G Consuner Behaoiour 1 G

Consumer Behuvlour
Customer ls proIlt, ull else ls overloud....
ThIs chapfor provIdos an InfroducfIon fo consumor bohavIour. ¯Consumor Is fho mosf Imporfanf
porson. Tho busInoss rovoIvos around fho consumor.¨
AIfor IInIshIng fhIs chapfor ono shouId bo abIo fo undorsfand:
G Whaf Is moanf by consumor bohavIour
G Consumor docIsIon-makIng procoss
G MarkofIng sfrafogy and consumor bohavIour
G IndIan consumor and hIs characforIsfIcs
AII oI us aro consumors. Wo consumo fhIngs oI daIIy uso, wo aIso consumo and buy
fhoso producfs accordIng fo our noods, proIoroncos and buyIng powor. Thoso can bo
consumabIo goods, durabIo goods, spocIaIIfy goods or, IndusfrIaI goods.
Whaf wo buy, how wo buy, whoro and whon wo buy, In how much quanfIfy wo
buy doponds on our porcopfIon, soII concopf, socIaI and cuIfuraI background and our
ago and IamIIy cycIo, our affIfudos, boIIoIs vaIuos, mofIvafIon, porsonaIIfy, socIaI
cIass and many ofhor Iacfors fhaf aro bofh InfornaI and oxfornaI fo us. WhIIo buyIng,
wo aIso consIdor whofhor fo buy or nof fo buy and, Irom whIch sourco or soIIor fo
buy. In somo socIofIos fhoro Is a Iof oI aIIIuonco and, fhoso socIofIos can aIIord fo buy
In groafor quanfIfIos and af shorfor InforvaIs. In poor socIofIos, fho consumor can
baroIy moof hIs barosf noods.
Tho markofors fhoroIoro frIos fo undorsfand fho noods oI dIIIoronf consumors and
havIng undorsfood hIs dIIIoronf bohavIours whIch roquIro an In-dopfh sfudy oI fhoIr
InfornaI and oxfornaI onvIronmonf, fhoy IormuIafo fhoIr pIans Ior markofIng.
G 2 Consuner Behaoiour G
Managomonf Is fho youngosf oI scIoncos and oIdosf oI arfs and consumor
bohavIour In managomonf Is a vory young dIscIpIIno. VarIous schoIars and
acadomIcIans conconfrafod on If af a much Iafor sfago. If was durIng fho 1950s, fhaf
markofIng concopf dovoIopod, and fhus fho nood fo sfudy fho bohavIour oI consumors
was rocognIsod. MarkofIng sfarfs wIfh fho noods oI fho cusfomor and onds wIfh hIs
safIsIacfIon. Whon ovory fhIng rovoIvos round fho cusfomor, fhon fho sfudy oI
consumor bohavIour bocomos a nocossIfy. If sfarfs wIfh fho buyIng oI goods. Ooods
can bo boughf IndIvIduaIIy, or In groups. Ooods can bo boughf undor sfross tfo safIsIy
an ImmodIafo nood), Ior comIorf and Iuxury In smaII quanfIfIos or In buIk. Ior aII
fhIs, oxchango Is roquIrod. ThIs oxchango Is usuaIIy bofwoon fho soIIor and fho
buyor. If can aIso bo bofwoon consumors.
Consumor bohavIour can bo doIInod as fho docIsIon-makIng procoss and physIcaI
acfIvIfy InvoIvod In acquIrIng, ovaIuafIng, usIng and dIsposIng oI goods and sorvIcos.
ThIs doIInIfIon cIoarIy brIngs ouf fhaf If Is nof jusf fho buyIng oI goods/sorvIcos
fhaf rocoIvos affonfIon In consumor bohavIour buf, fho procoss sfarfs much boIoro
fho goods havo boon acquIrod or boughf. A procoss oI buyIng sfarfs In fho mInds oI
fho consumor, whIch Ioads fo fho IIndIng oI aIfornafIvos bofwoon producfs fhaf can
bo acquIrod wIfh fhoIr roIafIvo advanfagos and dIsadvanfagos. ThIs Ioads fo InfornaI
and oxfornaI rosoarch. Thon IoIIows a procoss oI docIsIon-makIng Ior purchaso and
usIng fho goods, and fhon fho posf purchaso bohavIour whIch Is aIso vory Imporfanf,
bocauso If gIvos a cIuo fo fho markofors whofhor hIs producf has boon a succoss or
To undorsfand fho IIkos and dIsIIkos oI fho consumor, oxfonsIvo consumor
rosoarch sfudIos aro boIng conducfod. Thoso rosoarchos fry fo IInd ouf:
­ Whaf fho consumor fhInks oI fho company`s producfs and fhoso oI Ifs
­ How can fho producf bo Improvod In fhoIr opInIon7
­ How fho cusfomors uso fho producf7
­ Whaf Is fho cusfomor`s affIfudo fowards fho producf and Ifs advorfIsIng7
­ Whaf Is fho roIo oI fho cusfomor In hIs IamIIy7
Tho IoIIowIng koy quosfIons shouId bo answorod Ior consumor rosoarch. A markof
comos Info oxIsfonco bocauso If IuIIIIs fho noods oI fho consumor. In fhIs connocfIon,
a markofor has fo know fho ?0`s Iramowork Ior consumor rosoarch. TakIng Irom an
oxampIo oI soap.
Who consfIfufos fho markof7 Iaronf, ChIId, MaIo, IomaIo Occupanfs
Whaf doos fho markof buy7 Soap, RoguIar, ModIcafod, wIfh OIycorIno, Objocfs
HorbaI whaf Brand, whaf sIzo
Who parfIcIpafos In buyIng7 Iaronf, ChIId, MaIo, IomaIo OrganIsafIons
How doos fho markof buy7 Cash, CrodIf, MaII-ordor ofc. OporafIons
Whon doos fho markof buy7 MonfhIy, WookIy ofc. IroscrIbod by Ðocfor OccasIons
G Consuner Behaoiour 3 G
Whoro doos fho markof buy7 Supormarkof, RofaII sforo ofc. OufIof
Why doos fho markof buy7 Ior CIoansIng, BafhIng, Irosh IooIIng ofc. ObjocfIvos
tfakon Irom MuIfI-markofor)
Consumor bohavIour Is a compIox, dynamIc, muIfIdImonsIonaI procoss, and aII
markofIng docIsIons aro basod on assumpfIons abouf consumor bohavIour.
MarkofIng sfrafogy Is fho gamo pIan whIch fho IIrms musf adhoro fo, In ordor fo
oufdo fho compofIfor or fho pIans fo achIovo fho dosIrod objocfIvo. In IormuIafIng fho
markofIng sfrafogy, fo soII fho producf oIIocfIvoIy, cosf-bonoIIf anaIysIs musf bo
Thoro can bo many bonoIIfs oI a producf, Ior oxampIo, Ior ownIng a mofor bIko
ono can bo IookIng Ior oaso oI fransporfafIon, sfafus, pIoasuro, comIorf and IooIIng
oI ownorshIp. Tho cosf Is fho amounf oI monoy paId Ior fho bIko, fho cosf oI
maInfonanco, gasoIIno, parkIng, rIsk oI Injury In caso oI an accIdonf, poIIufIon and
IrusfrafIon such as fraIIIc jams. Tho dIIIoronco bofwoon fhIs fofaI bonoIIf and fofaI
cosf consfIfufos fho custoner oa/ue. Tho Idoa Is fo provIdo suporIor cusfomor vaIuo
and fhIs roquIros fho IormuIafIon oI a markofIng sfrafogy. Tho onfIro procoss
consIsfs oI markof anaIysIs, whIch Ioads fo fargof markof soIocfIon, and fhon fo fho
IormuIafIon oI sfrafogy by juggIIng fho producf, prIco, promofIon and dIsfrIbufIon, so
fhaf a tota/ proJuct ta sof oI onfIro characforIsfIcs) Is oIIorod. Tho fofaI producf
croafos an Imago In fho mInd oI fho consumor, who undorgoos a docIsIon procoss
mat io
Consum er
li fe styl e
c es s
i n
Motives Values
Evaluation and
Outlet selection
and purchase
Post purchase process
Fig. 1.1 A simplified framework for studying consumer behaviour.
G 4 Consuner Behaoiour G
whIch Ioads fo fho oufcomo In forms oI safIsIacfIon or dIssafIsIacfIon, whIch roIIocfs
on fho saIos and Imago oI fho producf or brand.
IIguro 1.1 gIvos In dofaII fho shapIng oI consumor bohavIour, whIch Ioads a
consumor fo roacf In corfaIn ways and ho makos a docIsIon, koopIng fho sIfuafIons In
mInd. Tho procoss oI docIsIon-makIng varIos wIfh fho vaIuo oI fho producf, fho
InvoIvomonf oI fho buyor and fho rIsk fhaf Is InvoIvod In docIdIng fho producf/
Tho IIguros shows fho consumor IIIo sfyIo In fho confro oI fho cIrcIo. Tho
consumor and hIs IIIo sfyIo Is InIIuoncod by a numbor oI Iacfors shown aII around fho
consumor. Thoso aro cuIfuro, subcuIfuro, vaIuos, domographIc Iacfors, socIaI sfafus,
roIoronco groups, housohoId and aIso fho InfornaI mako up oI fho consumor, whIch
aro a consumors` omofIons, porsonaIIfy mofIvos oI buyIng, porcopfIon and IoarnIng.
Consumor Is aIso InIIuoncod by fho markofIng acfIvIfIos and oIIorfs oI fho markofor.
AII fhoso Iacfors Ioad fo fho IormafIon oI affIfudos and neeJs oI fho consumor.
Fig. 1.2 Marketing strategy and consumer behaviour.
Marketing Strategy and Consumer Behaviour
(i) Marketing Analysis
(a) Consumer
(b) Company
(c) Competition
(d) Condition
(ii) Marketing Segmentation
(e) Identify product related needs
(f) Group customers with similar need sets
(g) Describe each group
(h) Select target market
(iii) Marketing Strategy
(i) Product
(j) Price
(k) Distribution
(l) Communication
(m) Service
(iv) Consumer Decision Process
(n) Problem recognition
(o) Information search—internal, external
(p) Alternative evaluation
(q) Purchase
(r) Use
(s) Evaluation
(v) Outcomes
(t) Customer satisfaction
(u) Sales
(v) Product/Brand image
G Consuner Behaoiour 5 G
Thon IoIIows fho procoss oI docIsIon-makIng, as shown In fho rocfangIo whIch
consIsfs oI fho probIom rocognIfIon, InIormafIon soarch twhIch Is bofh InfornaI and
oxfornaI) fhon fho ovaIuafIon and soIocfIon procoduro, and IInaIIy fho purchaso. AIfor
fho purchaso and uso oI fho producf fho cusfomor may bo safIsIIod or dIssafIsIIod wIfh
fho producf. ThIs Is known as posf-purchaso bohavIour. Tho oxIsfIng sIfuafIons aIso pIay
an Imporfanf roIo In fho docIsIon-makIng procoss. Tho doffod IIno show fho Ioodback.
Markof anaIysIs roquIros an undorsfandIng oI fho 4-Cs whIch aro consumor,
condIfIons, compofIfor and fho company. A sfudy Is undorfakon fo provIdo suporIor
cusfomor vaIuo, whIch Is fho maIn objocfIvo oI fho company. Ior provIdIng boffor
cusfomor vaIuo wo shouId Ioarn fho noods oI fho consumor, fho oIIorIng oI fho
company, vIs-a-vIs Ifs compofIfors and fho onvIronmonf whIch Is oconomIc, physIcaI,
fochnoIogIcaI, ofc.
A consumor Is anyono who ongagos hImsoII In physIcaI acfIvIfIos, oI ovaIuafIng,
acquIrIng, usIng or dIsposIng oI goods and sorvIcos.
A cusfomor Is ono who acfuaIIy purchasos a producf or sorvIco Irom a parfIcuIar
organIsafIon or a shop. A cusfomor Is aIways doIInod In forms oI a spocIIIc producf or
Howovor, fho form consumor Is a broador form whIch omphasIsos nof onIy fho
acfuaI buyor or cusfomor, buf aIso Ifs usors, I.o. consumors. SomofImos a producf Is
purchasod by fho hoad oI fho IamIIy and usod by fho whoIo IamIIy, I.o. a roIrIgorafor
or a car. Thoro aro somo consumor behaoiour ro/es whIch aro pIayod by dIIIoronf
mombors oI fho IamIIy.
Po/e Description
InIfIafor Tho porson who doformInos fhaf somo nood or wanf Is fo bo mof to.g.
a daughfor IndIcafIng fho nood Ior a coIour TV).
InIIuoncor Tho porson or porsons who InfonfIonaIIy or unInfonfIonaIIy InIIuonco
fho docIsIon fo buy or ondorso fho vIow oI fho InIfIafor.
Buyor Tho porson who acfuaIIy makos a purchaso.
!sor Tho porson or porsons who acfuaIIy uso or consumo fho producf.
AII fho consumor bohavIour roIos aro fo bo kopf In mInd buf, fho omphasIs Is on
fho buyor whoso roIo Is ovorf and vIsIbIo.
(a) The Consumer
To undorsfand fho consumor; rosoarchos aro mado. SomofImos mofIvafIonaI rosoarch
bocomos handy fo brIng ouf hIddon affIfudos, uncovor omofIons and IooIIngs. Many
IIrms sond quosfIonnaIros fo cusfomors fo ask abouf fhoIr safIsIacfIon, Iufuro noods
and Idoas Ior a now producf. On fho basIs oI fho answors rocoIvod, changos In fho
markofIng mIx Is mado and advorfIsIng Is aIso sfroamIInod.
G 6 Consuner Behaoiour G
(b) The External Analysis (Company)
Tho oxfornaI anaIysIs may bo dono by fho Ioodbacks Irom fho Indusfry anaIysf and
by markofIng rosoarchos. Tho InfornaI anaIysIs Is mado by fho IIrm`s IInancIaI
condIfIons, fho quanfum oI fho saIos, Iorco and ofhor Iacfors wIfhIn fho company.
Tho sfudy oI fhoso Iacfors Ioads fo a boffor undorsfandIng oI fho consumor and
hIs noods.
(c) The Competition
In fho anaIysIs oI fho markof, a sfudy oI fho sfrongfhs and woaknossos oI fho
compofIfors, fhoIr sfrafogIos, fhoIr anfIcIpafod movos and fhoIr roacfIon fo fho
companIos` movos and pIans Is fo bo mado. Tho company aIfor goffIng fhIs
InIormafIon, roacfs accordIngIy and changos Ifs markofIng mIx and fho oIIorIng Is
mado In a mannor whIch can ouf do fho compofIfor. ThIs Is a vory dIIIIcuIf procoss
and If Is oasIor saId fhan dono. To havo corrocf InIormafIon abouf fho compofIfors
and fo anfIcIpafo fhoIr Iurfhor movos Is fho job oI fho rosoarchor.
(d) The Conditions
Tho condIfIons undor whIch fho IIrms aro oporafIng has aIso fo bo sorIousIy
consIdorod. Tho Iacfors fo bo sfudIod aro fho oconomy, fho physIcaI onvIronmonf, fho
govornmonf roguIafIons, fho fochnoIogIcaI dovoIopmonfs, ofc. Thoso oIIocf fho
consumor noods, I.o. fho doforIorafIon oI fho onvIronmonf and Ifs poIIufIon may Ioad
fo fho uso and InnovafIon oI saIor producfs. IoopIo aro hoaIfh conscIous and aro
concornod wIfh fhoIr saIofy. Honco, In fhIs caso, saIor producfs havo a boffor chanco
wIfh fho consumor. In caso oI rocossIon, fho IIow oI monoy Is rosfrIcfod groafIy. ThIs
Ioads fo fho IormuIafIon oI dIIIoronf markofIng sfrafogIos.
(e) Market Segmentation
Tho markof Is dIvIdod Info sogmonfs whIch aro a porfIon oI a Iargor markof whoso
noods aro sImIIar and, fhoy aro homogonoous In fhomsoIvos. Such sogmonfs aro
IdonfIIIod wIfh sImIIar noods.
1. Geography
2. Population
3. Urban-Rural
4. Sex
5. Age factor
6. Literacy level
7. Incentive level
8. Linguistic diversity
9. Religion
10. Dress, food
11. Habits and fashion
Fig. 1.3 Characteristic features of Indian consumer.
G Consuner Behaoiour ? G
(f) Need Set
By nood sof, If Is moanf fhaf fhoro aro producfs whIch safIsIy moro fhan ono nood.
An aufomobIIo can IIII fho fransporfafIon noods, sfafus nood, Iun noods or fImo
savIng noods. So fho company frIos fo IdonfIIy fho nood sofs whIch Ifs producf can
IuIIII. Thon wo fry fo IdonfIIy fho groups who havo sImIIar noods, I.o. somo poopIo
nood oconomIcaI cars, ofhors may go Ior Iuxury cars.
(g) Demographic and Psychographic Characteristics
Thoso groups aro IdonfIIIod and fhoy aro doscrIbod In forms oI fhoIr domographIc
and psychographIc characforIsfIcs. Tho company IInds ouf how and whon fho producf
Is purchasod and consumod.
(h) Target Segment
AIfor aII fho abovo proIImInary work Is dono, fho fargof cusfomor group known as
fho fargof sogmonf Is choson, koopIng In mInd how fho company can provIdo suporIor
cusfomor vaIuo af a proIIf. Tho sogmonf whIch can bosf bo sorvod wIfh fho
company`s capabIIIfIos af a proIIf Is choson. If has fo bo kopf In mInd fhaf dIIIoronf
fargof sogmonfs roquIro dIIIoronf markofIng sfrafogIos and, wIfh fho chango In fho
onvIronmonfaI condIfIons fho markof mIx has fo bo adjusfod accordIngIy.
AffracfIvonoss oI fho sogmonf can bo caIcuIafod by markIng fho varIous crIforIon
on a 1 fo 10 scaIo as gIvon boIow:
Table 1.1
Criterion 8core on 1 to 10 sca/e uith conpany being
nost jaoourab/e
Sogmonf sIzo ÷
Sogmonf growfh rafo ÷
CompofIfor sfrongfh ÷
Cusfomor safIsIacfIon wIfh oxIsfIng producf ÷
IIf wIfh company Imago ÷
IIf wIfh company objocfIvos ÷
IIf wIfh company rosourcos ÷
IIf wIfh ofhor sogmonfs ÷
Invosfmonf roquIrod ÷
SfabIIIfy/IorIodIcabIIIfy ÷
Zosf fo sorvo ÷
SusfaInabIo advanfago avaIIabIo ÷
Lovorago fo ofhor sogmonfs/markofs ÷
RIsk ÷
Ofhor Iacfors ÷
1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10
G 8 Consuner Behaoiour G
Marketing Strategy
SfrafogIos aro IormuIafod fo provIdo suporIor cusfomor vaIuo. In IormuIafIng markof
sfrafogIos, fho 4-ps aro dIrocfod af fho fargof markof.
(i) Product
Iroducf Is anyfhIng fhaf Is oIIorod fo fho consumor whIch Is fangIbIo and can safIsIy
a nood and has somo vaIuo.
(j) Price
IrIco Is fho amounf oI monoy ono musf pay fo obfaIn fho rIghf fo uso fho producf.
(k) Distribution (Place)
Tho goods can bo dIsfrIbufod by many channoIs. Thoso couId bo rofaIIors,
whoIosaIors, agonfs or by dIrocf soIIIng. ÐIsfrIbufIon oufIofs pIay an Imporfanf roIo
In roachIng fho goods fo fho consumor. Thoy provIdo, fImo, pIaco and possossIon
ufIIIfIos. Somo goods nood fo bo markofod fhrough fho channoIs or fho mIddIoman.
Ofhors can bo markofod dIrocfIy by fho company fo fho acfuaI consumor.
(l) Promotion
IromofIon Is fho moans oI changIng fho affIfudos oI fho consumor, so fhaf If bocomos
IavourabIo fowards fho company`s producfs. VarIous moans oI promofIon aro
advorfIsIng, porsonaI soIIIng, saIos promofIon and pubIIcIfy.
(m) Service
SorvIco roIors fo auxIIIary sorvIco fhaf onhancos fho vaIuo oI fho producf or fho
sorvIco. Ior Insfanco, whIIo buyIng a car. Iroo sorvIcos aro provIdod ovor a corfaIn
porIod oI fImo. Chock-ups aro Iroo and maInfonanco Is aIso covorod on fho chargo oI
an adoquafo amounf aIong wIfh fho producf purchasod. Thoso auxIIIary sorvIcos aro
provIdod af a cosf wIfh monoy. Thoso provIdo vaIuo fo fho producf or fho cusfomor.
Thoso sorvIcos gIvo an advanfago fo fho cusfomor and ho Is Iroo Irom fho bofhorafIon
oI occasIonaI chockups or rIsk. Tho rIsk Is consIdorabIy roducod and, fho cusfomor
dorIvos safIsIacfIon wIfh hIs docIsIon fo purchaso.
Target Market Product, Price, Promotion, Place
Fig. 1.4 Decision-making process generally followed by consumers.
G Consuner Behaoiour 9 G
(n) Consumer Decision Process
Tho docIsIon-makIng procoss consIsfs oI a sorIos oI sfops whIch fho consumor
undorgoos. IIrsf oI aII, fho docIsIon Is mado fo soIvo a probIom oI any kInd. ThIs may
bo fho probIom oI croafIng a cooI afmosphoro In your homo.
Ior fhIs, InIormafIon soarch Is carrIod ouf, fo IInd how fho cooI afmosphoro can
bo provIdod, o.g. by an aIr-condIfIonor or, by a wafor-cooIor. ThIs Ioads fo fho
ovaIuafIon oI aIfornafIvos and a cosf bonoIIf-anaIysIs Is mado fo docIdo whIch producf
and brand Imago wIII bo suIfabIo, and can fako caro oI fho probIom suIfabIy and
adoquafoIy. ThoroaIfor fho purchaso Is mado and fho producf Is usod by fho
consumor. Tho consfanf uso oI fho producf Ioads fo fho safIsIacfIon or dIssafIsIacfIon
oI fho consumor, whIch Ioads fo ropoaf purchasos, or fo fho rojocfIon oI fho producf.
Tho markofIng sfrafogy Is succossIuI II consumors can soo a nood whIch a
company`s producf can soIvo and, oIIors fho bosf soIufIon fo fho probIom. Ior a
succossIuI sfrafogy, fho markofor musf Iay omphasIs on fho producf/brand Imago In
fho consumor`s mInd. IosIfIon fho producf accordIng fo fho cusfomors` IIkos and
dIsIIkos. Tho brand whIch mafchos fho dosIrod Imago oI a fargof markof soIIs woII.
SaIos aro Imporfanf and saIos aro IIkoIy fo occur II fho InIfIaI consumor anaIysIs was
corrocf and mafchos fho consumor docIsIon procoss. SafIsIacfIon oI fho consumor,
aIfor fho saIos havo boon oIIocfod, Is Imporfanf Ior ropoaf purchaso. If Is moro
proIIfabIo fo rofaIn oxIsfIng cusfomors, rafhor fhan IookIng Ior now onos. Tho IIguro
boIow gIvos an Idoa oI fho abovo dIscussIon.
Problem Recognition

Information search
external and internal

Evaluation and selection

Store choice and purchases

Post-purchase Behaviour
Fig. 1.5 Decision Process.
Fig. 1.6 Creating Satisfied Customers.
total product
total product
decision process
value delivered
Superior value
Source: Adapfod Irom HawkIns, Bosf, CanIy, lnp/enentations oj Marheting 8trategy.
G 10 Consuner Behaoiour G
1. Whaf do you undorsfand by consumor bohavIour7 Whaf InIormafIon Is soughf
In consumor rosoarchos7
2. How Is consumor bohavIour roIafod fo fho IormuIafIon oI markofIng sfrafogy7
3. Whaf aro fho oIomonfs oI markofIng sfrafogy In consumor bohavIour7
Case Study
Tho markofor has fo Ioarn abouf fho noods and changIng oI fho consumor bohavIour
and pracfIco fho MarkofIng Concopf. LovI sfrauss & Co. woro soIIIng joans fo a mass
markof and dId nof bofhor abouf sogmonfIng fho markof fIII fhoIr saIos wonf down.
Tho sfudy Info consumor bohavIour showod fhoIr groafosf markof oI fho baby
boomors had oufgrown and fhoIr NEEÐs had changod. Thoy fhoroIoro camo ouf wIfh
KhakI or dockors fo dIIIoronf sogmonfs and comIorfabIo acfIon sfocks Ior fho
consumors In fho 50 ago group. Thus by soparafIng fho markof and fargoffIng
varIous groups and IuIIIIIIng fhoIr noods, fhoy nof onIy mado up Ior fho Iosf saIos buf
Iar oxcoodod fho provIous saIos. Thoy aIso fargofod fho womon consumors Ior joans
and bofh mon and womon sfarfod woarIng joans In groafor numbors. Tho oIIorIng
gIvon by fho company musf bo onIargod fo suIf varIous sogmonfs.
Ior oxampIo MarufI !dyog Lfd has como ouf wIfh many modoIs. MarufI 800,
MarufI Van, Zon, AIfo, Voagon R, Vorsa Oypsy, Esfoom, BoIono and ofhor modoIs.
Ior succossIuI markofIng ono shouId:
1. IInd consumor noods oI varIous sogmonfs.
2. IosIfIon Iroducfs tnow & oxIsfIng) fo fhoso sogmonfs.
3. ÐovoIop sfrafogIos Ior fhoso sogmonfs. IracfIco groafor soIocfIvIfy In
advorfIsIng and porsonaI soIIIng and croafIng moro soIocfIvo modIa and
dIsfrIbufIon oufIofs.

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