Case Digest on De la Camara vs.

Enage 41 SCRA 1
November 10, 2010

The (Moot and Academic)Facts*: November 7, 196 ! Then Ma"sa#sa# Misamis $rienta% Ma#or de %a &amara 'as arrested and detained at the (rovincia% )ai% o* A"+san, *or his a%%e"ed ,artici,ation in the -i%%in" o* *o+rteen and the 'o+ndin" o* t'e%ve other %aborers o* the Tirador .o""in" &o/, on A+"+st 21, 196 / 1 da#s %ater, the (rovincia% Fisca% o* A"+san *i%ed 'ith the &F0 a cases o* m+%ti,%e *r+strated m+rder and *or m+%ti,%e m+rder a"ainst ,etitioner, his co1acc+sed Ta"+nan and 2a%"o/ )an+ar# 13, 19691 An a,,%ication *or bai% *i%ed b# ,etitioner 'ith the %o'er co+rt, ,remised on the assertion that there 'as no evidence to %in- him 'ith s+ch *ata% incident o* A+"+st 21, 196 / 4e %i-e'ise maintained his innocence/ 5es,ondent )+d"e started the tria% o* ,etitioner on Febr+ar# 23, 1969, the ,rosec+tion restin" its case on )+%# 10, 1969/ As o* the time o* the *i%in" o* the ,etition, the de*ense had not ,resented its evidence/ A+"+st 10, 19701 )+d"e 6na"e iss+ed an order "rantin" ,etitioner7s a,,%ication *or bai%, admittin" that there 'as a *ai%+re on the ,art o* the ,rosec+tion to ,rove that ,etitioner 'o+%d *%ee even i* he had the o,,ort+nit#, b+t *i8ed the amo+nt o* the bai% bond at the e8cessive amo+nt o* (1,199,200/00 (( 30,000/00 *or the 13 co+nts o* m+%ti,%e m+rder ,%+s (:99,200/00 *or the 12 co+nts o* m+%ti,%e *r+strated m+rder/) There 'as a motion *or reconsideration to red+ce the amo+nt/ 6na"e ho'ever remained adamant/ ;e %a &amara then *i%es a ,etition *or certiorari assai%in" 6na"e7s order and ,ra#s *or its n+%%i*ication/ March 9, 19711 6na"e ans'ers that set *orth the circ+mstances concernin" the iss+ance o* the above order and the other incidents o* the case, 'hich, to his mind, 'o+%d dis,rove an# char"e that he 'as "+i%t# o* "rave ab+se o* discretion/ 0t stressed, moreover, that the cha%%en"ed order 'o+%d *ind s+,,ort in circ+%ars o* the ;e,artment o* )+stice "iven sanction b# this &o+rt/ 4e so+"ht the dismissa% o* the ,etition *or %aco* merit/ March :1, 19711 both ;e %a &amara and 6na"e did not a,,ear at the hearin" 'ith ;e %a &amara, +,on 'ritten motion 'as "iven :0 da#s to s+bmit a memorand+m in %ie+ o* ora% ar"+ment, 6na"e in t+rn havin" :0 da#s *rom recei,t o* memorand+m to *i%e his re,%#/ ;e %a &amara s+bmitted the memorand+m on A,ri% 6, 1971/ Ma# 26, 197116na"e, instead o* a re,%#, s+bmitted a s+,,%ementa% ans'er 'herein he a%%e"ed that ,etitioner esca,ed *rom the ,rovincia% <ai% on A,ri% 2 , 1971 and had since been remained at %ar"e/ There 'as a reiteration then o* the dismissa% o* his ,etition *or %ac- o* merit, to 'hich ,etitioner co+ntered in a ,%eadin" dated )+ne 7, 1971, and *i%ed 'ith this &o+rt the ne8t da# 'ith this ,%ea: =The undersigned counsel, therefore, vehemently interpose opposition, on behalf of petitioner, to respondent’s prayer for dismissal of the present petition for lack of merit. For, the issue in this case is not alone the fate of petitioner Ricardo de la Camara. The issue in the present petition that calls for the resolution of this Honorable Tribunal is the fate of countless other Ricardo de la Camaras who may be awaiting the clear cut definition and declaration of the power of trial courts in regard to the fi!ing of bail/> * ?hi%e the *acts o* this case is moot and academic, it did not ,rec%+de the @& *rom settin" *orth in %an"+a"e c%ear and +nmista-ab%e, the ob%i"ation o* *ide%it# on the ,art o* %o'er co+rt <+d"es to the +neA+ivoca% command o* the &onstit+tion that e8cessive bai% sha%% not be reA+ired/ 0@@B6: ?A@ T46 AM$BNT $F CA0. $5;656; CD 6NA26 6E&6@@0F6G 46.;: Des #es #o -aba#oH @a#an" %an" at ,+m+"aIt+ma-as si ma#or, -a#a n"a moot (co+rt) J academic an" ,etition ;0@($@0T0F6: =?4656F$56, this case is dismissed *or bein" moot and academic/ ?itho+t ,rono+ncement as to costs/>

@&7s rationa%e *or reA+irement o* non1e8cessive bai%: 1/ Ce*ore conviction, ever# ,erson is bai%ab%e e8ce,t i* char"ed 'ith ca,ita% o**enses 'hen the evidence o* "+i%t is stron"/ @+ch a ri"ht *%o's *rom the ,res+m,tion o* innocence in *avor o* ever# acc+sed 'ho sho+%d not be s+b<ected to the %ass o* *reedom as therea*ter he 'o+%d be entit%ed to acA+itta%, +n%ess his "+i%t be ,roved be#ond reasonab%e do+bt/ 0t is not be#ond the rea%m o* ,robabi%it#, ho'ever, that a ,erson char"ed 'ith a crime, es,ecia%%# so 'here his de*ense is 'ea-, 'o+%d <+st sim,%# ma-e himse%* scarce and the *r+strate the hearin" o* his case/ A bai% is intended as a "+arantee that s+ch an intent 'o+%d be th'arted/ Nor is there an#thin" +nreasonab%e in den#in" this ri"ht to one char"ed 'ith a ca,ita% o**ense 'hen evidence o* "+i%t is stron", as the %i-e%ihood is, rather than a'ait the o+tcome o* the ,roceedin" a"ainst him 'ith a death sentence, an ever ,resent threat, tem,tation to *%ee the <+risdiction 'o+%d be too "reat to be resisted/ 2/ ?here, ho'ever, the ri"ht to bai% e8ists, it sho+%d not be rendered n+"ator# b# reA+irin" a s+m that is e8cessive/ @o the &onstit+tion commands/ 0t is +nderstandab%e 'h#/ 0* there 'ere no s+ch ,rohibition, the ri"ht to bai% becomes meanin"%ess/ 0t 'o+%d have been more *orthri"ht i* no mention o* s+ch a "+arantee 'ere *o+nd in the *+ndamenta% %a'/ Nothin" can be c%earer, there*ore, than that the cha%%en"ed order o* A+"+st 10, 1970 *i8in" the amo+nt o* (1,199,200/00 is c%ear%# vio%ative o* this constit+tiona% ,rovision/ Bnder the circ+mstances, there bein" on%# t'o o**enses char"ed, the amo+nt reA+ired as bai% co+%d not ,ossib%# e8ceed (90,000/00 *or the in*ormation *or m+rder and (29,000/00 *or the other in*ormation *or *r+strated m+rder/ Nor sho+%d it be i"nored in this case that the ;e,artment o* )+stice did recommend the tota% s+m o* (30,000/00 *or the t'o o**enses/ :/ There is an attem,t on the ,art o* res,ondent )+d"e to <+sti*# 'hat, on its *ace, a,,ears to be inde*ensib%e b# the a%%e"ed re%iance on Fi%%aseKor v/ AbaKo case/ The "+ide%ines in the *i8in" o* bai% 'as there s+mmariLed, in the o,inion o* )+stice @ancheL, as *o%%o's: =(1) abi%it# o* the acc+sed to "ive bai%M (2) nat+re o* the o**enseM (:) ,ena%t# *or the o**ense char"edM (3) character and re,+tation o* the acc+sedM (9) hea%th o* the acc+sedM (6) character and stren"th o* the evidenceM (7) ,robabi%it# o* the acc+sed a,,earin" in tria%M ( ) *or*eit+re o* other bondsM (9) 'hether the acc+sed 'as a *+"itive *rom <+stice 'hen arrestedM and (10) i* the acc+sed is +nder bond *or a,,earance at tria% in other cases/> 6na"e i"nored the decisive consideration a,,earin" at the end o* the above o,inion: =;iscretion, indeed, is 'ith the co+rt ca%%ed +,on to r+%e on the A+estion o* bai%/ ?e m+st stress, ho'ever, that 'here conditions im,osed +,on a de*endant see-in" bai% 'o+%d amo+nt to a re*+sa% thereo* and render n+"ator# the constit+tiona% ri"ht to bai%, 'e 'i%% not hesitate to e8ercise o+r s+,ervisor# ,o'ers to ,rovide the reA+ired remed#/> No attem,t at rationa%iLation can there*ore "ive a co%or o* va%idit# to the cha%%en"ed order/ Nor is there an# <+sti*ication then *or im,+tin" his inabi%it# to *i8 a %esser amo+nt b# virt+e o* an a%%e"ed re%iance on a decision o* this Trib+na%/ 6ven i* one 'ere charitab%# inc%ined, the mi%dest characteriLation o* s+ch a res+%t is that there 'as a c%ear misreadin" o* the AbaKo o,inion 'hen s+ch a meanin" 'as ascribed to it/ No doctrine re*inement ma# e%icit a,,rova% i* to do so 'o+%d be to red+ce the ri"ht to bai% to a barren *orm o* 'ords/

.M. No. RTJ-93-936 September 10, 1993 ALBINA BORINAGA, complainant, vs. JUDGE AMILO E. TAMIN, Re!"o#$% Tr"$% respondent.

o&rt, Br$#'( )3, Mo%$*e, +$mbo$#!$ ,e% S&r,

REGALADO, J.: In a sworn letter-complaint 1 dated November 20, 1992 filed by Albina Borinaga, erein respondent !"dge #amilo $. %amin of t e &egional %rial #o"rt of 'olave, (amboanga del )"r, Branc 2* was c arged wit grave incompetence and ignorance of t e law in connection wit #riminal #ase No. 92-10-*00 for m"rder, entitled +,eople vs. Antonio &"aya, et al.,+ w ic is now pending before said co"rt.

-n !an"ary 2., 199*, t is #o"rt re/"ired respondent 0"dge to file is comment and, "pon receipt t ereof, t e matter was referred to t e -ffice of t e #o"rt Administrator for eval"ation, report and recommendation. -n !"ly 21, 199*, 2ep"ty #o"rt Administrator !"anito A. Bernad s"bmitted a memorand"m ) wit t e corresponding eval"ation and recommendation, d"ly approved by t e #o"rt Administrator. % e records s ow t at an amended criminal complaint for m"rder 3 dated 'arc 3, 1992, or t e 4illing of erein complainant5s "sband, &egino Borinaga, was filed by t e # ief of ,olice of 2"mingag, (amboanga del )"r against Antonio &"aya, alias %ony &"aya6 &oberto !. &ada, alias %otoy6 $dwin &ada, alias Negger6 and !o0o 7alen8"ela before t e 29t '"nicipal #irc"it %rial #o"rt of 2"mingag-'a ayag, (amboanga del )"r, for preliminary investigation. It appears t at w ile t e case was pending wit t e said lower co"rt, a petition for bail - dated 'arc 2:, 1992 was filed by one of t e acc"sed, Antonio &"aya, before respondent !"dge #amilo $. %amin in Branc 2* of t e &egional %rial #o"rt of 'olave w ere it was doc4eted as )pecial #ivil #ase No. 92-:0,00:. In said petition, acc"sed &"aya averred t at e was a detention prisoner at t e '"nicipal !ail of 2"mingag, (amboanga del )"r6 t at e was c arged wit m"rder6 t at no bail was fi;ed by t e investigating 0"dge w o iss"ed a warrant of arrest against im6 t at e ad waived t e second stage of t e preliminary investigation, wit a reservation to c allenge t e criminal action against im6 and t at t e evidence of g"ilt against im was not strong, ence e was entitled to bail as a matter of rig t. Acc"sed &"aya prayed t at t e bail be fi;ed at ,20,000.00. In an order . dated 'arc 2:, 1992, respondent 0"dge ordered t e p"blic prosec"tor +to appear on 'arc *0, 1992 at 1<*0 in t e morning to present evidence t at t e g"ilt of t e petitioner for t e crime c arged =is> strong.+ At t e sc ed"led earing, t e p"blic prosec"tor failed to appear, by reason of w ic respondent 0"dge iss"ed an order 6 dated 'arc *0, 1992, granting bail to acc"sed &"aya in t e amo"nt of ,20,000.00 and olding t at<
?nder )ection 1* of Article III of o"r #onstit"tion it =is> provided t at @ +All persons, e;cept t ose c arged wit offenses p"nis able by Reclusion Perpetua w en evidence of g"ilt is strong, s all, before conviction, be bailable by s"fficient s"reties.+ ?nder t is provision of law, if t e prosec"tor fails to present evidence t at t e g"ilt of t e acc"sed is strong, t en t e acc"sed wo"ld be entitled to t e constit"tional rig t to bail. No evidence ave = sic> been introd"ced by t e prosec"tion to prove t at t e g"ilt of t e acc"sed of t e crime c arged is strong. Necessarily, t is co"rt find =sic> t at t e acc"sed is entitled to bail "nder )ection 1*, Article III of o"r #onstit"tion. AB$&$C-&$, finding t at t e acc"sed as t e rig t to bail, t e provisional liberty of t e acc"sed is set at ,20,000.00 bail =sic> as prayed for in t e petition.

-n t e same day, 'arc *0, 1992, !"dge 2ionisio #. Arriesgado of t e 29t '"nicipal #irc"it %rial #o"rt of 2"mingag-'a ayag, w o cond"cted t e preliminary investigation, iss"ed a resol"tion recommending t e filing of an information for m"rder against, among ot ers, Antonio &"aya, after said acc"sed failed to file is co"nter-affidavit and ot er evidence in is defense. % e resol"tion was affirmed by t e ,rovisional ,rosec"tor, as a conse/"ence of w ic an information for m"rder was later filed against all t e acc"sed wit no bail recommended. )"bse/"ently, t e p"blic prosec"tor, toget er wit complainant5s co"nsel, filed a +'otion to #ancel Bailbond =sic> and to Arrest t e Acc"sed,+ on t e gro"nd t at said acc"sed is c arged wit a capital offense, t e evidence of g"ilt is strong, and no bail was recommended in t e information. Bowever, on -ctober 9, 1992, respondent !"dge iss"ed an order denying said motion wit o"t cond"cting a earing t ereon. In is comment, w erein e essayed is position on t e controversy and w ic we /"ote at lengt to demonstrate is line of t o"g t and mode of ratiocination, respondent 0"dge averred<
1. % at on 'arc 2:, 1992, acc"sed Antonio &"aya filed a petition for bail wit t e co"rt of respondent in ),D #iv. #ase No. 30,01* =sic>, a tr"e copy of w ic , toget er wit t e anne;es, are ereto attac ed as Anne;es +1+ to +1-I+, based on t e gro"nd t at t e evidence of g"ilt is not strong. 2. % at on t e date of receipt of said petition, t e respondent iss"ed an order, a tr"e copy w ereof is attac ed as anne; +2+, re/"iring t e p"blic prosec"tor to appear on 'arc *0, 1992 at 1<*0 in t e morning to present evidence t at t e g"ilt of t e petitioner-acc"sed for t e crime c arged is strong.

t e prosec"tor =bot t e p"blic and private prosec"tor> admitted in open co"rt t at t e prosec"tion does not ave any admissible evidence against t e acc"sed Antonio &"aya6 . finding t at t e petitioner-acc"sed as t e constit"tional rig t to bail.rosec"tor did not appear.anabo.. e. alias +Negger+.. despite t e fact t at t e office of t e .rosec"tor wit its recommendations6 1.tra-0"dicial statement of is co-acc"sed &oberto !.rosec"tor on 'arc 29..9> % at co-acc"sed $dwin &ada. t e only witness against t e acc"sed Antonio &"aya. s"bse/"ently also filed a similar petition for bail w ic was not opposed by t e prosec"tion. 1992. % at t e prosec"tion is ma4ing m"c of its arg"ment in paragrap 3 and 9 of t e complaint t at t e respondent granted bail w en t e case against t e acc"sed &"aya was +still "nder preliminary investigation+ in t e '"nicipal %rial #o"rt.. on 'arc 2:. Neit er was t ere also any re/"est to reset t e earing of t e petition for bail to anot er date6 3. is a prisoner convicted for life for t e commission of robbery wit omicide =a crime involving moral t"rpit"de> in 7alencia. % e respondent also noted t at t e office of t e . +*+. in w ic cases.. % at before proceeding f"rt er wit following relevant facts< is comment. In ot er words. at t e earing of t e petition for bail.. +*+>6 9. &ada. beca"se it is notorio"sly easy to let a prisoner sign any doc"ment for a fee as low as . also in the amount of P20. t e respondent set t e bail bond at . B"4idnon.1006 . w en d"ly arraigned in open co"rt wit t e assistance of co"nsel. wit t e recommendation to file an information for m"rder against said acc"sed. t e said acc"sed as already waived is rig t to t e second stage of t e preliminary investigation.. t e respondent iss"ed is order. % at on t e same day.. and presently serving sentence at t e 2avao . t e petitioner-acc"sed posted a cas bond of . t e respondent as adopted as a standard for granting bail at t e rate of . t e case against acc"sed &"aya was no longer pending preliminary investigation in t e m"nicipal co"rt on 'arc *0. t e .rovincial .000 for is provisional liberty6 .000 6 9. % e respondent as consistently ad ered to t is standard in ot er cases sit"ated. t e prosec"tion did not ."blic . a tr"e copy of w ic is ereto attac ed as anne. w en t e respondent granted bail to said acc"sed in is order on t e same day =Anne. entered a plea of not g"ilty6 .rosec"tor of (amboanga del )"r ad plenty of p"blic prosec"tors.enal Carm.000.:> % at t e respondent is partic"larly wary of "ncorroborated statements of prisoners. rebellion and pro ibited dr"gs. 2avao del Norte6 . 1992.rosec"tor was li4ewise served wit a copy of t e said petition for bail.rison and . 1992. and set t e bail bond for t e provisional liberty at .20. &ada.3> % at t e co-acc"sed &oberto !. dated 'arc *0. % at on 'arc *0. It did not also send any p"blic prosec"tor. t e case against t e acc"sed &"aya was forwarded to t e -ffice of t e . 1992. w ic standard is also followed by ot er &egional %rial #o"rts in t e area6 .10. . cannot be compelled to testify in co"rt. % at for fail"re to present any evidence of g"ilt against t e petitioner-acc"sed.> % at considering t e prevailing depressed economic condition in is 0"dicial district."blic .1> % at t e acc"sed Antonio &"aya as not 0"mp = sic> bail b"t as been present in co"rt every time is case is called and is as4ing for a speedy earing of t e criminal c arge against im6 . &ada.A copy of t is order was act"ally received by t e -ffice of t e . 1992 by t e petitioner-acc"sed6 *..cept w en t e offenses involved 4idnapping for ransom.rovincial . t e respondent wo"ld li4e first to state t e .rosec"tor on 'arc *0. % at w en t e petition for bail was filed by acc"sed &"aya wit t e co"rt of t e respondent. leaving not ing f"rt er to be done by t e m"nicipal trial co"rt b"t t e performance of t e ministerial d"ty to forward t e case to t e office of t e .*> % at as t e co-acc"sed &oberto !.000 for every probable years =sic> of imprisonment.2> % e t e only evidence against t e acc"sed Antonio &"aya is t e e. 1992. % e prosec"tion was given t e opport"nity to p"t "p said arg"ment on 'arc *0. and so the respondent likewise granted bail to said accused. % at as alleged in t e nint paragrap of t e letter-complaint.20."blic .000 for every year of probable imprisonment for common crimes.1. as prayed for in t e petition6 :. 1992 w en it was ordered by t e respondent to appear and present evidence t at t e g"ilt of t e acc"sed was strong. 1992. alias +%otoy+ w o. specially of t ose convicted for life. 'arc *0. B"t despite d"e notice.rovincial .

&egardless of t e stage of t e criminal prosec"tion. t erefore. t e prosec"tion was remissed =sic> in t e performance of its d"ty and now it is as4ing t e respondent to be p"nis ed beca"se it =prosec"tion> failed to do its d"ty properly6 11. be bailable by s"fficient s"reties or be released on recogni8ance as may be provided by law. dated -ctober :. can still be recalled by t e co"rt after its conferral. 1992. e. cannot recall the right already vested.. 1992 was properly eard by t e respondent on )eptember 22. Bowever. % e said arg"ment is clearly an aftert o"g t and t e prosec"tion s o"ld be t e one to s"ffer t e conse/"ences of its own negligence and not pass t e matter "nfairly to t e respondent. t e rig t to bail given to an acc"sed c arged for m"rder. =$mp asis s"pplied. t e &"les of #o"rt. #learly. . is p"nis able by reclusion perpetua. @ t e respondent resolved t e same in t e negative "nder its order of -ctober 9. be entitled to bail as a matter of rig t. t e acc"sed may still be admitted to bail in t e discretion of t e co"rt if t ere are strong gro"nds to appre end t at is contin"ed confinement will endanger is life or res"lt in permanent impairment of ealt . "nder t e law at t e time of its commission and at t e time of t e application for bail.ists to correct any error of 0"dgment committed by t e respondent6 13. no bail s all be allowed if t e acc"sed is c arged wit a capital offense or of an offense p"nis able by reclusion perpetua and t e evidence of g"ilt is strong6 9 *. &"le 113 t ereof. w en evidence of g"ilt is strong. t at t ere are plenty of prosec"tors in t e office of t e . it did not even onor t e earing of t e petition wit its presence. % at contrary to t e misinterpretation in paragrap 1 of t e complaint. as to w et er or not. dated )eptember 22. p"rs"ant to t e provisions of sections :. +A+ to t e instant complaint6 1*.rovincial . % e respondent only acted in accordance wit w at e t en saw as t e rig t and proper t ing to do "nder t e circ"mstances. and t e prosec"tion even s"bmitted its '$'-&AN2?'. the right to bail becomes thereafter a vested constitutional right which is already beyond the power and authority of the respondent to recall "nless t ere is a violation of t e condition of t e bail.rosec"tor. As now revised in t e 191: &"les of #riminal . % at not only did t e prosec"tion not file a written opposition to. "nder )ection *.> / % e 1919 #onstit"tion provides t at all persons. 1992. t e r"les on availability of bail to an acc"sed may be restated as follows< 1. % e respondent. or a re/"est to postpone t e earing of t e application for bail. Admission to bail is a matter of rig t at any stage of t e action w ere t e c arge is not for a capital offense or is not p"nis able by reclusion perpetua.cept t ose c arged wit offenses p"nis able by reclusion perpetua w en evidence of g"ilt is strong s all. $ven if a capital offense is c arged and t e evidence of g"ilt is strong. partic"larly. It is "nfair. 9 and 1 of &"le 113 of t e &"les. % e prosec"tion did not t en give t e respondent an opport"nity to r"le "pon said arg"ment at t e proper time before t e rig t to bail became irrevocably vested "pon =sic> t e acc"sed. and w ic is attac ed as Anne.appear and t ereby forfeit =sic> t e opport"nity to invo4e said arg"ment. % at it is now too late and "nfair for t e prosec"tion to invo4e t e arg"ment t at t e respondent granted bail w en t e case was still "nder preliminary investigation in t e lower co"rt. % at 0"dicial remedy e.cept t ose c arged wit a capital offense or an offense w ic . beca"se after t e co"rt as conferred "pon t e acc"sed t e rig t to bail at t e proper earing wit d"e notice. despite t e fact.A&&$)% %B$ A##?)$2. since t e motion involved p"rely a /"estion of law. % e fail"re of t e prosec"tion to invo4e t e aforesaid arg"ment at t e proper opport"nity given to it constitute =sic> a waiver on its part to invoke the said argument and it is legally already under estoppel to rely on the same6 10. #orollarily. % e act"ations of t e prosec"tion is =sic> not ing else b"t laying =sic> in amb"s at and stabbing t e respondent at t e bac4 after t e prosec"tion neglected to perform its d"ty properly. 0 2. barb =sic> and snipping =sic> remar4 t at t e respondent is t e co"nsel of t e acc"sed. e. even if he wants to.roced"re and provided in &"le 113 t ereof. 12. t e '-%I-N %#AN#$D BAIDB-N2 AN2 %. provides t at all persons in c"stody s all. before conviction. without violating the right of the accused to due process . before final conviction. 1992. % at it is "n4ind for t e co"nsel of t e complaint = sic> to ma4e t e grat"ito"s. 10 b"t only before 0"dgment in t e regional trial co"rt6 and . It is too late beca"se t e prosec"tion is "nder estoppel and as already effectively waived to invo4e = sic> said arg"ment w en it c ose not to appear in t e earing of t e petition for bail despite d"e notice given to it. &espondent ve emently denies it.

or on appeal. city or m"nicipality ot er t an w ere t e case is pending. paragrap =c> allows t e detainee to post bail wit any co"rt in t e province. since it is more conversant wit t e facts of said case and t e representations of t e prosec"tion t erein. t e primary responsibility rests wit t e co"rt w ere is case is pending.+ w ile t e preliminary investigation was still pending before t e m"nicipal circ"it trial co"rt. respondent 0"dge acted wit o"t 0"risdiction in ta4ing cogni8ance of and event"ally granting t e petition for bail t ere aving been no information filed in is co"rt against t e acc"sed-applicant.> . )ection 13 of &"le 113 pertinently provides< )ec. t e application t erefor may be filed only in the particular court where the case is pending w et er for preliminary investigation. -n t e foregoing bases. or.erforce. % e sit"ations contemplated "nder t ese two provisions of t e r"les clearly do not obtain in t e case at bar. Alt o"g .3. )ection 13 of &"le 113 above /"oted. C"rt ermore. In t e present case. city or m"nicipality w ere e is eld. or t e acc"sed see4s to be released on recogni8ance. t e order granting t e petition for bail was iss"ed on t e same day t at t e preliminary investigation was s"pposedly terminated in t e lower co"rt. Bence.rovincial . C"rt er. t is did not c"re t e infirmity w ic attended t e iss"ance t ereof. wit any metropolitan trial 0"dge. where filed. )ection 13 of &"le 13. @ =a> Bail in t e amo"nt fi. respondent 0"dge ad no 0"risdiction to entertain t e same. 13. "nder t e circ"mstances attendant to t e case e s o"ld nonet eless be eld liable for granting t e same wit o"t benefit of a earing.aragrap =a> allows t e acc"sed to post bail in certain specified co"rts. acc"sed &"aya. w ic in all probability is t e reason w y no bail was recommended by t e investigating 0"dge w o iss"ed t e warrant of arrest against im. wit anot er branc of t e same co"rt wit in t e province or city. Act"ally. as a so-called +special civil case. even ass"ming arguendo t at respondent 0"dge ad 0"risdiction to ear t e petition for bail. =b> Whenever the grant of bail is a matter of discretion . if no 0"dge t ereof is available. trial. % is re/"irement is so basic and f"ndamental t at it wo"ld amo"nt to 0"dicial apostasy for any member of t e 0"diciary to disclaim 4nowledge or awareness t ereof.ed may be filed wit t e co"rt w ere t e case is pending. t at is. if no complainant or information as as yet been filed against im. was c arged wit m"rder in an amended complaint filed before t e m"nicipal circ"it trial co"rt w ere e was named as t e mastermind. or. No bail s all be allowed after final 0"dgment. .rosec"tor wit t e recommendation t at an information for m"rder be filed against acc"sed &"aya. as t e sit"ation of t e acc"sed definitely did not fall "nder any of t ose contemplated in paragrap s =a> and =c>. =$mp asis o"rs. ot er t an t at w ere is case is pending. =c> Any person in c"stody w o is not yet c arged in co"rt may apply for bail wit any co"rt in t e province. "nder t e circ"mstances stated t erein. s o"ld t e acc"sed 0"mp bail. p"rs"ant to paragrap =b>. 11 t e penalty and offense being wit in t e p"rview of t e probation law. . If t e acc"sed is arrested in a province. in addition to t e fact t at m"rder is a capital offense p"nis able by reclusion perpetua. 1992 w en t e records of t e criminal case were forwarded by t e lower co"rt to t e -ffice of t e . in t e absence or "navailability of t e 0"dge t ereof. bail may be filed also wit any regional trial co"rt of said place. it was only on 'arc *0. w o applied for bail. before t e '"nicipal #irc"it %rial #o"rt of 2"mingag-'a ayag. bail in t is case is a matter of discretion and t e application t erefor s o"ld ave been filed in t e co"rt w ere t e preliminary investigation was t en pending. Bail. -n t e ot er and. "nless t e acc"sed as applied for probation and as not commenced to serve sentence. m"nicipal trial 0"dge or m"nicipal circ"it trial 0"dge t erein. -f greater import is t e fact t at t e petition for bail was filed wit t e regional trial co"rt. -n t e ot er and. (amboanga del )"r. % e reason for t e r"le is t at t e co"rt w erein t e case against t e acc"sed is pending is ass"med to be in a better position to pass "pon t e propriety and conditions for granting bail to t e acc"sed. as alleged by respondent 0"dge. % is precept gains added significance from t e fact t at t e sit"ation it envisages determines t e partic"lar co"rt w ere an application for bail s o"ld be filed. city or m"nicipality w ere e is eld. it is evident t at bail is a matter of discretion w ere t e acc"sed is c arged wit a capital offense or an offense p"nis able by reclusion perpetua and t e evidence of g"ilt is strong.

1/ Bere. Be aggravated t is flagrant error w en in is afore/"oted comment. and t e order of t e co"rt granting bail s o"ld be considered void on t at gro"nd.plicated in t e aforecited case of Libarios vs.arent etically. good faith may be negated by the circumstances on record . or answer criminally. all t e evidence t at it may desire to introd"ce before t e co"rt may resolve t e motion for bail. 10 . t ere is m"c to be desired. t e prosec"tion m"st be given an opport"nity to present. for an erroneo"s 0"dgment or decision rendered by im in good fait . t e acc"sed m"st be released on bail.ercised only after t e evidence is s"bmitted to t e co"rt at s"c earing. t ere wo"ld be a violation of proced"ral d"e process. e concl"des t at by reason of t e fail"re of t e prosec"tion to appear at t e sc ed"led earing. 13 Accordingly. It is "tterly defective in form and s"bstance6 t ere is no recital of any evidence presented by t e prosec"tion. 1. t e prosec"tion as t e b"rden of s owing t at evidence of g"ilt is strong. 1992 was obvio"sly 0"stified since. #onse/"ent to t e foregoing considerations. respondent ad no a"t ority to sc ed"le andEor cond"ct t e same.ercise t ereof in accordance wit law and g"ided by t e applicable legal principles. Cort wit .+ In t e first place. Fenerally. t e 0"dge s o"ld t en form"late is own concl"sion as to w et er t e evidence so presented is strong eno"g as to indicate g"ilt and t ereby ca"se t e contin"ed detention of t e acc"sed. 1. In ot er words. e 0"stified is s"bse/"ent denial of t e prosec"tion5s motion for t e cancellation of t e bail bond and t e arrest of t e acc"sed on t e incredible t eory t at t e prosec"tion5s fail"re to appear was a +waiver on its part .and it is allegedly already in estoppel+ to c allenge t e grant of bail since t at rig t to bail +became irrevocably vested+ in t e acc"sed w o ad t ereby ac/"ired +a vested constit"tional rig t beyond t e power and a"t ority of t e respondent to recall.ercised reg"larly. an order granting or ref"sing bail m"st contain a s"mmary of t e evidence by t e prosec"tion. bail. t at is.It is tr"e t at at t e earing of an application for admission to bail. abalos< . t e c allenged order of respondent 0"dge cannot be s"stained or be given a semblance of validity. . w ile t e determination of w et er or not t e evidence of g"ilt is strong is a matter of 0"dicial discretion. t e non-appearance of t e prosec"tion at t e earing sc ed"led by respondent 0"dge on 'arc *0. it as been eld t at even w ere t e prosec"tor ref"ses to add"ce evidence in opposition to t e application to grant and fi. . e acted wit grave ab"se of discretion and in wanton disregard of establis ed r"les and 0"rispr"dence. legally and wit in t e confines of proced"ral d"e process. by t e nat"re of t ings. t e co"rt may as4 t e prosec"tion s"c /"estions as wo"ld ascertain t e strengt of t e state5s evidence or 0"dge t e ade/"acy of t e amo"nt of bail. . . t e +vested constit"tional rig t+ t eory of respondent 0"dge does not merit 0"dicial review and is best disregarded. -t erwise. )econdly. In doing so. may rig tly be e. after eval"ation of t e evidence s"bmitted by t e prosec"tion. to say t e least. wit in a reasonable time. t is discretion. -n t e basis t ereof. It is at once apparent. discretion m"st be e. m"c less a concl"sion t erefrom or a prono"ncement t erein t at t e re/"isite proof of g"ilt of t e acc"sed is not evident. 16 In t e case at bar. a 0"dge cannot be eld liable to acco"nt. we ave eld t at admission to bail as a matter of discretion pres"pposes t e e. t e applicant is entitled to bail as a matter of rig t. t e petition for bail was granted by respondent 0"dge on t e simple reason t at t e prosec"tion failed to appear and present evidence despite d"e notice. If t e prosec"tion s o"ld be denied s"c an opport"nity. even from a c"rsory glance of t e assailed order of respondent 0"dge t at. Bowever. % e prosec"tion m"st first be accorded an opport"nity to present evidence beca"se by t e very nat"re of deciding applications for bail. it is on t e basis of s"c evidence t at 0"dicial discretion is weig ed against in determining w et er t e g"ilt of t e acc"sed is strong. respondent 0"dge did not ave t e a"t ority to set t e petition for bail for earing in view of t e fact t at e ad not even ac/"ired 0"risdiction over t e criminal case since t e information t erefor ad not yet been filed in t e trial co"rt.A et er t e motion for bail of an acc"sed w o is in c"stody for a capital offense be resolved in a s"mmary proceeding or in t e co"rse of a reg"lar trial. It is apropos to repeat ere w at we e. . As s"c . w ere admission to bail is a matter of discretion. civilly or administratively. . Any order iss"ed in t e absence t ereof is not a prod"ct of so"nd 0"dicial discretion b"t of w im and caprice and o"trig t arbitrariness. to repeat. 1) Bowever.

eonito . N2/5/ Nos/ 1::799160/ $ctober 17. an 0n*ormation. t ro"g t at "na"t ori8ed proced"re w ic e ad the a*ternoon.orenLo o* t'o co+nts o* A+a%i*ied ra.6A FAN6@@A A.. it is ig ly imperative t at t ey s o"ld be conversant wit basic legal principles. respondent 0"dge illegally granted bail not only to acc"sed &"aya b"t also to t e latter5s co-acc"sed.+dend+m o* the o**ended .-&2$&$2. a 0"dge s o"ld endeavor diligently to ascertain t e facts and t e applicable law "nswayed by partisan or personal interests. and 'ithin the <+risdiction o* this 4onorab%e &o+rt. wit a stringent warning t at t e commission of a similar offense in t e f"t"re will be dealt wit more severely.e%%ant 'ith A+a%i*ied ra. $dwin &ada.6&0@0$N "#R C$R%&': This is an a+tomatic a. Respondent !udge should not have allowed himself to be swayed into issuing an order fi"ing bail for the temporary release of the accused charged with murder. 'ho is on%# *o+r (3) #ears o%d..AD # . without a hearing. 92-:0. C"rt ermore.$56NP$.6. 92-10-*00 and )pecial #ivil #ase b+t 'as not ab%e to . a%% a"ainst her 'i%% and consent/ &ontrar# to %a'/ N2O 2 1 2 .ortion o* the 0n*ormation reads: That on or abo+t the 23th da# o* )+%#. AB$&$C-&$. dis onesty or corr"ption.6$N0T$ . .e%%ant . s"c irreg"larity was committed in connection wit a criminal case over w ic respondent 0"dge ad not at t at instance ac/"ired 0"risdiction. M+nici.00. # !udge owes it to the public and the administration of !ustice to know the law he is supposed to apply to a given controversy. and to . %i-e'ise *or each co+nt/ 1 The 0ndictments $n $ctober 12.0((0N6@. B"t.$@ 56D6@. in &rimina% &ases Nos/ 3 :2 and 3 ::. (rovince o* $rienta% Mindoro. &here will be faith in the administration of !ustice only if there be a belief on the part of litigants that the occupants of the bench cannot !ustly be accused of deficiency in their grasp of legal principles. ). even t o"g s"c acts may be erroneo"s. 'as *i%ed. at Caran"a# ?ater. and b# ta-in" advanta"e o* innocence and minorit# o* . w at stamps t is case wit a "ni/"e feat"re and ma4es t e act"ations of respondent 0"dge more distressing is t e fact t at.ena%t# o* death *or each co+nt. =$mp ases o"rs.20. t e acts of a 0"dge done in is 0"dicial capacity are not s"b0ect to disciplinary action. w ile 0"dges s o"ld not be disciplined for inefficiency on acco"nt merely of occasional mista4es or errors of 0"dgment.a# civi% indemnit# and mora% dama"es. char"in" the a. did then and there.%# d+e to the acc+sed e8citement o* the moment ca+sed an +ntime%# e<ac+%ation. at 2::0 o7c%oc.ines. (hi%i. aside from granting bail wit o"t a earing and denying t e prosec"tion proced"ral d"e process. which is contrary to established principles of law. doc-eted as &rimina% &ase No/ &13 :2. %e'd desi"n.a%it# o* Caco. -n t ese environmental facts. %amin is ereby ordered to pay a fine of .000. yet. vs..00:.e/ The acc+sator# .enetrate dee.ea% *rom the . p"blic opinion or fear of criticism. appellee.6A FAN6@@A A. respondent !"dge #amilo A. % is decision is wit o"t pre0"dice to w atever action t e p"blic prosec"tor may deem appropriate wit respect to #riminal #ase No. convictin" a.ecision N1O o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt o* $rienta% Mindoro.AD b# to+chin" and insertin" in some de"ree his .. the above1named acc+sed. 200:O (6$(. 1999.In t e absence of fra"d.e and sentencin" him to s+**er the .6 $F T46 (40. In every case. t e sanction to be imposed on respondent 0"dge s o"ld not be less t an t at w ic we approved in Libarios. appellant/ . +n%a'*+%%# and *e%onio+s%# had carna% -no'%ed"e to said .enis 'ithin the %abia o* the . 1999. 'i%*+%%#. Cranch 30. $e is called upon to e"hibit more than !ust a cursory ac%uaintance with the statutes and procedural rules.> In res"mG. motivated b# %+st.

eonito/ At 1:00 .e%acrosa %ived abo+t 90 meters a'a# *rom her a+nt .ea Fanessa. M+nici.rivate .6. 12 #ears o%dM . 1991.eonito therea*ter .+cinia and the %atter7s h+sband. .ito.eo %e*t their ho+se to see a doctor as . caressed her va"ina and r+bbed his . at Caran"a# ?ater.artsM i* she 'anted to ans'er the ca%% o* nat+re.ea7s . and 'ithin the <+risdiction o* this 4onorab%e &o+rt.eo arrived home at 3:00 . 'here the a. .eo.ea then as-ed her mother 'h# her "rand*ather .e/ The acc+sator# .ines. 1999.e%acrosa 'as ta%-in" to her da+"hter. . and that she sho+%d not a%%o' others to see or to+ch her .ants/ ./m/.%ea o* not "+i%t# to the char"es/ The 6vidence o* the (rosec+tion N3O 3 .ed o** her c%othes. on%# the ti. and b# ta-in" advanta"e o* innocence and minorit# o* . 10 #ears o%dM . 1997 at 10:00 a/m/.eone% 'ere in schoo%.e%acrosa re.eonito . .ea *+rther stated that she noticed somethin" mi%-# comin" o+t *rom his .ito e8. b+t she re*+sed/ . %eavin" .arts.%# d+e to the acc+sed e8citement o* the moment ca+sed an +ntime%# e<ac+%ation./ . and that she 'o+%d be bacshort%#/ $n her 'a# to the 'e%%. 'hi%e her h+sband resided some'here in Catan"as/ .AD # . and %e*t to "ather *ire'ood at the *oothi%%s/ 4e to%d 2%enver and . %e'd desi"n.eonito removed his ./m/ .%aced his . that be%on"ed to 6ddie de%os 5e#es. . b+t desisted/ 9 $n )+%# 23.eonito. 'ho 'as born on Ma# 19. a%% a"ainst her 'i%% and consent/ &ontrar# to %a'/ N:O : The a. did then and there./ Momentari%#..astries. 19 #ears o%dM 5+e%. abo+t 90 meters a'a# *rom her ho+se/ @he had instr+cted .%es. $rienta% Mindoro.a%it# o* Caco. motivated b# %+st. and .arts/ . assisted b# co+nse%. +n%a'*+%%# and *e%onio+s%# had carna% -no'%ed"e to said .arted 'a#s.ea to "o to s%ee.e%acrosa had seen . 2%enver. (hi%i.e%acrosa 'as at the 'e%% 'ashin" soi%ed c%othes.rivate .e%acrosa made a %ivin" b# se%%in" ve"etab%es and .ea and &%arissa to s%ee.rivate or"an and to r+b it a"ainst her .ea to%d her mother that . doc-eted as &rimina% &ase No/ &13 ::.e%%ant 'as arrai"ned.rivate .e%acrosa and .osed his . *o+r1#ear1o%d ..e%acrosa/ The .enetrate dee.e%acrosa Ada# and her h+sband had seven chi%dren: 5ichard.AD b# to+chin" and insertin" in some de"ree his .ea reco+nted ho' Mama# .+cinia 'as a%so at the 'e%%. and to%d the chi%d that she 'as "ro'in" +. 'hi%e her h+sband 'as a *isherman/ ?hen the co+. 3 #ears o%dM and &%arissa A./m/ on A+"+st 17.enis to+ched her or"an/ .%e .anties and -ne%t on the *%oor. 'hi%e 5ichard. 'as *i%ed.anties.enis in her va"ina/ 4o'ever. 1 1I2 #ears o%d/ .ea Fanessa.e%acrosa7s #o+n"er brother/ 3 4 5 .e%%ant 'as a%so char"ed 'ith A+a%i*ied ra.e%acrosa 'as a"hast at her #o+n" da+"hter7s reve%ation/ @he 'anted to con*ront her Bnc%e . 'ho is on%# *o+r (3) #ears o* a"e.e%acrosa and .e%acrosa 'as so *+rio+s that she 'anted to -i%% . *ond%ed her .> stri. .ortion reads as *o%%o's: That on or abo+t the 17th da# o* A+"+st. #ears o%dM 2%enver. .+dend+m o* the o**ended .6A FAN6@@A A.enis 'ithin the %abia o* the .eonito . 5ichard . Caco.ea7s .$@ 56D6@.6A FAN6@@A A.e%acrosa sta#ed 'ith her chi%dren in ?ater.%ace 'as a%so abo+t 90 meters a'a# *rom a ho+se 'hich 'as +nder constr+ction. the a*ternoon.eonito removed his .arts. and not someone e%se/ ?hen .enis a"ainst it/ 4e tried to insert his . 'hom she ca%%ed =Mama# .enis into her va"ina b+t on%# the ti. 'i%*+%%#. .eonito had been to their ho+se/ @he narrated that 'hen 2%enver %e*t to b+# candies as instr+cted.anties/ .ea as-ed her mother 'h#.%ied that it 'as bad/ .rivate . at aro+nd 1:00 o7c%oc...ants and .ec%acrosa e8amined her da+"hter7s va"ina and sa' that it 'as s'o%%en and reddish/ @he sa' traces o* semen in *ront o* .orenLo.. o* his . 7 #ears o%dM .eo. (rovince o* $rienta% Mindoro. and entered a .orenLo/ 0n )+ne 1999. the above1named acc+sed.+t &%arissa to s%ee.ea and &%arissa 'ere %e*t in the ho+se/ At abo+t 2:00 .eone%.ea and &%arissa a%one in the ho+se/ . 'ashin" soi%ed c%othes 'ith .art# b+t 'as not ab%e to ..eonito arrived and as-ed 2%enver to b+# candies/ 2%enver %e*t.ants 4e then removed .enis and that .%aced his or"an inside his . . o* his . .eonito standin" in *ront o* his ho+se/ A+nt .rivate or"an and r+bbed it a"ainst her .eonito %e*t the ho+se/ .enis to+ched her va"ina/ @hort%# therea*ter.eo 'as i%%/ 5+e% and . she sho+%d be the one to c%ean her . . N9O 'as seated at her mother7s %a.A second 0n*ormation.rivate .artsM she 'as even as-ed to ho%d his . 1999. 2%enver.ea7s .

e%acrosa bro+"ht Ave%ino to her ho+se and sho'ed him .care o* the chi%dren 'hi%e .e%acrosa . 'ith com.AC$5AT$5D 6EAM0NAT0$N: &ervice va"ina% smear *or the .anties and attem.ortion o* her .anties/ Ave%ino noticed that the .%aints *or ra.e%acrosa to re. in a %o+d voice.+bic hair. 6EAM0NAT0$N: 1 Absence o* .ea7s +nder'ear and 'as shoc-ed 'hen she sa' traces o* semen in her da+"hter7s nave%.eonito had removed his .eonito and her da+"hter to the .ante AbarA+eL.e%acrosa bro+"ht .e%acrosa.+cinia a"reed and too.icio+s. s+bscribed and s'orn to be*ore the (residin" )+d"e o* the M+nici.ort the incidents invo%vin" .ositions/ 1 Fa"ina 1 admits the 9th *in"er 'ith ease/ .eo had to be bro+"ht to the doctor/ .%#/ A*ter a co+.ea7s .e%acrosa arrived home *rom the c%inic/ There 'ere other .o%ice a+thorities/ $n @e. and to tease their sister.ea 'as tremb%in"/ Bnconscio+s%#.ened. 'hich 'as abo+t ten meters a'a# *rom his ho+se/ . .eared that aside *rom . b+t the chi%d mere%# shoo.eonito %e*t.+%%ed +.o%ice.eonito.eo to%d his mother that .%e o* ho+rs.ted to insert his .ea 'hat ha.enis into her va"ina/ 4e *ai%ed to do so. . ho%din" .anties ane'/ @+s.ea and .ermatoLoa revea%ed/ Ne"ative res+%t/ N O The 6vidence o* the Acc+sed .%o'in" his rice*ie%d.ea %o'ered her .resence o* s.a% &irc+it Tria% &o+rt o* (+erto 2a%era/ .e%acrosa a%so e8ec+ted a s'orn statement/ N6O Mother and da+"hter si"ned t'o crimina% com. she discovered that .ea arrived/ . 'hi%e he and his 'i*e . therea*ter *i%ed 'ith the M+nici.eonito insisted that he co+%d not have . 'as on his 'a# home a*ter "atherin" ni.her head in re. her .e%acrosa 'ent home/ The door 'as %oc-ed/ ?hen she event+a%%# "ot inside the ho+se. scratched her crotch and . 1999/ 4e 'as in the ho+se o* 6ddie de%os 5e#es. 'hich 'as abo+t nine meters a'a# *rom his ho+se/ At noontime.ea to the .enis 'as ab%e to .ea 'as not there/ . 'here she "ave a s'orn statement to @($1 .ea had re*+sed to "o inside the ho+se a*ter she %e*t. her crotch.e%acrosa7s chi%dren +nti% 3:00 .%ete hea%ed h#mena% %acerations on 2..ea 'as/ .eonito.e%acrosa bro+"ht . demanded to -no' 'here . 6EAM0NAT0$N: 466NT O &I.a .ea7s hand/ ?i%son s./m/ 'hen . .o-e 'ith .eonito *or abo+t three min+tes and then %e*t/ 0t a.ea/ The doctor7s re. o* his .+%%ed do'n . (.e a"ainst . .+cinia too. @(6&B.eonito denied the char"e/ 4e testi*ied that on )+%# 23.anties.anties 'ere 'et 'ith a stic-# s+bstance/ 4e advised .ants. there 'as no one e%se in the ho+se/ A*ter 'ashin" and rinsin" c%othes.+cinia to ta-e care o* her chi%dren as .ort the matter to the minister o* the %glesia ni Cristo.ea ca%med do'n and to%d her mother that .+cinia 'ere then at the 'e%% 'ashin" soi%ed c%othes/ 6 7 8 .revio+s occasions 'hen .h#sica% e8amination o* .anties/ .BM J 0NT65NA.a% &irc+it Tria% &o+rt/ N7O As s+""ested b# the . then her .tember 22. cond+cted a .+b%ic . .ossib%# mo%ested . *rom their head Ave%ino Ce%ano and re. he and 2%enver c%osed the door to -ee. 7 J 9 o7c%oc. and the *ront .e%acrosa arrived and as-ed . 'ho therea*ter advised her to re.0n the meantime. 'ho 'as a member o* the %glesia ni Cristo.ea on A+"+st 17. . .ort contained the *o%%o'in" *indin"s: 6 7 (4D@0&A.assed b# the ho+se o* 6ddie de%os 5e#es and sa' . her o+t/ o* . Medica% $**icer F.e%acrosa 'as a'a#/ .e%acrosa as-ed .eonito dec%ared that the# had been to the =ho+se +nder constr+ction> o'ned b# 6ddie de%os 5e#es/ A*ter . O No abrasions nor hematoma Abdomen O FA20NA.e%acrosa noticed that . 1999. 1999 'here .ea to the (rovincia% 4ea%th $**ice on $ctober 19.e%acrosa 'as so incensed and. ?i%son .eonito and .+cinia 'ere restin".eonito. so+"ht he%. as on%# the ti. 1999. .+%ce.a%m/ 4e . . a member o* the %glesia ni Cristo.rosec+tor..orted the incident to him/ .e%acrosa and his 'i*e .enetrate her va"ina/ .r/ 5omeo 2/ Anda%. he 'as b+s# .

rivate N12O 0n "eople v.e%acrosa re*+sed/ The Ferdict o* the Tria% &o+rt A*ter tria%.ort the c%aim that he did not insert his .0N2.e%%ant mere%# A+oted a . .eonito . that in*erence ma# be stren"thened or re..e%acrosa beca+se she 'as envio+s o* himM the *arm%and.%ainant admitted in her testimon# that he mere%# removed her .rove his "+i%t *or the *e%onies char"ed be#ond reasonab%e do+bt/ 4e contends that the ..ortion o* the . N1:O this &o+rt r+%ed: 10 11 12 1: 0t is so+nd .+cinia.ed her/ The $**ice o* the @o%icitor 2enera%.eonito beca+se the# 'ere base%ess.e%acrosa re*+sed/ @he demanded that .resentation/ /// N13O 13 0n this case.e%acrosa *abricated the char"es and ordered her da+"hter .rovided *or b# %a'. *or its .enis into the va"ina o* the victim: 9 10 11 12 13 14 .%anations and attendin" circ+mstances.eonito 'ith t'o co+nts o* A+a%i*ied ra.rivate .anties b+t did nothin" to her .ortion o* the decision reads: A&&$5.656. )rtega.rivate com. b+t .. the testimon# o* the .eonito averred that the char"es a"ainst him 'ere insti"ated b# .eared to s+.000/00) .rivate com.t misre.e%acrosa to have .esos *or each crime o* ra.o%ic# that se%*1contradictions in testimonies sho+%d be reconci%ed. the co+rt rendered <+d"ment convictin" .rosec+tion *ai%ed to .e or a tota% amo+nt o* one h+ndred tho+sand ((100. 'ere "iven to him to ti%% and 'or. the r+%e bein" the same as that 'hich obtains 'here 'itnesses a.. ever#thin" stated b# her on direct e8amination..e%acrosa to testi*# that the a. the char"es a"ainst . the a.tion o* an innocent 'itness or 'i%%*+% and corr+. to"ether 'ith the accessor# .risonment in case o* inso%venc# and to .orenLo # Ma%i"o "+i%t# be#ond reasonab%e do+bt o* the crime o* ra.%ainant m+st be considered and ca%ibrated in its entiret# and not mere%# b# tr+ncated . on The decreta% .ic-ed the testimon# o* the .+cinia corroborated her h+sband7s testimon#/ @he testi*ied that she as-ed . the a.%ainant and ascribed i%% motive to her mother.e%%ant asserts that the .ena%ties.ena%ties as .rivate com.o+nded to the 'itness and her ans'ers thereto/ To disti%% the *acts estab%ished b# the testimon# o* a 'itness..%ainant. the entiret# o* her testimon# m+st be considered/ ?e a"ree 'ith the $**ice o* the @o%icitor 2enera%/ 0n ra.%ainant7s testimon# on redirect e8amination 'hich a.e%%ed b# the *acts disc%osed in another/ N11O The testimonies o* 'itnesses m+st not be mere%# se%ected to convenient%# s+it the c%aim o* a . and to indemni*# the victim .ea e8amined b# a doctor b+t . *indin" the acc+sed .000/00) ..eonito and*ect%# or incom.%ied b# her ans'ers to other A+estions on redirect or re1cross1 e8aminationM and 'hen *rom one statement considered b# itse%* an in*erence ma# be ded+ced.e (2 co+nts) 'ith the A+a%i*#in" circ+mstance that the victim is a chi%d be%o' 7 #ears o%d. 'itho+t s+bsidiar# im.+cinia inherited *rom their . and 'hether inconsistencies or incon"r+ities res+%t *rom misconce.ortions or iso%ated .rivate com.ea Fanessa Ada# the amo+nt o* *i*t# tho+sand (./ N9O 9 0n this case. 'hich her deceased mother and her a+nt .a# the cost/ @$ $5.artsM and that she 'as mere%# instr+cted b# her mother . redirect and re1cross1e8amination m+st be considered/ Facts im. ar"+es that the a.arents.e%acrosa dro.e stated in ans'er to one or more A+estions on direct e8amination s+. in a %ast ditch e**ort to e8tricate himse%* *rom certain conviction/ 0t contends that in ca%ibratin" the testimon# o* the . he is hereb# sentenced to s+**er the ma8im+m o* t'o (2) death ..assa"es thereo*/ N10O The tr+e meanin" o* ans'ers to iso%ated A+estions is to be ascertained b# d+e consideration o* a%% the A+estions .arent%# contradict each other/ These contradictor# statements sho+%d be considered in %i"ht o* e8. i* .on/ 0nstead o* s+in" .e%%ant had ra.90.e%%ant mere%# nit1.ossib%e.ea to testi*# a"ainst him/ .D.

et the 'itness ans'er/ ?0TN6@@: A @omethin" %i-e mi%.rosec+tor to as.enis.enis a*ter somethin" mi%-# 'as e<ac+%atedG ATTD/ ACA@: 0ncom.enis.ants and .ant#G 4e to%d me to ho%d his .ooLed *rom his . it is im.itoG No.enis. Do+r 4onor/ &$B5T: Ans'er/ ?0TN6@@: A 4e .ito do to #o+G None an#more. sir/ 4o' abo+t his . sir/ (5$@/ @6Q$56N: R A R And 'hat more did #o+r Mama# .ants.(5$@/ @6Q$56N: R 4o' did #o+r Mama# . sir/ A*ter Mama# . sir/ And did #o+ ho%d the .ito *irst removed m# .ant#. Do+r 4onor/ &$B5T: .eadin".ito to%d #o+ to ho%d #o+r .er *or the .ants and then m# . A+estion/ ?0TN6@@: A Mama# .ito do 'ith his . sir/ (5$@/ @6Q$56N: R A R A R ?hat did #o+r Mama# .ito do a*ter he removed #o+r .enis o* Mama# . 'hat did Mama# . sir/ (5$@/ @6Q$56N: .+t on his .enis.etent.ito se8+a%%# ab+se #o+ or =hinindotG> ATTD/ ACA@: Do+r 4onor.that A+estion in the redirect/ &$B5T: That is a *o%%o' ATTD/ ACA@: . 'hat did he do 'ith his .

to her testimon# on direct e8amination that the a.. be*ore #o+r Mama# . . 'h# #o+r Mama# .o #o+ -no'. the .. sir/ ?ho is this Tito 6ddie #o+ have <+st mentionedG 4e is the brother o* m# mother.ito have se8+a% interco+rse 'ith #o+G 0n o+r ho+se and in the ho+se o* Tito 6ddie.enis into her va"ina severa% times.eonito .o%ice. sir/ 19 N19O C# itse%*.. ho' man# times did #o+r Mama# .eonito .itoG Ceca+se he had se8+a% interco+rse 'ith me. th+s: ATTD/ ACA@: 15 16 .art.orenLoG Ceca+se this .ito 'as arrested b# the . .ito do 'ith #o+r se8+a% or"an.%ainant 'o+%d ne"ate the char"es o* A+a%i*ied ra.ea Fanessa.e%%ant/ @he testi*ied on direct e8amination.ed b# the a.e a"ainst him/ 4e 'o+%d be "+i%t# on%# o* acts o* %ascivio+sness/ 4o'ever.ea Fanessa.e%%ant had ra. sir/ ?h# is #o+r Mama# .rivate .%ainant conc%+sive%# . Do+r 4onor/ &$B5T: Ans'er/ ?0TN6@@: A 4e <+st removed m# . sir/ ?h# did the .ea Fanessa. the rest o* the testimon# o* the .enis.rivate com.e%%ant inserted his .e%%ant had se8+a% interco+rse 'ith her severa% times: R A R A R A R A C# the 'a#.e%%ant7s co+nse%. the a*oreA+oted . sir/ .o%ice arrest #o+r Mama# .%ainant st+c.orenLo is the h+sband o* Nana# @enia.rivate com. 'h# do #o+ -no' Mama# . sir/ 4o' *ar is the ho+se o* #o+r Tito 6ddie *rom #o+r ho+seG Near. sir/ ?here did #o+r Mama# . 'hat did Mama# .ito or . redirect e8amination and even on re1cross1e8amination that the a.ito reA+ested #o+ or directed #o+ to ho%d his .eonito . i* an#G ATTD/ ACA@: Fer# %eadin"..R .ea Fanessa.rivate com. she testi*ied that the a.ito is here no'G Des.roves that she 'as ra. sir (=hinindot .ito or .ito here no'G Mama# .ants b+t did nothin" 'ith m# .. sir/ 16 N16O $n incisive re1cross1e8amination b# the a.orenLo have se8+a% interco+rse 'ith #o+G A R A R A R A @evera% times.ed her/ $n direct e8amination.ortion o* the testimon# o* the .o a-o>)/ R .

ersons in that ho+seG .ito .on" ara'/> The third timeG =(am. #o+ 'ere to"ether 'ith #o+r brothers and sistersG A R A R A R A R A R A R A R No.itoG 0n the ho+se o* Tita Pen#. sir/ ?ere there . sir/ Do+ 'ere a%one in #o+r ho+seG No. sir/ Do+r mother 'as thereG M# mother at that time bro+"ht m# brother to a doctor *or treatment. sir/ The *i*th timeG ?here *or the *irst time 'ere #o+ ab+sed b# Mama# . S+#a 2%en 'as there b+t Mama# .ito the second time.enis to #o+r va"inaG ?0TN6@@: A R A R A R A R A R R A R A Man# times. #o+r S+#a 2%en ret+rned *rom b+#in" candiesG Des.ito 'as sti%% there 'hen #o+r S+#a 2%en ret+rnedG Des.ito insert his .o/> The second timeG =Noon" anim .ito sent him to a store to b+# candies/ 0mmediate%#.ito. sir/ ?hen 'as the *irstG =Noon" mata"a% na . in 'hat . sir/ And #o+r Mama# . sir. sir/ ?here 'ere #o+ ab+sed b# Mama# . sir/ ?ho 'as thereG That ho+se 'as sti%% +nder constr+ction.o/> ?hen 'as the *o+rth time #o+ 'ere ab+sed b# Mama# . sir/ The second time.R 4o' ma# times did Mama# .ito the third timeG 0n the ho+se o* Mama# .%aceG 0n o+r ho+se. sir/ R ?hen #o+ 'ere ab+sed b# Mama# .itoG @evenNthO da#s.

sir/ And that ho+se 'as sti%% +nder constr+ctionG Des. and revea%ed the detai%s re%atin" to the crimes/ A%tho+"h the .%ete%#1hea%ed h#mena% %acerations at t'o o7c%oc-. *ive o7c%oc-. sir/ No door #etG Des.%ainant con*irms the veracit# o* the .. *aring. most es.ed 'ith tension d+e to the nove%t# o* the e8. N19O the &o+rt he%d that 'hen the victim7s testimon# o* her vio%ation is corroborated b# . one 'hich even an ad+%t 'o+%d %i-e to b+r# in ob%ivion/ N21O Fictims o* ra.%e mar"in o* error and +nderstandin" sho+%d be accorded to .erience. sir/ The ne8t time.rivate com. .enis into her va"ina/ 4o'ever.%ainant mista-en%# testi*ied that the ho+se +nder constr+ction 'here she 'as ra..r/ 5omeo Anda% re"ardin" the . seven o7c%oc.e%%ant not on%# on )+%# 23 and A+"+st 17.e o*ten ta-e into memor# %a.%ainant on redirect e8amination testi*ied not on%# on the n+mber o* times she 'as ra.s sho+%d 21 17 18 19 20 21 . m+ch more than ad+%ts. sir/ The *o+rth time. that she 'as ra..ositions and that the va"ina admitted the entr# o* the *i*th *in"er 'ith ease/ N1 O 0n "eople v.ea erred 'hen on redirect e8amination.ed. sir/ No *%oorin" #etG Des. 'o+%d be "ri.%ainant7s testimon#. 'ho innocent%# tho+"ht that the a. s+ch mista-e sho+%d not be ta-en a"ainst a *o+r1#ear1o%d "ir%. 'here 'ere #o+ ab+sed b# Mama# .arent%#.%aces 'here she 'as ra.%ainant7s +nc%e.rove the e8istence o* the essentia% reA+isite o* carna% -no'%ed"e/ N20O 1 19 20 A. in 'hat .. s+ch circ+mstance sho+%d not discredit her and her testimon#/ 0t m+st be stressed that .itoG A%so in the ho+se o* Mama# .e%%ant.ed and 'hen she testi*ied/ @he co+%d not be e8.ed b# the a.ito.A R A R A R A R A R A R A in their desire to *or"et their dread*+% e8.enetration.rivate com.ected. . she *ai%ed to mention that the a.rivate com.. b+t a%so indicated the .rivate com. 1999.%ace 'ere #o+ se8+a%%# ab+sed b# Mama# .ea 'ho. sir/ And it had no 'a%%in" #et at that timeG Des.eriences/ These memor# "a.h#sica% e8amination cond+cted on the .rivate com.e%%ant. 'hen in *act the ho+se 'as o'ned b# 6ddie de%os 5e#es.ed b# the a.erience o* testi*#in" be*ore a co+rt/ 6rror1*ree testimon# cannot be e8.ed 'as o'ned b# the a.e%acrosa7s #o+n"er brother and the . sir/ 17 N17O 0t bears stressin" that the .ecia%%# 'hen a 'itness is reco+ntin" vivid detai%s o* a harro'in" e8.and nine o7c%oc.itoG 4e a%'a#s ab+sed me in the ho+se 'hich 'as sti%% +nder constr+ction.ea 'as bare%# *o+r #ears o%d 'hen she 'as ra.. there is s+**icient *o+ndation to .e%%ant o'ned the ho+se/ The Medica% &erti*icate iss+ed b# .e%%ant inserted his .h#sica% *indin"s o* .. b+t on other occasions as 'e%%/ The doctor *o+nd com.ected to +nderstand ever# A+estion as-ed o* her in the co+rse o* e8amination/ Am.

%ainant on redirect e8amination 'as that 'hich she revea%ed to . sir/ And 'hat 'as her re.eah +sic. did #o+ have an# conversation 'ith #o+r da+"hter .ecia%%# so that she is "ro'in" +. 1999.%#G . Fanessa abo+t his Mama# . in narratin" the detai%s o* her shoc-in" e8.enedG ?hat 0 'anted is that 'hi%e she is "ro'in" +. i* an#G @he as-ed me a"ain and 0 to%d her that it is bad.ose%# *or"et the abhorrent memories o* ever# sin"%e occasion/ 0t 'o+%d be e8actin" too m+ch sho+%d the &o+rt demand a ver# acc+rate and *%a'%ess acco+nt o* the t'o crimes s+b<ect o* her char"es/ N23O 0t is not +nnat+ra% *or inconsistencies to cree. into the testimon# o* a ra.. sir/ And 'hat 'as #o+r ans'erG 0 to%d her to ta-e care o* herse%* not to sho' her . as it is too ..ain*+% and horri*ic to remember/ N2:O A%so. m+ch %ess. ?hat 'as the re. and the a. th+s: R (rior to )+%# 23.e victim.e victim o* tender a"e *or she ma# be tr#in" not to reca%% in her mind. sir/ ?hat 'as the s+b<ect matter o* #o+r conversation 'ith #o+r da+"hter .eah FanessaG A That a*ternoon 'hi%e 0 'as restin".. the &o+rt cannot im. sir/ R A R A sir/ R A R 22 23 24 25 ?hat 'as the re. 0 'as te%%in" her ho' to ta-e care o* herse%*.eah Fanessa 'ho is b# nat+re cariKosa 'as then %#in" on m# %a. her mother.'ith #o+r da+"hterG A ?hi%e she 'as %#in" on m# %a. reco+nt in o.. more so in this case 'here the victim 'as bare%# *o+r #ears o%d/ @he ma# have been con*+sed as to the e8act detai%s o* each and ever# se8+a% ab+se she 'as s+b<ected to b# the a. sir/ ?hat other thin"s did #o+ ta%.ecia%%# one 'ho is o* tender a"e as the victim .ea.rivate com.not necessari%# be ta-en as evidence o* *a%se testimon#/ N22O Fa+%t%ess testimon# cannot be e8.a%%in" o+tra"e she 'ent thro+"h.rivate or"an es.e%%ant/ 0t is in *act e8.%# o* #o+r da+"hter . sir/ ?hen 'as thatG 0t 'as on )+ne 1999. sir/ R A R A*ter that 'hat ha. es.erience. in )+ne 1999 as "%eaned *rom the %atter7s testimon#.ose the b+rden o* e8actness in the victim7s reco%%ection o* her harro'in" e8..erience/ N29O 22 2: 23 29 The &o+rt is inc%ined to be%ieve that the incident re*erred to b# the . she sho+%d ta-e care o* herse%*.ected that s+ch a victim 'o+%d rather 'ish and even .en co+rt ever# +"%# detai% o* her distressin" e8.eah Fanessa.. m# da+"hter .ected o* a ra.+r. 0 to+ched her va"ina and to%d her not to a%%o' that va"ina o* hers to be to+ched and 0 to%d her that i* she is "oin" to ans'er the ca%% o* nat+re she sho+%d be the one to *i8 herse%* and not a%%o' her brothers to c%ean it.itoG A R A R Des.eah Fanessa a*ter sa#in" thatG @he as-ed me ='h#G>.erience.%# o* ..e%acrosa.

rivate com..ortion o* the .art o* her narration.e%%ant a"ain *ai%ed to mention that the .ito stri.enis. =?h# did Mama# .ito 'i%% e8.e%%ant A+oted a . 'ho instr+cted #o+ to te%% be*ore this &o+rt that #o+ 'ere ra..rivate .m# da+"hter to ho%d it.A R @he to%d me in A+estion manner. sir/ And #o+r mother instr+cted #o+ to te%% the &o+rt that Mama# . sir/ ?hat e%se ha. the a. i* an#G A @he to%d me that a*ter the acc+sed stri.e%%ant had ra.ito e8.arts.itoG 0 'ithdra' that/ R Do+ stated be*ore this &o+rt that a chi%d 'ho is te%%in" a %ie 'i%% "o to the sea o* *ire or as 'hat #o+ ca%% =da"at1da"atan" a.rivate . he to%d her to r+b it in her va"ina. sir/ And that 'as the instr+ction made b# #o+r mother to #o+G Des..osed his or"an.osed his .ed b# #o+r Mama# .. he 'o+%d as..rivate or"an and r+b it in her va"ina.> correctG A R A R A Des.o#.enedG M# da+"hter to%d me that a*ter the acc+sed e8.. =Ca-it si Mama# ..ened. sir/ 27 N27O 4o'ever. Mama# .ito ra.ed o** her c%othes and *ond%ed her . =0s it badG> ?hat other thin" did she sa#G A ?hen 0 as-ed her that she a%so as-ed me.ed #o+G Des.arts/ (5$@/ @6Q$56N: R ?hat ha.%ainant %i-e'ise testi*ied on re1cross1 e8amination that she 'as not th+s coached: 26 27 .ose his .itoG> R ?hat more did she sa# to #o+G ATTD/ ACA@: Ma# 0 move that the ans'er be stric-en o+t. =?h# is it badG> and then she to%d me.ed me and to+ched m# . Do+r 4onor/ ?0TN6@@: @he to%d me that.rivate com.%ainant7s testimon# on cross1e8amination to sho' that she 'as instr+cted b# her mother to testi*# that the a.ed her: R A C# the 'a#. Do+r 4onor/ (5$@/ @6Q$56N: That is . sir/ R A R A sir/ ?hat e%se did #o+r da+"hter te%% #o+G @he a%so to%d me that a*ter Mama# . 26 N26O The a.

'hen as-ed b# the .eonito .e%acrosa instr+cted her da+"hter to .rivate com.%ainant even s.rosec+tor i* she instr+cted her da+"hter to testi*# as she did a"ainst the a.ontaneo+s%# demonstrated to the tria% co+rt. Do+r 4onor/ &$B5T: Ans'er/ ?0TN6@@: Des.ed her/ The &o+rt *inds it incredib%e that a mother 'o+%d advise her da+"hter =not to te%% a %ie %est she be en"+%*ed in a sea o* *ire. Do+r 4onor/ 29 N29O 0t bears stressin" that the ..e%%ant: R A R 28 29 4ave #o+ seen the . 'as s+b<ected to intense and s+stained cross1e8amination and re1cross1e8amination b# the a.orenLo is -no'n to m# da+"hter .itoG Des.e%%ant ra. sir/ ATTD/ ACA@: R A And a%% #o+ are sa#in" 'as coached b# #o+r motherG No. not on%# t'ice.%ained: (5$@/ @6Q$56N: R The acc+sed .. b+t severa% timesM not on%# in their ho+se.%ainant. .e%%ant.ito #o+ are re*errin" toG This . a%so testi*ied that the reason 'h# .+ciKa +sic.ea Fanessa to come to &o+rt and narrate b+t 'hat 0 to%d her is to te%% the &o+rt a%% that Mama# .e%%ant7s co+nse%/ The chi%d remained stead*ast in her testimon# that she 'as ravished b# the a.ea Fanessa as Mama# .R And #o+ are testi*#in" here beca+se #o+r mother to%d #o+ to testi*#G (5$@/ @6Q$56N: 0 thin.ito did to her/ 0 a%so to%d her to te%% a%% 'hat is on%# tr+e beca+se 0 to%d her that the chi%d 'ho 'o+%d not te%% the tr+th 'o+%d be . inc%+din" his 'i*e .e%acrosa e8.e%%ant had ra.the A+estion has a%read# been ans'ered.enis o* the a..orenLo.ea Fanessa testi*ied a"ainst him 'as beca+se #o+ instr+cted her to testi*# in the manner she testi*ied a"ainst the acc+sed/ ?hat can #o+ sa# abo+t this statementG A 0t is tr+e that 0 to%d m# da+"hter .eonito .orenLo. the %en"th and the 'idth o* the . sir/ 2 N2 O There is no evidence that . .e%%ant.rivate com.+b%ic .ito/ &$B5T: R A Are #o+ re*errin" to the acc+sedG Des.ed her/ 0ndeed. 'ho 'as bare%# *o+r #ears o%d 'hen she testi*ied.revaricate or *a%se%# testi*# that the a. b+t a%so in the ho+se o* 6ddie de%os 5e#es/ The ..> and therea*ter te%% the chi%d to *a%se%# testi*# that the a.%aced in a sea o* *ire/ R A ?ho is this Mama# . 'ith the +se o* her *in"ers... sir/ 4o' bi" is itG .enis o* Mama# .

.+ciKa +sic.+cinia.+ma#a" na i+ron" an" demanda %aban sa -an#an" asa'a dahi% sa an" totoo a# ta%a"an" "inahasa ni#a an" ana.emonstrates sho'in" her arm havin" a diameter o* a.e%%ant. 'hen #o+ 'ere in #o+r mother7s ho+se. and s+b<ect her da+"hter to s+ch dis"race i* the %atter 'as not a*ter a%% ra. demanded that .anini'a%a ni#a na hindi "ina'a n" -an#an" asa'a i#on/ 4indi .-o/ &$B5T: (roceed/ :1 N:1O .it a# na-i-i+sa. there is no tr+th to #o+r char"es a"ainst her h+sband/ And in that occasion.?0TN6@@: (. the a.e%acrosa7s testimon#: R .orenLo. #o+ to%d her that #o+ 'o+%d on%# dro.enis 'hen #o+r Mama# . #o+r char"es a"ainst her h+sband.e%acrosa 'ithdra' the com.e%acrosa a%so be%ied the c%aims o* the a. 1999..e%%ant 'as char"ed 'ith ra. .%aints a"ainst the a.e%acrosa so+"ht the ..e%%ant. #o+r char"es a"ainst her h+sband i* the# 'o+%d %eave that . . to her reA+est beca+se 0 -no' that it is tr+e/ A%tho+"h she 'as sa#in" that it is not tr+e. she so+"ht co+nse% *rom o**icia%s o* the %glesia ni Cristo.+t on record/ &$B5T: (+t the Ta"a%o" ans'er o* the 'itness on record/ A =Sa#a ho si#a %+ma.enis o* #o+r Mama# . she reA+ested #o+ to dro.orenLo a%so testi*ied that on $ctober 2.e%%ant7s 'i*e.e beca+se .ito to%d #o+ to to+ch the sameG 0 didn7t %i-e to ho%d it.. .e8 o* de.enis 'as ab%e to ..o a-o .e%acrosa 'as envio+s o* him *or havin" been a%%o'ed to c+%tivate a bi" . o* 'hich she 'as a member/ 4er co%%ective acts 'ere not those o* a de. *or his bestia% acts on her ha.eonito . sir/ :0 N:0O 0t 'o+%d be at the a. beca+se accordin" to her.e%%ant and his 'i*e . her +nc%e no %ess. sir/ ?h# did #o+ not to+ch his .%ess da+"hter/ Ce*ore she did. b+t one 'ho so+"ht <+stice *or her da+"hter/ A%tho+"h ..ro8imate%# 2 inches)/ R A R A And that siLe 'as inserted in #o+r va"inaG $n%# the ti.e%%ant/ 0n this case. .%ace/ ?hat can #o+ sa# abo+t this statementG A 0t is tr+e that she a.ed b# the a. ho si#a sa a-in na i+ron" -o an" demanda %aban sa -an#an" asa'a dahi% sa .ed b# no %ess than her "rand*ather.itoG Aro+nd *ive inches.enetrate. o* the .e%acrosa 'as adamant/ To A+ote .ravit# *or a mother to coach her *o+r1#ear1o%d da+"hter into *a%se%# testi*#in" that she 'as ra. sir/ (?itness demonstrates)/ R A R A And #o+ 'ere ab%e to ho%d thatG No.+cinia that the a. it is tr+e/ ATTD/ ACA@: Ma# 'e move that the Ta"a%o" ans'er o* the 'itness be . sir/ 4o' %on" is the .rosec+tion and conviction o* the a.raved mother.. the char"es a"ainst her h+sband b+t did not acceed +sic.ortion o* the 30 31 ..roached me and reA+ested me to dro.

h#sica%%# im.. sir/ :2 N:2O The tria% co+rt "ave credence and *+%% . credib%e and entit%ed to *+%% . th+s: R . "iven the .e%%ant *ai%ed to .orenLo that the reason 'h# #o+ *i%ed these t'o ra. b# 5e.%ace other than the situs o* the crime at the time o* its commission s+ch that it 'as .ation o* #o+r h+sbandG Fisherman.revai% over the testimon# o* the . as amended. sir/ 4o' abo+t #o+...e%acrosa and that o* 6ddie de%os 5e#es.e%%ant ra.e%%ant and the (ro..+b%ic Act No/ 7699 N:3O 'hich reads: :3 Art/ ::9/ ..e%%ant7s a%ibi is %i-e'ise barren o* merit. 1 5a..rosec+tion/ &ase %a' has it that the ca%ibration b# the tria% co+rt o* the testimonia% evidence o* the . . sir/ .ect.orenLo 'as beca+se #o+ envied him *or c+%tivatin" a bi" .e%acrosa testi*ied that the .ro. so.e cases a"ainst the acc+sed . 'h# sho+%d 0 env# him/ R A R A R A ?hat is the occ+.%ainant and those o* the other 'itnesses *or the .ortment o* the 'itnesses as the# testi*#/ ?e *ind no reason to deviate *rom the *indin"s o* the tria% co+rt and its assessment o* the credibi%it# and .ossib%e *or him to have committed the same/ N::O The a.orenLo/ The# have their o'n share/ 0 did not env# him beca+se m# h+sband and m# chi%dren even do not -no' ho' to *arm.e +nder Artic%e --( o* the 5evised (ena% &ode.erties 'hich her mother and her sib%in"s had inherited *rom their .ationG Fe"etab%es and ..ro8imit# o* the ho+se o* the (ena%ties There*or The tria% co+rt correct%# r+%ed that the a. .ro.robative 'ei"ht/ The a.rove his a%ibi.rosec+tri8 and her 'itnesses.e%%ant is b+rdened to add+ce c%ear and convincin" evidence that he 'as in a . she e8.e%%ate co+rt hi"h res.%ained.rivate com.eonito .erties %e*t b# her "rand. i* not conc%+sive e**ect.+ciKa .+ciKa +sic.eonito .arties and its assessment o* the .astries vendor.arents. re%#in" so%e%# on his *ra"i%e testimon#/ :: The &rimes &ommitted b# the A.e%%ant to the ho+se o* . she 'as not interested 'ith the %and as she 'as not a *armerM neither 'as her h+sband.hen and how rape is committed. 'hi%e she and her *ami%# did not have an# *arm to c+%tivate/ .ortion o* %and 'hi%e #o+ and #o+r *ami%# do not have an# *arm to 'oron/ ?hat can #o+ sa# abo+t this statementG A R 0t is not tr+e that 0 envied him/ ?hat is then the tr+thG A The *arm that the# 'ere re*errin" to had a%read# been divided amon" m# mother and her other sisters inc%+din" .robative 'ei"ht to the testimon# o* the .ed the victim/ A%ibi is a 'ea-.e%%ant7s bare denia% o* the crimes char"ed are mere ne"ative se%*1servin" evidence and cannot ...recise%# beca+se o* the +niA+e advanta"e o* the tria% co+rt o* observin" and monitorin" at c%ose ran"e the demeanor and de. 'hich the tria% co+rt *o+nd .robative 'ei"ht o* the testimonia% evidence on record/ The a.robative 'ei"ht thereo* are accorded b# the a.ositive. 'hat is #o+r occ+. 'here the a.o #o+ -no' ho' to *armG No..e is committed b# havin" carna% -no'%ed"e o* a 'oman +nder an# o* the *o%%o'in" circ+mstances: 32 33 34 .e%%ant is "+i%t# o* t'o co+nts o* ra.arents had a%read# been divided amon" the heirs/ Cesides.orenLo %i-e'ise stated and it 'as a%so the statement o* the acc+sed . i* not the 'ea-est o* de*enses/ The a.

000 as civi% indemnit# *or each co+nt. as amended b# 5e.%ar# dama"es/ The decision o* the tria% co+rt sha%% th+s be modi*ied/ IN LIGHT OF ALL THE FOREGOING.e%%ant to s+**er the death . )r/ c%aim that their a+nt.. and 4$N$5AT$ .000/ N:9O &osts de oficio..ena%t# sha%% be im..$.e%%ant to . The tria% co+rt a%so correct%# sentenced the a.e%%ant The tria% co+rt ordered the a.000 as e8em./ Act No/ 7699. petitioners. ?0T4 M$...%ainant .6.ecision o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt o* $rienta% Mindoro.6.iabi%ities o* the A.o%itan Tria% &o+rt (MT&).rivate com.F56.ea%s N2O den#in" the ..rivate com.6 T/ CA.ena%t# *or each co+nt/ 4e is a%so directed to .ea% *rom the decision N:O dated November 10.. nor did it order the a. the death .%ainant .e or a tota% o* (90.0.. &A@T0.000M (79. 1999 o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt (5T&).1/ C# +sin" *orce or intimidationM 2/ ?hen the 'oman is de. Cranch 136.a# to the . Cranch 62.orenLo is *o+nd "+i%t# be#ond reasonab%e do+bt o* t'o co+nts o* A+a%i*ied ra. is AFF05M6.resented b# her attorne#1 in1*act MAT0.$.A5.6NT0N$ re.%ainant e8em.e%%ant/ Bnder Artic%e ::9 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode.a# the . the .. 6rnesto de% &asti%%o and 4onorato de% &asti%%o. 200:O ?0.000 as civi% indemnit# *or each o* the t'o crimes/ The tria% co+rt did not a'ard an# mora% dama"es.ea Fanessa Ada# the amo+nt o* (90. o* Ma-ati &it#/ :6 :7 : (etitioners ?i%*redo @i%verio.000 as mora% dama"es *or each co+nt or (190.a# to .000M and (29.eonito .e%%ant .e sha%% be .rivate com. 2000 o* the &o+rt o* A. as amended b# 5e. o* Ma-ati &it# 'hich in t+rn a**irmed the decision dated Febr+ar# 29. vs.$.osed i* the victim is a chi%d be%o' seven #ears o%d: The death .0F0&AT0$N/ The a.ed b# the a.rived o* reason or other'ise +nconscio+sM and :/ ?hen the 'oman is +nder t'e%ve #ears o* a"e or is demented/ The crime o* ra. and is sentenced to s+**er the death .%ainant 'as bare%# *o+r #ears o%d 'hen she 'as ra. 4$N/ &$B5T $F A((6A. *or a tota% amo+nt o* (190.0 Ce*ore +s is a .656. /.osed i* the crime o* ra./ N2/5/ No/ 13::99/ )+%# 23. &A@T0.rivate com.ena%t# sha%% a%so be im.+nished b# reclusion perpetua. :9 @$ $5. 65N6@T$ .e +nder Artic%e ::9 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode.e is committed 'ith an# o* the *o%%o'in" attendant circ+mstances: T 3/ 'hen the victim is a re%i"io+s or a chi%d be%o' seven (7) #ears o%d/ &ivi% .@ and 26./ Act No/ 7699..%ar# dama"es *or each co+nt o* ra.A T$. in &rimina% &ases Nos/ 3 :2 and 3 ::.ea Fanessa Ada# (79.F650$.e%%ant to .6&0@0$N &$5$NA. )5/.$ @0.etition *or revie' o* the reso%+tion N1O dated Febr+ar# 19. o'ned a :99 sA+are1meter %ot (evidenced b# Trans*er &erti*icate o* Tit%e No/ 172 : 35 36 37 38 .etitioners7 a. respondents/ . Cranch 30. 1999 o* the Metro..ena%t#/ The .. 6+"enia de% &asti%%o.

the .0@562A5.etitioners to vacate the .ea% in a decision dated November 10.etitioners.etition. res. 0N A&&$5.endin" a.ondent/ Therea*ter. the said . Trans*er &erti*icate o* Tit%e No/ 211:01 'as iss+ed in the name o* res.6NT0&A.ondent/ Three da#s a*ter the recei.ort their .AN&6 ?0T4 6@TAC.remises and verba%%# as-ed the . 199 .ondent7s %e"a% co+nse% then sent a demand %etter to the . 2000.eeds o* Ma-ati &it#/ $n @e. res.etitioners discovered that a certain Man+e% de% &asti%%o a%read# o'ned the s+b<ect %ot b# virt+e o* a deed o* donation e8ec+ted b# 6+"enia in *avor o* Man+e% 'ho %ater had it tit%ed in his name/ $n March 10. Ma-ati &it#/ ?hen she died in 19 :.ondent 2e%arda To%entino/ A*ter the sa%e 'as <+dicia%%# a. the#.etitioners .ea%s denied the a.end the e<ectment .remises/ ?hen . .$?N CD T40@ 4$N$ .ondent did not s+**icient%# . as *orced heirs o* 6+"enia.e%%ate co+rt erroneo+s%# denied the .etitioners *i%ed a notice o* a.aid the doc-et *ee/ @ince no s+.roved b# the 5T& o* R+eLon &it#.etition ar"+in" that the &o+rt o* A. this .ert# to herein res.eriod.ea%s/ $n Febr+ar# 19. the 5T& o* Ma-ati &it# denied the ...6 &$B5T $N 0.ea%s erred: 0 0N . became the co1o'ners o* the s+b<ect %ot and so the# %ived in the ho+ses thereon/ 0n 1997.ondent 'ent to the s+b<ect .ea%/ The tria% co+rt "ranted the motion and iss+ed a 'rit o* e8ec+tion/ Therea*ter. .etitioners b+t the %atter re*+sed to receive the same and even threatened to h+rt the messen"er i* he insisted on havin" the doc+ment o**icia%%# received/ 4ence.rove that a demand 'as e**ected . res.. the %etter 'as served b# re"istered mai% and a co.ondent *i%ed a motion *or e8ec+tion .es..ea%ed to the &o+rt o* A.roceedin"s on acco+nt o* the . &A@6@/ N6O 31 Accordin" to the .0TD AN.ondent co+ntered b# *i%in" be*ore the MT& o* Ma-ati &it# the s+b<ect e<ectment case a"ainst the .ondent "ranted them +nti% )+ne 19.6N&6 .etitioners7 civi% case *or reconve#ance and dama"es a"ainst the 39 40 41 . 1999.etitioners vacatin" the s+b<ect %ot/ 5es. the MT& rendered a decision in *avor o* res.etition on a technica% iss+e 'itho+t considerin" its s+bstantia% merits/ The . res.ert# and dama"es a"ainst res...etitioners *i%ed a case *or reconve#ance o* .ite the notice. in vio%ation o* @ection 2.ersedeas bond 'as *i%ed 'ithin the re"%ementar# .etitioners7 motion *or reconsideration beca+se the# did not bother to correct the de*iciencies in the . . and their minor chi%dren and a ne' tit%e iss+ed in their name/ C%esi%da and her minor chi%dren then so%d the .tember 19.eriod %a.# o* the same 'as .e%%ate co+rt a%so denied the .etitioners7 a. 5+%e 32 o* the 1997 5+%es o* &ivi% (roced+re/ N3O The a. the &o+rt o* A.etition/ N9O :9 30 4ence.# o* the decision o* the MT& (2) materia% .endenc# o* the . 1999/ @aid decision 'as a.ert#/ $n A+"+st 29. 199 to vacate/ 4o'ever. C%esi%da de% &asti%%o. 0N . 1997.B6 &$B5@6 T$ T46 (6T0T0$N (B5@BANT T$ AN.ea% and .etitioners/ $n Febr+ar# 29. the a.rior to the *i%in" o* the e<ectment case/ The co+rts a 1uo %i-e'ise erred *or its *ai%+re to s+s.the dismissa% o* the $F T46 M650T@ $F (6T0T0$N65@7 &AB@6M and 00 0N N$T 20F0N2 ..%aint on the "ro+nd that res.etitioners a%so 199 .iss+ed b# the 5e"ister o* ...etitioners *ai%ed to attach (1) a d+.ert# 'as nonethe%ess trans*erred to Man+e%7s 'i*e..osted at the entrance o* the s+b<ect .ondent and the 5e"ister o* . the . )B50@(5B.%eadin"s and (:) doc+ments to s+.A0.%icate ori"ina% or tr+e co.t o* the on the "ro+nd that the .eeds o* 5iLa%) and three residentia% ho+ses erected thereon %ocated at 6conomia @treet.0@M0@@0N2 T46 (6T0T0$N F$5 56F06? 0N &A12/5/ N$/ @(/ 96:06 $N M656 T6&4N0&A.sed 'itho+t the .etitioner 4onorato annotated an adverse c%aim on Man+e%7s tit%e/ .%eaded to be "iven s+**icient time to %eave.

%ainant did not meet the evidentiar# reA+irement (.%eadin"s and doc+ments to s+.riate *or the &o+rt o* A.%aint to that e**ect.ea%s err in den#in" the .ortions o* the records.etition a d+. *aldado.ast%#.ies o* the same orders 'ere s+bmitted b# the . the case sho+%d be dismissed not beca+se o* %ac.$MANTAD.etitionG 0n "aras vs.%icate ori"ina% or tr+e"ant sho+%d be "iven the *+%%est o.etition beca+se it 'as. N7O this &o+rt..%aint sho's that res.. r+%ed that a .ea%s/ Moreover.ersona%%# de%ivered.ondent made an ora% and therea*ter a 'ritten demand on the .romote s+bstantia% <+stice/ ?e he%d that the a%%e"ed *ai%+re o* a . this 'as not e**ected b# reason *or (sic) de*endants7 re.ort their .revents a tria% co+rt *rom acA+irin" <+risdiction in e<ectment cases is the *ai%+re to a%%e"e in the com. co.etition *or the *ai%+re o* the . and sho+%d have instead %oo-ed at the s+bstantia% merits o* their c%aims/ .eriod/ ?e den# the .ro. the .%aint reads as *o%%o's: 9/ $n 01 @e.h 9 o* the com.etitioners ar"+e that the 5T& erred in iss+in" a 'rit o* e8ec+tion .%eadin"s and other re%evant .ea% 'as *i%ed 'ithin the re"%ementar# .osted in the entrance o* the @+b<ect (ro.etition on the "ro+nd a%one that the ..%ication o* .etition has no merit/ (etitioners . %ibert#.%icate ori"ina% co.res..0((0N6@.etitioners in their motion *or reconsideration/ 32 0n the case at bar.ite a%%e"ations in the com.etitioners to attach a d+.tember 199 .ert#/ A%tho+"h the intention 'as to have the a*orestated demand %etter .6 $F T46 (40. the com.roced+ra% r+%es sho+%d be avoided 'hen it *r+strates s+bstantia% <+stice/ 4ence.ea% des. it 'as ina.%aint or de*ense/ 4e o+"ht not to %ose %i*e.> accused appellant/ .ea%s to den# the .etitioner *ai%ed to attach to the said . i/e/.. vs/ C65NA5.+"ned 5T& orders did not merit the denia% o* the .etition.# o* the demand %etter 'as conseA+ent%# . con*ormab%# (sic) to the instr+ction o* ..onderance o* evidence) to merit the <+dicia% eviction o* a de*endant/ 3: 0n the case at bar..roced+ra% %a.%ainti** *ai%ed to .6&0@0$N M6N. //: .id the &o+rt o* A. in an# event.etitioners to vacate the .# o* the decision o* the MT&. U =)BN0$5 $T$T..remises ..0N$ .%ainti** *ai%s to .anied b# the 5T& decision so+"ht to be revie'ed/ A%% this not'ithstandin" the .e%%ate co+rt sho+%d have disre"arded the . materia% .%ainti**.ro. the absence o* a c%ear%# %e"ib%e d+.roced+re sho+%d be vie'ed as mere too%s desi"ned to *aci%itate the attainment o* <+stice/ Their strict and ri"id a.# o* the MT& decision beca+se it 'as s+.etition beca+se the records ind+bitab%# sho'ed that d+.ies o* the said 5T& orders 'ere in *act attached to one o* the seven co.ondent/ . the *ai%+re to attach the MT& decision did not adverse%# a**ect the s+**icienc# o* the .%aint *ai%s to a%%e"e that a demand has been made/ N O 0n case the .%icate ori"ina% or tr+e co.ert#/ N9O 33 42 43 33N2/5/ No/ 1:0612/ Ma# 11. honor or .ies o* the im.. thr+ then Associate )+stice Minerva 2onLa"a15e#es. not the *act that .ted and a co.etition/ (etitioners ar"+e that the ri"id a.ite the *act that their a.rove said demand des..%icate ori"ina% or tr+e to revie' the decision not o* the MT& b+t o* the 5T&.ort+nit# to estab%ish the merits o* his com.ondent to prove that she made a demand on them to %eave the .ra# *or the dismissa% o* the e<ectment case d+e to the *ai%+re o* the res.eated re*+sa% to receive the same/ 4ence. the a.rove said a%%e"ation/ 0n e<ectment cases.ert# on technica%ities/ 5+%es o* .%ication based on technica%ities 'i%% on%# *r+strate rather than . the tria% co+rt does not ass+me <+risdiction i* the com.etition *i%ed in the &o+rt o* A. accom.etition certi*ied tr+e co. the +ndersi"ned co+nse%.$ plaintiff appellee.remises/ (ara" to attach to the . 1999O (6$(.rior to the *i%in" o* the s+it/ ?hat .%aint that a demand 'as made. e**ected a demand a"ainst de*endants to vacate the s+b<ect .o* <+risdiction b+t beca+se the com.. . resort to service thro+"h re"istered mai% 'as ado.ies o* the .ses in their .endin" a. not'ithstandin" that the %atter a**irmed in toto the <+d"ment o* the MT&/ 0n short.# o* the decision o* the MT&.

inoLa and another .ovo%emic shocsecondar# to : stab 'o+nds at the bac-/ .re<+dice o* her heirs/ At the tria%. to estab%ish its char"e that acc+sed1a. a co+sin o* the victim7s "rand*ather.ic-ed +.. and to . 1996. the .ite the . the said )enni*er .%e stab 'o+nds. o* the ...ine Nationa% (o%ice chie* investi"ator at Ma%asiA+i.o%ice o**icers Montema#or.ines and 'ithin the <+risdiction o* this 4onorab%e &o+rt.on +sed. a ba#onet.ondent .ost1mortem *indin"s o* . 'hich res+%ted to her death. con*essed to -i%%in" )enni*er .omanta#.o%ice o**icers e8ec+ted a recei.r/ Macaranas.e%%ant had ra.. both the MT& and 5T& *o+nd that res.o%ice station 'here acc+sed1a. 'i%*+%%#.a# the costs/ The *acts har. . *indin"*ormed an *rom this *act+a% disA+isition o* the co+rts a 1uo in vie' o* the r+%e that *indin"s o* *act o* the tria% co+rts are.o%iceman too.omanta#.. 1996. (hi%i.e%%ant be*ore the M+nici.ra'%ed amidst a bamboo "rove in 2+i%i". the tria% co+rt acA+ired <+risdiction over the case beca+se the com.endenc# o* an action A+estionin" the o'nershi.ective%#... +n%a'*+%%# and *e%onio+s%# have se8+a% interco+rse 'ith )enni*er . to the dama"e and .%aint e8..acc+sed1 a. .ed and -i%%ed )enni*er .ert o* the NC0/N2O The investi"ation b# the Ma%asiA+i .on/N:O $n the basis o* the . he had "iven the *ata% 'ea. the *o%%o'in" in*ormation 'as *i%ed:N3O That on or abo+t the 17th da# o* $ctober.. 1996. 'hen the bod# o* si81#ear o%d )enni*er .rovince o* (an"asinan.ert o* the NC0.remises/ And. and de 2+Lman o* the Ma%asiA+i (hi%i. 1996. the (hi%i. in*%ictin" +.omanta#. based on the records.omanta#.e 'ith homicide and sentencin" him to death.e 'ith homicide/ @+bseA+ent%#.etitioners to %eave the s+b<ect .ossib%e commission o* acts o* %ascivio+sness.omanta#/ . @($3 )+an &ar.etitioners/ ?e have no reason to de.resented seven 'itnesses. M+nici. .a#ment o* the necessar# doc-et *ees sho+%d have sta#ed the e8ec+tion o* the decision/ ?e disa"ree/ 0n con*ormit# 'ith @ection 19. at aro+nd 3 o7c%oc-.+b%ic mar-et and too.. de %a &r+L.t to evidence the con*iscation o* the 'ea.r/ Ma/ Fe .inoLa. (an"asinan/ The chi%d7s bod# bore severa% stab 'o+nds/ )enni*er had been missin" since %+nch time/ The medica% e8amination cond+cted the *o%%o'in" da# b# . in the a*ternoon..ea% and the .orenLo.roved that she made ora% and 'ritten demands on the . @($3 &ar.e%%ant to ra. a%tho+"h the va"ina% cana% easi%# admitted the %itt%e *in"er 'ith minima% resistance/ Notin" .rosec+tion .e%%ant Cernardino . in (ob%acion @+r.e%%ant to Ca#amban" and recovered the ba#onet *rom a tric#c%e be%on"in" to the &asin"a% s. in baran"a# 2+i%i". 'ith %e'd desi"n and armed 'ith a ba#onnete.iLo.ast%#. &e%so &it# (Cranch 97). .ect in the "r+esome crime/ At aro+nd 6::0 in the evenin" o* that da#.eticia Macaranas. name%#. as the %one s+s. the above1named acc+sed.endin" their action *or reconve#ance and dama"es *i%ed a"ainst res.ine Nationa% (o%ice ((N() . sho'ed that )enni*er died o* m+%ti.000/00.iLo amended the crimina% com.r/ 5ona%d Candoni%%.ended . 1996.%ete%# %acerated on the ri"ht side/ Cased on this *indin"*ection o* their a. a%% s+rnamed . and on the same occasion. Antonio 6s.ea%/ The *i%in" o* the notice o* a. . as a "enera% r+%e. and to indemni*# the heirs o* the victim in the amo+nt o* (3 0.h#sician o* Ma%asiA+i.him to the .s# b# a medico1%e"a% e8.o+ses/ The .etitioners A+estion the order "rantin" the 'rit o* e8ec+tion on the "ro+nd that the same 'as iss+ed des. 'i%*+%%#. the said acc+sed 'ith intent to -i%%.on her m+%ti.. .s# on the emba%med bod# o* )enni*er/ The res+%t o* his e8amination o* the victim7s "enita%ia indicated that the chi%d7s h#men had been com. a minor o* 6 #ears o%d a"ainst her 'i%% and consent..a"+. the r+ra% hea%th . then and there.r/ 5ona%d Candoni%%.omanta#/ 4e %i-e'ise disc%osed that at aro+nd :::0 that a*ternoon.ert# does not bar the *i%in" or consideration o* an e<ectment s+it nor the e8ec+tion o* the <+d"ment therein/ N11O 36 . Ca#amban". and .a% Tria% &o+rt (MT&) o* Ma%asiA+i/ $n $ctober 29. did then and there. medico1%e"a% e8.&onseA+ent%#.ea% *rom the decisionN1O o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt o* . on $ctober 21.o%ice .e%%ant. )ieL%. )ose%ito Me< the a*ternoon o* $ctober 17.omanta# 'as *o+nd s. Ma%asiA+i. This case is here on a.r/ Macaranas *o+nd no %acerations or si"ns o* in*%ammation o* the o+ter and inner %abia and the va"ina% 'a%%s o* the victim7s "enita%ia.ondent made a demand on .on A+estionin" b# @($1 Antonio 6s.inoLa.ondent/ ?e do not thin.%e or"an *ai%+re and h#. +n%a'*+%%# and *e%onio+s%# stab 'ith the +se o* a ba#onnete. a crimina% com. . to 6%sa and )or"e &asin"a%.ress%# a%%e"ed that res.r/ Macaranas recommended an a+to.e%%ant at the Ma%asiA+i .bac.%aint a"ainst acc+sed1a. bindin" on this &o+rt/ N10O 39 (etitioners a%so a%%e"e that the s+b<ect e<ectment case sho+%d have at %east been his a+nt and +nc%e res. (an"asinan/ The ne8t da#.ointed to acc+sed1a. $ctober 1 . acc+sed1a.a%it# o* Ma%asiA+i. +. @($1 6s. 6d' The .e%%ant "+i%t# o* ra. *i%ed.%aint *or m+rder a"ainst acc+sed1a.

ora% A%berto 2a%anta 'ere +nder instr+ctions to arrest Anse%mo Ca%a"tas. in 6n"%ish. a tric#c%e driver. &hie* o* (o%ice Antonio P/ $anis and his co1acc+sed &or... and the# 'i%% cr# and cr#>)/ 6d'ard .orenLo . on his 'a# to his *arm.e%%ant 'as abo+t t'o meters ahead o* )enni*er/ The bamboo "rove 'as abo+t to 10 meters *rom the ho+se o* )ieL% .er.e%%ant im.. at abo+t 2 the a*ternoon on $ctober 17. No.%ored Me<ia to ta-e him to Ma%asiA+i at once/ Me<ia to%d acc+sed1a..arent%# had one too man# then. on se.. +. and sat bet'een .e%%ant "ave mone# to 6d'ard .o%ice station in the evenin" o* $ctober 17.omanta# said that he 'as in *ront o* Macasaeb7s ho+se.inoLa testi*ied that he investi"ated acc+sed1a. correct%# ordered the e8ec+tion o* the <+d"ment/ 37 HEREFORE.resented @($1 Antonio 6s.rite/N6O 6d'ard said he <oined the "ro+.e%%ant assisted b# co+nse%/ Neither 'as acc+sed1a.. a nei"hborin" baran"a# abo+t ha%* a -i%ometer *rom 2+i%i".. a"reed/ Me<ia noticed that acc+sed1a. his shirt and said: =2o diad &ntipolo tan 34i5pa et walay massacre./ &osts a"ainst the .omanta#..e%%ant %ater chan"ed his mind/ 0nstead o* "oin" to the to'n . (an"asinan/ )ieL% sa' acc+sed1a.. in the a*ternoon o* $ctober 17.ondent.omanta#/N10O .arate occasions.. ta-in" the ro+te to 5iLa% street.e%%ant..endent co+nse%.inoLa7s testimon# 'as admitted b# the tria% co+rt over the ob<ection o* the de*ense/ .e%%ant 'ith the -ni*e as the %atter +s+a%%# carried it 'ith him/N9O )ieL% .e%%ant and his t'o brothers1in1%a'.eared to be nervo+s/N11O (rosec+tion 'itness )ose%ito Me<ia.e%%ant had "one to Am.inoLa admitted that at no time d+rin" the co+rse o* his A+estionin" 'as acc+sed1a.656.ea% is . walay onakis akis> (=0n Anti. sa#in" the# 'i%% not be "one *or %on"/ Me<ia.e%%ant that he 'as "oin" to ta-e his %+nch *irst. the tria% co+rt.omanta# testi*ied that in the mornin" o* $ctober 17. Oanis G.omanta#/ @($1 6s.etitioners/ @$ $5. walay massacren kod dia. L#4$$%% &'l( %$.etitioners did not *i%e a s+. ro%%ed +.e%%ant o* his constit+tiona% ri"ht to remain si%ent and to have com.. 'hen acc+sed1a. the a. tendin" to some ..e%%ant a.i"eons in his #ard/N9O A*ter the "ro+. )aime &aba%%ero and . there*ore. he a.e%%ant a*ter the %atter had been bro+"ht to the Ma%asiA+i ...R. the .eared rest%ess and 'orried as he -e.on motion o* the res.e%%ant a.rised acc+sed1a. there 'ere massacresM here in 2+i%i". 1996/ Ce*ore he commenced his A+estionin". a re%ative o* the victim. he did not tr# to *ind o+t 'h# acc+sed1a.. b+t the %atter . he a%i"hted near the Mormon7s ch+rch. said that.ea% is hereb# .remises considered..osit the renta%s 'hich become d+e d+rin" the .. 1996.t %oo-in" aro+nd/ 4o'ever.e%%ant7s con*ession red+ced in 'ritin"/N19O 6s.5+%e 70 o* the 1997 5+%es o* &ivi% (roced+re. the de*endant m+st: (a)*ect his a.aro . (an"asinan/ 6d'ard .e%%ant7s 'aist%ine 'as a ba#onet 'itho+t a cover hand%e/N O 0t 'as not the *irst time that 6d'ard had seen acc+sed1a.i.6N06. 'hich 'as %ater trans%ated into (an"asinense/N1:O Accordin" to @($1 6s. as .a.e%%ant 'as nervo+s and a*raid/ Acc+sed1 a. %i-e'ise testi*ied/ @he said that..ersedeas bond. Ma%asiA+i.endin"..e%%ant a"reed to ans'er the A+estions o* the investi"ator even in the absence o* co+nse% and admitted -i%%in" the victim/ Acc+sed1a.%eaded 'ith him.aro .. 'ho. he 'as abo+t to ta-e his %+nch at home in A%acan.omanta#7s bamboo "rove in the a*ternoon o* $ctober 17. 6s. to sta# the immediate e8ec+tion o* a <+d"ment in an e<ectment case 'hi%e a. a notorio+s crimina% and 6d'ard .omanta# 'here )enni*er7s bod# 'as %ater *o+nd/ Acc+sed1a.e%%ant and )enni*er .ersedeas bondM and (c) .orenLo said that that a* 10.omanta#.rosec+tion . .e%%ant had con*essed to the br+ta% -i%%in" o* )enni*er .e%%ant a%so disc%osed the %ocation o* the ba#onet he +sed in -i%%in" the victim/N13O $n cross1e8amination.. diad 6uilig wala. acc+sed1a.ea%M (b) *i%e a s+.%a#in" in *ront o* their ho+se in 2+i%i".omanta# and as-ed him to b+# t'o bott%es o* "in and a bott%e o* @.e%%ant/N7O 6d'ard said that acc+sed1a.inoLa.e%%ant abo+t :0 meters a'a#..omanta# sa' that t+c-ed in the %e*t side o* acc+sed1a...omanta# 'a%-in" to'ards the bamboo "rove o* Am. 1)4* Facts: As a "ro+. 1996/ .ot in the bamboo "rove 'here )enni*er7s bod# 'as %ater *o+nd/ Acc+sed1a. 'e have consistent%# r+%ed that.o%o and . 1996..endenc# o* the a.a+dencio Macasaeb. she and *o+r other chi%dren 'ere . acc+sed1a... had a ro+nd o* drin-s in *ront o* the %atter7s ho+se in 2+i%i".etent and inde. corroborated )ieL%7s testimon# that acc+sed1a.ea%/ N12O Ceca+se ./ !eo"le vs. 1996. Ma%asiA+i. he sa' acc+sed1a. o+tside Ma%asiA+i/N12O 0n addition. a.orenLo 'as in a h+rr#.inoLa and &e%so Man+e% 'ho testi*ied that. had cons+med severa% bott%es o* @an Mi"+e% "in. there 'i%% a%so be a massacre/ 0 'i%% massacre somebod# here.a+dencio Macasaeb and acc+sed1 a. acc+sed1a. standin" at the s.eriodica%%# de. acc+sed1a...

orter o* station .%ained that the intervie' 'as cond+cted in the <ai%. @era.s#. ano an" "+sto mon" i.+mata# -a# )enni*erG>. the# acted in innocent mista-e o* *act/ 0ss+e: ?hether or not &hie* o* (o%ice $anis and &or.resent 'ere abo+t t'o to three meters *rom him. an AM station based in .o%ite%#/ More or %ess 'hat have #o+ as-ed him on that . 'h# did he commit that a%%e"ed crime/ And 0 as-ed a%so i* he committed the crime and he ans'ered =#es/> That7s it/ //// (5$@/ RB0N0T: R Do+ mentioned abo+t acc+sed admittin" to #o+ on the commiNssionO o* the crime.%e "+nshot 'o+nds 'ere *o+nd on his bod# 'hich ca+sed his death/ The de*endants a%%e"ed and a.e%%ant 'ho 'as then detained in the m+nici. *or his . ho' did #o+ ashim thatG A R 0 as-ed him ver# . m+%ti.ractitioner 'ith m# ta. =S+n" .ened.aratin"G>. the# 'ent into a room and on seein" a man s%ee.eace*+% and innocent citiLen.orter. and 0 a%so as-ed )+nior $tot.+r.> Cernardino .ected ho+se.ea%ed that in the honest . =S+n" na-i-ini" an" m"a ma"+%an" ni )enni*er. Man+e% 'ent to Ma%asiA+i to intervie' acc+sed1a. testi*ied that he is a radio -o>/ That is 'hat he said.o'ered.esca.?(5. abo+t t'o to three meters a'a# *rom the . 'hat 'as his .io Tecson 'ho +. to "et him dead or a%ive/ (roceedin" to the s+s.o%ice station/ An +nc%e o* the victim 'as 'ith him and the nearest . =0bi" mo ban" sabihin ) sir/ R ?hat are those matters 'hich #o+ bro+"ht o+t in that intervie' 'ith the acc+sed Cernardino .a"+./ card and 0 . 'itho+t *irst ma-in" an# reasonab%e inA+ir# as to his identit#/ The victim t+rned o+t to be a .id #o+ introd+ce #o+rse%* as a media .omanta#7s case/N16O $n $ctober 2:. =-+n" "+sto ni%an" ma-amtan an" h+stis#a a# tatan""a.a"+.omanta# a%ias =)+nior $tot>G A 0 as-ed him 'hat 'as his . and he +sed that %itt%e "ir% in his reven"e/ $n cross1e8amination. an +nc%e o* the victim came to .a% <ai%/ 4e described 'hat trans. i-a' an" .+te.resented m#se%* as a media .+r. and i* over.e recorder NinO m# hand. Man+e% e8.o> sabi ni#a.ed convict.ractitionerG Des.ora% 2a%anta 'ere "+i%t# o* m+rder/ &e%so &it# and in*ormed the station abo+t )enni*er .. it 'as abo+t the bo+ndar# o* m# intervie'. sir/ R A ?hat 'as his reaction to #o+r reA+est *or an intervie'G 4e 'as 'i%%in" to state 'hat had ha. inc%+din" Ma%asiA+i/ @ometime in $ctober 1996.omanta# a%ias =)+nior $tot> m# 0/.o%icemen .an &it#/ 4e covers the third district o* (an"*ormance o* their o**icia% d+ties..o>/ The N%Oast .in" 'ith his bac. sim+%taneo+s%# *ired at him 'ith their /:2 and /39 ca%iber revo%vers.ired d+rin" the intervie' th+s:N17O (5$@/ RB0N0T: R A R . inc%+din" those 'ho 'ere in the radio room/N1 O There .'ards the door.omanta#.ina"sisisihan mo ba an" i#on" "ina'aG> =$.ose *or h+man interest7s sa-e as a re.artic+%ar matterG A 0 as-ed =)+nior $tot. sir/ 4o' did #o+ introd+ce #o+rse%* to the acc+sedG A 0 sho'ed to Cernardino . and he said.on a+to. =A-o n"a .

art#/ 4e a%so c%aimed that it 'as he 'hom Macasaeb had reA+ested to b+# some more %iA+or. <+st o+tside o* the to'n .omanta# so that the %atter co+%d "et t'o bott%es o* "in. @ection 2 .e%%ant/N19O $n A+estionin" b# the co+rt.. nec-. 1996. 'hom the . y (AD(A and . *or 'hich reason he "ave mone# to 6d'ard .ect to his e8tra<+dicia% con*ession to &e%so Man+e%.inoLa re"ardin" the -i%%in" o* )enni*er o* 'hich 'as si8 inches/N22O 4e o. Man+e% said he ta%-ed to the chie* o* . Cernardino . he 'as bathin" his .resented as 'itness.TB.omanta# (he and her "rand*ather are co+sins) and that he 'or-ed as a <anitor at the Ma%asiA+i M+nici.+b%ic mar-et..her 'ho too.omanta#7s c%aim that he (acc+sed1 a.e%%ant as its %one 'itness/ Acc+sed1a.e%%ant ..the . b+t the %o'er co+rt a%%o'ed it/ .omanta# died as a res+%t o* the n+mero+s stab 'o+nds she s+stained on her bac-.ined that the 'o+nds 'ere .ointed shar.e%%ant.. . VNo +nnecessar# or +nreasonab%e *orce sha%% be +sed in ma-in" an arrest.inoLa/ 4e denied he had a "r+d"e a"ainst the victim7s .e%%ant c%aimed. the %a' does not .0((0N6@.+te/N2 O ?ith res.ermission to intervie' o* Ma%asiA+i to meet his brother/ As his brother did not come..inoLa. b# three . N$6.rovides. he admitted that he had been intervie'ed b# the %atter. 'as no %a'#er . .in the a*ternoon o* $ctober and as-ed . vs.resented acc+sed1a.. the de*ense ob<ected to the admission o* Man+e%7s testimon#. N21O the avera"e de. 1996. Man+e% said that it 'as the *irst time he had been ca%%ed to testi*# re"ardin" an intervie' he had cond+cted/N20O As in the case o* the testimon# o* @($1 the a*ternoon.5+%in": Ne' 5+%es o* &o+rt. ho'ever. b+t he denied that he ever admitted an#thin" to the *ormer/N29O As a%read#"/ 0n a.omanta# U =)+nior $tot> "+i%t# be#ond reasonab%e do+bt 'ith the crime o* 5a.r/ Candoni%%. accused appellants.tor to -i%% him/ 0t is on%# 'hen the *+"itive *rom <+stice is determined to *i"ht the o**icers o* the %a' 'ho are tr#in" to ca.aro .ro. a bott%e o* @.a+dencio 'as then havin" drin-s in *ront o* his (Macasaeb7s) ho+se/ Acc+sed1a.e%%ant a%so con*irmed that.rosec+tion/ The de*ense then .orted *or 'or-/ That ni"ht. and the .o%icemen and bro+"ht to the Ma%asiA+i .omanta# 'as *o%%o'in" him/ 4e *+rther con*irmed that in A%acan.e%%ant) had raised his shirt to sho' a ba#onet t+c-ed in his 'aist%ine and that he had said he 'o+%d massacre someone in 2+i%i"/N27O Acc+sed1a.o* ci"arettes/N26O 4e denied 6d'ard . the acc+sed 'o+%d not be <+sti*ied in -i%%in" him 'hi%e the %atter 'as s%ee.assin" on the trai% beside the bamboo "rove o* Am. acc+sed1a.ic-ed +. that he did not <oin in the drin-in" and that it 'as 6d'ard .rosec+tion had .i"s o+tside the ho+se o* his brother1in1%a' .6 $F T46 (40. &.e%%ant denied the a%%e"ations a"ainst him/ 4e testi*ied he is an +nc%e o* )enni*er .. the .0N. the NC0 medico1%e"a% 'ho cond+cted an a+to. and 6) o**ered b# the . 5+%e 109. and breast bone o* the victim/N23O As *or the res+%ts o* the "enita% e8amination o* the victim.tember 26. testi*ied that )enni*er ..rehendin" even the most notorio+s crimina%. the tria% co+rt *o+nd acc+sed1a.. and a .ara"ra.arents beca+se o* a bo+ndar# dis. the &o+rt hereb# *inds the acc+sed.a% 4a%%/ 4e said that at aro+nd 1 o7c%oc... he too. 'hi%e he 'as in the Ma%asiA+i .omanta#. the crime committed b# both 'as m+rder 'ith the A+a%i*#in" circ+mstance o* a%evosia/ 6ven i* it 'ere tr+e that the victim 'as the notorio+s crimina%.h 2 .resent/ Ce*ore intervie'in" acc+sed1a.o%ice station 'here he 'as interro"ated b# @($1 6s.r/ Candoni%% said he *o+nd that the %aceration on the ri"ht side o* the h#men 'as ca+sed 'ithin 23 ho+rs o* her death/ 4e added that the "enita% area sho'ed si"ns o* in*%ammation/N29O (aci*ico C+%atao. (an"asinan/ 4e con*irmed that . he 'ent to A%acan ..$ C$.$N2 y NA56T.arents7 ho+se.hoto"ra.1ed"ed instr+ment/>N2:O 4e a%so noted cont+sions on the *orehead. he 'as .a tric#c%e to Ma%asiA+i/ The tric#c%e 'as driven b# )ose%ito Me<ia/ 4e said he a%i"hted near the Mormon ch+rch. at abo+t 2 o7c%oc. identi*ied and a+thenticated the *ive .robab%# ca+sed b# a =.omanta# to @($1 6s.ositive .a+dencio Macasaeb in 2+i%i".erson arrested sha%% not be s+b<ect to an# "reater restraint than is necessar# *or his detention/W As the deceased 'as -i%%ed 'hi%e as%ee.ict+res o* the scene o* the crime and o* the victim a*ter the %atter7s bod# 'as bro+"ht to her .omanta#/ C+t he said he did not -no' that )enni*er .ortion o* its decision reads:N:0O ?4656F$56.roceeded to to'n and re.ict+res (68hibits A.omanta#/ 4e denied havin" o'ned to the -i%%in" o* )enni*er . TB.ermit the ca. 200:O (6$(.t+re him that -i%%in" him 'o+%d be <+sti*ied/ N2/5/ No/ 1330:7/ @e. and a certain )aime &aba%%ero 'ho <oined the .s# o* the victim on $ctober 29.e 'ith 4omicide de*ined and .e%%ant "+i%t# as char"ed/ The dis. in %i"ht o* a%% the *ore"oin". C. Ma%asiA+i. plaintiff appellee.

.e%%ant 'as bro+"ht to the Ma%asiA+i .it a %ess evi% that some crimina%s sho+%d .N:7O he 'as a%read# a s+s.erson as a s+s..%ies to the sta"e o* c+stodia% investi"ation.ecisionsN:6O o* this &o+rt ho%d that *or an e8tra<+dicia% con*ession to be admissib%e..rotestations o* disa.ena%t# o* death b# %etha% in<ection.t in 'ritin" and in the .ANT/ 00/ T46 &$B5T A RB$ 6556.rovides: (1) An# .000/00).ts and . 0 do not see 'h# it ma# not as 'e%% . that is.6@(0T6 FA0.e than that the "overnment sho+%d ..a# them *or "ettin" it in the same 'a#. X12(1) o* the &onstit+tion and that. the remainin" .T C6D$N.o%ice station in the evenin" o* $ctober 17. ='hen the investi"ation is no %on"er a "enera% inA+ir# into an +nso%ved crime b+t starts to *oc+s on a .ortance to . it m+st satis*# the *o%%o'in" reA+irements: (1) it m+st be vo%+ntar#M (2) it m+st be made 'ith the assistance o* com.rovision a.+b%ic Act No/ 7699 and accordin"%#.: T/ 0t is desirab%e that crimina%s sho+%d be detected. /. is inadeA+ate to estab%ish his "+i%t be#ond reasonab%e do+bt/ N::O Art/ 000.e%%ant a%%e"es that:N:2O 0/ T46 &$B5T A RB$ 6556.. and to indemni*# the heirs o* the victim in the tota% amo+nt o* Fo+r 4+ndred 6i"ht# Tho+sand (esos ((3 0. 'hen acc+sed1a.6 .%a# an i"nob%e .art 0 thin.etent and inde.inoLa and &e%so Man+e% are inadmissib%e in evidence beca+se the# had been obtained in vio%ation o* Art/*erab%# o* his o'n choice/ 0* the . X12 o* the &onstit+tion in . acc+sed1a.resence o* co+nse%/ //// (:) An# con*ession or admission obtained in vio%ation o* this section or section 17 hereo* sha%% be inadmissib%e in evidence/ This .ea%.rovided 'ith one/ These ri"hts cannot be 'aived e8ce. consistin" o* circ+mstantia% evidence.6&0@0$N T0N2A. and to that end that a%% avai%ab%e evidence sho+%d be +sed/ 0t a%so is desirab%e that the "overnment sho+%d not itse%* *oster and .ect. 56A@$NAC. 0N A((56&0AT0N2 T46 6ET5A)B./ 0n this a.1A((6. .6 CD T46 A&&B@6.erson +nder investi"ation *or the commission o* an o**ense sha%% have the ri"ht to be in*ormed o* his ri"ht to remain si%ent and to have com.etent and inde.endent co+nse% .endent co+nse%M (:) it m+st be e8.$BCT/ First/ Acc+sed1a..artic+%ar .ect/>N:3O 5/A/ No/ 73: has e8tended the constit+tiona% "+arantee to sit+ations in 'hich an individ+a% has not been *orma%%# arrested b+t has mere%# been =invited> *or A+estionin"/N:9O . and *or m# . 'hen the# are the means b# 'hich the evidence is to be obtained/ 0* it . 'ith these vita% .rova% i* it -no'in"%# acce. and 0 can attach no im.a# *or the *r+its/ ?e have to choose.a# the costs/ @$ $5.ena%iLed +nder Artic%e ::9 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode in re%ation and as amended b# 5e. in the br+ta% s%a#in" o* )enni*er ..0&0A.a# *or other .N:1O and to .a#s its o**icers *or havin" "ot evidence b# crime..e%%ant contends that his a%%e"ed con*essions to @($1 Antonio 6s.656. 1996.ieces o* evidence e8c%+ded. &$NF6@@0$NN@O MA. he m+st be . 0N &$NF0&T0N2 T46 A&&B@6. in *act the on%# one.B56 $F T46 (5$@6&BT0$N T$ (5$F6 40@ 2B0.a#s and anno+nces that it 'i%% . the &o+rt hereb# sentences him to s+**er the .erson cannot a**ord the services o* co+nse%.roo* o* his a%%e"ed "+i%t.ressM and (3) it m+st be in 'ritin"/ 0n the case at bar.

b+t instead. he said he 'as 'i%%in" to acce. b+t it is eA+a%%# inadmissib%e/ The r+%e is based on the ..orter. that the atmos. T+dt+d 'as en"a"ed in se%%in" mari<+ana/ N7O 92 9: 93 91 .roceedin"s o* the 3 @ometime d+rin" the months o* )+%# and A+"+st 1999. this &o+rt said:N31O NAO. the Tori% (o%ice @tation. ho'ever.+t in 'ritin" nor made in the .avao &it#/ N9O For *ive da#s. $.t the conseA+ences o* his act/ &e%so Man+e% admitted that there 'ere indeed some . b+t he to%d me that he 'i%% coo.rovided 'ith*eration o* mari<+ana in their area/ N:O 39 90 5eactin" to the re.omanta#/ 4e 'as. Tori%.%ained in "eople v..rinci.%ied to him/ @($1 6s.oisono+s tree/> As e8. there*ore. this &o+rt is made to choose bet'een %ettin" s+s. the# "athered in*ormation and %earned that T+dt+d 'as invo%ved in i%%e"a% dr+"s/ N6O Accordin" to his nei"hbors.resence o* the . .rivate individ+a% and another individ+a%/ 0t "overns the re%ationshi.rior to the interro"ation cond+cted to him. that acc+sed1a. ($1 5ona%d .e%%ant7s Nora%O con*essions to the ne'smen are not covered b# @ection 12(1) and (:) o* Artic%e 000 o* the &onstit+tion/ The Ci%% o* 5i"hts does not concern itse%* 'ith the re%ation bet'een a .@o 'rote )+stice $%iver ?ende%% 4o%mes in )lmstead v.omanta#.ected crimina%s esca. ho'ever.revai%s in a c+stodia% investi"ation/N32O ?e are not .resence o* co+nse%/ For this reason. N1O $n this occasion.a. 'ho 'as a%%e"ed%# res. &ndan.ress+re or in*%+ence on acc+sed1a. .e%%ant sho+%d have been e8c%+ded b# the tria% co+rt/ @o is the ba#onet inadmissib%e in evidence.e or %ettin" the "overnment . the 'aiver is inva%id and his con*ession is inadmissib%e/ @($1 6s. i%%e"a%%# seiLed evidence is obtained as a direct res+%t o* the i%%e"a% act.7. ($1 5ami% F%oreta and their s+.e%%ant7s con*ession to the radio re.e%%ant c%aims. X12(1) o* the &onstit+tion a.o%ice o**icers aro+nd beca+se abo+t t'o to three meters *rom the <ai% 'ere the ..N30O the acc+sed in a ra.ort. a%read# +nder c+stodia% investi"ation and the ri"hts "+aranteed in Art/ 000. &licando:N:9O / / / Accordin" to this r+%e..onsib%e *or the . N3O a%% members o* the 0nte%%i"ence @ection o* the Tori% (o%ice @tation.erson besides him 'as an +nc%e o* the victim/ Acc+sed1a. the =*r+it o* the .e 'ith homicide case con*essed to the crime d+rin" intervie's 'ith the media/ 0n ho%din" the con*ession admissib%e.ite the *act that the acc+sed "ave his ans'ers 'itho+t the assistance o* co+nse%.ired d+rin" acc+sed1 a..e%%ant7s interro"ation:N: O N0O interro"ated Cernardino .rimari%# addressed to the @tate and its a"ents/ Acc+sed1a. the 'aiver 'as neither . des.%a# an i"nob%e . as it 'ere. . cond+cted s+rvei%%ance in @o%ier7s nei"hborhood in @a.erate even in the absence o* his co+nse%M that he admitted to me that he -i%%ed )enni*er . @($1 Fi%%a%on"han.rohibitions therein are .ontaneo+s%#/ Accordin" to &e%so Man+e%.inoLa narrated 'hat trans.inoLa7s testimon# on the a%%e"ed con*ession o* acc+sed1a.avao &it# received a re. and he revea%ed a%so the 'ea. he a"reed/ 4e ans'ered A+estions *ree%# and s.ers+aded/ Acc+sed1a.. 0 in*ormed him o* his constit+tiona% ri"ht as *o%%o'sM that he has the ri"ht to remain si%entM that he has the ri"ht to a com. &e%so in the <ai% 'hen he 'as intervie'ed 'as =tense and intimidatin"> and 'as simi%ar to that 'hich .the .omanta#. and *+rther in*ormed NhimO that a%% he 'i%% sa# 'i%% be red+ced into 'ritin" and 'i%% be +sed the same in the . is admissib%e/ 0n "eople v.esierto.o%ice station and the radio room/N3:O ?e do not thin..%e that evidence i%%e"a%%# obtained b# the @tate sho+%d not be +sed to "ain other evidence beca+se the ori"ina%%# i%%e"a% obtained evidence taints a%% evidence s+bseA+ent%# obtained/ ?e a"ree 'ith the @o%icitor 2enera%.e%%ant and coerced him into "ivin" his con*ession/ .on +sed NandO 'here he "ave NitO to/ C+t tho+"h he 'aived the assistance o* co+nse%.e%%ant 'as intervie'ed 'hi%e he 'as inside his ce%%/ The intervie'er sta#ed o+tside the ce%% and the on%# . once the primary source (the =tree>) is sho'n to have been +n%a'*+%%# obtained. bet'een the individ+a% and the @tate/ The .o%ice o**icers e8erted an# +nd+e ..e%%ant co+%d have re*+sed to be intervie'ed. bein".ort *rom a =civi%ian asset> named Cobon" @o%ier abo+t a certain Noe% T+dt+d/ N2O @o%ier re%ated that his nei"hbors have been com..erior.%ainin" abo+t T+dt+d. an# secondary or derivative evidence (the =*r+it>) derived *rom it is a%so inadmissib%e/ @tated other'ise. 'hereas the Yfruit of the poisonous tree> is at %east once removed *rom the i%%e"a%%# seiLed evidence.etent %a'#er o* his o'n choice and i* he can not a**ord Na co+nse%O then he 'i%% be .

robab%e *or a br+ta% -i%%in" to have been committed 'itho+t the chi%dren 'ho 'ere .orter/ 6ven ass+min" that he 'as.e%%ant near the ..o%ice that T+dt+d had headed to &otabato and 'o+%d be bac%ater that da# 'ith ne' stoc-s o* mari<+ana/ N O @o%ier described T+dt+d as bi"1bodied and short. ($1 .e%%ant near the bamboo "rove =at aro+nd> that time/ 4e described acc+sed1a.oints 'ith his con*ession/ 4e 'as seen 'a%-in" to'ard the bamboo "rove.orenLo sa' acc+sed1a. name%#.orter (Man+e%) to tr# to e%icit some incriminatin" in*ormation *rom the acc+sed/>N33O This is . he 'as seen standin" near the bamboo "rove 'here the chi%d7s bod# 'as *o+nd/ 5+%e 1:: o* the 5evised 5+%es on 6vidence . the intervie' 'as cond+cted on $ctober 2:. 6 da#s a*ter acc+sed1a...tion/ N13O The same man a%so toted a . at aro+nd 2 o7c%oc. Z An e8tra<+dicia% con*ession made b# an acc+sed. havin" heard an# commotion/N39O The contention has no merit/ Acc+sed1a. @o%ier in*ormed the .erson char"ed 'ith treason sha%% be convicted +n%ess on the testimon# o* t'o 'itnesses to the same overt act.o%ice re.revent her *rom ma-in" an# so+nd/ 0n *act. . there is no sho'in" that the radio re.o%ice investi"ators to as.omanta#/ 0n addition.e%%ant had a%read# con*essed to the -i%%in" to the .in the a*ternoon on $ctober 17.e%%ant7s e8tra<+dicia% con*ession is corroborated b# evidence o* corpus delicti.r/ Candoni%% noted a *ive b# t'o inch (9> 8 2>) cont+sion on the %e*t side o* the victim7s *orehead.e%%ant "oin" to'ard the bamboo "rove *o%%o'ed b# the victim =at aro+nd> 2 o7c%oc.. 1996. these 'itnesses con*irmed 'hat each had said each one sa'/ ?hat is stri-in" abo+t their testimonies is that 'hi%e )ieL% said she sa' acc+sed1a.rovides: X:/ #!tra8udicial confession. *o%%o'ed b# the victim.e%%ant as nervo+s and 'orried/ There is no reason to do+bt the c%aim o* these 'itnesses/ .esierto and ($1 F%oreta observed that one o* the men *it T+dt+d7s descri.ects and identi*ied themse%ves as . there is no evidence to sho' that &e%so 'as a .e%%ant and the victim 'a%-in" and the time .%astic ba"/ N19O 99 60 61 62 ($1 F%oreta and ($1 .. +n%ess corroborated b# evidence o* corpus delicti/ X3/ #vidence necessary in treason cases/ Z No .. 'hich he said co+%d have been ca+sed b# a hard b%+nt instr+ment or b# im. the media are -no'n to ta-e an o.rosec+tion 'itnesses dovetai%s in materia% ..e%%ant contends that =it is / / / not a%to"ether im..orter 'as actin" *or the . a team com..osed o* ($1 . 1999.e%%ant/ To the contrar#.$n A+"+st 1. 'here the crime too.%ace 'here the victim7s bod# 'as %ater *o+nd/ Far *rom contradictin" each other.. ho'ever.ed each other carr# a carton N12O mar-ed =Sin" F%a-es/> N1:O @tandin" some *ive *eet a'a# *rom the men.e%%ant ar"+es that it 'as the a*ternoon/ There co+%d have been a di**erence in time.. the circ+mstantia% evidence *+rnished b# the other . .. t'o men disembar-ed *rom a b+s and he%.osted themse%ves at the corner o* @ai.omanta#7s "rove.o%ice or that the intervie' 'as cond+cted +nder circ+mstances 'here it is a. bet'een the time )ieL% sa' acc+sed1a. the a*ternoon on $ctober 17.o%ice had received in*ormation that stoc-s o* i%%e"a% dr+"s 'o+%d 6: Acc+sed1a.e%%ant a%so contends that the testimon# o* )ieL% .orenLo ..osite stance a"ainst the "overnment b# e8..o%ice/ Acc+sed1a.+r.e%%ant standin" near the bamboo "rove at abo+t the same time/ These 'itnesses. did not testi*# concernin" 'hat the# sa' at e8act%# the same time/ ?hat the# to%d the co+rt 'as 'hat the# had seen =at aro+nd> 2 o7c%oc. it has not been sho'n that.arent that acc+sed1a. 1996.e%%ant co+%d have covered the #o+n" chi%d7s mo+th to .act as her head hit the "ro+nd/N36O The b%o' co+%d have rendered her +nconscio+s.robab%e *or the .e%%ant 'a%-in" to'ards the bamboo "rove.ose 'as to e%icit incriminatin" in*ormation *rom acc+sed1 a.en co+rt/ Acc+sed1a. th+s .%a#in" abo+t ei"ht to ten meters *rom Am.ater. ho'ever %itt%e it 'as.+re con<ect+re/ A%tho+"h he testi*ied that he had intervie'ed inmates be*ore.orenLo said he sa' acc+sed1a.esierto in*ormed them that the .orenLo said he had seen acc+sed1a. not sufficient ground for conviction.esierto.%ace.e%%ant con*essed to the -i%%in" o+t o* *ear/ As a%read# stated. ($1 F%oreta and @($1 Fi%%a%on"han .. and +s+a%%# 'ore a hat/ N9O At aro+nd 3:00 in the a*ternoon that same da#.rec%+din" her *rom sho+tin" or cr#in"/ Acc+sed1a.roached the s+s..aro . or on con*ession in o. sha%% not be s+**icient "ro+nd *or conviction. *o%%o'ed b# the victim/ . his .omanta# beca+se 'hi%e )ieL% said she had seen acc+sed1a.o%ice o**icers/ N16O ($1 . in cond+ctin" the intervie' in A+estion. .on and McArth+r 4i"h'a# to a'ait T+dt+d7s arriva%/ N10O A%% 'ore civi%ian c%othes/ N11O 99 96 97 9 Abo+t :00 %ater that evenin".o%ice beat re...osin" o**icia% 'ron"doin"s/ 0ndeed.the .. the *act o* death o* )enni*er .omanta# contradicts that o* .esierto then a.

%+n"s and %iver.h#sica% evidence s+. beneath 'hich 'ere t'o b+nd%es.. =it 'as a%ri"ht/> N20O T+dt+d o.orts a *indin" o* ab+se o* s+.roo* ..e%%ant is "+i%t# o* homicide/ Art/ 239 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode .. in .e%%ant/ There is no reason he 'o+%d testi*# *a%se%# a"ainst the %atter/ )ieL%.omanta# and co+%d a%so be re%ated to acc+sed1a.rovides: An# .erior stren"th: acc+sed1a.recedin" artic%e Nm+rderO. the .arricideO sha%% -i%% another 'itho+t the attendance o* an# o* the circ+mstances en+merated in the ne8t .%astic ba" N22O and another in ne's. is a%so s+rnamed .o%ice th+s arrested T+dt+d and his com. as amended.ose.+r.o%ice station/ N26O The t'o did not resist/ N27O 7: 73 .r/ Candoni%% testi*ied that an# o* the ma<or 'o+nds on the victim7s bac.esierto as-ed him i* he co+%d see the contents o* the bo8/ N19O T+dt+d ob%i"ed.erson 'ho. o* s+ch contact/ . it is eno+"h i* there 'as even the s%i"htest contact o* the ma%e se8 or"an 'ith the %abia o* the victim7s "enita%ia/N9:O 4o'ever. no s+**icient evidence to ho%d have ca+sed her death as the# .omanta#/ Art/ ::9 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode..the %o'er co+rt erred in *indin" that the -i%%in" 'as committed 'ith cr+e%t#/N3 O The tria% co+rt a. on%# carna% -no'%ed"e had to be . the %atter bein" a *+%%# "ro'n man o* 29 #ears/ 0ndeed. in*ormed them o* their ri"hts and bro+"ht them to the .o* )enni*er7s bod#/ C+t 'e thin.anion %oo-ed on/ N21O 63 69 66 67 6 The bo8 #ie%ded . not *a%%in" 'ithin the .roven be#ond reasonab%e do+bt that acc+sed1a.. -idne# and intestines/N91O Se+on.hen and how rape is committed/ Z 5a.tion denied that he 'as carr#in" an# dr+"s/ N1 O ($1 .rovides: A5T/ ::9/ .enetrated her heart. m+ch o* a de*ense a"ainst acc+sed1a.+nished b# reclusion temporal/ The -i%%in" 'as committed 'ith the "eneric a""ravatin" circ+mstance o* ab+se o* s+. the &o+rt is convinced o* acc+sed1a..ed in a stri.e%%ant "+i%t# o* ra. one 'ra. there m+st be .omanta#./ There is. she 'as on%# 10 #ears o%d/ For the *ore"oin" reasons.ears to have been %ed to this conc%+sion b# the n+mber o* 'o+nds in*%icted on the victim/ C+t the n+mber o* 'o+nds is not a test *or determinin" 'hether there 'as cr+e%t# as an a""ravatin" circ+mstance/ N39O =The test / / / is 'hether the acc+sed de%iberate%# and sadistica%%# a+"mented the victim7s s+**erin" th+s / / / there m+st be .ieces o* dried *ish.ed . the .ac-a"es/ N23O The# contained 'hat seemed to the ..e%%ant had a 'ea.e%%ant and has not been sho'n to have an# reason to testi*# *a%se%# a"ainst acc+sed1a. on the other hand. sa#in".rosec+tion has ..+t +. sha%% be deemed "+i%t# o* homicide and be . b# direct or indirect evidence.rovisions o* Artic%e 236" )enni*er arrivin" that ni"ht/ N17O The man 'ho resemb%ed T+dt+d7s descri.esierto as-ed T+dt+d to +n'ra.. 'as si8 #ears o%d at the time o* the -i%%in"/ @he 'as a chi%d o* sma%% b+i%d.orenLo is a re%ative o* acc+sed1a..roo* o* cr+e%t#/ .e%%ant/ At the time o* the incident.roved to estab%ish ra.a. )enni*er . ho'ever. 36> in hei"ht/N37O 0t is c%ear then that she co+%d not have .e/ &arna% -no'%ed"e is de*ined as the act o* a man havin" se8+a% interco+rse or se8+a% bodi%# connections 'ith a 'oman/N92O For this .o%ice o**icers as mari<+ana %eaves/ N29O 69 70 71 72 The .roo* that the victim 'as made to a"oniLe be*ore the Nthe acc+sedO rendered the b%o' 'hich sn+**ed o+t NherO %i*e/>N90O 0n this case.e%%ant7s assa+%t. 'hi%e the victim 'as not sho'n to have had an#M there 'ere : stab 'o+ndsM and a%% the -ni*e 'o+nds are %ocated at the bac.e%%ant7s "+i%t 'ith res.e is committed b# havin" carna% -no'%ed"e o* a 'oman +nder an# o* the *o%%o'in" circ+mstances/ 1/ C# +sin" *orce or intimidationM 2/ ?hen the 'oman is de..ened the bo8 himse%* as his com. there is no s+ch .rived o* reason or other'ise +nconscio+sM and :/ ?hen the 'oman is +nder t'e%ve #ears o* a"e or is demented/ As the victim here 'as si8 #ears o%d.ers/ N2:O ($1 .ect to the -i%%in" o* the chi%d/ 0t is c%ear that the .erior stren"th/ The record sho's that the victim.

. he testi*ied:N62O (5$@/ F/ RB0N0T: R No'.%ete %aceration o* the ri"ht side o* the h#men/ The s+rro+ndin" "enita% area sho's si"ns o* in*%amation/ //// 56MA5S@: 1) Findin"s at the "enita% area indicate the . . this ma# have a%so been ca+sed b# a da""er +sed in the -i%%in" o* )enni*er .r/ 5ona%d Candoni%%7s re.The con*iscated items 'ere t+rned over to the (hi%i. (h#sica% @ciences 5e.rivate .%ete %aceration o* the ri"ht side o* the h#men.a.o%ice o**icers7 s+s. doctorG A ?e%%.enetration o* that area b# a hard ri"id instr+ment/ R A //// ATTD/ FA.h#sician7s *indin" that the h#men o* the a%%e"ed victim 'as %acerated does not .rove ra. reserved their ri"ht to A+estion the va%idit# o* their arrest and the seiL+re o* the evidence a"ainst them/ N:3O 7 79 0 1 Tria% ens+ed therea*ter/ .icion/ The .ined that the %aceration had been in*%icted 'ithin 23 ho+rs o* the victim7s death and that the in*%ammation 'as d+e to a tra+ma in that area/N61O ?hen as-ed b# the .aborator# *or e8amination/ N2 O Forensic tests cond+cted b# (o%ice &hie* 0ns. standin" a%one. on s.anion. sir/ .ector Noemi A+stero.robabi%it# o* .ort on the "enita% e8amination he had . *orensic chemist o* the (N( &rime .ointed and shar.rove that the victim 'as ra.ort there is a remar.e/ 0t is on%# 'hen this is corroborated b# other evidence .aborator#.%eaded not "+i%t#/ N::O The de*ense.ted *act that a h#mena% tear ma# be ca+sed b# ob<ects other than the ma%e se8 or"anN9 O or ma# arise *rom other ca+ses/N99O .ort.rohibited dr+"s/ N:2O B.rove its commission/ As he%d in "eople v.rove ra.ort No/ . ho'ever.rovin" carna% -no'%ed"e that ra. a .er*ormed on the deceased reads:N93O 26N0TA. it sho+%d be a hard b%N+Ont instr+ment/ &o+%d it have been ca+sed b# a h+man or"anG 0* the h+man ma%e or"an is erect.ed b+t to sho' that the %atter had %ost her vir"init#/ &onseA+ent%#.robabi%it# o* .h#sician is . *+%%# erect and hard then it is . 5e"ion E0.ine Nationa% (o%ice ((N() &rime . 'hat mi"ht have ca+sed the com.r/ Candoni%% himse%* admitted this/ 4e testi*ied that the ri"ht side o* the victim7s h#men had been com.enetration o* that area b# a hard ri"id instr+ment.200 "rams o* mari<+ana %eaves 'hi%e the ne's.6P: R 0n #o+r remar-sM *indin" at the "enita% area indicates the .indo C+%on".N96O a medica% certi*icate or the testimon# o* the . sir 'hen 0 sa# hard ri"id instr+ment it sho+%d not be shar.ossib%e.%ete%# %acerated 'hi%e the s+rro+ndin" "enita% area sho'ed si"ns o* in*%ammation/N60O 4e o. ri"id. i* #o+ %oo.ector A+stero red+ced her *indin"s in her re.e ma# be deemed to have been estab%ished/N97O This conc%+sion is based on the medica%%# acce. both acc+sed .robabi%it# o* .resence .enetration o* that area b# a hard. . ri"id instr+ment/ 4#mena% %aceration is not necessar# to .at m# re.ossib%e/ C+t he a%so said 'hen A+estioned b# the de*ense that the %acerations co+%d have been ca+sed b# somethin" b%+nt other than the ma%e or"an/ Th+s.ossession o* .rosec+tor 'hether the %acerations o* the h#men co+%d have been ca+sed b# the insertion o* a ma%e or"an he said this 'as .omanta# is that correctG A ?e%%.1220199 dated 2 A+"+st 1999/ N:0O 79 76 77 Noe% T+dt+d and his com. 6EAM0NAT0$NM sho'ed a com. sir.on arrai"nment.eMN99O neither does its .%astic ba" contained :.ers contained another 90 "rams/ N29O (o%ice &hie* 0ns.ecimens ta-en *rom the con*iscated items con*irmed the .resented not to .avao &it# 'ith i%%e"a% .and it sa#s thereM *indin"s at the "enita% area indicated the . $lili.. 'ere s+bseA+ent%# char"ed N:1O be*ore the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt (5T&) o* .

resent other te%%1ta%e si"ns o* ra.ossib%e/ 4o' abo+t i* the .ossib%# ca+sed b# a da""er. sir/ To be s+re. .evi7s . sir co+%d sho'/ M# A+estion is other than the h+man ma%e or"anG (ossib%e. it de. ho'ever.o #o+ consider a bo%o a b%N+Ont instr+ment.%ete erection b# a h+man or"an is this . a%on" 'ith %ess than ten .ointin" a /: ca%iber revo%ver/ N: O The man to%d him not to r+n/ N:9O T+dt+d raised his arms and as-ed.resented *ive 'itnesses. ri"id b+t it is not a b%N+Ont instr+ment. 'as it the same as the h+man or"anG A ?e%%.o%ice o**icer a.on reachin" Tori%.enetration 'as done b# a *in"er.tion o* the victim7s c%othin"s. cried *rame1+. #o+r 4onor.ants.assen"ers. and i* the *in"er is %ar"e then it is . its . and @($: Nico%as A%"abre.ecia%%# her +nder"arments. es.rosec+tion 'as ab%e to .enetratNesO the or"an./ Noe% T+dt+d reca%%ed that on A+"+st 1.e o* a t'o #ear1o%d chi%d on the basis o* circ+mstantia% evidence:N69O .The . 1999 he had "one to Sabacan. T+dt+d. =@ir.rosec+tion .e 'ith homicide based on . "ot do'n the b+s/ N:7O 2 : 3 @+dden%#. or a da""erG The da""er is a shar.aborator#/ @aid 'itnesses testi*ied to the *ore"oin" narration o* *acts/ The acc+sed. he ret+rned to .er*icia% %aceration.+re%# circ+mstantia% evidence/ 0n those instances. beca+se a da""er 'o+%d have made at its incision / / / not a %aceration. is it notG A No.osition o* the bod# 'hen *o+nd and the %i-e/N6:O 0n "eople v. 'hat is this 9 6 R A . #o+r 4onor/ A hard b%N+Ont instr+ment.N63O *or instance.e s+ch as the %ocation and descri. is that correctG A R A //// &$B5T: R A Do+ mentioned that the h#men 'as %acerated on the ri"ht sideG Des. i* the *in"er is sma%% it co+%d the s+.%ete %aceration o* the ri"ht side o* the h#men. their civi%ian in*ormant Cobon" @o%ier. den#in" the char"es a"ainst them. North &otabato to se%% ..ossib%e that the %aceration can on%# be on the ri"ht side o* the h#menG A R Des. e8hibit c+stodian o* the (N( &rime . sir/ 0 'on7t sa# that this 'o+%d have been ca+sed b# a da""er. this ma# have been . a man 'ho identi*ied himse%* as a . the . the . arrestin" o**icers ($1 .ector Noemi A+stero. the &o+rt a**irmed a conviction *or the ra.ends on the siLe o* the *in"er that .esierto and ($1 F%oreta.roached him. sir/ R C+t this %aceration ma# a%so have been ca+sed b# other *actors other the h+man ma%e or"an.avao &it# b# b+s/ N:6O B. name%#. 'acalino.airs o* . 'hich 'as his =side%ine/> N:9O At abo+t 9:00 in the a*ternoon. *orensic chemist (o%ice &hie* 0ns. this &o+rt has s+stained a n+mber o* convictions *or ra. sir/ R This 2enita% 68amination sho'ed a com. sir/ R And i* there is a com.ossib%e #o+r honor/ R A 4o' abo+t t'o *in"ersG (ossib%e.

she found appellant 'acalino beside the child buttoning his own pants and that she *o+nd some sticky fluid on the child’s buttocks and some blood on her private part/ (6m.000/00 as act+a% dama"es/ 4o'ever.evi7s .e.airs o* .r+nnin" *rom the +. 'e cannot *ind that acc+sed1a. the a'ard o* act+a% dama"es sho+%d be red+ced to (12..area *rom the %e*t to the ri"ht/ &onsiderin" the re%ative .%# inserted a b%+nt ob<ect into her or"an.s# re. )aime .N6 O and anterior .en a carton bo8 some t'o meters a'a#/ N32O Accordin" to T+dt+d. then. into her shorts to s+ch an e8tent/ As acc+sed1a.e%%ant 'as seen 'ith the victim 'a%-in" to'ard the . e.note that there 'ere severa% stab 'o+nds / / / these were all found at the back area sir / / / e8tendin" *rom the bac.t/ Art/ 2199 o* the &ivi% &ode . and instr+cted T+dt+d to o. both the ra. there is a h+"e b%oodstain in the bac.ortionN69O o* her bod#/ A%tho+"h it is not +nnat+ra% to *ind cont+sions on the .en the ba".oints at the bac.ermatoLoa in the "ir%7s va"ina% cana%/ 0ndeed.e and the homicide m+st be estab%ished be#ond reasonab%e do+bt/ N7:O T-ir.ort o* .ed her/ 4e did not con*ess to havin" ra.omanta# the amo+nt o* (:0.ed in ce%%o.. The tria% co+rt ordered acc+sed1a. this is contrar# to ordinar# h+man e8.a# the heirs o* )enni*er .e%%ant 'o+%d nat+ra%%# have to .roo* that it 'as acc+sed1a.ants.e%%ant a%so committed ra.t *or a minor c+t in the %o'er %e*t %e") had their entr# .rod+ced b# se8+a% interco+rse is corroborated b# the testimon# "iven b# com..en it o+t o* *ear a*ter the man a"ain .osterior side. there is no s+**icient .e%%ant 'ho had ra. the victim7s shorts and +nder"arments a*ter the a%%e"ed ra.roved/ There*ore. b+t .ecia% com.e 'ith homicide.omanta#.h#sica% . he m+st have. the victim7s shorts 'o+%d not have been stained so e8tensive%#/ A"ain. re"ard%ess o* 'hen the stab 'o+nds 'ere in*%icted. on%# (12.e..rovides that a . other'ise.3:0/00/ $* this amo+nt.%e8 crime o* ra. the man said it 'as mari<+ana and abr+.%astic ba" T+dt+d 'as carr#in"" +.000/00 'as s+.ress+re on the victim7s bod# d+rin" the se8+a% assa+%t/N70O 0t is +nA+estionab%# di**erent 'hen..abo+tG> N30O The man ans'ered that he 'o+%d %i-e to ins.e%%ant se8+a%%# ab+sed the victim/ The on%# circ+mstance *rom 'hich s+ch in*erence mi"ht be made is that acc+sed1a.roceeded to o. .ants/ N31O 7 The man then directed T+dt+d to o. the ver# a+to.hasis in the ori"ina%) 0n contrast. the +s+a% %ocation o* the e8terna% bodi%# in<+ries o* the victim is on the *ace. +nderneath 'hich 'as somethin" 'ra. 'hich revea%ed severa% .r/ Candoni%% mi%itates a"ainst the *indin" o* ra.+%%ed +.inion o* .. all the stab 'o+nds (e8ce..enses .iece o* c%othin" 'hen the stab 'o+nds 'ere in*%icted or immediate%# therea*ter.. the %ist o* e8.%ainant 6%iLabeth that 'hen she r+shed +.. on%# tota%ed (2 .ed the victim/ From the *ore"oin".stairs +.+%% do'n the "ir%7s %o'er "arments in order to cons+mmate the ra. there is no circ+mstance *rom 'hich it mi"ht reasonab%# be in*erred that he ab+sed her.ed.e/ 0n the s. as in this case.r/ 2a<ardo that the *resh %aceration had been .ointed his revo%ver at him/ N33O T+dt+d discovered . th+s ca+sin" the %acerations in the h#men/ $ther'ise. that he 'as Li.ect the . in the case at bar. he testi*ied:N66O NAO*ter e8aminin" the bod# 0 too..ieces o* dried *ish.e.ensator# dama"es on%# *or s+ch %oss as he has d+%# .arent7s ho+se immediate%# a*ter it 'as *o+nd/N71O ma# recover act+a% or com.ed the "ir%/ Ma#be he did not/ Ma#be he sim. his .hane/ N39O 9 90 91 92 =?hat is thatG> the man as-ed/ N36O T+dt+d re.%ied that he did not -no'/ N37O ?itho+t even +n'ra.e%%ant to .in" the ce%%o.on hearin" her da+"hter s+dden%# cr# o+t.e/ 0n describin" the stab 'o+nds on the bod# o* the victim. th+s a%%o'in" the b%ood to see.rod+ced b# the victim7s *ather..t%# handc+**ed T+dt+d/ N3 O 9: 93 99 The &o+rt notes that the testimon# or medica% o.hane.%ace 'here the "ir%7s bod# 'as *o+nd/ Ma#be he ra.ositions o* the acc+sed and the victim in crimes o* ra.N67O nec-.g. these are +s+a%%# ca+sed b# the do'n'ard .er %e*t sho+%der to the %o'er ri"ht b+ttoc-s/ 0t is note'orth# that the deceased 'as *+%%# c%othed in b%+e shorts and 'hite shirt 'hen her bod# 'as bro+"ht to her .erience/ 6ven ass+min" that )enni*er had been ra. the bo8 'as a%read# there 'hen he disembar-ed the b+s/ N3:O T+dt+d to%d the man the bo8 'as not his..000/00/ .sho+%der do'n to the %o'er bac. there is no circ+mstantia% evidence *rom 'hich to in*er that acc+sed1 a..orted b# a recei.ortion o* her shorts/N72O This m+st be beca+se she 'as 'earin" this . that there 'as s.

omanta# the amo+nts o* (90.ects 'ere then ta-en to the ./ 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 . some ei"ht meters *rom T+dt+d/ N39O 96 Co%on" reco+nted that he 'as on his 'a# to a re%ative in . Co%on" crossed the street/ N91O @omeone then a.rovides *or the .N76O the indemnit# sho+%d be *i8ed at (90.resence o* the a""ravatin" circ+mstance o* ab+se o* s+.roached him and .656. as indemnit#. the# met each other *or the *irst time/ N99O 102 0n addition.a#ment o* e8em. RoblesN79O and "eople v.6 and another one is rendered F0N.e%%ant "+i%t# o* homicide 'ith the a""ravatin" circ+mstance o* ab+se o* s+. the heirs o* )enni*er . (29. as ma8im+m. the# 'o+%d %ater c%aim.erior stren"th and sentencin" him to a .000/00 and the mora% dama"es at (90. 'engote. as e8em.rison term o* 12 #ears o* prision mayor..%ar# dama"es in vie' o* the . as act+a% dama"es.omanta# are entit%ed to recover e8em..riate/N73O 0n accordance 'ith o+r r+%in"s in "eople v. as minim+m.000/00 HEREFORE.000/00.0N2 acc+sed1a.%ar# dama"es 'hen the crime is committed 'ith one or more a""ravatin" circ+mstance/ An amo+nt o* (29..000/00.@im+%taneo+s%#.000/00.erior stren"th/ Art/ 22:0 o* the &ivi% &ode .%ar# dama"es.000/00 is deemed a.a%iao a*ter attendin" a co+sin7s 'eddin" in 4a"ono#. to 20 #ears o* reclusion temporal. another man 'as . and (12.000/00.a# the heirs o* )enni*er .ro.o%ice station 'here. and $5.ointin" a *irearm at . (90. the <+d"ment o* the tria% co+rt is @6T A@0. .ointed a "+n at him/ N92O The man ordered him not to move and handc+**ed him/ N9:O Co%on" as-ed 'h# he 'as bein" arrested b+t the man <+st to%d him to "o 'ith them/ 97 9 99 100 101 N93O The s+s. as mora% dama"es.650N2 him to .indo Co%on" at the other side o* the street. and the costs/ @$ $5.avao de% @+r 'hen he 'as accosted/ N90O A*ter a%i"htin" the b+s.

h#sica% in<+ries and robber#/ The de*ense asserted that the =Cobo> or =Cobon"> 5amireL acc+sed in these cases is the same .a# a *ine o* (900.o* &o+rt. and Mercedita Ab+nda. the 5T& rendered <+d"ment convictin" both acc+sed as char"ed and sentencin" them to s+**er the . %i"ht threats.avao &it# M+nici. &%a+dio Cohevia.resented co+rt doc+ments sho'in" that one =Cobo> or =Cobon"> 5amireL 'as char"ed in their res. the de*ense o**ered the testimonies o* Fe%icia )+%aton. N9 O Cranch 9 Bti%it# &%er-.Assai%in" the credibi%it# o* in*ormant Cobon" @o%ier. %ess serio+s . N96O Cranch : &%er.o* &o+rt.erson as the in*ormant Cobon" @o%ier/ N99O 10: 103 109 106 @'a#ed b# the .eci*ica%%#. s.ena%t# o* reclusion perpetua and to .ective branches 'ith vario+s crimes.a% Tria% &irc+it &o+rt/ The# testi*ied and .000/00/ N60O 107 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 .rosec+tion7s evidence be#ond reasonab%e do+bt. N97O Cranch 7 &%er. a%% o* the .

ho'ever.roceedin"/> N61O @ection : (2).ose in an# .on . Artic%e 000 o* the &onstit+tion e8. 'hich the# c%aim 'ere seiLed in vio%ation o* their ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res/ The ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res is sec+red b# @ection 2.rovides: 10 (2) An# evidence obtained in vio%ation o*T the .robab%e ca+se to be determined . .eo. and no search 'arrant or 'arrant o* arrest sha%% iss+e e8ce.roscri.ersons or thin"s to be seiLed/ The r+%e is that a search and seiL+re m+st be carried o+t thro+"h or 'ith a <+dicia% 'arrantM other'ise. the admission in evidence o* the mari<+ana %eaves.recedin" section sha%% be inadmissib%e *or an# .revai%in" <+ris.indo Co%on" assi"n. and .t +.ersons..a.ers. . Artic%e 000.%e to be sec+red in their .roceedin"/ The .+r. 'hich states: @6&/ 2/ The ri"ht o* the .ose in an# . amon" other errors.%ainant and the 'itnesses he ma# .ose sha%% be invio%ab%e.rovision. 5+%e 126 o* the 5+%es o* &o+rt and . s+ch search and seiL+re becomes =+nreasonab%e> 'ithin the meanin" o* the above1A+oted constit+tiona% .tion in @ection 2.r+dence)M 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 .ersona%%# b# the <+d"e a*ter e8amination +nder oath or a**irmation o* the com. covers on%# =+nreasonab%e> searches and seiL+res/ The *o%%o'in" instances are not deemed =+nreasonab%e> even in the absence o* a 'arrant: 9.arrantless search incidental to a lawful arrest/ (@ec/ 12. Noe% T+dt+d and . ho+ses. Artic%e 000 o* the &onstit+tion.$n a.%aces to be searched and the .artic+%ar%# describin" the .+r.ea%.rod+ce. and an# evidence sec+red thereb#.+r. and e**ects a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res o* 'hatever nat+re and *or an# .%icit%# . 'i%% be inadmissib%e in evidence =*or an# .

:. in his . 'almstedt.eace o**icer or a .erson to be arrested has committed.ecia%%# 'hen its transit in . or is attem. ! A .tion.resence.roo* o* the commission o* an o**ense.rior va%id intr+sion based on the va%id 'arrant%ess arrest in 'hich the .arentM (d) =. a%%o's 'arrant%ess arrests: @6&/ 9/ &rrest without warrant= when lawful. N6:O "eople v..recede the searchM the .. in ar"+in" *or the a**irmance o* the a.erson ma#. 'ontilla. N67O "eople v.icion amo+ntin" to .rivac# es.o%ice 'ho have the ri"ht to be 'here the# areM (c) the evidence m+st be immediate%# a. N6 O and "eople v. 'itho+t a 'arrant.%ain vie'> <+sti*ied mere seiL+re o* evidence 'itho+t *+rther searchM -. 5+%e 11: o* the 5+%es.recede the arrest i* the . Tangliben.ea%ed decision.. the vehic%e7s inherent mobi%it# red+ces e8.robab%e ca+se to ma-e the arrest 11 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 .+b%ic thoro+"h*ares *+rnishes a hi"h%# reasonab%e s+s.receded the arrest/ 5ecent <+ris.ons or an#thin" 'hich ma# be +sed as . *agista/ N69O 110 111 112 11: 119 116 113 A search incidenta% to a %a'*+% arrest is sanctioned b# the 5+%es o* &o+rt/ (rior to its revision in 2000.erson %a'*+%%# arrested ma# be searched *or dan"ero+s 'ea. @ection 12.robab%e ca+se that the occ+. N69O and "eople v. >alde?/ N66O The $**ice o* the @o%icitor 2enera% ($@2). in t+rn. /r. Claudio. invo-es the cases o* "eople v. is act+a%%# committin".. a search s+bstantia%%# contem. as a search incident to a %a'*+% arrest/ 0t cited as a+thorities this &o+rt7s r+%in"s in "eople v. 'aspil.oraneo+s 'ith an arrest can .o%ice are %e"a%%# . 4i"h%# re"+%ated b# the "overnment.plain view.r+dence ho%ds that the arrest m+st .rocess cannot be reversed/ N71O Neverthe%ess. 7earch of evidence in .o%ice have . the .ant committed a crimina% activit#M 3/ 9/ 6/ 7/ Consented warrantless searchM Customs searchM 7top and Frisk= and #!igent and emergency circumstances/ 109 N62O The 5T& <+sti*ied the 'arrant%ess search o* a. 'itho+t a search 'arrant/ @ection 9 (a). 7earch of a moving vehicle. arrest a . N63O "eople v.< The e%ements are: (a) a .e%%ants7 be%on"in"s +nder the *irst e8ce.tin" to commit an o**enseM T/ 0t is si"ni*icant to note that the search in A+estion .resent in the pursuit o* their o**icia% d+tiesM (b) the evidence 'as inadvertent%# discovered b# the .rivate .erson: (a) ?hen.ectation o* . N70O 5+%e 126 o* said 5+%es read as *o%%o's: 117 @6&/ 12/ 7earch incident to lawful arrest. ! A .

at the o+tset o* the search/ N72O The A+estion, there*ore, is 'hether the ,o%ice in this case had ,robab%e ca+se to arrest a,,e%%ants/ (robab%e ca+se has been de*ined as:

an act+a% be%ie* or reasonab%e "ro+nds o* s+s,icion/ The "ro+nds o* s+s,icion are reasonab%e 'hen, in the absence o* act+a% be%ie* o* the arrestin" o**icers, the s+s,icion that the ,erson to be arrested is ,robab%# "+i%t# o* committin" the o**ense, is based on act+a% *acts, i.e., s+,,orted b# circ+mstances s+**icient%# stron" in themse%ves to create the ,robab%e ca+se o* "+i%t o* the ,erson to be arrested/ A reasonab%e s+s,icion there*ore m+st be *o+nded on ,robab%e ca+se, co+,%ed 'ith "ood *aith o* the ,eace o**icers ma-in" the arrest/ N7:O

The %on"1standin" r+%e in this <+risdiction, a,,%ied 'ith a "reat de"ree o* consistenc#, is that =re%iab%e in*ormation> a%one is not s+**icient to <+sti*# a 'arrant%ess arrest +nder @ection 9 (a), 5+%e 11:/ The r+%e reA+ires, in addition, that the acc+sed ,er*orm some overt act that 'o+%d indicate that he =has committed, is act+a%%# committin", or is attem,tin" to commit an o**ense/> 0n the %eadin" case o* "eople v. *urgos, N73O this &o+rt he%d that =the o**icer arrestin" a ,erson 'ho has <+st committed, is committin", or is abo+t to commit an o**ense m+st have "ersonal .no/le,ge o* that *act/ The o**ense m+st a%so be committed in his ,resence or 'ithin his vie'/> N79O 0n *urgos, the
121 122

a+thorities obtained in*ormation that the acc+sed had *orcib%# recr+ited one &esar Masam%o- as member o* the Ne' (eo,%e7s Arm#, threatenin" the %atter 'ith a *irearm/ B,on *indin" the acc+sed, the arrestin" team searched his ho+se and discovered a "+n as 'e%% as ,+r,orted%# s+bversive doc+ments/ This &o+rt, in dec%arin" then @ection 6 (a), 5+%e 11: o* the 5+%es o* &o+rt ina,,%icab%e, r+%ed that:
There is no s+ch ,ersona% -no'%ed"e in this case/ ?hatever -no'%ed"e 'as ,ossessed b# the arrestin" o**icers, it came in its entiret# *rom the in*ormation *+rnished b# &esar Masam%o-/ The %ocation o* the *irearm 'as "iven b# the a,,e%%ant7s 'i*e/ At the time o* the a,,e%%ant7s arrest, he 'as not in act+a% ,ossession o* an# *irearm or s+bversive doc+ment/ Neither 'as he committin" an# act 'hich co+%d be described as s+bversive/ 4e 'as, in *act, ,%o'in" his *ie%d at the time o* the arrest/ The ri"ht o* a ,erson to be sec+re a"ainst an# +nreasonab%e seiL+re o* his bod# and an# de,rivation o* his %ibert# is a most basic and *+ndamenta% one/ The stat+te or r+%e 'hich a%%o's e8ce,tions to the reA+irement o* 'arrants o* arrest is strict%# constr+ed/ An# e8ce,tion m+st c%ear%# *a%% 'ithin the sit+ations 'hen sec+rin" a 'arrant 'o+%d be abs+rd or is mani*est%# +nnecessar# as ,rovided b# the 5+%e/ ?e cannot %ibera%%# constr+e the r+%e on arrests 'itho+t 'arrant or e8tend its a,,%ication be#ond the cases s,eci*ica%%# ,rovided b# %a'/ To do so 'o+%d in*rin"e +,on ,ersona% %ibert# and set bac- a basic ri"ht so o*ten vio%ated and so deservin" o* *+%% ,rotection/ N76O

&onseA+ent%#, the items seiLed 'ere he%d inadmissib%e, havin" been obtained in vio%ation o* the acc+sed7s constit+tiona% ri"hts a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res/ 0n "eople v. &minnudin, N77O this &o+rt %i-e'ise he%d the 'arrant%ess arrest and s+bseA+ent search o* a,,e%%ant therein i%%e"a%, "iven the *o%%o'in" circ+mstances:

T the acc+sed1a,,e%%ant 'as not, at the moment o* his arrest, committin" a crime nor 'as it sho'n that he 'as abo+t to do so or that he had <+st done so/ ?hat he 'as doin" 'as descendin" the "an",%an- o* the MIF ?i%con 9 and there 'as no o+t'ard indication that he ca%%ed *or his arrest/ To a%% a,,earances, he 'as %i-e an# o* the other ,assen"ers innocent%# disembar-in" *rom the vesse%/ 0t 'as on%# 'hen the in*ormer ,ointed to him as the carrier o* the mari<+ana that he s+dden%# became s+s,ect and so s+b<ect to
119 120 121 122 123 124

a,,rehension/ 0t 'as the *+rtive *in"er that tri""ered his arrest/ The identi*ication b# the in*ormer 'as the ,robab%e ca+se as determined b# the o**icers (and not a <+d"e) that a+thoriLed them to ,o+nce +,on Aminn+din and immediate%# arrest him/ N7 O

Th+s, not'ithstandin" ti,s *rom con*identia% in*ormants and re"ard%ess o* the *act that the search #ie%ded contraband, the mere act o* %oo-in" *rom side to side 'hi%e ho%din" one7s abdomen, N79O or o* standin" on a corner 'ith one7s e#es movin" ver# *ast, %oo-in" at ever# ,erson 'ho came near, N 0O does not <+sti*# a 'arrant%ess arrest +nder said @ection 9 (a)/ Neither does ,+ttin" somethin" in one7s ,oc-et, N 1O handin" over one7s ba""a"e, N 2O ridin" a motorc#c%e, N :O nor does ho%din" a ba" on board a trisikad N 3Osanction @tate intr+sion/ The same r+%e a,,%ies to crossin" the street per se/ N 9O
126 127 12 129 1:0 1:1 1:2

(ersona% -no'%ed"e 'as a%so reA+ired in the case o* "eople v. @oria/ N 6O 5ecent%#, in "eople v. *inad 7y Chua, N 7O this &o+rt dec%ared inva%id the arrest o* the acc+sed, 'ho 'as 'a%-in" to'ards a hote% c%+tchin" a sea%ed Pest1$ <+ice bo8/ For the e8ce,tion in @ection 9 (a), 5+%e 11: to a,,%#, this &o+rt r+%ed, t'o e%ements m+st conc+r: (1) the ,erson to be arrested m+st e8ec+te an overt act indicatin" he has <+st committed, is act+a%%# committin", or is attem,tin" to commit a crimeM and (2) s+ch overt act is done in the ,resence or 'ithin the vie' o* the arrestin" o**icer/ 5e%iab%e in*ormation a%one is ins+**icient/
1:: 1:3

0n the *o%%o'in" cases, the search 'as he%d to be incidenta% to a %a'*+% arrest beca+se o* =s+s,icio+s> circ+mstances: "eople v. Tangliben N O (acc+sed 'as =actin" s+s,icio+s%#>), "eople v. 'almstedt N 9O (a b+%"e on the acc+sed7s 'aist), and "eople v. de 6u?man N90O (%i-e'ise a b+%"e on the 'aist o* the acc+sed, 'ho 'as 'earin" ti"ht1*ittin" c%othes)/
1:9 1:6 1:7

There is, ho'ever, another set o* <+ris,r+dence that deems =re%iab%e in*ormation> s+**icient to <+sti*# a search incident to a 'arrant%ess arrest +nder @ection 9 (a), 5+%e 11:, th+s deviatin" *rom *urgos/ To this c%ass o* cases be%on" "eople v. 'aspil, /r., N91O "eople v. *agista, N92O "eople v. *alingan, N9:O "eople v. 3ising, N93O "eople v. 'ontilla, N99O "eople v. >alde?, N96O and "eople v. 6on?ales/ N97O 0n these cases, the
1: 1:9 130 131 132 13: 133

125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144

arrestin" a+thorities 'ere actin" on in*ormation re"ardin" an o**ense b+t there 'ere no overt acts or s+s,icio+s circ+mstances that 'o+%d indicate that the acc+sed has committed, is act+a%%# committin", or is attem,tin" to commit the same/ @i"ni*icant%#, these cases, e8ce,t the %ast t'o, come +nder some other e8ce,tion to the r+%e a"ainst 'arrant%ess searches/ Th+s, 'aspil, /r. invo%ved a chec-,oint search, *alingan 'as a search o* a movin" vehic%e, *agista 'as both, and 3ising and 'ontilla 'ere consented searches/ Neverthe%ess, the "reat ma<orit# o* cases con*orms to the r+%e in *urgos, 'hich, in t+rn, more *aith*+%%# adheres to the %etter o* @ection 9(a), 5+%e 11:/ Note the ,hrase =in his ,resence> therein, connotin" ,ersona% -no'%ed"e on the ,art o* the arrestin" o**icer/ The ri"ht o* the acc+sed to be sec+re a"ainst an# +nreasonab%e searches on and seiL+re o* his o'n bod# and an# de,rivation o* his %ibert# bein" a most basic and *+ndamenta% one, the stat+te or r+%e that a%%o's e8ce,tion to the reA+irement o* a 'arrant o* arrest is strict%# constr+ed/ 0ts a,,%ication cannot be e8tended be#ond the cases s,eci*ica%%# ,rovided b# %a'/ N9 O

The cases invo-ed b# the 5T& and the $@2 are, there*ore, "rave%# mis,%aced/ 0n Claudio, N99O the acc+sed, 'ho 'as seated aboard a b+s in *ront o* the arrestin" o**icer, ,+t her ba" behind the %atter, th+s aro+sin" the %atter7s s+s,icion/ 0n Tangliben and 'almstedt, the acc+sed had a%so acted s+s,icio+s%#/

As noted ear%ier, 'aspil, /r., *agista and 'ontilla 'ere <+sti*ied b# other e8ce,tions to the r+%e a"ainst 'arrant%ess searches/ 'ontilla, moreover, 'as not 'itho+t its critics/ There, ma<orit# o* the &o+rt he%d: A,,e%%ant insists that the mere *act o* seein" a ,erson carr#in" a trave%in" ba" and a carton bo8 sho+%d not e%icit the s%i"htest s+s,icion o* the commission o* an# crime since that is norma%/ C+t ,recise%#, it is in the ordinar# nat+re o* thin"s that dr+"s bein" i%%e"a%%# trans,orted are necessari%# hidden in containers and concea%ed *rom vie'/ Th+s, the o**icers co+%d reasonab%# ass+me, and not mere%# on a ho%%o' s+s,icion since the in*ormant 'as b# their side and had so in*ormed them, that the dr+"s 'ere in a,,e%%ant7s %+""a"e/ 0t 'o+%d obvio+s%# have been irres,onsib%e, i* no' do'nri"ht abs+rd +nder the circ+mstances, to reA+ire the constab%e to ado,t a ='ait and see> attit+de at the ris- o* event+a%%# %osin" the A+arr#/ 4ere, there 'ere s+**icient *acts antecedent to the search and seiL+re that, at the ,oint ,rior to the search 'ere a%read# constit+tive o* ,robab%e ca+se, and 'hich b# themse%ves co+%d ,ro,er%# create in the minds o* the o**icers a 'e%%1"ro+nded and reasonab%e be%ie* that a,,e%%ant 'as in the act o* vio%atin" the %a'/ The search #ie%ded a**irmance both o* that ,robab%e ca+se and the act+a%it# that a,,e%%ant 'as then act+a%%# committin" a crime b# i%%e"a%%# trans,ortin" ,rohibited dr+"s/ ?ith these attendant *acts, it is ine%+ctab%e that a,,e%%ant 'as ca+"ht in flagrante delicto, hence his arrest and the search o* his be%on"in"s 'itho+t the reA+isite 'arrant 'ere both <+sti*ied/ N100O

?hi%e conc+rrin" 'ith the ma<orit#, Mr/ )+stice Fit+" reserved his vote on the disc+ssion on the 'arrant%ess search bein" incidenta% to a %a'*+% arrest/ Mr/ )+stice (an"aniban, <oined b# Messrs/ )+stices Me%o and (+no, *i%ed a @e,arate $,inion/ A%tho+"h %i-e'ise conc+rrin" in the ma<orit#7s r+%in" that a,,e%%ant consented to the ins,ection o* his ba""a"e, )+stice (an"aniban disa"reed 'ith the conc%+sion that the 'arrant%ess search 'as incidenta% to a %a'*+% arrest/ 4e ar"+ed that <+ris,r+dence reA+ired ,ersona% -no'%ed"e on the ,art o* the o**icers ma-in" the in flagrante delicto arrest/ 0n 'ontilla, the a,,e%%ant =did not e8hibit an# overt act or stran"e cond+ct that 'o+%d reasonab%# aro+se in their minds s+s,icion that he 'as embar-in" on some *e%onio+s enter,rise/> .a' and <+ris,r+dence in *act reA+ire stricter "ro+nds *or va%id arrests and searches 'itho+t 'arrant than *or the iss+ance o* 'arrants there*ore/ 0n the *ormer, the arrestin" ,erson m+st have act+a%%# 'itnessed the crime bein" committed or attem,ted b# the ,erson so+"ht to be arrestedM or he m+st have ,ersona% -no'%ed"e o* *acts indicatin" that the ,erson to be arrested ,er,etrated the crime that had <+st occ+rred/ 0n the %atter case, the <+d"e sim,%# determines ,ersona%%# *rom testimonies o* 'itnesses that there e8ists reasonab%e "ro+nds to be%ieve that a crime 'as committed b# the acc+sed/ T/
145 146 147

. in its e**ort to Lea%o+s%# "+ard and .To sa# that =re%iab%e ti.revented the arrestin" o**icer therein *rom obtainin" a 'arrant/ A. committed/ 0* the arrestin" o**icers7 testimonies are to be be%ieved. the Narcom a"ents had no sho'in" that the .anese occ+.e%%ants in this case 'ere neither .ho%es that 'o+%d a%%o' +nreasonab%e arrests. the arrest is %e"a%%# ob<ectionab%e/ N102O N0ta%ics in the ori"ina%/O 139 68..ired 'ith her co1acc+sed in ..> havin" %earned the same on%# *rom their in*ormant @o%ier/ @o%ier.e%%ant .ressive too% to cond+ct searches 'itho+t 'arrants.%acin" %imit%ess ..oria7s 'ord.e%%ant T+dt+d 'as in ..e%%ant 2addao cons. ho'ever.ressin" his accord 'ith Mr/ )+stice (+no7s ponencia.> N103O =. a.e%%ant 2addao 'as arrested solely on the basis o* the a%%e"ed identi*ication made b# her co1 acc+sed/ ($: Man%an"it.ard# the doctrines %aid do'n in man# decisions made b# this &o+rt.erson 'ho a**ected the 'arant%ess arrest had..on in*ormants 'ho 'i%% no %on"er be reA+ired to a**irm +nder oath their acc+sations. )+stice (an"aniban said that @oria =ri"ht*+%%# brin"s the &o+rt bac. he 'as as-ed to o.inion in "eople v. ho'ever.recedent and . 'ontilla 'as a consented search/ As 'i%% be demonstrated %ater.i%is d+rin" the )a. *or his ..a%e> N109O and =tremb%in".. a dan"ero+s . there*ore.ear =a*raid and . >alde?.ossib%e arrest/ This is .e%%ant T+dt+d did a. 'hich. b+t as the . not be*ore.inion. 'here this &o+rt r+%ed: Acc+sed1A.o'er +. an e%ement not .ersona%.etration o* a crimina% o**ense.%icatin" the . *or the# can a%'a#s c%aim that the# received ra' inte%%i"ence in*ormation on%# on the da# or a*ternoon be*ore/ This 'o+%d c%ear%# be a circ+mvention o* the %e"a% reA+isites *or va%id%# e**ectin" an arrest or cond+ctin" a search and seiL+re/ 0ndeed the ma<orit#7s r+%in" 'o+%d o.en %oo.e%%ant . invo%ved an =on1the1s.ractica%%# at the merc# o* so1ca%%ed in*ormants. 'ith or 'itho+t an# cons. testi*ied that he obtained his in*ormation on%# *rom his nei"hbors and the *riends o* a.icio+s manner that 'o+%d hint that a crime has*ormin" an# overt act or actin" in a 'ith "eople v.en the said bo8/ 191 192 19: 0n no sense can the -no'%ed"e o* the herein arrestin" o**icers that a. dec%ared in his direct e8amination that a.e%%ant .irin". .oria ma# have %e*t the mone# in her ho+se. in his o'n ri"ht..erson 'ith 'hom he %e*t the mar-ed bi%%s/ This identi*ication does not necessari%# %ead to the conc%+sion that a.e%%ant .oria did not . has been seemin"%# discredited inso*ar as it sanctions searches incidenta% to %a'*+% arrest +nder simi%ar circ+mstances/ At an# rate.o%ice o**icer as a . Ruben 'ontilla/> N10:O 190 'ontilla.%aces in "reat <eo.irac#/ @ave *or acc+sed1a.. 'as bein". -no'%ed"e o* *acts im.oint o+t to a .ossession o* mari<+ana be described as =.e%%ants 'ere mere%# he%.e%%ant 2addao as his associate in the dr+" b+siness. searches and seiL+res/ 6ver#one 'o+%d be" each other carr# a carton bo8/ A%tho+"h 'e%%1sett%ed doctrines on 'arrant%ess arrests and searches. searches and seiL+res/ N101O 13 'ontilla 'o+%d short%# *ind mention in )+stice (an"aniban7s conc+rrin" o.robab%e ca+se *or a 'arrant%ess arrest or search is in m# o.oint to a.resent in this case.onse to his (($: Man%an"it7s) A+er# as to 'here the mar-ed money 'as/ A.ossib%e vio%ator o* the %a' co+%d then be s+b<ect to search and . @oria. or 'as abo+t to be.ot in*ormation/> The +r"enc# o* the circ+mstances.> N106O this 'as on%# a*ter. reminiscent o* the ma-a..s in order to <+sti*# 'arrant%ess arrests and searches/ 6ven %a' en*orcers can +se this as an o.e%%ant T+dt+d: 148 149 150 151 152 153 .. supra. the same co+%d not be said o* this case/ That %eaves the .s> constit+te ..rotect the sacred constit+tiona% ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e" dr+"s/ A.. 'hich have seemin"%# been modi*ied thro+"h an obiter in "eople v. *or the# can a%'a#s de%a# their "ivin" o* ti.ation/ An# one 'hom the# .erson arrested to the .oria named his co1 acc+sed in res.

s+ch in*ormation is a%so hearsa#..e%%ant T+dt+d to catch him in the act o* . b+t o* a mere ="atherNin"O o* in*ormation *rom the assets there/> N109O The . not o* .rosec+tion.s *e%t it necessar# to cond+ct their o'n =s+rvei%%ance/> This =s+rvei%%ance.> it t+rns o+t.ortin" him .erson 'ho+ NsicO 'o+%d .ort that T+dt+d 'ent to &otabato to "et stoc-s o* mari<+ana 'hich %ed to his a.o%ice that T+dt+d is "oin" to &otabato and "et stoc-s o* mari<+anaG A! Ceca+se o* the .oint to him beca+se he had been "ivin" tro+b%e to the nei"hborhood beca+se accordin" to them there are NsicO .rehension sometime in the evenin" o* A+"+st 1 and accordin" to the re.ears that ($1 F%oreta himse%* do+bted the re%iab%i%it# o* their in*ormant/ 4e testi*ied on cross1e8amination: R! A! R! A! Do+ mean to sa# that Cobot @o%ier.%ace/ That 'as the com. ho' did #o+ -no' that T+dt+d 'i%% be brin"in" a%on" 'ith him mari<+ana stoc-s on A+"+st 1. it a.rotest o* m# nei"hbors 'ho 'ere sa#in" 'ho 'i%% be the .artic+%ar%#G 4is *riends 'ere the once 'ho to%d me abo+t it/ R! For ho' %on" have #o+ -no' NsicO this *act o* a%%e"ed activit# o* T+dt+d in .ro%i*eration o* mari<+ana in o+r .. did not attem.erha.%ained NsicO o* o+r nei"hbors/ R! A! 0nso*ar as the acc+sed T+dt+d is concerned 'hat 'as #o+r basis in re. do not ans'er an#more/ That7s a%%/ 199 N10 O The . the ..R! ?hat 'as #o+r basis in #o+r re.onsib%e *or the . did not act+a%%# consist o* sta-in" o+t a. 1999G T/ A! Ceca+se o* the in*ormation o* his nei"hbor/ 193 Abo+t a month/ N107O 0n other 'ords. on re1direct e8amination.ersona% -no'%ed"e/ 196 154 155 156 .ort to the .o%ice o**icers 'ho cond+cted s+ch =s+rvei%%ance> did not identi*# 'ho these =assets> 'ere or the basis o* the %atter7s in*ormation/ &%ear%#. @o%ier7s in*ormation itse%* is hearsa#/ 4e did not even e%aborate on ho' his nei"hbors or T+dt+d7s *riends acA+ired their in*ormation that T+dt+d 'as res.t to e8tract an# e8.%#in" his i%%e"a% trade.%anation *rom ($1 F%oreta *or his te%%in" si%ence/ &on*ronted 'ith s+ch a d+bio+s in*ormant.ort m# A+estion*eration o* mari<+anaG A! T/ R! 5e"ardin" the re.o%ice .ro%i*eration o* dr+"s in their nei"hborhood/ 0ndeed.ort N'hichO is based on #o+r re. is not re%iab%eG 4e is tr+st'orth#/ ?h# NdidO #o+ not consider his in*ormation not re%iab%e i* he is re%iab%eG ('itness did not ans'er)/ ATTD/ &AQ6T6: Never mind.

havin" received @o%ier7s in*ormation at aro+nd 9:00 in the mornin"M T+dt+d.. sha%% no %on"er be ra**%ed and sha%% immediate%# be ta-en co"niLance o* and acted +.%ications *or search 'arrants in the cam.a% Tria% &o+rt +nder 'hose <+risdiction the .atch *inds va%idation and reiteration in &irc+%ar No/ 19.on b# any <+d"e o* the &o+rt 'here a. these amended "+ide%ines in the iss+ance o* a search 'arrant are iss+ed: 1/ A%% a. sa*e"+ards.esierto7s assertions o* %ac.revent the .rom.o%itan Tria% &o+rt. to the satis*action o* the <+d"e.%ications *i%ed after office hours.%e @a%as>: =This &o+rt has received re.%icant and his 'itnesses to . 'as e8.%ication ma# be ta-en co"niLance o* and acted +.Neither 'ere the arrestin" o**icers im. in actin" on a.%ication *or search 'arrants *or 0%%e"a% (ossession o* Firearms and $ther @erio+s &rimes Fi%ed in Metro Mani%a &o+rts and $ther &o+rts 'ith M+%ti.%ication *or search 'arrant ma# be *i%ed direct%# 'ith an# <+d"e 'hose <+risdiction the . the &o+rt r+%ed that there 'as s+**icient time to . and legal holidays. i%%e"a% . @+nda#s and %e"a% ho%ida#sM> / / // The same .roced+ra% dis.roc+re a 'arrant 'here the . ($1 F%oreta7s testimon# that the rea% reason *or their omission 'as their be%ie* that the# %ac-ed s+**icient basis to obtain the same ass+mes "reater si"ni*icance/ This 'as ($1 F%oreta7s *ami%iar re*rain: R! ?hen @o%ier re. #ncinada. dated $ctober 1. after office hours.r+"s Act o* 1972.rovided *or in this &o+rt7s Administrative &irc+%ar No/ 1:.. that T+dt+d 'i%% be comin" *rom &otabato to "et that (sic) stoc-s.. and "+ide%ines *or the iss+ance o* search 'arrants . entit%ed =Amended 2+ide%ines and (roced+res on A. Metro. e8ce.ort o* Cobot @o%ierG 157 158 159 . 'ho 'as s+..ort that the acc+sed. in 'hich case the a.. there 'as s+**icient time to sec+re a 'arrant o* arrest. 1992 at his ho+se. 'o+%d arrive the ne8t mornin" at 7:00 a/m/: 197 19 6ven i* the in*ormation 'as received b# Co%onia abo+t 3:00 .on b# the 68ec+tive )+d"e o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt.orts o* de%a# 'hi%e a'aitin" ra**%e. shall likewise be taken cogni?ance of and acted upon by any 8udge of the Court having 8urisdiction of the place to be searched.%ication sha%% immediate%# and 'itho+t de%a# .. 19 9/> N112O N0ta%ics in the ori"ina%/O 199 2iven that the .roced+res.%e o..%ications *or search 'arrants re%atin" to vio%ation o* the Anti1s+bversion Act.osed%# carr#in" mari<+ana. or during 7aturdays.t action on s+ch a. series o* 19 7.o%ice had adeA+ate time to obtain the 'arrant.%ace to be searched is %ocated. as amended.ected to arrive at aro+nd 6:00 in the evenin" o* the same da#/ N111O 0n "eople v.ossib%e %ea-a"e o* in*ormation/ 4e sha%% observe the . the >ice #!ecutive /udge sha%% ta-e co"niLance o* and personally act on the same/ 0n the absence o* the 68ec+tive )+d"e or Fice168ec+tive )+d"e..%icant sha%% certi*# and state the *acts +nder oath.t on%# in case 'here an a. #o+ did not "o to co+rt to "et a search 'arrant on the basis o* the re.ossession o* *irearms andIor amm+nition and vio%ations o* the .o%ice had am./m/ o* Ma# 20.. supra. that its iss+ance is +r"ent/ 3/ An# <+d"e actin" on s+ch a.ected to doc. as the MIF @'eet (ear% 'as not e8.o%ice o**icers received at 3:00 in the a*ternoon an inte%%i"ence re.. and M+nici.eace and order/ There is a need *or . during 7aturdays.%ication is *i%ed/ :/"ero+s ..e%%ed b# an# +r"enc# that 'o+%d a%%o' them to do a'a# 'ith the reA+isite 'arrant.o* time N110O not'ithstandin"/ 5ecords sho' that the .%# *or a 'arrant.+b%ic order as de*ined in the 5evised (ena% &ode.%ication *or search 'arrants even a*ter o**ice ho+rs: =:/ 5a**%in" sha%% be strict%# en*orced....orted to #o+ that *act.%icant is reA+ired to certi*# +nder oath the +r"enc# o* the iss+ance thereo* a*ter o**ice ho+rs.%ications *or search 'arrant/ Accordin"%#..%ace to be searched is %ocated/ 2/ 0n the absence o* the 68ec+tive )+d""n a"ainst %oose *irearms and other serio+s crimes a**ectin" .ort+nit# to a. or d+rin" @at+rda#s.ersona%%# cond+ct the e8amination o* the a. crimes a"ainst . 7undays. b+t in s+ch cases the a. ($1 . ho'ever. as amended.. the a. 7undays and holidays.+nti% 7:00 a/m/ the *o%%o'in" da#/ Administrative &irc+%ar No/ 1: a%%o's a.

A! R! A! No/ ?h#G Ceca+se 'e have no rea% basis to sec+re the search 'arrant/ R! ?hen #o+ have no rea% basis to sec+re a search 'arrant. is that correctG Des. sir/ R! And #o+ can as-ed NsicO the assistance o* an# . sir/ And it can be ne"otiated b# thirt# min+tes b# a <ee. the *act that the arrestin" o**icers *e%t that the# did not have s+**icient basis to obtain a 'arrant.ected at 6:00 . sir/ And this 'as 9:00 a/m/G Des.ertinent in*ormation and even 'hether the# act+a%%# cond+cted an# in*ormation1"atherin" at a%%.ersona% -no'%ed"e/ 161 Fina%%#. sir/ And the $**ice o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt is on%# abo+t 16 -i%ometers. that he 'o+%d a%read# brin" mari<+anaG Des. raises serio+s A+estions 'hether s+ch =s+rvei%%ance> act+a%%# #ie%ded an# .rosec+tor do NsicO not assistG A! R! A! The# he%. rideG Des. to as-ed NsicO *or a search 'arrantG As 0 said. thereb# erodin" an# c%aim to .ear that the ri"hts e8istM ..resent: 1/ 160 161 0t m+st a./ C+t #o+ did not come to . sir/ Des../m/G Des. sir/ The arriva% o* T+dt+d 'as e8.avao &it#. sir/ Tori% is <+st 16 -i%ometers *rom .avao &it#G Des.o%ice o**icer concernin" the e8istence o* .endent%# scr+tiniLe the ob<ective *acts to determine the e8istence o* .robab%e ca+se in s. des.ite their o'n in*ormation1"atherin" e**orts.%# *or the search 'arrant or the .robab%e ca+se> and that =a co+rt ma# a%so *ind . there is an e**ective 'aiver o* ri"hts a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res i* the *o%%o'in" reA+isites are . 'e do not have s+**icient basis/ 160 N11:O 0t ma# be conceded that =the mere s+b<ective conc%+sions o* a . #o+ have a%so no rea% basis to search T+dt+d and C+%on" at that timeG A! T/ R! A! R! A! R! A! R! A! R! A! R! A! And Cobot @o%ier to%d #o+ that T+dt+d.robab%e ca+se is not bindin" on Nthe co+rtsO 'hich m+st inde.ite o* an o**icer7s <+d"ment that none e8ists/> N113O 4o'ever.rosec+tor to a.

a. .ointed a "+n at #o+G 4e said do not r+n/ ?hat did #o+ doG 0 raised m# hands and said =@ir..erson *ai%ed to ob<ect to a search does not amo+nt to .. b+t is mere%# a demonstration o* re"ard *or the s+.on an# a**irmative act o* the citiLen.erson had an act+a% intention to re%inA+ish the ri"ht/ 162 N119O 4ere.osition o* either contestin" an o**icer7s a+thorit# b# *orce. act+a% or constr+ctive.oint it at #o+G A! .roached #o+ accordin" to #o+ .res+m. or 'aivin" his constit+tiona% ri"htsM b+t instead the# ho%d that a .erson invo%ved had -no'%ed"e. even in cases 'here the acc+sed vo%+ntari%# handed her ba" N11 O or the chairs N119O containin" mari<+ana to the arrestin" o**icer.rosec+tion *ai%ed to estab%ish the second and third reA+isites/ 5ecords disc%ose that 'hen the .i-e this (?itness demonstratin" as i* . beca+se a 'arrant%ess search is in dero"ation o* a constit+tiona% ri"ht.r+dence reA+ire more than the .rovin" that the search 'as +nconsented/ N120O 167 0n an# case. o* the e8istence o* s+ch ri"htM @aid .eace*+% s+bmission to a search or seiL+re is not a consent or an invitation thereto.en the s+b<ect bo8/ A.resence o* these circ+mstances to constit+te a va%id 'aiver o* the constit+tiona% ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e searches and seiL+res/ &o+rts ind+%"e ever# reasonab%e .tion a"ainst 'aiver o* *+ndamenta% constit+tiona% ri"htsM acA+iescence in the %oss o* *+ndamenta% ri"hts is not to be .e%%ant T+dt+d said =it 'as a%ri"ht/> 4e did not resist and o.e%%ant T+dt+d testi*ied as *o%%o's: R! This .eace o**icers 'ho cond+ct it cannot invo-e re"+%arit# in the .. an# .2/ :/ The .res+med/ N116O The *act that a .ointin" 'ith his t'o arms ho%din" somethin" to'ards somebod#)/ R! A! R! A! R! 162 163 164 165 166 167 This manN.o%ice o**icers introd+ced themse%ves as s+ch and reA+ested a. 'hat is this abo+tG> ?h# did #o+ ca%% him @irG .ermission thereto/ 16: T/ As the constit+tiona% "+arant# is not de. the co+rts do not .ointed somethin" at #o+N/O N?hatO 'as that somethin"G A! R! A : ca%/ 5evo%ver/ 4o' did he ..ointed a "+n at them be*ore as-in" them to o.%ied/O 163 Th+s.res+m.e%%ant that the# see the contents o* the carton bo8 s+.e%%ants in this case that the arrestin" o**icers .O 'hat did he te%% #o+ 'hen he .tion in *avor o* re"+%arit# 'o+%d be severe%# diminished b# the a%%e"ation o* a.osed%# containin" the mari<+ana. the ..erson 'ho a.ened the bo8 himse%*/ The *+ndamenta% %a' and <+ris.endent +.remac# o* the %a'/ N117O NBnderscorin" s+. this &o+rt he%d there 'as no va%id consent to the search/ 169 166 $n the other hand...%ace the citiLen in the .er*ormance o* o**icia% *+nctions and shi*t to the acc+sed the b+rden o* .

e%%ants7 %ac.. is the *o+ndation o* the ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e search and seiL+re =inc%+des the ri"ht to e8ist.. occ+. as stressed b# a co+. the ri"ht to %i*e.rotected b# the d+e .o* constit+tiona% "overnment/ 0* .en *or *ear o* bein" shot/ 16 N121O A.e%%ants7 im. %ibert# and .ies a . democrac# cannot s+rvive and "overnment becomes meanin"%ess/ This e8.rimac# in the *+ndamenta% %a' 'a# above the artic%es on "overnmenta% . i* at a%%.rotection/ ?hi%e the . *or 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 . o* the hierarch# o* ri"hts.roceeded to o.eo. the mari<+ana %eaves obtained thereb# are inadmissib%e in evidence/ And as there is no evidence other than the hearsa# testimon# o* the arrestin" o**icers and their in*ormant.o%iceman/ ?hen #o+ as-ed him 'hat is thisG ?hat did he sa#G 4e said =0 'o+%d %i-e to ins.en that carton bo8G 0 to%d him that is not mine/ ?hat did this man sa#G 4e a"ain .o'er/ N123O 171 The ri"ht a"ainst +nreasonab%e search and seiL+re in t+rn is at the to.assive con*ormit# "iven +nder coercive or intimidatin" circ+mstances and is.A! R! A! R! A! T R! A! R! A! R! A! 0 'as a*raid beca+se 'hen somebod# is ho%din" a "+n.e%%ants7 bo8 does not come +nder the reco"niLed e8ce.%ied acA+iescence.%ane as.+b%ic 'e%*are..%e o* noted *reedom advocates. contained as it is in Artic%e 000 o* the & a.tions to a va%id 'arrant%ess search.osition o* . N129O ne8t on%# to. th+s. considered no consent at a%% 'ithin the .hasiLin" s+ch ri"ht. 'hich is ..ect 'hat #o+ are carr#in"/N>O ?hat did #o+ sa# 'hen #o+ 'ere as-ed to o. 'h# did #o+ address him as @irG Ceca+se he 'as ho%din" a "+n and 0 be%ieved that somebod# 'ho is carr#in" a "+n is a . a%on" 'ith the ri"ht to .+rvie' o* the constit+tiona% "+arantee/ N122O &onseA+ent%#.ed na-ed o* their ri"hts as h+man bein"s.e%%ants cannot be s+stained/ The Ci%% o* 5i"hts is the bedroc. co+%d not have been more than mere . and the ri"ht to en<o#ment o* %i*e 'hi%e e8istin"/> 6m. sti%% it ma# be e8ercised and the %a' en*orced 'itho+t trans"ressin" the constit+tiona% ri"hts o* the citiLens.ert#. the conviction o* a.%ains 'h# the Ci%% o* 5i"hts.ointed to me his revo%ver and a"ain said to o.o* ob<ection to the search and seiL+re is not tantamo+nt to a 'aiver o* his constit+tiona% ri"ht or a vo%+ntar# s+bmission to the 'arrant%ess search and seiL+re/ N12:O 169 170 As the search o* a.o'er to search and seiLe ma# at times be necessar# to the .rocess c%a+se/ N126O This is as it sho+%d be *or.rivac#. N127O the ri"ht to .ersona% sec+rit# 'hich. this &o+rt dec%ared in "eople v. &ruta: 172 17: 173 Bnreasonab%e searches and seiL+res are the menace a"ainst 'hich the constit+tiona% "+arantees a**ord *+%% .%e are stri.en/ ?hat did #o+ doG @o 0 . 0 am a*raid/ (recise%#.. i* not on the same .

o%iceman *i%ed a com.ena%ties .erson *or some %e"a% "ro+nd and sha%% *ai% to de%iver s+ch .recedin" artic%e sha%% be im.e%%ants Noe% T+dt+d y (a#.. 193 .etitioners 'ithin si8 ho+rs to the o**ice o* the cit# *isca%.rovided in the ne8t .erson to the .%aint a"ainst them 'ith the cit# *isca%/ !" vs s'+ro 175 .+m%ao ma# have acted in "ood *aith in be%ievin" that he had com.ecision o* the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt o* .etitioners had been i%%e"a%%# restrained o* their %ibert#G 5B. is c%ear and ine%+ctab%e/ HEREFORE.e or %ettin" the "overnment .etitioners 'ith havin" committed the crime o* robber#.resented a com.ecia%%# i* the %a' vio%ated is the &onstit+tion itse%*/ N12 O 179 Th+s.etitioners 'ere sti%% detained or +nder aarest. *or ins+**icienc# o* evidence/ The .ro.+b%ic o**icer or em.on the . Cen<amin .e%%ants *rom con*inement.rovides that =the . es.0N2: Des/ (etitioners are bein" i%%e"a%%# restrained o* their %ibert#.ri% 2./ A. and to re. and the cit# *isca% had not #et re%eased or *i%ed a"ainst them an in*ormation 'ith the . the . to this &o+rt./ AD$ F@/ &406F $F ($.indo Co%on" y Naret are hereb# A&RB0TT6.e than that the "overnment sho+%d .a# *or the %oss o* %ibert#/ As )+stice 4o%mes dec%ared: =0 thin.a and . a .art. +n%ess the# are bein" he%d *or some other %a'*+% ca+se.ort to this &o+rt com.etitioners on A. and .o%iceman o* the &it# o* Mani%a.A 0 (40.etitioners 'ere bein" act+a%%# detained 'hen said . and the %atter ma# have i"nored the *act that the .t hereo*/ @$ $5.%aint o* one Cernardino co+rt o* <+stice/ 0@@B6: ?hether or not . arrested the <+dicia% a+thorities 'ithin the . the .%# not a%%o'ed in *ree societ# to vio%ate a %a' to en*orce another. 193 is %ess evi% that some crimina%s esca.%es o* "overnment/ Those 'ho are "iven a choice bet'een %ettin" s+s. 99 (193 ) FA&T@: B.rice to .%aint a"ainst them 'ith the *isca%[s o**ice o* Mani%a/ Bnti% A.etent co+rt o* <+stice/ Artic%e 129 o* the 5evised (ena% &ode .ri% 7.ortance to <+sti*# indi**erence to the basic .avao &it# is 56F65@6.rocess iss+ed b# a com.osed +. and their re%ease is hereb# ordered +n%ess the# are no' detained b# virt+e o* a .0&6 $F MAN0.rinci.656.ected crimina%s esca.%ied 'ith the mandate o* artic%e 129 b# de%iverin" the .eriod o* si8 ho+rs/> (o%iceman .%iance here'ith 'ithin *ive (9) da#s *rom recei.on> 0t is sim.osed to en*orce the %a' are not <+sti*ied in disre"ardin" the ri"hts o* the individ+a% in the name o* order/ $rder is too hi"h a . char"in" the .%a# an i"nob%e .%o#ee 'ho sha%% detain an# .the en*orcement o* no stat+te is o* s+**icient im. the ans'er..%a# an i"nob%e .irector o* the C+rea+ o* (risons is ordered to ca+se the immediate re%ease o* a.

ed T1shirt/ The team members then .tion/ 4e a%so ass+red them that a.e%%ant7s name.hone 'ith a. A.: $n a. 200:.e%%ant )ac.ecision1 dated Ma# 22. @ec 12 o* 5+%es o* &rimina% (roced+re ...e%%ant/3 The a"ent "ave the .roo* o* the commission o* an o**ense.o and Feterans/ 5ecovered 'ere 19 stic-s and 3 teaba"s o* mari<+ana *rom a cart inside the cha.orted thro+"h radio to (I.. No.e%%ant and 'as re.e%%ant *or the .e% and another teaba" *rom Macabante/ Iss'es0 (1) ?hether or Not arrest 'itho+t 'arrant is %a'*+%/ (2) ?hether or Not evidence *rom s+ch arrest is admissib%e/ Hel. o* the (hi%i.ine .ted at Mabini and Maa"ama crossin" in *ront o* A-%an Medica% center/ Macabante sa' the .o%ice team interce.o%ice *orce to a...%e v/ &asti%%er) The *ai%+re o* the . 'arant%ess search and seiL+res are %e"a% as %on" as !RO1A1LE CA2SE e8isted/ The . the 0nte%%i"ence "ro+. at 11:00 a/m/.5acho # 5aA+ero "+i%t# be#ond reasonab%e do+bt o* Fio%ation o* @ection 9.i/ A third b+#er 'as transactin" 'ith a..o%ice a+thorities 'ho immediate%# *ormed a team com.orted the transaction to the .res+med that the# are re"+%ar%# in .o%ice o**icers 'ere at the Do+th 4oste% in Maa"ama @t/ F+%"encio to%d .osted themse%ves a%on" the nationa% hi"h'a# in Ca%er. A+rora.o%ice o**icers to sec+re a 'arrant stems *rom the *act that their -no'%ed"e reA+ired *rom the s+rvei%%ance 'as ins+**icient to *+%*i%% reA+irements *or its iss+ance/ 4o'ever.ons or an#thin"..osed o* member o* the (hi%i.ersona% -no'%ed"e o* the act+a% commission o* the crime *rom the s+rvei%%ance o* the activities o* the acc+sed/ As .rovides that a . a.orted b# a va%id 'arrant o* arrest is not an abso%+te r+%e/ 5+%e 126.6A).t/@eras.o%ice o**icers 'ere the ones cond+ctin" the s+rvei%%ance.i .er*ormance o* their d+ties/ G.t/ Macabante 'as interce. an#time o* the da# 'earin" a red and 'hite stri. (I.e% 2 meters a'a# *rom 5e"a%ado7s ho+se/ @+cro 'as monitored to have ta%-ed and e8chan"ed thin"s three times/ These activities are re. J..h#sica% descri. a 2enesis b+s arrived in Ca%er/ ?hen a.Fa+ts0 (at/ F+%"encio 'ent to Ar%ie 5e"a%ado7s ho+se at &/ R+im.e%%ant 'o+%d arrive in Ca%er.+rchase o* shab+/ The a"ent %ater re.t/ @eras.rehend the a.0 @earch and seiL+res s+.erson he transacted 'ith ear%ier/ 4avin" a%i"hted *rom the b+s.r+" 6n*orcement A"enc# ((.6&0@0$N NACH2RA. 2003 *indin" a.i to interce.ea% is the &o+rt o* A./m/ o* the same da#.. Artic%e 00 o* 5e. the con*identia% a"ent . 200:. it is .. to"ether 'ith his .orted to be se%%in" mari<+ana at a cha.roceeded to the area/ ?hi%e the . A+rora/ At aro+nd ::00 . 'itho+t a search 'arrant/((eo. vs/ &AC7 RACHO ( RA82ERO. the a"ent and in*ormed him that he 'as on board a 2enesis b+s and 'o+%d arrive in Ca%er...+b%ic Act (5/A/) No/ 9169/ The case stemmed *rom the *o%%o'in" *acts: $n Ma# 19.e%/ The .ecision: dated )+%# .o%ice o**icers have .. A.ted and arrested @B&5$ at the corner o* &/ R+im..ea%s (&A) .e%%ee.o%ice a.e%%ant stood near the hi"h'a# and 'aited *or a tric#c%e that 'o+%d brin" him to his *ina% destination/ As .R.ine Arm# and the %oca% .e%%ant ca%%ed +. A+rora the *o%%o'in" da#/ $n Ma# 20.ointed to him as the .o to monitor activities o* 6dison @B&5$ (acc+sed)/ @+cro 'as re.o%ice and thre' a tea ba" o* mari<+ana on the "ro+nd/ Macabante admitted b+#in" the mari<+ana *rom @+cro in *ront o* the cha. 1345%) A'g'st *.. 200 in &A12/5/ &514/&/ No/ 00329 a**irmin" the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt2 (5T&) )oint .e%%ant/ .o%ice transacted thro+"h ce%%+%ar .e%%ant a%i"hted *rom the b+s. 'hich ma# be +sed as .erson %a'*+%%# arrested ma# be searched *or dan"ero+s 'ea.t/ @eras. a.. a con*identia% a"ent o* the .orted and %ater identi*ied as 5onnie Macabante/ From that moment. %616 !EO!LE OF THE !HILI!!INES..

ea% on the va%idit# o* his arrest and the search and seiL+re o* the sachet o* shab+ and. +n%a'*+%%#. the said acc+sed did then and there.e s%i.o%ice station *or investi"ation/9 $n )+%# . the team a.on b# the tria% and a. a 'hite enve%o. a.ected dr+"/9 The team then bro+"ht a.e%%ate co+rts/ .e Fera 'ho mar-ed it 'ith his initia%s and 'ith a.%ied some *act or circ+mstance o* 'ei"ht and s+bstance that 'o+%d have a**ected the case/1: A.roached him and invited him to the .ea%. the admissibi%it# o* the sachet/ 0t is note'orth# that a%tho+"h the circ+mstances o* his arrest 'ere brie*%# disc+ssed b# the 5T&.ea%/ 4o'ever.ositive res+%ts *or and 'i%% not be dist+rbed on a. #ie%ded a sma%% sachet containin" the s+s. b+t as he .ro...ecimen immediate%# a*ter seiL+re/ 0n his s+..%ained that the ...+%%ed o+t his hands *rom his .ector 5o"e%io @arenas ..hetamine 4#droch%oride common%# -no'n as Y@hab+Y.oint Lero one (9/01) Nor 3/93O "rams o* Metham. 'hen o... the 5T& rendered a )oint )+d"ment10 convictin" a. did then and there.resent a.oc-et.. *or the *irst time. 5/A/ 9169 and sentencin" him to s+**er the ..a# a *ine o* (900.a.rosec+tion/ 4e %i-e'ise avers that the .A?/Y . o* @ection 11 o* the same %a' *or . *e%onio+s%# and 'i%%*+%%# have in his . the va%idit# o* the arrest and search and the admissibi%it# o* the evidence a"ainst a..e%%ant 'ere not sA+are%# raised b# the %atter and th+s.od"eM stri.ermit or %icense *rom the .%ementa% brie*.ortin" or de%iverin" dan"ero+s dr+" o* 9/01 Nor 3/93O "rams o* shab+ 'itho+t an# .ermit or %icense *rom the . conseA+ent%#. a.ortions o* 'hich read: YThat at abo+t ::00 o7c%oc.e%%ant attac-s the credibi%it# o* the 'itnesses *or the . this is not a hard and *ast r+%e/ ?e have revie'ed s+ch *act+a% *indin"s 'hen there is a sho'in" that the tria% <+d"e over%oo-ed.ena%t# o* %i*e im..e%%ant denied %iabi%it# and c%aimed that he 'ent to Ca%er.e%%ant *oc+ses his a.%eaded YNot 2+i%t#Y to both char"es/ At the tria%.ed there*rom 'hich..ed his c%othes and +nder'earM then bro+"ht him to the .hetamine h#droch%oride/6 A.ea% is meritorio+s/ ?e have re.o%ice station on s+s.ecimen 'as t+rned over to (o%ice 0ns..e%%ant assai%s..e%%ant o* Fio%ation o* @ection 9. 2003. or misa. 5/A/ 9169/ $n a. dan"ero+s dr+"s.ants7 .e%%ant7s name/ The *ie%d test and %aborator# e8aminations on the contents o* the con*iscated sachet #ie%ded .. 200: in Ca%er.. A+rora.rosec+tion *ai%ed to estab%ish the identit# o* the con*iscated dr+" beca+se o* the team7s *ai%+re to marthe s.A?/Y7 YThat at abo+t ::00 o7c%oc.(sic) in the a*ternoon on Ma# a+thorities to trans.eated%# he%d that the tria% co+rt7s eva%+ation o* the credibi%it# o* 'itnesses and their testimonies is entit%ed to "reat res.ossession *ive .000/00M b+t acA+itted him o* the char"e o* Fio%ation o* @ection 11..ortin" or de%iverin"M and the second. a re"+%ated dr+" 'itho+t an# .er a+thorities to .ort the same/ &$NT5A5D T$ .ossess the same/ &$NT5A5D T$ .(sic) in the a*ternoon on Ma# 20. the &A a**irmed the 5T& decision/11 4ence. the %e"a%it# o* his arrest and the va%idit# o* the s+bseA+ent 'arrant%ess search/ 4e A+estions the admissibi%it# o* the con*iscated sachet on the "ro+nd that it 'as the *r+it o* the . Artic%e 00. A+rora and 'ithin the <+risdiction o* this 4onorab%e &o+rt..o%ice o**icers. *or trans.risonment and to .. he e8. mis+nderstood.e%%ant 'as char"ed in t'o se..e%%ant to the .ossessin".e%%ant immediate%# denied the acc+sation.e%%ant 'as abo+t to board a tric#c%e. A+rora to visit his brother to in*orm him abo+t their ai%in" *ather/ 4e maintained that the char"es a"ainst him 'ere *a%se and that no shab+ 'as ta-en *rom him/ As to the circ+mstances o* his arrest.icion o* carr#in" shab+/ A. one *or vio%ation o* @ection 9 o* 5/A/ 9169.e%%ant . 'ere not r+%ed +. the . a.+rin" the arrai"nment.ea%/ 0n his brie*. the acc+sator# . the said acc+sed. 200: in Ca%er. b%oc-ed the tric#c%e he 'as ridin" inM *orced him to a%i"htM bro+"ht him to @ea CreeLe .o%ice station *or investi"ation/ The con*iscated s.. Artic%e 00. +n%a'*+%%#.. *e%onio+s%# and 'i%%*+%%# trans. thro+"h their van.12 a.oisono+s tree/ The a.arate 0n*ormations.

'e m+st abide 'ith <+ris.erson/ A.recede the searchM "enera%%#.e%%ant. "iven the *act+a% mi%ie+ o* the case.rocess cannot be reversed/ Neverthe%ess.+rchase o* shab+/ The a"ent re.e%%ant 'as ca+"ht in *%a"rante de%icto. 'e *ind that a..e%%ant ca%%ed ...robab%e ca+se e%+des e8act and concrete de*inition.ens the 'ho%e case *or revie'/9avvphi9 This &o+rt is c%othed 'ith am. the manner in 'hich the search and seiL+re 'as made.+r.r+dence ho%ds that in searches incident to a %a'*+% arrest. and the character o* the artic%es .e%%ant/ A%tho+"h" 'ith the constit+tiona% mandate that ever# acc+sed sha%% be .o%ice have . a con*identia% a"ent o* the .robab%e ca+se.0t is 'e%%1sett%ed that an a.resence or absence o* ..resence o* the a.ea% in a crimina% case o. at 11:00 a/m/. i* 'e *ind them necessar# in arrivin" at a <+st dis...o%ice o**icers had .. A+rora brin"in" 'ith him a sachet o* shab+/20 &onseA+ent%#.e%%ant never ob<ected to the irre"+%arit# o* his arrest be*ore his arrai"nment/ 0n *act.oraneo+s 'ith an arrest can .roscri. 200:.orted b# circ+mstances s+**icient%# stron" in themse%ves to 'arrant a ca+tio+s man to be%ieve that the .%ain vie'MY :/ @earch o* a movin" vehic%eM 3/ &onsented 'arrant%ess searchM 9/ &+stoms searchM 6/ @to. the 'arrant%ess search 'as considered va%id as it 'as deemed an incident to the %a'*+% arrest/ 5ecent <+ris.tin" to commit a crime in the .ose o* the search or seiL+re.rehend the a. 'e have to determine 'hether the .e%%ant *or the .res+med innocent +n%ess his "+i%t is .se. ho'ever.+re%# a <+dicia% A+estion.o%ice transacted thro+"h ce%%+%ar .robab%e ca+se necessitates a ree8amination o* the estab%ished *acts/ $n Ma# 19.o%ice a+thorities 'ho immediate%# *ormed a team to a..ation in the tria% o* the case.robab%e ca+se to ma-e the arrest at the o+tset o* the search/21 Th+s.. be the basis o* his acA+itta%/ 19 As to the admissibi%it# o* the seiLed dr+" in evidence.rehendin" o**icers as he arrived in Ca%er. the . is deemed to have 'aived his ri"ht to A+estion the va%idit# o* his arrest. name%#: 1/ ?arrant%ess search incidenta% to a %a'*+% arrestM 2/ @earch o* evidence in Y. a. determinab%e *rom the +niA+eness o* the circ+mstances invo%ved.hone 'ith a.r+dence 'hich dictates that a.osition o* the case/ 6ver# circ+mstance in *avor o* the acc+sed sha%% be considered/ This is in -ee.. the arrest m+st .+r..%e a+thorit# to revie' matters.ose in an# .orted the transaction to the . b+t the sachet o* shab+ seiLed *rom him d+rin" the 'arrant%ess search is inadmissib%e in evidence a"ainst him/ The records sho' that a.e%%ant7s 'arrant%ess arrest there*ore cannot.roc+red/19 The 5T& conc%+ded that a.tion. admits o* e8ce. and Fris-M and 7/ 68i"ent and emer"enc# circ+mstances/1 ?hat constit+tes a reasonab%e or +nreasonab%e 'arrant%ess search or seiL+re is . in itse%*. the . th+s c+rin" 'hatever de*ect ma# have attended his arrest/ The %e"a%it# o* the arrest a**ects on%# the <+risdiction o* the co+rt over his . the .tions.ea%.recede the arrest i* the .erson acc+sed is "+i%t# o* the o**ense 'ith 'hich he is char"ed/22 The determination o* the e8istence or absence o* .. co+.e%%ant can no %on"er A+estion the va%idit# o* his arrest. 200:. even those not raised on a. it ordinari%# si"ni*ies a reasonab%e "ro+nd o* s+s.e%%ant/ $n Ma# 20. havin" vo%+ntari%# s+bmitted to the <+risdiction o* the tria% co+rt. a search s+bstantia%%# contem.icion s+. it becomes +nreasonab%e and an# evidence obtained there*rom sha%% be inadmissib%e *or an# . inc%+din" the . dec%arin" that he 'as ca+"ht in the act o* act+a%%# committin" a crime or attem. it is necessar# *or +s to ascertain 'hether or not the search 'hich #ie%ded the a%%e"ed contraband 'as %a'*+%/16 The 19 7 &onstit+tion states that a search and conseA+ent seiL+re m+st be carried o+t 'ith a <+dicia% 'arrantM other'ise.roceedin"/17 @aid . this is the *irst time that he raises the iss+e/ &onsiderin" this %a.robab%e ca+se to arrest a.%ace or thin" searched.%ed 'ith his active .roven be#ond reasonab%e do+bt/13 A*ter a thoro+"h revie' o* the records o* the case and *or reasons that 'i%% be disc+ssed be%o'.

'e re*+sed to va%idate the 'arrant%ess search .o%ice that T+dt+d had headed to &otabato and 'o+%d be bac.. 29 to :0 #ears*eration o* mari<+ana in the area/ 5eactin" to the re.ine Nationa%*orm some overt act that 'o+%d indicate that he has committed. 1999.%e v/ Ar+ta.e%%ant/ The *ie%d test and %aborator# e8aminations on the contents o* the con*iscated sachet #ie%ded .on seein" the t'o ma%e . the . the# "athered in*ormation and %earned that T+dt+d 'as invo%ved in i%%e"a% dr+"s/ $n A+"+st 1.ointed to him as the .%o#ed themse%ves near the (hi%i.oc-et. a team o* .ed T1shirt/ The team members .o%ice o**icers a..erson he transacted 'ith.%e v/ T+dt+d.ort./m/.avao &it#.iner C+s sto. the civi%ian asset in*ormed the .rehendin" o**icers/ B..ants.erson.. 'hen o. received a re.. the acc+sed disc%osed 'here t'o other ma%e .tion. %ater identi*ied as 5e#na%do . 'hat . 'as committin". the .((NC) in $%on"a.o%ice accosted the acc+sed and in*ormed him that the# 'ere .o &it#/ ?hi%e th+s .o%ice o**icers to s+s.%e v/ N+evas. and at aro+nd ::00 . and +s+a%%# 'earin" a sando and maon" . t'o men disembar-ed *rom a b+s and he%./m/ that same da#.ects and as-ed i* the# co+%d see the contents o* the bo8 'hich #ie%ded mari<+ana %eaves/29 0n (eo...29 (eo..robab%e ca+se to e**ect a va%id 'arrant%ess arrest/ The %on" standin" r+%e in this <+risdiction is that Yre%iab%e in*ormationY a%one is not s+**icient to <+sti*# a 'arrant%ess arrest/ The r+%e reA+ires.o%ice o**icer 'as ti. is act+a%%# committin". the con*identia% a"ent .onsib%e *or the .art *rom this 'e%%1estab%ished doctrine/ The instant case is simi%ar to (eo... 'ith a tattoo and Fernando 0nocencio.ed in *ront o* the (NC b+i%din" 'here t'o *ema%es and a man "ot o**/ The in*ormant then . a. she handed it to the a.ositioned. A+rora an#time o* the da# 'earin" a red and 'hite stri..on ins.ected the ba" the# 'ere carr#in"/ B. A+rora.o%ice a. the team a. that the acc+sed .e s%i.%astic ba" carried b# the acc+sed.ted the .rom.robab%e ca+se/ ?e reA+ired the sho'in" o* some overt act indicative o* the crimina% desi"n/ As in the above cases. the ba" contained mari<+ana dried %eaves and bric-s 'ra.ed o** b# his in*ormant that a certain YA%in" 5osaY 'o+%d be arrivin" *rom Ca"+io &it# the *o%%o'in" da# 'ith a %ar"e vo%+me o* mari<+ana/ Actin" on said ti.roached her and introd+ced themse%ves/ ?hen as-ed abo+t the contents o* her ba".o%ice o**icers/ Neither did the arrestin" o**icers have . b# itse%*.roached the s+s. the# sa' the acc+sed 'ho *it the descri. #ie%ded a sma%% sachet containin" the s+s. the contents o* the ba" t+rned o+t to be mari<+ana %eaves/:0 0n a%% o* these cases. the team a.roached them.ointed to the team members the 'oman.o%ice o**icers. a Fictor# . the ba" 'as *o+nd to contain dried mari<+ana %eaves/2 The *acts in (eo.ersons 'o+%d ma-e a de%iver# o* mari<+ana %eaves/ B. introd+ced themse%ves as .er ri"ht hand.o* mari<+ana/ At aro+nd 3:00 .ected o* carr#in" shab+/ ?hen he .o%ice o**icers received in*ormation that a certain ma%e .e%%ant herein 'as not committin" a crime in the .o%ice o**icers/ B.ection. more or %ess 973Y in hei"ht. 'as the ti.erson to be arrested had committed.resence o* the .ersons.roached him and invited him to the . the .e%%ant 'o+%d arrive in Ca%er.o%ice o**icers .%e v/ T+dt+d sho' that in )+%# and A+"+st. the a"ent 'ith the in*ormation that he 'as on board a 2enesis b+s and 'o+%d arrive in Ca%er. in addition.ed there*rom 'hich.e%%ant to the .o%ice to a.recise%# beca+se there 'as no adeA+ate . the Tori% (o%ice @tation.ants7 .on ins.o%ice station *or investi"ation and the con*iscated s.e%%ant.osted themse%ves to a'ait T+dt+d7s arriva%/ At :00 .ositive res+%ts *or metham... A+rora carr#in" shab+/ This circ+mstance "ives rise to another A+estion: 'hether that in*ormation. a .+%%ed o+t his hands *rom his ..e char"es. YA%in" 5osa.on the +.. a.%e v/ Ar+ta. or abo+t to commit an o**ense/ At the time o* the arrest.Y 'ho 'as then carr#in" a trave%in" ba"/ Therea*ter.resence o* a.rehend a./m/ o* the same da#.tin" to commit an o**ense/23 ?e *ind no co"ent reason to de..e%%ant 'as not actin" in an# s+s.ection o* the . 'o+%d ma-e a de%iver# o* mari<+ana %eaves/ ?hi%e cond+ctin" stationar# s+rvei%%ance and monitorin" o* i%%e"a% dr+" tra**ic-in".ort *rom a civi%ian asset that the nei"hbors o* a certain Noe% T+dt+d (T+dt+d) 'ere com.%e v/ N+evas/27 0n (eo. is s+**icient ..o%ice assemb%ed a team and de.hetamine h#droch%oride/ &%ear%#.. a 2enesis b+s arrived in Ca%er/ ?hen a.ened.%astic ba"/ The .ected dr+"/2: The team then bro+"ht a.osted themse%ves a%on" the nationa% hi"h'a# in Ca%er. carr#in" a . even 'itho+t a 'arrant.ed each other carr# a carton/ The .e%%ant a%i"hted *rom the b+s.ed in a b%+e c%oth/ 0n his bid to esca.ersona% -no'%ed"e o* *acts indicatin" that the .e%%ant had <+st a%i"hted *rom the 2emini b+s and 'as 'aitin" *or a tric#c%e/ A.ection.icio+s manner that 'o+%d en"ender a reasonab%e "ro+nd *or the . the 0nte%%i"ence @ection cond+cted s+rvei%%ance/ For *ive da#s. or is attem..%ainin" that the %atter 'as res.+. then ins.on ins.o%ice station as he 'as s+s. 1999.%ater that da# 'ith a ne' stoc. "iven b# the in*ormant that a. a 'hite enve%o. .26 and (eo. and 'hen the %atter 'as abo+t to board a tric#c%e.ect and .ecimen 'as mar-ed in the ..

h#sica% descri. Yan# evidence obtained in vio%ation o* this or the .ea%s .artici. the end never <+sti*ies the means/32 ?4656F$56.arameters set b# the &onstit+tion and the %a'/ Tr+%#..:9 (eo. or attem.%e v/ N+evas. DECISION .ort+nit# to a.e%%ant o* his ri"ht to A+estion the i%%e"a%it# o* his arrest b# enterin" a .:1 (eo. AL9IN TAN ( LAGA:A.656.tin" to commit a crime/ C+t as a..i%.eo.5aA+ero 5acho is A&RB0TT6. this is an instance o* seiL+re o* the Y*r+it o* the .+r... an acA+itta% is 'arranted. or the reasons *or his con*inement.%e v/ Ca"ista.ect ordinar# .id brea-do'n o* o+r s#stem o* <+stice.Y hence. there 'as an ass+rance that he 'o+%d be there the *o%%o'in" da# (Ma# 20)/ &%ear%#. 'arrant%ess arrest does not carr# 'ith it a 'aiver o* the inadmissibi%it# o* evidence seiLed d+rin" an i%%e"a% 'arrant%ess arrest/30 $ne *ina% note/ As c%ear%# stated in (eo. )r/.o%ice had am. 200 in &A12/5/ &51 4/&/ No/ 00329 is 56F65@6. and the event+a% deni"ration o* societ#/ ?hi%e this &o+rt a. the .. .:3 (eo.t%# observed b# the &o+rt.tion b+t a%so his name/ A%tho+"h it 'as not certain that a. 'e neverthe%ess admonish them to act 'ith de%iberate care and 'ithin the . their o**ice received the Yti.e%%ant7s conviction cannot be s+stained based on the remainin" evidence/ Th+s. .eace and sec+rit# o* societ#. +n%ess the %atter is bein" %a'*+%%# he%d *or another ca+seM and to in*orm the &o+rt o* the date o* his re%ease. the &o+rt s+stained the va%idit# o* the 'arrant%ess searches not'ithstandin" the absence o* overt acts or s+s..conc%+de that he 'as committin" or intendin" to commit a crime/ ?ere it not *or the in*ormation "iven b# the in*ormant.e%%ant7s . the sachet o* shab+ 'o+%d not have been con*iscated/ ?e are not +na'are o* another set o* <+ris. a.ation in the tria% o* the case/ As ear%ier mentioned.%e v/ 2onLa%es/:7 0n these cases. it on%# *osters the more ra.oisono+s tree. plaintiff-appellee vs.e%%ant 'o+%d arrive on the same da# (Ma# 19).reserve the .:: (eo.%e v/ Monti%%a.rosec+tors and <+d"es ma# sti%% tend to "%oss over an i%%e"a% search and seiL+re as %on" as the %a' en*orcers sho' the a%%e"ed evidence o* the crime re"ard%ess o* the methods b# 'hich the# 'ere obtained/ This -ind o* attit+de condones %a'1brea-in" in the name o* %a' en*orcement/ 0ronica%%#.%ea and his active .. these inc%+de (eo.%e v/ Ca%in"an.recedin" section sha%% be inadmissib%e *or an# .%e to be %a'1abidin" i* 'e do not insist on the *+%% ..tions to the r+%e a"ainst 'arrant%ess searches/: Neither 'ere the arrestin" o**icers im.%e v/ . *or ins+**icienc# o* evidence/ The .ed in*ormationY on Ma# 19./ !EO!LE OF THE !HILI!!INES.:2 (eo.erson o* the acc+sed/ A 'aiver o* an i%%e"a%.e%%ant 'o+%d not have been a.e%%ed b# an# +r"enc# that 'o+%d a%%o' them to do a'a# 'ith the reA+isite 'arrant/ As testi*ied to b# (o%ice $**icer 1 A+re%io 0ni'an.r+dence that deems Yre%iab%e in*ormationY s+**icient to <+sti*# a search incident to a %a'*+% 'arrant%ess arrest/ As cited in (eo. the# 'ere covered b# the other e8ce.t in Fa%deL and 2onLa%es. 200:/ The# %i-e'ise %earned *rom the in*ormant not on%# the a.isin".icio+s circ+mstances that 'o+%d indicate that the acc+sed had committed..reciates and enco+ra"es the e**orts o* %a' en*orcers to +.%e o.ose in an# . and conseA+ent%#.rotection o* their ri"hts/ @ome %a'men.. des.ho%d the %a' and to .:6 and (eo.%e v/ Mas.%# *or a 'arrant/:9 $bvio+s%#. 'as act+a%%# committin".ecision dated Ma# 22. a.31 8 8 8 0n the *ina% ana%#sis.6/ A. accused-appellants. the &o+rt o* A. the con*iscated item is inadmissib%e in evidence consonant 'ith Artic%e 000.e%%ant )ac. 'e in the administration o* <+stice 'o+%d have no ri"ht to e8..roceedin"/Y ?itho+t the con*iscated shab+. and @6T A@0. 'ithin ten (10) da#s *rom notice/ No costs/ @$ $5.ite the 'aiver o* a.rehended and no search 'o+%d have been made..irector o* the C+rea+ o* &orrections is directed to ca+se the immediate re%ease o* a..%e v/ Fa%deL. the %e"a%it# o* an arrest a**ects on%# the <+risdiction o* the co+rt over the .remises considered. a member o* the arrestin" team. @ection :(2) o* the 19 7 &onstit+tion.O.e%%ant. e8ce.%e v/ T+dt+d.

o* +ndetermined va%+e. 'as ab%e to ca+se the car[s 199: rene'a% re"istration in the absence o* the vehic%e and he 'as iss+ed the corres. R+eLon &it# in &rimina% &ase No/ R19:139339/ 176 177 17 TAN7s indictment 179 N3O *or vio%ation o* 5e. bearin" . desisted as %on" as he co+%d *rom re.ecember 1993 <+d"ment o* conviction a"ainst TAN b# the 5e"iona% Tria% &o+rt.+b%ic Act No/ 69:9. started to ca%% +.%ace at 5ooseve%t/ A"ain (hi%i. C. then and there 'i%%*+%%#.*or A%vin at his o**ice at 5ooseve%t Aven+e.arties 'aived the ho%din" o* a . 'ith intent to "ain and 'itho+t the consent o* the o'ner thereo*. .T$).re<+dice o* said (hi%i.. a"ain tried to see A%vin at his .ortation $**ice (. in R+eLon &it#.[s a*oresaid car and that he 'anted to test1drive it/ $n acco+nt o* their *riendshi. sti%% be%ieved that bein" a *riend. co%ored b%+e.roved *+ti%e. 'as to%d that A%vin 'as not aro+nd/ $ne o* A%vin[s em. abo+t 9::0 a/m/. b+t A%vin avoided him b# re*+sin" to ans'er the te%e.J. 'ith the assistance o* some . m+ch %ess ca+se the ret+rn o* the car/ )-sm Th+s. and %oo. (hi%i.rosec+tion evidence .%ate no/ &2@172:. that he 'as intendin" to b+# (hi%i.0 0n this . "ranted A%vin[s reA+est 888/ $n th+s "ettin" ho%d o* the car.%ainin" abo+t the matter to the a+thoritiesM (hi%i.1:011/ @ometime in March 1992.. ho'ever. (hi%i. the above1 named acc+sed. @ee is the re"istered o'ner o* a 19 7 Mits+bishi 2a%%ant *o+r1door va%+ed at (320. Tan .000/00.%# did not sho' +.. to"ether 'ith his 'i*e 5+b# @ee and 5obert &h+a (a nei"hbor) 'as at his .%o#ees. A%vin event+a%%# 'o+%d come aro+nd to ret+rnin" the car to him/ Mean'hi%e. and 'ith motor no/ 32:21F22703 and seria%Ichassis no/ A161B. (hi%i.roceeded in this manner: 1 0 N9O 888 N(Orivate com. o* the .o* merit b# the &o+rt o* A.on his arrai"nment on 13 )+%# 199: and 'ith the assistance o* co+nse%. sometime on March 9.retendin" he 'as not aro+ndM and (hi%i. *or 'henever (hi%i. and A%vin became *riends and started to see each other on severa% occasions therea*ter/ $n November 7.+b%ic Act No/ 69:9 reads as *o%%o's: That on or abo+t the 7th da# o* November..ea%s in &A12/5/ &5 No/ 206 'hich a**irmed his conviction *or vio%atin" 5e. (hi%i.%eaded not "+i%t# to the char"e/ Tria% immediate%# ens+ed as the . (hi%i. (hi%i.etition *or revie' +nder 5+%e 39 o* the 5+%es o* &o+rt. (hi%i. A%vin s. Cranch 99. R&. 199:.and Trans. b# A%vin[s *iancee. A%vin 'o+%d re*+se to see him/ .etitioner A%vin Tan (herea*ter TAN) see-s his acA+itta% b# a reversa% o* the 29 )+ne 199 decision N1O o* the &o+rt o* A. and be%ievin" A%vin[s ass+rance that he 'o+%d ret+rn the car a*ter he sha%% have test1driven it. @ee/ B.hone ca%%s or .ondin" o**icia% recei. (hi%i.ea%s a**irmed the 19 . acc+sed A%vin Tan 'as introd+ced to (hi%i. to the dama"e and ..ersonne% o* the . stea% and carr# a'a# one (1) Mits+bishi 2a%%ant car co%ored and hidden ri"ht behind A%vin[s 'areho+se/ The 176 177 178 179 180 . did. to the e**ect that the car 'as . 'o+%d "o to said o**ice. &R.isma#ed tho+"h he '"/ N2O TAN[s motion *or reconsideration o* said decision and motion *or ora% ar"+ments 'ere denied *or %ac..[s attem. 199:. 'aited *or A%vin to sho' +.ea%s in its 6 $ctober 199 reso%+tion/ N:O @aid decision and reso%+tion o* the &o+rt o* A. and ret+rn the carM A%vin sim. +n%a'*+%%# and *e%onio+s%# ta-e. one Fienna con*erence/ The tria% co+rt[s terse reca.0( @66.ines.ts to see A%vin at his o**ice simi%ar%# . (hi%i.ed a'a# and never ret+rned/ 0n vain. advised (hi%i.%ainant (hi%i. and *rom then on. 1992.%ace o* residence 888 'hen A%vin arrived thereat/ 4e made it -no'n to (hi%i.t there*or/ @ometime on Ma# 19.ortin" and com. An Act (reventin" and (ena%iLin" &arna.. bearin" (%ate No/ &2@172: o'ned b# one (40.

@ee (herea*ter @66) *i%ed the com. 199:.the re%ease o* the %oan/ 6sm The *riendshi. o* A%vin[s tab%e 'hat (hi%i. and had im.a#ment *or the car/ @66 a"reed/ @+bseA+ent%#.assion *or tar"et shootin"/ 0nevitab%#.%ication 'ith the C(0 Fami%# Can. (hi%i.ose%# co%%ect a debt *rom him and 'ittin"%# +se the co+rt as co%%ectin" a"ent/ @econd%#. he sa' the vehic%e .ine Nationa% (o%ice ((N() Tra**ic Mana"ement &ommand and he accordin"%# si"ned the corres.%icant 'as made to on or abo+t )+ne 2.roceeds o* said %oan in .and consternation. %i-e the" a"ainst A%vin be*ore the R& .ervised the car[s a..redicament to the time 'hen his "ir%*riend introd+ced him to @66 in March 1992/ TAN and @66 instant%# became *riends *or the# shared a simi%ar ac+men *or b+siness and .raisa% and ins. TAN s+bmitted in his name a %oan a.+rchase .%ace and at a distance o* some *ive *eet. @66 considered the amo+nt ins+**icient and hence.. (hi%i.the car s+.+rchase .er.ite o* this.. or on )+ne 3. had been dismant%ed and 'ere a%read# missin"/ ?orse. @66 tried to co%%ect the car[s . bein" as-ed b# them to ..orted Sen'ood stereo.%ied *or c%earance to se%% his vehic%e/ Mean'hi%e. (hi%i.o%ice to the station *or investi"ation/ ?hi%e sti%% at A%vin[s o**ice. and severa% interior accessories.o%ice a+thorities sched+%ed a visit to the . a door.osed%# to test1drive it on November 7.%aint %od"ed b# (hi%i.%aint *or carna. at A%vin[s .%aint in reven"e o* the A+arre%s the# had over TAN7s "ir%*riend 'hom @66 'ooed. @66 sti%% o**ered to se%% the s+b<ect Mits+bishi 2a%ant to TAN *or the amo+nt o* (2 0.+r. 1992.+"ned the .%ace. the# en"a"ed in and entered into severa% b+siness transactions 'hich res+%ted in TAN[s indebtedness to @66 in the amo+nt o* ( 00. denied his a%%e"ed si"nat+re on the a.%aint to . an a%arm *or the s+b<ect car 'as iss+ed/ To his *+rther shoc..resented a com.+r. consistin" o* a t'o1'a# radio antenna and car stereo.. he sa' that . TAN c%aimed that @66 instit+ted the com..%ication b+t on%# in the amo+nt o* (129. a"ainst A%vin be*ore the R& .%ete%# diverse ta%e/ First%#. severa% .ondin" com.%o#ee drove the car to @66[s ho+se. 199:. the car 'as in to. Tan im.rice b+t TAN had sti%% no *+nds/ @o TAN s+""ested that he 'o+%d a. *orma%%# %od"ed a com. 5+b#/ . event+a%%# so+red and the res+%tin" Ymis+nderstandin"Y 'ith @66 im. actin" on the com.a.ersisted to the e8tent that he bro+"ht the car to TAN[s residence on 26 November 1992 and "enero+s%# s+""ested that he 'o+%d <+st add into the %atter[s e8istin" indebtedness to him the car[s ..%aint *or "rave threats and i%%e"a% . condition. re*+sed to acce.*or a car %oan +sin" the car as sec+rit# and a. (hi%i. 'as [*+%%# %oaded[ 'ith com.arts o* the car.# o* said deed +.ected%#.ear as one (hi%i. o* the car as i* .e%%ed TAN on 19 Ma# 199: to instr+ct his 'areho+se overseer to ret+rn the car to @66[s residence/ TAN[s em..rosec+tion[s version and .%ocation o* the 'areho+se havin" been "iven to him..eared to him to have been dismant%ed *rom the s+b<ect car/ At that time A%vin too.%iance 'ith the reA+irements o* the %oan a.orted ma"'hee%s/ &hie* 68.%ication and a%so denied havin" s+.osed%# at the rear end o* the 'areho+se/ To his shoc.ieces o* 'ood 'ere .ection on 19 March 199:/ TAN additiona%%# maintained that he and @66 si"ned a deed o* sa%e coverin" the s+b<ect a+tomobi%e b+t that TAN did not receive a the car o+tside the "ate and then handed over the -e#s o* the car to @66[s 'i*e..rete8t that he 'o+%d +se it *or *aci%itation o* the %oan/ The ban. 'as in*ormed b# the (N([s 4i"h'a# (atro% 2ro+.ossession o* *irearms *i%ed b# one o* TAN[s em. the . @66 . 'hich a. he 'as identi*ied and invited b# the ...o%ice station/ @ome t'o da#s %ater.000/ TAN dec%ined the o**er/ @66 . TAN asserted that (hi%i.oint and identi*# A%vin in the co+rse thereo*/ Accordin"%#. and (2) in reta%iation a"ainst the com. TAN did not see.o%ice station Ma-ati/ 0n com.and s+r. 'ith (hi%i.%ace o* A%vin. (4(2) that somebod# had a.. (hi%i.%aint sheets/ Too. 'ent to the .%ied *or a c%earance to se%% the car and that the a.i%ed on to. .rise. be%ieved to be accessories *rom his car.%# 'ith a ban.ersona%%# s+.000/ 0ns.ose%# hide and concea% it *rom vie'/ @ti%% *ai%in" to recover his car..%# the . had %o' mi%ea"e..%ete interior accessories inc%+din" an im.on @66[s . sa' on to.000/ Nat+ra%%#. re.%o#ees a"ainst @66/ TAN then traced this %e"a% .t the terms o* the %oan/ &onseA+ent%#.roved the %oan a. @ee/ 888 (hi%i.orted the %oss o* his car to the (hi%i.rice/ @ometime in Febr+ar# 199:.%ication.

Tan 'as there*ore**ered.rivation 181 182 183 184 185 186 .eace*+%%# 'ent 'ith the . accordin"%#. TAN contends that the &o+rt o* de >era.+nished in @ec/ 2.esosM".etition *or revie' be*ore the @+.reme &o+rt..riated.artic+%ar%# in @66[s c%ear. and strai"ht*or'ard acco+nt 1 'hich said co+rt *o+nd am.%ace/ Th+s.etition/ TAN assai%ed the decision o* the &o+rt o* nat+re o* the %a' on carna.. TAN cha%%e"ed the &o+rt o* A. and (:) "eople v.ersona% +se o* receiver/ 1 3 1 9 1 6 A c+rsor# readin" o* the ... Trinidad.riation thereo* constit+ted +n%a'*+% ta-in" 11 the "ravamen o* the crime char"ed/ 0t then conc%+ded that TAN 'as obvio+s%# act+ated b# intent to "ain/ The tria% co+rt then considered as com.ortion o* 'hich read as *o%%o's: N7O 1 2 ?4656F$56.ea% #! &bundanti &d Cautelam.ea%s decision revea%s that the basic .a"ama#o "+i%t# be#ond reasonab%e do+bt o* the crime o*" o* the car he a%read# ret+rned/ TAN .ea%s thro+"h a .risonment o* *rom *o+rteen #ears..a# his %oans.%es in the*t en+nciated in (1) "eople v. the dis. to indemni*# said o**ended . b+t 'as denied b# the tria% co+rt in its 1 March 1999 order/ @66 cha%%en"ed these a*orementioned orders o* the tria% co+rt in a .%ed"in" b+t 'as so%d and the .ro.ea%s sho+%d not have em.t%# dismissed the .ositive . v.%ete%# +ndeservin" o* be%ie*.etition/ N O 1 : @+bseA+ent%#. Ro!as.%o#ed as bases *or his conviction the basic .e%%ate co+rt erred in (1) i"norin" the . N10O 'here a bar o* "o%d and (200 in ban..rinci.%es o* the*t a%%+ded to . 'hich .o%ice o**icers arrived at his residence and invited him to the .ro.riated *or the .rosec+tion7s version.notes 'ere received *or e8amination and chan"in" into coins b+t instead a.ite his heav# indebtedness and "iven his increasin" di**ic+%t# to . @66 had beni"n%# e8tended him credit./ Act No/ 6127 in acc+sed[s *avor/ 6smsc TAN *i%ed a motion *or ne' tria% on the "ro+nd o* ne'%# discovered evidence 'hich 'as "ranted b# the tria% co+rt in its 3 )+%# 1993 order/ @66 then moved *or reconsideration.o%ice a+thorities to the station/ N6O 1 1 ?ei"hin" the evidence th+s .eci*icit# o* the carna. 'o+%d be s+**icient to acA+it him on reasonab%e do+bt/ 0n invo-in" the s.rivi%e"e o* .. (2) $.re<+dice to the a.roceeds thereo* a.. the s+b<ect car 8 8 8 or in de*a+%t thereo*. in a decision . both o* 5e. in connection 'ith @ec/ 13.rom+%"ated on 19 )an+ar# 1993.ositive.ea%s[ a**irmance o* his conviction/ 4e ar"+es be*ore this &o+rt that the a.etition *or certiorari *i%ed 'ith the &o+rt o* A. the tria% co+rt convicted TAN. TAN[s s+. he is hereb# sentenced to s+**er the indeterminate . de%ivered to him the s+b<ect car and besto'ed +. N9O 'here rice 'as received../ Act No/ 69:9 888 .. i* considered. the a.a# the costs.. @ee. to seventeen #ears and *o+r months as ma8im+mM to restore to the o**ended .rom. TAN[s *ai%+re to ret+rn the car and his conseA+ent a. de*ined and . the &o+rt in Ro!as. (" %a'.ertinent . and *i*teen da#s as minim+m.. ei"ht months.%ication o* in the s+m o* *o+r h+ndred t'ent# tho+sand . N11O 'here a rin" 'as received *or . the tria% co+rt be%ieved in the . (2) disre"ardin" that there 'as no +n%a'*+% ta-in".o%ice stationM to TAN[s additiona% be'i%derment.ea%s/ Mean'hi%e. ..ertain to the si"ni*ication o* +n%a'*+% ta-in" and as to 'hen this ta-es .in" char"ed herein.ortion o* the cha%%en"ed &o+rt o* A.7.a#in" the car at his convenience/ Th+s. .osition that des.on him the +%timate .ena%t# o* im. to . the &o+rt *inds acc+sed A%vin Tan # .. de >era and Trinidad dec%ared that Ythe +n%a'*+% ta-in" or de.rinci. carted a'a# and cons+med.riated the car *or his o'n +se and bene*it/ To the tria% co+rt.e%%ate co+rt "ave d+e co+rse to and "ranted the .rised 'hen on 13 )+ne 199:.ea%s/ $n 2: A+"+st 1999. and (:) re<ectin" circ+mstances on record 'hich. based on TAN[s YNotice o* A. 'as in connection 'ith @66[s com.. 'itho+t .%# demonstrated 1 that @66 had 'ithdra'n the consent initia%%# "iven to TAN 'hen the %atter 'ent be#ond test1drivin" and a.%aint *or the carna.Y the tria% co+rt ordered the e%evation o* the records o* the case to the &o+rt o* A.

a motor vehic%e is said to have been carna.retation redo+nded in TAN7s *avor/ As an e%ement common to the*t.t 11 sho+%d be considered as a%so common to these crimes/ N19O 4o'ever.ort.on thin"s/ N1:O C+t a care*+%" %a' is a s. 'itho+t the o'ner7s consent.ossession o* his Mits+bishi 2a%ant to TAN *or test1drivin" on%#.artic+%ar%# dea%s 'ith the the*t and robber# o* motor vehic%es/ N13O 4ence.hone ca%%s or .ossession constit+tes +n%a'*+% ta-in"/ 0n the %ast scenario. 'ith intent to "ain. *or he neither 'ithhe%d his consent nor 'ithdre' the same d+rin" the seven month . 'h# did @66 'ait *or seven months be*ore he re. and that . or b# means o* vio%ence a"ainst or intimidation o* .osition that the r+diments o* the*t.%ied b# the &o+rt o* A.ed 'hen it has been ta-en.ea%s intention and and see TAN b+t the %atter adamant%# re*+sed to res. hoo-. intent to "ain.. @66 to%erated TAN[s . or b# +sin" *orce +. i* the consent 'as "iven. .%aced/ ?e sha%% see %ater on that the a. to 'it: +n%a'*+% ta-in".ose on%#M TAN m+st ..artic+%ar%# as re"ards +n%a'*+% ta-in".+r. b+t the %atter did not ret+rn the same a*ter the" %a' . NTANO event+a%%# 'o+%d come aro+nd to ret+rnin" the car to him/Y N16O 6smso 191 6ven so%e%# *rom this testimon#.... Ythe artic%e 'as ta-en a'a#. di**erent *rom the crimes o* robber# and the*t inc%+ded in the 5evised (ena% &ode/ 0t .h#sica% . .ires on%# disbe%ie*/ For i* the car 'as tr+%# carna.ossession and dominion o* movab%e .ort the ta-in".ossession thereo* *or the a%%e"ed test1drivin" b+t even therea*ter. 'hether the ta-in" 'as done 'ith or 'itho+t vio%ence or intimidation o* .ert# be%on"in" to another is ta-en 'itho+t the %atter7s consent/ 4o'ever.ossessor does not "ive his consent to the ta-in"M or. the anti1carna.erseverin"%# his re.ert# 'itho+t his . the &o+rt o* A. this &o+rt *inds that there 'as no +n%a'*+% ta-in"/ A *e%onio+s ta-in" ma# be de*ined as the act o* de. d+rin" the seven1month interva% 'hen the car 'as a%%e"ed%# in TAN7s . 'e re<ect the &o+rt o* A.h#sica% .ossessionY 'here Yan act done b# the receiver soon a*ter the act+a% trans*er o* ..ersons or 'ith or 'itho+t the +se o* *orce" on 2 )+ne 199:/ 0n the meantime. in a.ossession res+%ted in +n%a'*+% ta-in"/Y 0n s+ch a o* not <+st severa% ho+rs b+t a n+mber o* months/ @66 *orma%%# *i%ed the com.arison o* this s.rinci.ersistent%# and . and the %atter initia%%# received the same *or that .osed ma%evo%ent intent.. 'here an act b# the receiver soon a*ter the act+a% trans*er o* .artic+%ar%# addresses the ta-in". TAN7s a%%e"ed re*+sa% to meet @66 des. not received.on thin"s/ ?itho+t the*orce be deemed to have +n%a'*+%%# Yta-enY the car soon a*ter the test1drivin" *or he *ai%ed to sho'1+.ossession o* the car/ A contrar# conc%+sion ins. 'as mis. TAN7s .+rvie' o* either the*t or robber# 'hich 'as certain%# the case be*ore the enactment o* said stat+te/ 6smmis 1 1 9 $bvio+s%#..%#in" these . and ret+rn said vehic%e/ N12O 1 7 There is no ar"+in" that the anti1carna.. the receiver7s act co+%d be considered as havin" been e8ec+ted 'itho+t the consent o* the "iver/ @667s testimon# c%ear%# evinced his assent to TAN7s ta-in" o* the car not on%# at the time he #ie%ded the . an +n%a'*+% ta-in" ta-es .orted the sameG F+rther. +n%a'*+% ta-in" 11 its".%aint *or carna. it 'as vitiatedM or in the case o* Ro!as.T$ on 9 March 199:M and (:) @66 had seen his car on 19 Ma# 199: *rom a distance o* some *ive *eet.. robber# and carna. Trinidad and de >era.ea%s.tance. s+ch +n%a'*+% ta-in" o* a motor vehic%e 'o+%d *a%% 'ithin the .in" %a'. %ine and sin-er o* the $**ice o* the @o%icitor 2enera%7s thesis that there 'as +n%a'*+% ta-in" in this case/ 190 @66 asserted that on 7 November 1992 he t+rned over .e%%ate co+rt7s inter. #et he sti%% did not re. a%tho+"h at the be"innin" the artic%e 'as in *act "iven and received/Y 4ence.ecia% %a'.ar-ed at the rear o* TAN7s 'areho+se and in the initia% sta"es o* dismant%in"/ @66 a%so be%ieved that Ybein" a *riend.rivit# and consent and 'itho+t animus revertendi/ N17O Th+s.ea%s7 acce. 'ith intent o* "ain.rivin" another o* the .ersons..ersona%%# receive him in his visitsM (2) @66 'as ab%e to re"ister the car 'ith the .eated attem.ond to his te%e.ossession. months a*ter the a%%e"ed test1 192 187 188 189 190 191 192 .ts to do so sho+%d have s+**icient%# a%erted him o* the *ormer7s s+.ersona% .ort the ta-in"/ 6ven i* he *ai%ed to re...ted the theor# o* the @o%icitor 2enera% that @66 entr+sted his car to TAN mere%# *or test drivin". o* a motor vehic%e be%on"in" to another 'itho+t the %atter7s consent.eriod the car 'as 'ith TAN/ At the ver# occ+r at or soon a*ter the trans*er o* . sho+%d not have been a. (1) @66 had .ecia% %a' 'ith the crimes o* robber# and the*t readi%# revea%s their common *eat+res and 'hen the o'ner or <+ridica% .ted to ta%.

etrated/ 0n short.%ace in these .ecia%%#.oraneo+s and s+bseA+ent to the a%%e"ed +n%a'*+% ta-in" 'as de*inite%# not the distra+"ht cond+ct o* a man 'hose car 'as carna.rece. d+%# s+.rivate com.ea%s and the tria% co+rt sim. *or +.# thereo*G Ass+min" arguendo that N@66O "ot NTAN7sO co.rosec+tion7s ta%e/ 0t i"nored the basic %e"a% . he had a%%e"ed%# seen his car in the initia% sta"es o* dismemberment on 19 Ma# 199: #et.retensions o* NTANO. es.recedin".er.ea%s is %imited to revie'in" errors o* %a'/ 4o'ever.rosec+tion..%ainant..%ication here as no +n%a'*+% de.roceedin"s 'as that the a..raisa% o* the s+b<ect car/ The records. 'h# did he have to ret+rn the same (car) to the %atter on Ma# 13. 'h# did he not .ea%s[ erroneo+s contrar# conc%+sions 'ere heavi%# .. b+t m+ch %ater on 7 )+ne 199: or a%most a month therea*ter/ @66 said he be%ieved and e8.o* consent to TAN[s ta-in" o* the car/ C+t the mere absence o* a 'ritten contract o* sa%e in this case does not necessari%# mean that @66 did not a%so consent to the ta-in" nor that TAN[s . as in this case.res+m.rivation or ta-in" o* @667s .rosec+tion7s *ai%+re to dischar"e the onus probandi 11 to sho' be#ond reasonab%e do+bt that the crime o* carna. 'h# co+%d not NTANO . do not s+. a"ain.o* a 'ritten deed o* sa%e to @66[s %ac. contem.. and +n%ess the @tate s+cceeds in . the constit+tiona% .. 199:G From this %ine o* reasonin"..ea%s sim.ection and a.orted b# doc+mentar# evidence.%# eA+ated the %ac. he did not re. 'here the case o* the .resent a co.on the stren"th o* evidence o* the .[s sa-e then he co+%d not have at the same time a%so be%ieved that this *riend carna..redicated on the ar"+ments o* the $**ice o* the @o%icitor 2enera% that TAN7s *ai%+re to sho' a 'ritten deed o* sa%e and to see..drivin".%# be%ieved and acce. the same is no reason to convict.ed his car/ &%ear%#.the re%ease o* his car %oan Y'ere inconsistent 'ith Nthe %atter[sO idea o* sa%e/Y 0t then . 'e easi%# ded+ce that the &o+rt o* A. en<o#ment and bene*it over the car occ+rred soon or %on" a*ter his initia% consent to the trans*er thereo*/ Neither 'as there an act e8ec+ted b# TAN soon a*ter the a%%e"ed test1drivin" that 'o+%d constit+te +n%a'*+% ta-in"/ These conc%+sions are b+ttressed b# TAN7s testimon#.ed/ 4e 'as even ab%e to re"ister the averred sto%en vehic%e 'itho+t so+ndin" the a%arm/ & fortiori. @667s behavior immediate%# . the &o+rt o* A.on the .in" on that da# nor on the ne8t..resent the notar# .on this .%e hin"es the r+%e that the <+risdiction o* the @+.rosec+tion sti%% has the onus probandi o* sho'in" that TAN[s ta-in" 'as +n%a'*+%/ ?hat too. the &o+rt o* A.rinci.ears on record that the a.osed *o+r A+estions 'hich it conc%+ded Ycertain%# debi%itated the ..# o* the deed o* sa%e.. it" 'as indeed"/ For i* he be%ieved that the vehic%e 'o+%d be ret+rned to him *or *riendshi..e%%ate co+rt ma"ni*ied the 'ea-ness o* the de*ense and over%oo-ed the . that @66 coo.ossession o* the car 'as +n%a'*+%/ The . there*ore.reme &o+rt in cases bro+"ht be*ore it *rom the &o+rt o* A.# *rom the notar# . the cases o* Ro!as.rosec+tion and not on the 'ea-ness o* the evidence *or the de*enseM and ass+min" that the evidence o* the acc+sed is 'ea-. and that @66 .Y th+s: N1 O 19: 0* there 'as rea%%# a deed o* sa%e.%ies/ A conviction in crimina% cases m+st rest on nothin" %ess than the mora% certaint# o* "+i%t/ N20O 68sm 193 199 There is no A+arre% in the conc%+siveness o* the *indin"s o* *act o* the &o+rt o* A.ted the ... the b+rden o*"/ Msesm Noticeab%#.tion o* innocence a.rosec+tion is not stron" eno+"h to s+stain a conviction/ N19O To reiterate.ort the *indin" o* carna.rovin" b# over'he%min" evidence the "+i%t o* the acc+sed.ort the carna. 'h# did he not sec+re another co..000/00 'hen the %atter 'as admitted%# indebted to the *ormer to the t+ne o* ( 00.e%%ate 193 194 195 .ea%s have no Ma-ati..ected that the car 'o+%d inevitab%# be ret+rned to him/ This is not on%# +nsatis*actor# b+t irreconci%ab%e and contradictor# 'ith his im.erated 'ith him *or the avai%ment o* a car %oan 'ith the C(0 Fami%# Can.+tations o* carna.ts that conviction rests +.ossession o*.. Trinidad and de >era cited b# the &o+rt o* A. better sti%%..roo* rests +.000G 0* NTANO rea%%# bo+"ht the s+b<ect car *rom .+b%ic to testi*# on the *act o* the sa%eG ?h# did N@66O have to se%% the s+b<ect car to NTANO at (2 0.ersona%%# attended to the ins.+b%ic 'ho notariLed the sameG $r.

and his team 'ent to B( \ v.rosec+tion to . and disre"arded some *act and circ+mstance o* 'ei"ht or si"ni*icance that i* considered 'o+%d have a%tered the res+%t/ &o"ent reasons there*ore e8ist <+sti*#in" the disre"ard o* the *indin"s o* the a.ersons res. 2010 FA&T@: B.onsib%e *or the -i%%in" o* a member o* another *raternit#/ 46. @i"ma 5ho member.t to arrest them 'itho+t a 'arrant 'as i%%e"a%/ Case Digest on !OSADAS v O:12DS:AN November 10. 2010 %666 0F1T46N 5B.6M a ne' <+d"ment is entered A&RB0TT0N2 said acc+sed1a.reme &o+rt/ &ertiorari J (rohibition/ FA&T@: 1 5o"er (osadas..ea%s a**irmin" the tria% co+rt7s <+d"ment convictin" acc+sed1a.ersona% -no'%ed"e o* an# *act 'hich mi"ht indicate that the t'o st+dents 'ere .rosec+tion NATB56: @.ted to arrest Francis &ar%o Ta. the NC0 sent a"ents to the +niversit# and tried to arrest t'o members o* a *raternit# 'ho 'ere identi*ied b# t'o 'itnesses as res. .6@ in this case: 1/ 0F there no .ositive identi*ication o* t'o a%%e"ed e#e' over%oo-ed.sman G. 1993 2 $r%ando .in" Act o* 1972 are hereb# 56F65@6.. s+. members o* the @cinti%%a )+ris Fraternit#.. i"nored. the herein im.rotect the citiLen7s ri"ht to be *ree *rom +n'arranted and ve8atio+s .eonardo .e%%ant on "ro+nd o* reasonab%e do+bt/ &osts de officio/ SO ORDERED. No.ecia% $.iLon.robab%# "+i%t# o* the crime/ Their attem.ennis Fent+rina.: The NC0 a"ents had no .onsib%e *or the -i%%in" o* .. in vie' o* a%% the *ore"oin"..e%%ate co+rt. &hie* o* the @.robab%e ca+se *or the *i%in" o* an in*ormation a"ainst an acc+sed T46N the co+rt ma# en<oin crimina% . and @6T A@0.ecember . Om<'. Case Digest on !osa.+"ned 29 )+ne 199 decision and 6 $ctober 199 reso%+tion o* the &o+rt o* A.e%%ant A%vin Tan o* vio%ation o* the Anti1&arna. as s+s.on the reA+est o* the Bniversit# &hance%%or.ecia% &ivi% Action in the @+. %666> November 10..i%iman &hance%%or.R.ects in the -i%%in" o* Fent+rina o $n the basis o* . then B( . 1*14)% =Se"tem<er %). and orderin" the reversa% o* the A+estioned decision and reso%+tion o* said &o+rt o* A.ea%s/ N21O 196 HEREFORE. in a r+mb%e bet'een @i"ma 5ho and another *raternit# on .aran J 5a#m+nd Nara".erations 2ro+.ersedin" the same 'ith o+r o'n determinations and conc%+sions.. o* the NC0.achica J &esar Man"roban" 196 . as-ed the .irector o* the NC0 *or assistance in determinin" the .

robab%e ca+se *or .eace ta%.arent 7/ &o+rt has no <+risdiction over the o**ense . ordinance or re"+%ations 6/ .riate co+rts 6E&6(T0$N@: C5$&SA v 6N50.(<+dicia% A+estion 'hich is s+b <+dice 3/ Acts o* o**icer are 'itho+t or in e8cess o* a+thorit# 9/ (rosec+tion +nder an inva%id %a'. 5osario Torres1D+ (Fice1&hance%%or) J a certain Att#/ Fi%%amor (co+nse% o* the s+s.e o* s+s. 1 29 ! ma-in" it +n%a'*+% *or an#one to obstr+ct the a.rosec+tion o* crimina% o**enders 3 0n*ormation *i%ed stated that: .rinci.icion..+s/ (2) ?$N co+rts ma# en<oin crimina% .robab%e ca+se since the st+dents 'ere not ca+"ht in *%a"rante de%icto X @.rosec+tion o* the heino+s case b# harborin" an concea%in" 888 s+s.6@065T$) 1/ To a**ord .. this .revent the commission o* i%%e"a% arrests o* st+dents on cam. .ard# c%ear%# a.rosec+tion o* .iLon *i%ed a com.%icit# o* s+its :/ ?hen there is .etitioners in the @andi"anba#an/ 6 4ence.6 (cited in F6NB@ v .ecia% (rosec+tor char"in" (osadas. Torres1 D+.ambino (Asst/ .ecia% (rosec+tor recommended dismissa% o* the case \ recommendation disa.ecia% (rosec+tor in recommendin" dismissa%: B( o**icia%s then .robab%# "+i%t# thereo* and thera*ter.%aint in the $**ice o* the @.etitioners7 s+s.ects to the NC0 o**ice the ne8t da# : .etitioners *or vio%ation o* (. *or a .rosec+tion cannot be en<oined/ &o+rt ordinari%# does not inter*ere 'ith the discretion o* the $mb+dsman to determine 'hether there e8ists reasonab%e "ro+nd to be%ieve that a crime has been committed and that the acc+sed is .roved b# $**ice o* the $mb+dsman ! directed the @.etitioners =888 de%a#ed the investi"ation and . Fi%%amor and &o%/ 6d+ardo Centain (&hie* o* @ec+rit# Force o* B( (o%ice) 'ith vio%ation o* (.rosec+tion 26N65A.enosta 888> 9 $n motion.1 29 ! None 7 &o+rt he%d o 5e"ard%ess o* .ondin" in*ormation 'ith the a. $**ice o* the @.ects) ob<ected to the arrest on the "ro+nd that the NC0 did not have 'arrants o* arrest 'ith them \ s+s.e"a% &o+nse%). 5B. Marich+ .o+b%e <eo.ects th+s %eadin" to the s+ccess*+% esca.ects not arrest as a res+%t o* the intervention b+t (osadas and Fi%%amor ..rehension J . to *i%e corres.etitioners/ 0@@B6@: (1) ?$N there 'as .resent had ever# ri"ht to .ect )oe% &ar%o .romised to ta-e the s+s. the# co+%d not have a+thoriLed the arrest 'itho+t 'arrant or even e**ected the arrest themse%ves \ on%# co+rts co+%d decide the A+estion o* .ects Nara" and another .o Ta.rosec+tion o* .ression or m+%ti.ecia% (rosec+tor to .rotection to constit+tiona% ri"hts o* the acc+sed 2/ ?hen necessar# *or the order%# administration o* <+stice and to avoid o.6: &rimina% .etition to set aside the reso%+tion o* the $**ice o* the $mb+dsman orderin" the .rosec+tin" .aran and Nara" 'ere then at the B(.roceed 'ith ..a%'een @) J @i"ma 5ho : (osadas.

/ &ase o* .1 29 .$N2A v &5BP (AN$ a.etitioners had a ri"ht to .rima *acie case a"ainst the acc+sed and a motion to A+ash has been denied 11/ @& iss+ed a . 1 29 as +nconstit+tiona% not necessar# \ case dis.%ies ! 0n*inite%# more rather than .rosec+tion 9/ &har"es are mani*est%# *a%se and motivated b# %+st *or ven"eance 10/ &%ear%# no .. 'hi%e @andi"anba#an ordered to dismiss in*ormation in &rimina% &ase no 22 01/ .ortant than conventiona% adherence to "enera% r+%es o* crimina% .revent the arrest 9 @A..revent the threated +n%a'*+% arrest o* .roced+re is res.rosec+tion ** (etitioners cha%%en"e to (.rosec+tin" *or vio%ation o* .osed o* on some other "ro+nd 88 (etition "ranted/ $mb+dsman J a"ents .+nishment b+t a%so *rom +n'arranted and ve8atio+s .ect *or citiLens7 ri"ht to be *ree not on%# *rom arbitrar# arrest and .etitioners \ in<+nction to .rohibited *rom . .

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