You are on page 1of 15


Necessity for transport in
• Transport water and minerals
• Water needed as an important
component of cells
• Mineral ions needed for chlorophyll
synthesis, growth and development
• Plants have less elaborate and slower
transport system than animals
Vascular Tissue
• Xylem and phloem form vascular
• Xylem: gives support and transport
water and mineral ions from root to
upper parts of plants. Movement of
substances against gravitational
• Phloem: transport organic food
substances synthesised by leaves
during photosynthesis
Structure of Xylem
Structure of Xylem

• In flowering plants: xylem mainly

consists of vessel, tracheids and
• Xylem vessels: long, hollow,
continuous tubes. The cell wall is
strengthened by lignin (provide
mechanical support). Vessel consists
of dead cells. No protoplasm in the
Structure of Xylem

• Conifers and ferns do not have xylem

vessels yet tracheids
• Tracheids: less efficient in conducting
water, do not have open ends. Water
pass from cell to cell through
openings called pits.
Structure of Phloem
• Transports organic food substances (sucrose and
amino acids from leaves to other part of the
• Phloem tissue: consists mainly of sieve tubes and
companion cells
• Sieve tubes: cylindrical tube consists of living
sieve tube cells. The cross-walls separated the
sieve cells are perforated by small pores. This
walls are called sieve plates
• No nucleus exists in mature sieve tubes
• Companion cells: found only in flowering plants,
adjacent to sieve tubes, has a nucleus, dense
cytoplasm and many mitochondria, helps to
transport manufactured food from leaf cells to the
sieve tubes.
Transport of Substances in
• Translocation: two-directional
transport of soluble organic food
• Transpiration: Loss of water in the
form of water vapour from the plants
to the atmosphere
• Transpiration creates a
transpirational pull, water creates
turgidity to the leaves cells and
Pathway of Water from Soils to
the Leaves
Root pressure Root pressure
Capillary action Capillary action
Transpirational pull Transpirational pull

Water Cell sap in root Xylem Vessel

Osmosis Osmosis

Find out what is guttation?

Factors Affecting Rate of
• Air movement: rate of transpiration
increases in windy condition
• Temperature: rate of transpiration
increases with temperature. Increase
temperature increase kinetic energy
of water molecules, water move
faster through stomata
Factors Affecting Rate of
• Light Intensity: Higher light intensity
stimulates opening of stomata. Sunlight
provides heat energy as so increases rate
of evaporation
• Relative humidity: High relative humidity,
low transpiration rate, low relative
humidity, high transpiration rate
• Find out how the process of opening and
closing of stomata that may influence rate
of transpiration