about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media Two classifications of advertising: 1. Institutional advertising – advertising that promotes organizational images, ideas, and political issues  Advocacy advertising – advertising that promotes a company’s position on a public issue 2. Product advertising – advertising that promotes the uses, features, and benefits of products Two types of product advertising:  Pioneer advertising – advertising that tries to stimulate demand for a product category rather than a specific brand by informing potential buyers about the product  Competitive advertising – tries to stimulate demand for a specific brand by promoting its features, uses, and advantages relative to competing brands Forms of competitive advertising:  Comparative advertising – compares the sponsored brand with one or more identified brands on the basis of one or more product characteristics  Reminder advertising – advertising used to remind consumers about an established brand’s uses, characteristics, and benefits  Reinforcement advertising – advertising that assures users they chose the right brand and tells them how to get the most satisfaction from it DEVELOPING AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN Advertising campaign – the creation and execution of a series of advertisements to communicate with a particular target audience Eight major steps in creating an advertising campaign: 1. Identify and analyze target audience  Target audience – the group of people at whom advertisements are aimed 2. Define advertising objectives 3. Creating advertising platform  Advertising platform – basic issues or selling points to be included in an advertising campaign 4. Determine advertising appropriation  Advertising appropriation – the advertising budget for a specific time period  Objective-and-task approach – budgeting for an advertising campaign by first determining its objectives and then calculating the cost of all the tasks needed to attain them  Percent-of-sales approach – budgeting for an advertising campaign by multiplying the firm’s past and expected sales by a standard percentage  Competition-matching approach – determining an advertising budget by trying to match competitors’ advertising outlays Source: Marketing, 2013 ed. (Ferrell, Hult, & Pride) v3.0  Arbitrary approach – budgeting for an advertising campaign as specified by a high-level executive in the firm 5. Develop media plan  Media plan – a plan that specifies the media vehicles to be used and the schedule for running advertisements  Reach – refers to the percentage of consumers in the target audience actually exposed to a particular advertisement in a stated period  Frequency – is the number of times these targeted consumers are exposed to the advertisement  Cost comparison indicator – a means of comparing the costs of advertising vehicles in a specific medium in relation to the number of people reached  Cost per thousand impression (CPM) – is the cost comparison indicator for magazines that shows the cost of exposing 1,000 people to a one-page advertisement Three general types of media schedule: 1. Continuous schedule – advertising runs at a constant level with little variation throughout the campaign period 2. Flighting schedule – advertisements run for set periods of time, alternating with periods in which no ads run 3. Pulsing schedule – combines continuous and flighting schedules: during the entire campaign, a certain portion of advertising runs continuously, and during specific time periods of the campaign, additional advertising is used to intensify the level of communication with the target audience 6. Create advertising message  Regional issues – versions of a magazine that differ across geographic regions  Copy – the verbal portion of advertisements  Storyboard – a blueprint that combines copy and visual material to show the sequence of major scenes in a commercial  Artwork – an advertisement’s illustrations and layout  Illustrations – photos, drawings, graphs, charts, and tables used to spark audience interest in an advertisement  Layout – the physical arrangement of an advertisement’s illustration and copy 7. Execute campaign 8. Evaluate advertising effectiveness  Pretest – evaluation of advertisements performed before a campaign begins  Consumer jury – a panel of product’s existing or potential buyers who pretest ads  Posttest – evaluation of advertising effectiveness after the campaign  Recognition test – a posttest in which respondents are shown the actual ad and are asked if they recognize it  Unaided recall test – a posttest in which respondents are asked to identify advertisements they have seen recently but are not given any recall clues Prepared by: Acidera, Jaypaul O.

Jaypaul O. Aided recall test – a posttest that asks respondents to identify recent ads and provides clues to jog their memories  Single-source data – a sophisticated technique used to evaluate advertisements by tracking individuals’ behaviors from television sets to checkout counters PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations – communication efforts used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and its stakeholders Publicity – a new story type of communication about an organization and/or its products transmitted through a mass medium at no charge Publicity-based public relations tools:  News release or press release – a short piece of copy publicizing an event or a product  Feature article – a manuscript of up to 3. (Ferrell. a readability study.0 Prepared by: Acidera. & Pride) v3.000 words prepared for a specific publication  Captioned photograph – a photograph with a brief description of its contents  Press conference – a meeting used to announce major news events EVALUATING PUBLIC RELATIONS EFFECTIVENESS Environmental monitoring – identifies changes in public opinion affecting an organization Public relations audit – is used to assess an organization’s image among the public or to evaluate the effect of a specific public relations program Communications audit – may include a content analysis of messages. . Hult. 2013 ed. or a readership survey Social audit – measures the extent to which stakeholders view the organization as being socially responsible Source: Marketing.

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