tinction between enemies who are sub ects o! a !orei"n "o#ernment$ an% are there!ore ca&&e%' alien enemies," an% those who are %eni(ens an% subjects o! the )nite% *tates$ an% bein" en"a"e% in ci#i& war$ are ca&&e%' public enemies. ' An a&ien owes no a&&e"iance or obe%ience to our "o#ernment$ or to our constitution$ &aws$ or +roc&amations. . A citizen subject is bound to obey them all. In refusing such obedience, he is guilty of crime against his country, and finds in the law of nations no justification for disobedience . An a&ien$ bein" un%er no such ob&i"ation$ is usti!ie% in re!usin" such obe%ience. O#er an a&ien enem,$ our "o#ernment can ma-e no constitution$ &aw$ or +roc&amation o! ob&i"ator, !orce$ because our &aws bin% on&, our own sub ects$ an% ha#e no e.tra/territoria& uris%iction. Over citizens who are subjects of this government, even if they have so far repudiated their duties as to become enemies, our constitution, statutes, and proclamations are the supreme law of the land. . The fact that their enforcement is resisted does not make them void. It is not in the power of armed subjects of the nion to repeal or legally nullify our constitution, laws, or other governmental acts.

*O)R0E1 The Le"a& 0&assics Librar, 2ar 3owers un%er The 0onstitution o! the )nite% *tates 1456 tenth E% Entere% b, Act o! 0on"ress In the 0&er-7s O!!ice o! the 8istrict 0ourt o! the 8istrict o! Massachusetts *+ecia& E%ition 199:.

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