremely significant that the historical retrospect with which the Book of Deuteronomy begins starts at the organization of government by Moses. and Isa. In Northern Israel. he appears to be what we should call a dictator in a time of national distress. however. . The sketch of a king in I Sam. 16. But in Isa. I 1-17 seems to be founded on fact. on the flimsiest of pretexts has his half-brother Adonijah. I t is. xix. xviii. Saul has certain Gibeonites put to death apparently without any judicial sentence. The Deuteronomic law orders the appointment in all cities of judges and officers. In Judges xi. The king. Nehemiah.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM of justice was a matter of absorbing interest to the ancient Hebrew population of Palestine. xi. 9-17. put to death.s and as going on circuit like a modern judge. however. JUDGES noteworthy that he represents the demand for a king as made by the ' elders of Israel '. I. Gilgal. 3 Sh6pkM and ~Mfrfm. 10. and it is clear from Num. 1-3. a somewhat more democratic spirit seems to have prevailed. vii. and Mizpeh. and his right. 18. the ki$n seems to have some recognized authority. g. Samuel indeed is represented as virtually ruler of the district represented by Bethel. ' In those days there was no king in Israel . but each man had as far as possible to protect his life.' 2 It is not my object to trace the gradual unification of the tribes under one king. 16. 6. Indeed. What constituted a man an ' elder' is not quite clear. unduly blamed for being addicted to litigation it must be remembered that they lived in an age when there was no idea of the prevention of crime or of any system of police. there was some rough administration of justice. viii. a Judges xvii. are elders before what may be regarded as their solemn commission. I . the rightful heir to the throne. 6. had it not been that his sons whom he made judges were of unsatisfactory character. 6. anarchy which was to some extent repeated when the Hebrew monarchy came to an end. I 6 that they are considered as already possessing some secular authority. and he threatens death to any one who has broken his rash taboo on food. The whole number seventy-two implies an ideal of six such officials for each tribe. however. and who desired that the government should be in the name of the priestly class. Accordingly a duly organized system of government and the administration of justice was held to be a matter of paramount importance. Even when he was the vassal of a foreign potentate he was in his own kingdom absolute. xxii. 90 3 I KINGS. 3 . xi. in a state of things which reminds us of the Saxon Heptarchy. 7. ' h u t . if we may trust I Sam.I in the appointment of duly constituted officials and judges. Even before the election of Saul. his property. his rule might have become hereditary. was the head of justice and of the judicial system. as distinct from the ddphi[. viii. 25.3 and it would seem that the ' elders ' were those recognized as possessing the tradition of the customary law and that they acted as assessors to the judges. xxi. Mic. Solomon. David arbitrarily puts to death seven of Saul's descendants to satisfy a blood feud. xvi. i. and in the event of any injury done to him he could only obtain redress by bringing his case to be legally decided. It is significant that Naboth. and Joab with even less justification. every man did that which was right in his own eyes. i. Lest the Hebrews be. I I. The Seventy Elders on whom the spirit cameY1 and Eldad and Modad who remained in the camp. is not clear. Deut.
e. Susanna 58 ( h 6 wp~vov). the winning of his case. xlii. or has ' righteousness' imputed to him. ' transgression ' (rebellion would be a better translation for this last). Unfortunately these metaphors. ' trespass '. has the pretence of a trial.. the open space just inside the city gate. is unconscious of sin in our sense of the word. The sight of the administration of justice. Rather than that he declares that his father and mother before his birth were under divine sentence of punishment indicated by their suffering. was so much enjoyed by them. 2. 6. are used to denote the status of one who has secured a favourable verdict. that ' righteousness '. xix.2 The mere agreement of two witnesses or their disagreement on some unimportant detail to our sense of legal justice may seem insufficient either to confirm or disprove their evidence. like Job. but evil. since sentence. Thus it can be said that a man receives 'righteousness'. 3 Kings xxi. He knows that he has not wronged his fellow man in any way which would bring down upon him the divine judgement indicated by his calamities. that metaphors drawn from the lawcourt--or what did duty as such-have profoundly affected Hebrew diction.3 while the other stated he had seen her under a holm tree. one against whom the verdict has been given. MISDEMEANOUR. In other words. xvii.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM down divine wrath). For example. if they resembled the modern Bedouin. In the first Lecture it was stated that in Hebraic metaphor attention is almost always directed not to the process but to the effect. ' sin '. x l i . 7. was given in accordance with the law-frequently traditional custom'judgement ' comes to mean justice or custom. Another illustration of the influence of legal procedure on popular diction is the word commonly rendered 'judgement '. The words which are commonly rendered ' iniquity'. viz. He concludes therefore that it must be some inadvertent sin against God that he has committed. one who has won his case. stated that he had seen Susanna under a mastic tree. whether in criminal or in civil cases.' or (as we might say in modern English) whatever he does he turns up trumps.which means primarily the act of judging and then.4 would scarcely See Isa. who in other respects agreed. when one of the two witnesses. In accordance with the same use of metaphor the words which we render 'righteousness'. JUDGEMENT 93 wherever he goes. li. 16. An illustration of this is found in the statement concerning Cyrus. as he used them. knew to be such. ' Deut. But for our present inquiry the most important adrninistration ofjustice was the summaryjurisdiction administered in what corresponded to a forum. the slight disagreement in the trial of Susanna. are used to express the status of one found guilty of any misdemeanour. There is no idea whatever in the Psalm of ' original sin '. if the court was a just one. 8-14. and yet intreat that his ' sin ' may be taken away. meets him 92 I SIN.1 Nevertheless Ahab imprisons Micaiah merely on the ground that he does not prophesy good concerning him. but in the Deuteronomic period certain rules are laid down. which is held before the elders and nobles of Jezreel. I 5. which has also come upon him. and like Job in the Prologue-but not in the Poem itself-he deems it impious to charge God with waywardness.i. which the Hebrew. the words are used for the status of one who is unsuccessful. . have been taken literally. and incalculable harm has accordingly been done to the cause of religion. In the older period legal procedure probably simply followed tradition. In like manner the poet of PS. A consideration of the forensic metaphor in words translated ' righteousness ' and ' sin ' will explain how Job can vehemently deny that he has sinned. 6. Susanna 54 ( h 6 evov). and they may be used metaphorically to describe the status of one is supposed to have been against whom the divineVverdict given as manifested in trouble which has come upon him. &C. was so familiar to the people and. This is true in connexion with all those words and expressions for that for which a man might be brought to trial.
' 2 Sam. usually only the more serious charges being disposed of in this way. and it is further remarkable for the humanitarian limitation of the stripes inflicted. whose duty it is to watch fair play between the two. It had been presented to his son by the Sheikh. and he conjectured that the ordeal involved the use of 'holy water ' (cf. after heated affirmation of the truth af the charge on the part of the accuser and equally violent denials and repudiation on behalf of the accused. There is in Sinai only one man-a quaint little old Arab called Sheikh Hamdan of the Ayayda tribe-who inherited the post from his father. The accuser and accused must first agree upon a neutral third party. I t has been suggested by Robertson Smith that the word Massah means a place of ordeal. when Administrative O#cer for the Egyptian Government in Sinai. however. especially the Iex talionis. An ordeal with holy water does indeed survive in the law. 3. xxi. . either in his own house or at some pre-arranged place in the desert. 17). however. for example. In connexion with the sentences inflicted. . or any other serious charge.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM be held by*a modern jury altogether to invalidate their evidence ! What. There is a similar expert among the Amran tribe east of Akaba. The procedure is as follows : 'When a suspect is accused of murder. m&. 16. in David's concession to the Gibeonites 2). the Ordeal by Fire among pr~s&-& B e h i n in the Sinaitic Peninsula. and the wrong is redeemed by a similar weakening of the tribe a member of which did the wrong. b y the kind permission of the Cambridge Univrrsity Press.5 94 TRIAL BY ORDEAL 95 In this very an Ordeal by Fire still survives. Thus a physical injury done to a tribesman is a weakening of the tribe. 2 ff. the whole proceedings . as actually witnessed by his son. Mr. ' The trial by ordeal is employed to settle disputes in the absence of evidence.4 and the defendant ' responded '. viz. be little doubt that Trial by Ordeal was once not uncommon. is such as is used by the Sinai Arabs for roasting coffee-beans.g. it must be remembered that in primitive thought the tribe or family is the unit rather than the individual. and who carries out his Ordeal all over Sinai.region Austin Kennett says : ' The most interesting hereditary expert in Sinai is the individual who cames out the Trial by Ordeal. would greatly deter perjury in the trial of a person found guilty would be the rule that they first must take part in executing the death sentence. Num. . xxv. it may be mutually agreed that the case shall be taken to the Bisha for decision. 7) was a place called Massah and also Meribah. e. being anxious that the solemnity of the ordeal shall not be lost by frequent appeal in trivial cases. both in subject-matter Md geographical s i t t d o n . 109 R . unless it has been found impossible to come to a decision by any other means. v. 5 Here Professor Kennett's M S . The spoon referred toy1rather like a flattened-out soup-ladle. Just as the Sinai Arabs are loath to employ the oath in their disputes. There are traces of more primitive methods of settling disputes or deciding criminal cases.). . There can. Deut. xvii. xix.' Mr. I give the dcsm'ption from the late Mr. Austin Kennett's book Bedouin Justice (pp. the ordeal may have been of more than one kind. and another near Medina in the Arabian Peninsula.3 The prosecutor or claimant was called the ' witness '. " pp. Deut. Austin Kennett. but we cannot say how late they were in force.The three then go to the sheikh of the Bisha. Deuteronomy shows a sense of individual justice I foreign to the older thought (which is seen. A false witness would thereby incur blood-guiltiness. Th& close to the miraculous and therefore sacred spring (Exod. the Biblical Kadesh Barnea being located at the modern 'Ain Kadis. z q J. ' The actual spoon was brought to the Lecture and exhibited by Professor Kennett. xxiv. theft. so do they reserve the " Bisha" (as they call the trial by ordeal) for the more important cases only. 16. 3 Deut. In giving the Lecture he went on with what he had so ingmiousb led his audience to. Austin Kennett then goes on to say that he was an actual witness to a Trial by Ordeal by special invitation from Sheikh Hamdan. but since Meribah (which means a place of litigation) was in the same region. 6.
.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TRIAL BY ORDEAL 97 being open to anybody to watch. Some of the men were smoking cigarettes. 0 . " Clean. With supreme selfconfidence he obeyed. took out a cigarette and lit it from a burning stick at the edge of the fire. in which all present reverently joined. and directed the accused to come and kneel just behind his left shoulder. ' In spite of the entire absence of evidence. and after again rinsing out his mouth. ' " In the name of Allah. and a group of onlookers (including the writer) went up to examine his tongue and mouth more closely. Austin Kennett (now. the sheikh of the Bisha came from his house in Central Sinai up to El Arish to meet the litigants half-way. and again the water boiled away. Three times the sheikh poured water into the belly of the spoon-twice it boiled away immediately. . T h e dramatic narrative of Mr. who had found no signs of violence . When the spoon had been completely cooled. and appealed to the accuser to accept some form of compromise. he put out his tongue and licked the hot spoon. the accused returned the water to the sheikh. after which the three assessors carefully examined his mouth. ' After a few minutes the sheikh of the Bisha intimated that the spoon was hot enbugh. alas.. His effort was unsuccessful. and paid an official call on the writer. flicked the ashes off its upturned bottom with his other hand. sat the sheikh. the accused himself. On closer inspection the faintest possible trace of a black ashy smudge was just visible in the centre of his tongue. the Merciful. I t was difficult to believe that in a few moments one of those present would be tried for his life. satisfied any doubts as to its temperature. others puffed contentedly at their enormous pipes. whom he invited to be present at any time or place convenient. lenged the other to support his charge by evidence. and threatened that reprisals would be taken. and the noisy boiling and the steam. The meeting was fixed for late afternoon.' [I d o not remember that Professor Kennett made any further peroration o r summing u p of his three Lectures. Taking the handle of the spoon in his right hand. As his tongue returned to his mouth. as he quietly said a prayer. and tongue. and clearly visible to all was his tongue looking perfectly healthy and natural. and the shadows from the big tree over the yellow sand completed the peaceful scene. Then he poured more water into the cup-like depression at the base of the handle. The accused-apparently unwillingly-eventually consented to undergo the trial by ordeal. the sheikh called together his two witnesses and the assessor nominated by both litigants. while the onlookers strained forward eagerly to watch the ordeal. and the two chosen by the sheikh himself. pulling himself together and tightly grasping his sword with both hands. The sheikh poured some water into the spoon." declared the sheikh . I n the centre of the group. with the sticks of charcoal built up round it. together with the complete disappearance of the water. the father persisted in his accusation. ' The sheikh passed the pot of water to the accused. one Arab from Southern Palestine had accused another Arab from Khan Yunis of murdering his son. the black mark of the ashes was clearly seen. . who had by now released his nervous grasp on his sword . the sheikh withdrew the spoon from the fire. in the shade of a tree near the Government offices. and the other agreed that if the Bisha decided in favour of the accused he would drop his claim. stoking up his charcoal fire. A third time he leant forward-this time recklessly-and licked the spoon. The boy had been found dead in the desert. who rinsed his mouth and spat noisily. ' The buzz of conversation suddenly stopped. his fate hanging on the ugly iron spoon in the charcoal fire. in company with the accuser and the accused. and there being no secrecy or staging of any kind. " Clean. lips. as one of those present made a last effort to reconcile the litigants. The accused protested his innocence and chalwhatsoever. Arrangements were duly made. and the body had been examined by the Government doctor. and once it remained. . A charcoal fire was burning. a swarthy Arab with finely chiselled features and a short black beard. He seemed quite unconcerned. and a group of fifteen or twenty onlookers squatted in a semi-circle round the fire. " Again " called the crowd . and presented it glowing red to the accused at his left elbow. and then. 'For one brief moment the accused paled." echoed the witnesses. crooned the sheikh. and the four then ordered the accused to put out his tongue. A small pot of water was then passed to the accused. and this time rather frightened and unwilling he forced himself to comply. which was otherwise perfectly healthy and normal every way. his dusky skin showing ash-grey . declaring that he would not shirk the ordeal at this stage of the proceedings. two or three paces in front of the rest of the assembly. the Compassionate ". ' In the particular instance in which the writer was an eyewitness. and squatted on the ground. their mutual assessor. on which the " spoon " was laid.
5 Burglars. 63 Bedhfl (tin). see Girdles Betrothal.. 68 c . foreign policy of. . 32. Thus. which was to make Meribah (' place of litigation') and Massah (' place of trial '). 44 Barley. raised above the line). 20 . 87 Bmblirb. Carts. v. 46 Agriculture. pg6rci follows ~ermZsh. 45 f. also. 84 Brooms. 61 Candalabra. 53. regarded as binding. 47 Bakers. 2 I Bettina. 64 Ashes. periodic. 57. 43 Breastplates. 21 Bridesmaids. 84 Arrows. quoted. 23 f. 95 Bit (harness). The English alphabetical order is followed. 39. 35. 37 Bish (Trial by Ordeal). 30 Buchan.social position of. ~abhillim. see Marriage . 87 Bows. 38.] GENERAL INDEX In this index are included all the Hebrew words. 24 Amulets. which occur in the text of the Lectures. 69 Baral S E ' & (a hairy man '). John. Bridegroom. 39. not Seeds. 56 'Arfrsth (sort of cereal ?). 2 I Bronze. 84 Apothecaries. 29 Beef. 70 leachi in^. 72 Camels. 67 Addlreth (prophetic mantle). 57 Asses.. 35. 34-7 . of common land. procession of. Bottles. 47 Bedouin Justice. 88 . 57 ff. Badh (linen).and S ' & follows SGphir. finally confirmed by cohabitation for a week. 95 ff. is ignored for purposes of indexing. occurring in the first syllable of a Hebrew not word. 77 Altars. 16. 88 Apples. 82 . 59 Calves. 35 Armlets. 25 Archery. 57. 'Abhdthh (traces. sowing of. Patriarch of. 37 Anvil. Baking. 72 Bellows. 85 Bedclothes. 71 . 31 Carpenters. 52 Ashpa (quiver). 58 n. 67 Beans. 26 Bedsteads. of baked brick. . ~hroninrm S y k . 64 Bread. 31 Burial customs. Caddies '. in war-time. not indicated in the index. 88 ' B6ke (tender of oxen). 20 Bine (g~phth). 41 n. 64 Antioch. 7 I Breakfast. humane care for. 43 E Barbers. 66 Assyrian kings. 82 Azbfrn (implements). Bricks. together with the ritual drinking of the Water of Jealousy described in Num. precisely transliterated. 71 Bears. more real and vivid. 39 Animals. Banquets. 59. 70 Antelopes. sprinkled on mourner's head. unbaked. 28. 73 Barhebraeus. 24. but a half-vowel or a Shcwci(indicated in transliteration by a small letter. Bedrooms. 61 . see Girdles Arbours. 89 Armour. 85 Animal food. 7' Ahwci (c freehold ') 73 Allotment. 35. Witch W d . 39. 6 Axe.' refers to the notes at the foot of the pages. 65. baked.98 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM dead in Nigeria) and the presence of the actual spoon had indeed on all who were present the effect intended by the Lecturer. 83 Belts. The value of diacritic points and rough and smooth breathings is. 28.369 37 Bandages. 62. 41 Aprons. A d h . something strange but true and in touch with human life. quoted. 47 f. 57 f. c n. ropes).
87 Curd. 62 . 72 n. . 6 Helmets. 52 Hebrew metaphor. 40. on roof. resinous. 82 ~acfccassfm (armour plates). 32 Juniper root. 10 . discipline. see Agriculture Glass ornaments. 30. 44 Goad. I ff. 87 Education. 71 .. 69 Jackals. varieties of. 37 CUPS. 36. Goldsmiths. 29 Dogs. 69 n. 93 Grinding corn. 34. wicks of. Mr. . 83 Concubinage. 2 I . in ovens. 60 Cheese. 89 ff. 28. traces).56 cooking ute&ils. possession of. birth. keys. 64 Flax.dried. 89 Hyenas. 62 n. 67 Dort. . 81 . allotment of. see Marriage Conduits. dcbhak&. T h e Village Community. Inscriptions. 58 Garzen (axe). g2 comb.72 f. 30. 16 Chisels. 33 . wild. 68 Gardens. feeding of infants. head covered in mourning. . Cud~els. 37 flabhZlfm (ropes. 67 (bow). 52 . with spears. I 2 . 71 Cetaceans. occupations of. &C. 58 GENERAL INDEX c 101 Carvers. sale of daughters. 59 E. 40 . of earthenware. 32 Copper. 25 . wild. . 57 dles '). 51 f. care of. 68. 63 . 35 Fodder.. 28 - Fabric. cistern. 57 Eth (ploughshare). 91 Hammers. 26 . (equiv. roofs of. 27 . preserved. 7 . 68. g Herm-sh (sickle). Disciples.. 81 Head-dress. agricultural. 37 Horses. 86 f. 52 . rights safeguarded by Deuteronomic law. '61U (child). Administration of. 61 ~omkon land. purification ceremonies after birth. mode of teaching. 69 K@fn (dictator). 55 fwealthy. biscuit). use of sling in. sons of. 28 . of earthenware. 8 . 27 . 68 Keys. 39 f. bedrooms. GibbBr kyil (a c gentleman '). 55 f. 39. 85 f. . girl). y t ! l e d h . 87 . 27 Clay. 69 Disciples. maternal love. 14 . skins mixed in provender. 83 f. boys' sports. 67 Justice. Hair-dressing. share). 29. 81 Dlbhash (wild honey). on eighth day from birth. . 25 Garlic. regarded as unclean. 69.73 Fruit. 36. 86. 59 f. 26 . 28 Confectionery. 41 . Enclosure Acts. 78$ Grease. 58 Deer.. 71 KikkCr6th ld&m (round loaves). 66. 34 Dancing. sweet. 66 . Fuel.IOO GENERAL INDEX Dead. 39 dghel marbck fatted calf '). 61 ~lour. Grace before meat. 7. Kard6m (axe). warrior's. Fl&ds. 45 . lighting of. 64 ~reehbld. 33 Gum. 34 Chests. at Shiloh. fires. for oxen. 709 7' Crockery. bridal. asfosum. Gazelles. bitumen used by Babylonians in lieu of. 28 . 58 . music. 25 . of animals. 26. 43f. 74 f. 89 Green herbs. 80 . 51. in every septennial year. 80 f. woven. guild of. 27 Harvest. 63 Glazing. 82 Circumcision. Girdles. 58 n. 85 34. 82 HGsim (arrows). smeared on Jars. Writing of wild birds. . 43 .~fine. 40 . 15. Gibeonite slaves. 23 ff. 88 Furniture. 82 HcimE~(leaven). 60 Goats.nd'ar (boy). locks. 57 Gate. as receptacles for documents. 35. 45. 46 ff. Out of the '.37 . 64 Dung-heaps. . redemption as alternative. 58 Jewellers. 77. ?g EZ6r ( Arabic izdr. Pariah-dogs. 28 ff. at child-weaning. drying of. weaning and its festival. cleaning. 20 . by mourners. 38 Hag6rci (girdle). 72 Doves. not in jewellery. 46 Fallow ground. 32 Fish. 71 Ices. the. 77 c Fatling ' (denoting beef). 37 f. 41 Fires.30 . 91 El6hfm. 29 Children. 87 . sec Children. 69 Food.rent as sign of mournClothing. on Hebrew life and thought. 68 Hem's (curds). in internal house-decoration.weddings. 88 Jugs. 57 Gcimtil (weaned child). Harrows. pl. 70 . 17 Griddles. 32.yaldci (boy. . 15. bodies of the. 27 Iron. dried. of vihtage. Gustave. 39364 Digging-stick. dancing associated with. spelling-book. 89 Cucumbers. 71 Feasts. 77 Compasses (dividers). 48 walla (? perforated cake. 82 inscriptions on outer door-posts. 39 Houses. disposal of the. vegetable. 87 shields. 67 Implements. 3 1 ~ 8 2 Fullers.62. wake-song). 57 fIcir@ (c sharp').82 . 89 Herds. 36 Frying-pan into the fire. The Honey. in garden-houses. sacrifice of. poetry. 47 Earthenware. Bedourn Justice.run. 31 . 24.. 21 : made into woven fabric. 45. Cereals. 49 Drugs. inlaid in bedsteads. 39 Herebh (sword).reaping. 23 . g . 40 . 89 Cord (used as a ruler). GCbfna(butter). 40 Chairs. 84 f.honeyCity. of the Gentry. 89 Drunkenness. cf. . 26 . on outer door-posts. customs at. teachers. 57 Gdbh (shock of corn-sheaves). 40. 70 Dyes. 26. summerGLphen (vine. 89 Grapes. of unbaked bricks. nurses male and female.with hooks. 36. '81i1.. 35 Hay.. Infants. 16 Cisterns.. of hewn stone. 8 Gomme. influence of. 37 . 64 Grazing grounds. Austin. 77 Equipment. 45 E ing. 53 Dibhek. seesGirdles Job. (smith). Coverlets. gcfmtil (weaned child). 3 9 ~ 6 4 Infantry. ' gridHunting. 24 . love for. military. education. bine). Judgement 91 '. 27 . 68. y6nZk (suckling). feeding of. 39. 67 Eye-painting. 55 f . 32. 72 Dress. 75 Dovecots. 64 Fishmg. 71 Corners of the field. Gourds. au naturcl. Ladies'. 87 Gleaners. 82 Cavalry. 93 Judges. I 3 . 83 Chariots. . 6 I &!?2ez . sanitation. 53 fIayil (warlike efficiency). . 34 23 f.grindig. g . 64 Dosbcin (ox-goad). 84 Husbandry. 26 . 39. 29 Charcoal. 30 Crowns. potter's. 34 Gall-water. 75 n. hair cloth adopted as. 37 houses. Corals. I I f. 83 Corn. 58 n. 29 cows. 49 . 52 Clubs. not of sons. 47 -. 72 Elders. 81 Fetters. I 2 Divans. . circumcision. gardens. 45. 32 Conscri~tion.couches. 57 Kennett. Teachers. 42 Dugong. Charioteers. 40~64. 34 ffFoxes. 61 Game. 3 ~e'lek (portion. 69 m n a (lament. Armour. Gold. 79 Ivory. fem. 59 Javelins. 57 Greaves. 84 Figs. c The Earthenware ' . 58 wanfth (javelin).. girdle). Hellenism. respect for parents. furnishing of. on roofs.
9 Y6Crfm (potters). 35. 58 n.for washing before meals. Turbans. 69 Tent-peg. 67 Whip. 69 Witnesses.. 84 c Stints '. 68 Shaving of the forehead and beard clipping. I I. 29 c Strange woman ' (Proverbs). 35 $6n (flock. 39. for sharpen in^. 68. 47 c Sharps '. T6W' (scarlet stuff). of the vines). 37. 53 Wall-pegs. 86 Silversmiths. burnt at burials. 57 Smith. 9 YerwhsM (property. 64 Tassels. 42 Yiledh. 27 Vinegar.. 68 Shoes. professional. 89 Tin. nature. structure of. 30 Slaves. 77 f. 83 n. 72 'Uggdth (unleavened cakes). storing of. 67 Trades. 599 69 n. Sledge-hammers. 24 . 25 . release of m seventh year. served at feasts. Sickles. contentious. 62 Shish (linen). 69 n. Feast of. regarded as necessary evil. $innu (very large shield). 82 Wool. no matter how acquired). in mourning. 34 Songs. 59 Shdphrfm (judges). 47 Wells. 42 Vines. of the vintage. 47 . herd). 58 n. Tannfm (jackals). 60 f. wild. 88 Staves. 47 Teachers. Tkbhen (chopped straw). out of season. 16 Sort^ (resinous gum). rayin (wine). sledge for.104 GENERAL INDEX spinning. mourners subject to various. 67 Spears.of morals. 43 . 69 n. process of. quoted. 80 Summer houses. 19n. 35. 27. Wood (panelling). 41 Water supply. 57 Sycomore-figs. 82 n. 53 . 30 War. 48 . 85 Tdmcr r n i * (scarecrow). 63 Work. yaldi (boy. 25. 42 Winnowing. 41 f. 34 Shulkn (table). brushwood. 50 Wres Ydt&dh (digging stick). see Military exer'"3 ShZlEsh (an officer's title). 88 S6kth (fine flour). . Snuffers. training for. 71 Shtbet (club). 10 P&(leaven).85 Sieges. 44 Tables.69 Sukksth (arbours). 73 Yijhar (olive oil). 93 f. Sowing. locality of. . system of. 25. 50 Straw. 71 . 67 Y6na (dove). 46 Sheep. 64 Snow. 62 Shikhci* (alcoholic liquor). 59 SirySn (breastplate). 57 Spelling-book. 52 S6fih& (c secretary '). 27. 43 Shepherds. 59 Ship& (breastplate). Wolves. 29. 72 2T6nik (suckling). 47 Shields. 68 Tiaras. Violet dye. for drinking. 60 S k i (scarlet). social position of. I I .. <Zmtr 70 (6 the pruning '. 26 Wine. 38 Veils. I n Spelt. 29 Shuttle. 40 Tabernacles. 36 $&@h (refiner). 61 f. 35 Unguents. I Water-melons. Tents. 82 T' (turtledove). 78 ff. 29 Vegetables. metaphorical use of origmally legal term. uses of. 89 Silver. 57 Skins. 92 f. for men's use. 25 Swords. 68 Sidonian merchants. 78 Stools. Trapsy64 Trial by Ordeal. girl). sowing of. 68 . Snares. 42 . military. 29 Taboos. 57 Shocks (of corn-sheaves). 42 S h h n (sacred anointing oil). 63 Women. 50 Vestibule. 52. I I n. 35. 84 slings. 44 Unleavened bread. 47 Spoon. g I Sh6tCrim(officers). 86 SimlZ (ordinary outer garment)? 46 c Sin '. number. 62 Steel. 53 Wake-song. W. 53 Tactics. professional. 86 f. 49 Turtledoves.3 94 Smiths.87 Sheaves. see Infants. 79 Thong. yielding scents. 95 ffSport. 72 Traces.sc. 69 . 35. 71 Spices. 94 ff. see Goad Windows. 82. 69 Soap. 88 44 Valuables. 49 ff. 48 Threshing. 47 Tools. m Bedouin Trials by Ordeal. Signet ring. 48. 36 GENERAL INDEX Wailers. 27 Wheat. 66 . fem. 62 Shebna. Laws concerning. 94 Weaning. 69 n. 23 Terracing.91 Shcph6th bZkcTz (?cream). 82 ff. 35. hewing. 60 f. c holy water '. chopped. Robertson. 43 Yoke. 80 Table manners. feeding of Weaving. used in woodwork. 37 Vineyards. 72 Sheepfolds.
. 7 . 15 e xxli xxii. 34 . . . 43 xx . . 13 74 60 X . . . . . . . . xliii. 23 f. . . . 18 18 viii . . . . 79. . 8 . 18 . . 19 xxxii. . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 15. 50 xl. . . 27 . . 47. . 66 xxvi. g . I . 8 i . . . . 46 xxi. 53 . 74 xxvii. 43 . .. g3 . 25. . . . . . . .3 . . 18 xlviii. . . .. . . 13 40 xxxi. . 45 ff. 16 . . . 18 xxxii. . 15-17 . . . 66. . . . . . . . . . 12 . 16 . 58 88 m. . 26) . PAGE PAGE 20 11 1 11 21 II 10 10 20 20 11 2I 10 2 11 10. 31 36 xii . 16 . . . . . . 7 .4 . . . 29. 39 xxii. . 4 46 . . 34 . . 31 . . . 32 . . . . .. g . 16 . . . . . . . 68 xx. . . 22 66 xiii. 13 . . . .. . . . . . . . 61 xl. . .20 7. 65 . . 88 . . . . 20 m i i 21 X ! ! 10 36 v. . 38. . . . . . . . . . 83y43 84 x x i i . . 88 xviii. 18 91 xxiii. . 72 vi . 1 3 ~ 2 5 ii. . . . . . 17 . g 87 xii. . . . . . . . PAGE a . 89 xxiv. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv 24 xv. . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . 61 . . 61 1. . . . 23 xxxl.8. . . . . xviii. .) . . 37. . . . . .. . . 43 . 57 . . . . 36 xix . 84 . 9 11 27. . 18 x x i . . .23. 14 . . 16 . . 68 . 26 . . . 10. . . . 6 . . . xxvi xxvi 14 xxvi. . . 22 . . 22 . 61 . . . . 16 h: 32 . . 24 iii 7 iii 17f iii 21 iv I iv 2 iv 10 . 26 28 xxii . 70 xix. 39 xliii. 46 xii. 89 v1. 6. 8. 61 1. . . . . 7 39. 26 . 10 . . . g xxiv. . 23 47 xviii . .25 . 80 xiv. 24 80 xxiii . 39. 13 . . 32 xxv1. . 83. . . 13 . . . 43 xxx. . . . . . . . . . . 86 xvii. 12 15~77 xxiii. . xxvii 41 xxvii 46 xxix. . . 10 xviii. . . . . .INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES EXODUS (cont. . . . . 10 (Heb. . . . 32 . . . . 22 . . 6. 65 xxiv. . 35 xu .5ff. 8 . . 79 .) 24 .6 . 14 xxiv n . 12 67 xix 5 82 xxvi. . . . 40 . . . . . 47 20 xxii. .15ff. . . .. . . . . . . . xliv . 35. . x b.. . 14 . . . . . . g xxi. 1-4 . . . . g . 7 xviii. .V. . 28. . . 33. . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 70 . . 64 xlii. . 15 xv . . . 71 viii . . . . 44 xxx. . g 6 8 . . . . 22 . . . 7 xlv. . . .. . . 27 ff. . 34f xxvii 2 mii 3 xxvii g xxvii. . . . . . 6 . . . . . 46 . . .. . 35. . . . PAGE xxiv 46 xxiv 53 xxiv. . . . . . . 6 xxix 6ff. . . . xxxviii 86 .. . 2 . 16 iv. . 62 H . . 45 . . . . . . . . . . . 62 ii. . . 18 xlviii . . . . . 13 . 51 . . . . . 30 i i. . . 20 . 7 . . . .31ff . . . . . . 34. . I I 58 29 xvii. . . . 37 . 57. 15 38 vi. 8 . 31 m v . . . . xur. . . 16 . . . . . . 44 33' . 28 . . 27 48 xi . no xxxviii . . . 38 xiv.40 . 46 xxi.. . . . . 11 . xv. 8 . 50 m . . . . . . xxii. . 7. . . . 43 62 xxxl. . . . 43 xiv 21 38 I 38 xxv .2 . . I 48. 41 xvii. . . 89 xviii. . . 6 . . . . 6 (Heb 5) 68 xix. . 71 . . 13-20 . . .42 . 13ff xxix. 7 . . g xxxii: 25. . . . 74 . . 50 . . 50 . . . 17 xlii. 25 . . . . . . . '5 xxxiv. 68. . . 71 xxvi. . . 47 xxiii. . 25 iv 26 v 29 vi . . . . . . . . 19 64 xviii I 2 43 xxii . . 12 . . . . . 19 . .24 . . 11. . 54 60 x . . . 62 xlv. . .. 28 xviii. . . . . . . 14 xii. . . . 82 xxx. .1b2r 13 xxxiv . . . 30 .38 32 xxi. 26 xxv. . . 16 19 viii . . yh 69 xxxvi! . . . g . . 18 2 . . . . . 17 xxxv11. . 22 .. . 32 . 72 . . . . . . 7 . 43 xiii. . 21 xxxiv. 35. . . . . . . . 30 xvii 16 59 34y xxiv . 89 . . xv:ng 89 xi.. . 36 xvi. . . . . 8 xxxviii. . . . . 20 xxi. . 7 0 ~ 8 0xxv 5 . 20 EXODUS xviii. .68. . 91 xxi. . 94 xii. . 17 xxxix. . 46 17 xliii. 83 10 xx: 25 83 xvii. . . . xlix . 35 32 i . . 61 . . . 2 77 xviii. . 68 ii. . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 ~ 2 6 . . . . . . . . 18 xlv. . . PAGE . 50 iv. xl .67. . . . . 3 xiii 2 xiv. . 15 . 94. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 24 . 39. . . 41 xx . . . 5 . . . 71 xxiii 15 . 29) . . . . 27 28. . . . . . 52 xiv. . . . . . . .23. . 16f. . . . . . 50 .. . 19. . . . . . . . . 13 74 xi . . 69 xxxvii. . . . . . 25 . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . off. . . . . . 19 . . . 11 . . 62 . 46 xliii. 22 xi. . 20. . . . . . . . 56 37. 24 91 xxi . . . . 71 vii. 5 . .29 14 xvi. . . . I I xxvii. 34 . g . . 23 . . . . . . 25 . . .2. . . . 23 . 18 . 17 xli . . 44. 17. . 6 . . . . . g ~ 1 . 62 xxxv .4. . . 19 . . . . . . . . 38 74 xvi. . . . . . . 69 . . 28 LEVITICUS xxiv . . . . .2 . . . . 34. g . 19 10 xxii. 58 ?v 59 xxlv. 60 . '3 xx1. . 13 47xix. 8 33 xx: 19 . 3 18 xix. . 16 94 xxix. . .g-17. . 39 xxxv . . 43 . . . 38 . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . .38. . . . 16 iv. . . . 17ff xxvii. . I 5 xviii. xvii. . . . 41 xxxvii 75 . 52 ! v . 8 . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . 4 ' 0 7 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES GENESIS i. 69 i. . . 15 13 xviii. . . g 19 viii . g 64 iv. 14 xiv 15 xiv. . . 15 ff xx? . 3. 20 xix . 36 xxiii. . . . 23 ii. . . .. 2 . 51 . . 69 . P2 . 71 xl . 24 . m xxxvu.. 18 66 xi . . . . . 6 39 xxxiv . . . . . 88 xiv. . 38. . . xxix 11 xxix . . . 28 . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . 33 ii. . . 3 74 xxv. . . . . .8-12 . 24 xix. . . 7 xii. 71 xiv. 13 (Heb.31 . 43 . 41. . . . . . . . . 32 . . . 37 " 15 . . . 6 . . . xxx? 38 .24 43 xi . . . . . . . 72 xxv: 7 . . . . 44 -27 xviii. 23 36 xi . 61 . . 13 62 x k . . 26 38 xiii 23 40. . 7 . 19 52 xi . . . .10 . 2 . . . . xxxviil. 10 . .. . 19 66 xi. I3 . 26 ii. I 1-20 39 (Heb. . 5 .. 72 xxxiii. . . .16 . 32 . .61. . . . . . 85 xxiv.. 20 mix . 39 47 xxii. 18 . 14 40 iv. . . . . . . 47 74 xxii. . . . 20 . 12 . . . . . . . g 68. . . . . . . .14. . 12 29 xv . . . .4 . 7 xix. . . . . . . 46 h i . 15. 81 xxii. 80 xvi. . . 56 . . . no . . . . . . . 87 xxii. . . 15 xx!: 14. . . 16. 7 xxix.. . . . . 3 35. . 25 xxxvi. . 36. . 8 xxii. 11 ii. . . . 25 (E. . . xxiv. . . 80 xlix. . 74 xxxiv. 34 xxiv. . . . . . 69 . 74 xxiv. . . 61 . . . . . 20 xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 xxxviii 19 18 . . 18 xlii. . . I 1. 14) 28. . . . . 9 . . xxiv. . . 22 iv. 36 xxiv. . . .. . PAGE . . . . 23 xxx. no i. 12 . . . . 36 xxxi. . . . 14-16 . 14 . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 30 xxiii. . .15 . 87 xxxv:-28 .7. 10. . 7 93 NUMBERS xxiii. . xxiv. . 17 . . . 57 . .. . . . . .22 40 i. 59 xxii. . 21 viii. 22 . . .. 15. . 52. . 39 xliii. 81 xxiii. .4. . . 93 xxviii. 71 xii . 67 xxv . 36 . 7 .. . . . 47 ii.. 19 &X 40 xxii .8 . . . . iv 20 iv 21 iv. . . . 4 3 . 14-16 . . . . . . . . . xx. 24. 15. . . . xlvi. . 67 xxii . . + . . 48 xxl. 98 xix. . . . 28 52 xi . . 37 . . 88 xii. . . . . . . . . 72 iii. 7 . . . . . .9. . . . . . g. 26 . . 6. . . . . 94 + . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .. . . 39 xi . . .37. . . gg . : : . . . 3 . 32. 20 40 xxii. . . . . 4% 44 . . . . 47 . . . . . 51 i. 85 xi . a -RONO~ I . . g xv: 17 xvi I X . . 52 xxxiv. 57 xxiii . . . . . . 5 . 16 . . go xvi. . . 14 39. 48 . 10. 25 60 xiii. . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . g . 20 43 v: 17 . . . . 4-8 .34 . . .. . 4 ff 64 xxii. . . . . 29 i . . . . . 26 . . . . 1 9 . . . . . . . . 45 . 18 xlii 2 . 62 ii. . . . 13f f 53 xxii. . . . . . . . 36 xxiv. . xxix 22 39 xi .26 . 55. . . . . . 30 89 xix. . . . 52 . 16 . . 21 60 xxi . . . 18ff.
44 xuviii. . . 46 xi. 19-21 . . . 34 . 16 . . . . . 18 xiii. . . 18. . . . . 40-51 xvii. . . . 26 i. 60 xiii. . . . .52. . . . . 7 . . 11(Hcb. 21 . 73 4. . . . . . . . 12f. . . . 10 xv.6. . . . . 34 xvii. . . . 8 JOSHUA xiv. . 23 . . 4 . 3 . . 58 xii. 18f. . 17 v. .17 . 4 . . . . 26 vi. 4 . 8 xxix.39 . . . . 53 iv.21 . . . 59 xx11 .40 .. . . . 62 v.31 . 56 xvii. . . . 3) 39. 14 . 43 xiii. 6 f. . . . . . . . g . 85 i . 28 . . . . 16 . 57. . . . . . . . . . 83 iii. . . . 20 m 1 V 20 V vl 2&GS v l I 10 . . 35 iv. . 42 . . . . . . 2f. . . . . 48 4 . 1 6 ~ 2 0 ii. . 57 #. 10. 51ff. . 38 . . . . . 61 i. . 6 .30. .14 . 8 . . . go . 11 xxvi. xvii. 8 . 59 xriii . . . . 31 . 60 xiv. . . . . 5 . . 22f. 28. . 2. . . . 25 . . . 42 i. . 20 .) PAGE PAGE 11. 33 xv. 17 xxi. 56 xvi. . . 8 m. . . . 35. 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . . . 28 . . . 47 viii. .46 . . . . . 68 xvi. .3 . . . . . 90 v. 3 . . 89 xiv. . 38 xmii . . . . . . 28 . jv. I II X 10 II 20 X X X 21 X I 21 I II XV I X V ! XIV 10 II 10 12 X+ X? 20 II 20 I2 12. 3. 26 i.22 . . . . 34 . . 14 . 27 .2 . . . . . . 16 . . 03. . . . . . . . 1-3 . 15 xx. . . go x . . . .18 . . . . . . ~f. . . 60 . 60 i. . .. 11 . . . . . . .6.V. . .61. 21 iv. 74. 51 . . . xvii. . 47 viii. 41 xv xv. . . . . . . go v . . 20 nr. . . 4 4 4 6 . xj. . 47. 20) . 25 xx. . . 16 xii. . 68 viii. . . . . . 19 ii. . . 15 . 39 iii . . . . 5. 35 xiv . . 20 f. . 38 xmii . . 69 xiii. 60 xx. 2 1 . .3 . . . . . . .4 . . . . . 4 . 37 x!n. . . . . . . . viii. go xv. . 86 .g. . 24 . 74 xiv. . . 53 ii. . . . 86 . . 81 i. . 59 xxii. . 19 . . . 59 . (LXk) . . . . 68 . . . xxi. go i xvii. . 33 f. 13 . 30. 32 . . . .3 xxv. . . . . 28 . . . . . 7 iv. . 39 xxi. . 91 vii. . 23 f. . . . . . . . 30 iii. 5 . . . 3' . 60 i. 39 xxjii. . . . . . . vii. . . . . . . 39 xx+ gg . . 15 11. . 10 .6. 18 iv. . . . . . 16 . . . . . . I7 . . 6 . m v. j: 24 . . . . . . 71 53 KINGS x x . . . . . 58 2 S A M U E L i. . . . 26. . . 14. 17ff. . 13 . . . 16 . 11 . 36. 28 . .21 . 4 . 11 . 52. . 92 ii. . . . 18 xxiv. . . . . . . . . 88 xvii . . 15 . . 58 xx. . 47 xvii. . 57 xiv .10. 29 . 35. . 37 . 34 . 14 . . . 51 xvii xvii. . . 13 . . 13 . . . .5 viii. 41 i . . 57 xvii. 14 viii. . 5. . 9 xxxii. . . . 22 . . 25 xix. 16 . . . 41 27 . . 88 . . . . . . . . 21. . . . 2 0 xxviii. 37 iii . . 34) . n . 39 .8 . 87 X . . . . . . 14 . INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE ' 0 9 PAGE . . . 71 xv. . . . . 21 xix. ff. . .24 . 19 . 56 63 xi. . . . 34 . 12ff. . . . 24 iv. 6 (E. . 86 . . . . xxii. 60 viii x. . . 85 i. 66 . . 23. 1-6 . 23 xxviii. . 19 . 33 (Hcb. 5 . . 64 xxii. . 2 . . . 57 xiii. . 59 ii. . 7 xxix. .V. 60 i v . 31 .. . . 12ff.18 . 55 . . 3 3 i x . . . 4 . . . . 17 xvi. . . . .18 . 24 . 86 ix. 28 . . . . 41 vii. . 13 . 51 27 .31 . 63 xviii. . . . . xvii.. . . . 17-27 . . 32 . 21 iv. 63 xviii. . .46. .48 . . . . 87 6 . . . . . . 36. . 35 xv: 14 . 6) . . 27 . . . . . . 47 iv. . 60 iv.4 xxv. .33 xxll . . . . . 13 . . . . 57 . 27 . 87 . 25 . . . 35. 2 . . . 34 xi. .8 . . 48 xiv. . . . . 6 . . 41 xix. 10f . . . . . i+ 54 XI . . 41. . 12 . . n . 35 iii. . . . 37 iv. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . .13. 13 . . . . . . . . . . 39 xxl. . . . . n ff. . 28. 59 51 . .28 . . . . . . . 57. . . . I . 37. . 28 xxiii. . . . . . 57 xii. . . . . 37 . 58 . . 27 . . iv. . 57. L xxv. 18 xiv. . . 21. I .21 . xi. . . . 41 xix. . 82 i . 39. . 52 viii. 51 xxuii. 16 . 5 . . 32 . . 59 xx. 64 . 20 xviii. . . 8 . . . 30 . . 4 ix. . . 86 v. . . 24 . 59 xiv. 31. . 84 xxi. . g. . 13 vii. . . . 21 xix. 33 v. 34. . 25. . . . 7 ii. . . . .22-4. .32 . . . .g . 7 . 26 xiv. PAGE 68 81 94 68. 18 . . . . 26. . . 22 . . 26 i. . . . . . . . 26 ix. . .25) 86 "5 . 53 iv.I 08 DEUT (cont. . . xviii. . . 55 I. I . 31 . . .18. . 57. . . . 46 xvi. . . . . . 67 iii. . 31. . . . 51 vii. off.3 (iXX). 7 . xix. 1 1 . . . . . . 8-12 . 5-7 . xxviii. . . 32 . . . 36 . . 42 ii. xix. . . 27 ix. 61 viii. 20 RUTH xv .14. . . . 34 .23. . . 60. . 74 xix. . 59 j. 60 xvii. . . . . . . 69 ix. . . . . . . . 19 . 17 . 9 . 20 . 94 xviii. . . . g f. . . . iv. 89 ii. . xviii. 26 vii. . x 1 x I 10 21 22 2. . . . . 18 . . 43 ix. 47 xvii. . 1 . 50 . 41 xvii. .26 . 52 i . .. 37 xxij. 21 . . . . . . . . . xxviii. . v. v. . 2 . 80 xiv. . . . . . . 51 xi11. . . 52 . 8 xxv. . I I xxv .. . . 17 . 56 xiv . 45. 13 . . 26 . 13 xiii. 55 iv. 15 xv.21 . 1g . . . . 57. 25 . 55 5 . . . .V. . . . . 75 iii . . . 51 . . . . .48 ix. 44 xxvii. . . . ng . 17 . 28 .5ff. 23 . . . 87 iv. . 16 . . g . 47 xiv. .8. 10 . PAGE Q .11 . . . 7 . 44 x . . . . 2 . . . 81 ii. . . 2-5 . . 27 m . . 8 (E. xxiii. 12 xxv . 56 xi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . I . 59 . . . . . . .2. . . . 38 vii. xv. . . . . . 18 xxvi. . 18 . . 31 . . . . . . . 53-7 . . . 23) . . . 58. . . . . . . . 26 xiv. 80 ii. 14 . . . . . g JUDGES xix. 2) 35. . . 55 . 45. 59 i. 16 iv. . . 7 ii. . . . 53 . 51. 42 xxviii. . . . . 59 iii. 23 . 84 . g . 87 . .13 . . . . .23 . . 47 xiv. . 7 . . 35 . 71 v. . 5 . . . . . . . .4 . . 35 . . . . 27. . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . 52 jv . . 20 . 23 iv. 30 .4. 24 . . . 32 . . . 42 . . 11 . 6 . 18 . 63 xiv. . . 55 . 57 28 xvi. . . . . . . 15 ii. 13 . 8 . 33 xvii. . 6 . . . 20 xxv. . 9 i . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . xviii. 27 . 45. . .. 19 xi. . 23 xiii. . . . . 6 . . . . . . 16 iv.21ff. g v. . . . . 51 iv. 11-17 . . . . . . . . 23 (Hcb. . . . 17 . . 21 ii. .4 f. 10 ii. 39. xi. . xii. . . 62. . . 35. . . 9 xv. .. . 59 . . . 7 xi. 21 . . . . 26 . . . . 50 . . . .4f. . 19 . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . 67 ii. . 18 xxviii. . . . . 3 (E. vii. . . 16 . 1 3 . ff. . 25. 88 vii. 6 . 25. iv. . . 52 iii . .4 . 27 xx: 44. . . . . . . . . . 18 xxvii. . . . . 24 XXX I S A M U E L (c 0nt. . . 16 viii. 31 . go xii. . . . . n . . . 75 xL. 38 . . . 48 . . . . . 60 iii. . . 31. . . . . . . . g iii. 1 3 ~ 1 7 xx . 19. 84 xviii. 51 39 vii. . . 24 . 2 xxv. 47 11. 1 1 . . . 26 iii . . . 5 . . . 60 xvii. . . E. . . . . . . 7 . . . 19 vii. . . 52 XVI . . . . . . 20 . 45. . . . 51 xx. 22 . .20 . xvii. . 43 . 52 xii. . . . . 6 . 14ff. 2 ?. . . 35 + . .. 63 xvii. . I . . 20 . . . 70 19 48 16 24 76 84 44 83 14 42 89 74 vi 19 vi. .5. . . 14 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . ix. . . 16. 18 . . 16. 49. 91 i. . . . . 14ff. . 31 xvii. . . . . . . 14 . 2 I . . 57 xiii. g . g . . . 57 1 S . ( H b. . . 10 . 59 . . . 24. 26 v.21. 21 iv. . . . xviii. . . 11 xviii. .11. 4 . . . 51 . . 23 . 7. . .. i6. . 24 iii. . . . . . . . . 47 i.7 . . . 8. . . . . 61 xvii. 7 L.4. 84 . . . . . . .V. .15 . 28) . . . . . . . . . . 30 . 45 xvii. . 7 xv. . 52 . 15 . . 82 xvii. . . 47 xvii. .5 . . 38 . . . . . . 51 . . 35 xviii. 6 . 4. . .25.) xxiv 19 xxiv. . . . 18 . . .8-14 . 19 . 25 . 36 . 44 v. . . xxv. . .g . xviii. 64 i. . . 17 xx. 88 ix. . . . 32. 81 xiv . 51 . . 52 i. . . . 84 mriii.
78 . 48. . . . . . 5 . iv V.2 40~64 16. . . x1. . . .6. . . . 64 50 iv. . . . . . I4 64 xxvi.29-32 =v 2 0 xxv:13 T .3 . . . . .4 v . . . . . . cxli 3 . cxli. 81 xxxix. 42 . . . . . . . . .. 4 ix 13 25 xxxiii. 57. . 86 . 2 viii. .15 vi.8 . . . . .16 9 vi. .12 xviii. .. . . vi. viii.. . . 24 JOB xxi. . v ~f . . 47 47 63 47 47 ISAIAH i. . . 3 xi. . . . . . . . . . 7 vii. . 59 . 89 . . . . . . . 18 ix . .27 27 xxi. . . 8 . . . .2 . . . . . . 20 F 17. . 61 . . 5 7 . . 37 . 16 2 5 2 6 xlv. xxi.6 45r iii. . . I (2) xiv. 15 xii. . . 32 86 xxxk . 30 49 EZRA 75 xli. .2f .10. . . 10 xxxi. 3 ff.7 cloaii. . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . 1-9 19 X .10. 2. . . . 2 f 58 xix. 17 lxvi. . . . . . 12. . . 18 58 xxviii. .g xxii 6 xxii 28 xxiii. i. . . . . . . 3 83 xx. 6-11 . . 51 . .6 . . . . . . 22 4 . .. . 2 26 xvi. 6 f. 77 11. . . . . g. . . 6 29 lxxxi. . . . . 6 i 8 . 18 . . . . 12 v: 7 12 xxvii. . . 46. I . . . . . 88 . . xx. . . 25. . .5ff. . . 69 . . 80 . . . . . . . 24 iv 24 60 xxii. . 13. . . . 15 . . . 64 76 PROVERBS i. 63ii. . . . . viii. . . 20 18 iii. . . 7-11 . . 16 . . . . . . . . 23 f. . . . . . . . . 18 . . . 63 . xi. 26 xvi. . . . I X xxxviii. .12 . 16 vi. . . . . . . . . . . . S . 25 ?: 30 ??. 85 . . . I 0 42 xii 3.I. . 12 V111 I . .17. . . . 34.19 xxv 8 . . . . xi . . . . . . . . . g . I . . .gf. . . .6. 25. . . 52. . . . .10. . .n. cl.2. . 10 xxiii. . 5 . . . . 47 . . . . . . . 56 . v. . . . . . xvi . . . 8 3 d i. . .12 iv. . xxiv. . . . . 20 47.. . . . . . 56 . .1. v . . . . . . . . . . . 84 . iii. . xxii. . . 63 . . I 15 iii.12. 80 . . . . 85.13 V. 75 6 . . . . 9 . . . . . 22 xix. . .. . . . 76 11. . I I 72 . .7 . . . . 3 . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . 5 3 . . .5) . 26 iii 15 51 xxv 14 84 vi. . . . . . . . . . . 39 64 1i xiii. 8 . . . . 14 vi . . xxxi 6 xxxi. . . . . . . . . .. . . 1 1 19 lxuxii.8 viii. 25 xxvii. . . . XVII 3 xvii. 52 2 CHRONICLES xxvii. 5 . . . .3. . . xi. xv . 14 .4 XX. 16 xix I . . . . X1. . 7. . xxvii. . 80 40 1 X: IV 87 viii. . . . 47 85. . . . . G. . . . . . . . 21 88 xxviii. . . .37 70 iv. 89 q: . .9-11. 31vii. . . . . 4 . . . . . . 24 . 8 .27. . . . 4 11.I 10 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE III PAGE 2 Kmos (cont.7. . . 6 5I ix 12 29 X . . . . . . 14 53 xxxi. . g xvi. 14 . . .4(E. . 17 62 CXiY . . . . . . .2 "3 'x. . 62 . . 91 . . xx. . . . . . . 12f 25. 25 60. . . 62 . 85 . vii. xxiv. . . . 13 xviii. . . . 18 . . . 85ii. 43 xii. . . . . . . . . 87 . 25.. . 40 iv. . 10 cxlix. . 68 . . xiv. .. . . . . . xxii. .6.. . . . . . . . I 0 . 49 iv. . . 15 xxvii . . . .. . 29. . 8 . . . . .40. . . . I 6 18 xi. . . . . 25 . . 69 . . 17 18 xvi. I I IV 42 35 m 27 xxi. .11 xvi. . . . 89 . 59 ~ v i i . . . . . . . . 39 . . . 11 43 xxv 12 61~65 v. . . . 21 xxxi. . iii 12 . 3 cwmiii. . 83. . . 26 xxvii. 14-16 . . . 17. . . xiv . . . . . 42 ix 36 6 ix. 69 . ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i . 52 31 . . . .5 liv.. . . 64 . .. . . . . . . . . . 51 . . 63 . . . g 19 xxviii.. . . i . . . . . . . . 4 iii. 1 1 4 . 8 . . 84 . . .. 64 xliv. . . . . . . .4 . . xiv. 18 . . . 28 19 xxi. . .33 xvly2 . . . . . . 40 . . . . . v. 64 . . 5oii. . 18 . . 39. 71 . . 81 xxxv. . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 51 AV xvi 3 . . . xxii. . . . .15 . . .5 xii 10 . . .14 1 .. . . x. . . 2 . 29 . . . . . S xxiii 12 75-:6 ii. . . . . . . . . . v. 93 . . . . . . . . 16 ix.. . . . . . s8 vii. . BI . . . 3 . . . . 84 . . . . . 5ff vii. . . . . I 2 . . . 49 it. . 18 .25ff. . . . . . . .13. . . . v.7 . . . 12 . 2 . . 7 .4 iii. 15 .) PAGE PAGE iii. .) cxxix. . . 14 xxiii. 10 . 8 . . 34 64 xlv . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5 .10 xviii 31 ESTHER lxviii 23 xviii 32 i . . . . . . . . . xiu. .22 . . . 19 60 iii. PAGE 68 26 41 41 48 11 64 57 84 51 64 51 89 10 . . . '7 ii 8 46 vi. . . . .. . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . ~ g f f 13 xvi . 50 iii. . 59 . . . . 4 . 47. . xiii. . . . . 16 . . 84 . . . 15 . . . 34 . . . . .. 62 xxx . 21 OF SOLOMON SONG . 29. . . . . . . 89 . . . g . 67 . . I f xxiii. . . . . . . 2 4 . 76v. . . iii. . . . 22 xxvii. . . . 16 iv 2 41 xvi. . .13 xxvi 23 . iii. . 99 xxiii. 41 . 9 . . i. . . . . . 76 v . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . 1 1. . . . . . 4 . . . . . viii. . 7 64 ii. v. . 29 iii .. 4-21 . . . . iv. 24. 70+. vii. . . . xv. 23 . 88 81 91 . . . . 24 ! v . 52 . .1 .. . . xx. . . . . .13 . . . . . . . 86 81 . . 8. .V. . 447 49 . .16. . . . . . . . 39 37 xxii:. . .. ... . 82 . . . 7 . cix. 30. . . . .27. 4. . 71 v. . . 14 xviii. . . . . . .22 .2 . . . . 84 . . . . . . .1 xx.28. . . 3 (Heb iii 35) xv 20 . . VI . . . . . . . . . xiii. . . 10 .80. 8 . . 18-2 I 19 xxviii. . . . . . 42 PAGE . .8 xviii.5 I CmomcLES iii 25 vi. 43 I . . 85 .17 . V 2 . . xiii. . . 75 23 . 79. 88 12 m . . m. 70 64 . 10. . . .. 51 57789 ECCLESIA~TEI I2 ii. . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . 10 . 2 . 6 42 xii. . . 15 xlv. . . 48 cxx. 5 28 X: 27 xxi.. ~ 8 ~ X. 1g . 747 viii.. . 33 vii. . 22 . 12 viii. 21 . 13 v . . . . g f. 50 . .5 . . 30 . . . . . . . viii. 39 . 26 N E H E ~ XI. .29 =. 21 vi. . 68 57 xiv. 37 i . 4 . 51 PSALMS (cont. . 49 48 . 51 v. . . . 2 . . . 3 0 . . 19 60 xxxv 24 53 d 1x. . . . 19 iv. . . 1 vii. 7 60 iii 11 xiii 7 iii. . . . 30 . . . vii. . . . . . 20 cvii 16 xxi 13 .. 21 &i . . . . . . . v. 10 78 xiii 27 30 v. 41 . . 19 31 xiii. 13 xxxi 19 xxxi. 32 . . . . . 67. . 61 ii. .. . . . . 79v. . . . . . . vii. . . .. . . . . . 31 xii. . 25.24. . . . . . . . . 27 xxx: 33 7 . . I7 ii 16ff iii. . . 32 xlv. 34 . . . . . . . . 26 xxviii. . 12 . . . . 32 4gxci. ix. . . 24 . . . . 4 2 ~ 1 . 37 . . . 45. 2 3 . . .8 X k . vii. . . . 40. 22 . . . 20. . . i . . . 26 53 xxviii. . . . 80 43. xxii. . xvi . 16 40 lx. . 5 . 10 i II i . iv. . . . . . 86 . . . . .4. . . . ix. . . . . . . .84 . . . 6 cxlix.1ff . . . . . 17 xxvii. . . 18 10 xiv. . . . . 84 . 24 80 . xviii. . 10 19 xvi . . . . 56 V . 78 33. . 3 51 xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . 31 12 30 . .2g. . .6 xvi. . . .23 iii. 37. .6 viii. . 15 . . I ix 10 64 xxx. 13 ii.11. n cxxxiii 3 cxli 2 . 31 xvi. . . . . . . . . . 16 i . . . 69 . . 25 i. . g ix. . . :2 . . 37 . 30 . . 23CXXm. . 1 2 . g1 . Q vi. . 50. . 4 . . . 42jv. . . . . 3 .3f. . 13 xvii 24-41 xii. x v i . .
39 xlv. ii. . xxxiv . . . . 11 . . xm. 8 . . . .V. 8 . 13 . . . . 59 vi . 5 . . 3 . . . . . 83 ii. 11. 13 . 78 xli . . . . 72 xxxvii. . . 7 . g . 10 . 24 . i. . . 89 ii. 48. . . . 74. g. 83 xviii. . . . 39. . . 89 xxviii. 16 . 64 xiii.27 . .52. . 15 iv. . . . . . . . 10) . . g xviii. . . . . 4 . . . 24 xvii . . . . . . . I4 xxxvi.. . . 13 xvi 19 . . . 52 xxxii: 14 . . . . . . . 19 . . 12 . . . ii . . 4 . 2 . . 53 xlv! . I . .43 1x. 89 xli. 31 xi. . 70 . . 63 xxviii. .58. 69 . . . . 4. 70 xxx. . . . 39 11. xxii. . . 16 . . 34 . 86 X . xiii. . . 13 . 13) . 12 f f xliv. . . . . .16 9 iii. 82 xlix. 16 . g . 1 6 ~ 6 0iv. 4. . . . 7 vii. . vi I . . . . 80 xxii. . . . . 14 . 12 . . 88 xliv. . 82. . .23 . . 68 1. 83 ix. xxv. . 52.7. . 89 xxxvii. . . 85 xxxv. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 U . iv 2 . . . . . . . .. . . I I . . 7 . 9. . 3 . . 22 . 15 . . . . . . 83. . .3. . . . 47 viii.15 .7. 71 . : i 48 ii. 88 xxxviii. . . . . . . xiv. . 2~ . 60 Ixvi. . I . . 12 . . 22 . . .20 14 iii. 22 . . . . . . . . . 45 li. 5. xxvii. . 46. . 31. 10 . 87 xiii. 83.3. . 83 ix. . 47 . 12 lx. . 69 lii. . . 48 xlvi. .81 '4 vii. . . 18 . . . 53 xliv. . . . 64 vii. .67. 84 ix. . 52 liv. vi .49. 87 . xxii. 27 13 iv. 3 1 ~ 8 2 xxxv . 23 . . . xiv. . . . . 10 xvi. 5 ~ . . 43 lviii. 10 (Heb iv. 7 . 29 . . . 17 . 25 (E. 29 . . I I .14 . . 61 11 I PAGE JONAH .15 89 iii.3 . 12 . 76 . . . 51 xxxiv. 7 . . 8 . OS . 3 . . . 20 . 83 vii. . 87 iv 7 . 35. . . 28 . 70 lix. . . . .. . 3 . g . 44 viii. . . . . . 68 Ixii. . 7 f. . 8 . . . . . 30 lviii. . . . . . xxix. . . . 12 56. . .8. . . iv. 80 xxx . . . . . . 65 xix . 47. . g xlvi. 29 . I . . 42 xlvii.. . . . 40' . 2 . . 30 . 19 iii.. . 83. . 19 . 14 viii. . 43 1x. . xiii. . . 21 . . . 24 xxxi. . 28 .. 63 . . 57 xvi. . . 6 . . . . . 17 . .14 . 12. . 15 . . . . 2 . 42 xxix. . 11 . . 5 2 . . . 19 . . . . 16 (Heb. . . . . . . 16.9 xii. 19 . . . . . xx. . . I xxx. . . . . . m i i . . . . . 71 . . . . .I 12 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE ISAIAH (cont. . 63 xlix. . . 43 xxv. . 64 ii. . . 14 51 v. . . 81 xix . . . 52 xlviii. . . xxviii. 81 xvi. 16) . . 22 vi. . 83 xxviii.g . MALACHI .30 . . . 8 iii. . . .22 . . . . . 2 . 2h i. . 8 . . . 8 . 24 . .4 "3 . . . . I I 2 23 DANIEL v. . . . . . . . . . 66. . . 2 I (Heb. . . 64 . . . 24 xix . . 23 . 87 lxvi. 10.4(EsV. 89 v 13 31. . . . . 24 . 29 . . 5. 16 . . 6 ii. . 24 .4 . 87 xxv. . . 48. . . 2 . . . . 20 xliv. .25 . . I . 38 vii. . . 3. . 6 . . . . . . 49 xxx!ii . . . . xiv.. 26 xxviii.iv. .4. . . . 93 ix. . 31 xli. 70 xxv. . 71 h i. . . 26) . . 22 . . 81 xxxvi. 6 . . . . 20 (E. . . . . . 12 . . 21 . 4 . xxxw.15 51 . 70 xxxvii. . . . . viii. . 11 . . xlv. . 69 lxi. . . vii. . 18 . xxiii. 87 iii. 48. . 12 xxvii. 40 vii. . 41 ii . 83 1. . 86 viii. . .2 iii. 58. . . 39 xlix. . 64 xli. 16-18 xxiv. . . . . 5-7 . 7 . . PAGE 46 . . ng . . 17 (Heb. . . . . 13(Heb. 7 i. .g . . 42 91 iii. . 4 . 18. . 5 iv. . . . 20 . . . . . . 82. g xxxiv. . 48. . 70 iv. 40 vii. 23. . 21 . 27 xlii. . . 48. . 65 i. 10 v. . . . iv. .6. . . xiii. iv. . I I . . 10 . . 6 . . xxviii. . . 67. . . . . . 18 =ix . 21 . I I (Heb. 17 . 88 xxxi. 77 xli . . 13 . . . . . .4 . 74 . 49. 32. . . . 11. 57 g . . . 2 . 47. . iii. . I 1 . m i i i . 11-14 . . 53 xxix. . viii. . . . 12 xxii. 13 . 46 liv. i . . xxiv. 2 . .52. 86 1. . 24 xxii.36. . . . 24 . . 34 xli . 4. . . 33. 16 .13 . . . . . . . . x. . . . . . xlvi. 60 xliv. . . .. 24 lxv. . . . 6 . . . 26. . 78 10 I 10 I X X PAGE LAMENTATTONSPAGE ii. . 33 v. . 16 . . 88 v. 2. . . . . . 23.) xxii. . . 86 Ixv . g . . 49 xxii. .xxi . . 21 . 4 0 ~ 6 4 xxviii. . . . . 35 ii . 14 v. . . 7 . . 60. . . ZECHARIAH iii. . . 12 41 ii. . xiii.4 . . . .15 . . 64 35. . . 57 iii. S 4gvi. . I I . . 6 . 59 i . . . 13 .8. . 63 xxxlv. 15 v. . . . 2 . . 81 xxxiv. 20) . 84 . . . . 22 . 5 . . . . . 16 . . . . . . 41 xxiv. . 10. 89 xxx . . 48. . 17 .35. 60. 15 . . . . 33 (He6. .8. 67 lxi. . . 63. . 82 xlviii. . g . 39. . . . 51 J xxxi. . . 86 viii. . . . 86 xlviii . 74 . . . . . 17 xliv 18 . 87 xxviii. 72 xlix. 1 xxxiv. . 12 iii. . . 62 xv. . 84 xxiv. . . 4 . . 18 .9. . 18 . 1 6 ~ 6 0 xlix . 21 f. 81 xxx . . . . . . . . 4 . 4 . . 9 iii. 47. 14 . 28. . 10. 10 . . 44. . . . . .33 . 2 . . . . . 40. . . . . . 93 vii. . 83 ii. . . 58 ix. 42 xl . . 8 i. . 52 xiii. . 12 . . . . . .10 78 vi. 27 h i . . . . 1 . ii ii. . . . 32 xlii. . . .44 . 12 xii . liv . 21 . . I.8. 69 viii. . 49. . . . xiii 4 . . . 4 . . . v. . 83 xxxiii. . 49. . . 70 xlvi. . 17 xxiv. . 5 . . 16 xxxi. 3 . g li. HOSEA i. . . 40. . .8 . 10 . 24 xiii. 2 iv. 27 . 57. . . . 39. . . . 13 . 4 . 20 . . . . 72 xviii. . . . 3 0 ~ 8 7 xxxviii. 12 . . . . I . . . 87 . 5. . I I . 82 xlvi. . . . . 13 . . 1g v . . 5 iii. 17 . . 6ff. 2 30. 37 . 18 . 10) . . . . 15 x x x . 59 MICAH . . . 83 xv . . . . . 25. . . . 40 .7 . . 24 . . . .8. . .13 iii. 15 xxiii. 6$ n d i 22 . . . 5 ix. 15 xvi.26 xxii. . . . 4 1.10 . I I . 7 . xxii. 40 JOEL . . .5 . . . . 9 xiii. . . . 13 xxviu. . . . 40 XXX. 6 . . . . . . 32) . . . v. 82. g . . . .V. . . I . . . 52 . 37 . 4 . . . 24 xlvii. . . . .V. 42 h . 76 y. . I iii. 16 . 10. . 10) 67. . 27.34 . . 2 v. 77. n . . 2 xxviii. . . . . . . 6 . xii . 35 xiii. g .12 . . 82 vii . . X: XI EZEKIEL iv. . . . . 26 x l7 ~ . . . . 1. g . . ' . . . 26.. 14 . 13 xxiii. . 5 . 20 . 86 vi . . . . . 62 xxxviii. . 67 xvi. . . . . . .3. 84 . . 20 xxxvi. . 8 ix. 3 . . . . 4 . . . 62 vi. . . . . . . 42.4 . 49 1x. . . . . g iv. . . I I . . 14 xxviii. 53 . . . 13 . 52 v . I I . . . . . 36 . 29 . . 63 i .3) . . 6 . . 53.9 I. . 13 e . . . g (E. . . . . 68. 10 xlvii. iv. 15 xii . 50 . . . . . I I xxxvii. . 47 1. . 89 xix. 42. . . 67. I . . . IX X: 11 . 8 . 72 . . 2 . . 53 xl . . 13 ii. . . .15 . . . 64 . . . . . 7. 8 ix. 14ff. .8 . . .. .29 . 8 . . . *.M. . 7 . . . . 23. . . 67 6 . . 8 .11 v 16 v. . . 12. . . . 2 viii. . . . . 78 xl .1 . 3 . .84. . . g xxiii.4 xvi. 18. 4j 24 63 6a = 24 7 40. . . 44ix. . . vi . 23 iv. .
. . 77 TO THE UNIVBRSITY . .4 . 7 ($3) PRINTER .. . . . 19 . PAGE BARUCH 62 vi.. PAGE 72 25 17 PRINTED I N .114 Tosrr v. GREAT BRITAIN AT THB UNxvsrtsITY PRHSS 75 75 OXFORD BY JOHN JOHNSON 8 J~PHUQ 30 Ant. . . xxiv. . 2 3 .. . 93 v i i .. . . 72 xvii.82 PAGE MA~THEW xvi. 37. 70 62 . . . . . xiv.17 A m . . . . . . .16. . X. vii. . . . . . X. 30 .16 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES xi. . . . . .. . . . .3.. 27 .
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