Telecom… Signaling

10/18/2012

Signalling

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Control Signal
• Signalling system must be compatible with Transmission and the switching systems of the network. • Control signal may be continuous (DC off-hook signal) or Pulse signal ( dialed digit pulses). • May or may not be acknowledged. • Acknowledgement may be continuous or pulse signal. • Continuous signal acknowledgements are called COMPELLED signaling. • Control signalling Functions:
    Call Request or Seize (forward) Address Signal (forward) Answer (backward) Clear signals(forward and backward)

• Control signalling functions can be achieved using either Channel-Associated signalling or Common-channel Signalling.

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Customer Line Signalling
• Non-harmonically related frequencies are used to avoid ambiguity.

• * and # are used for
additional conversation.

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Types of Signaling
Signaling in Telecommunications Network • Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) or • Common Channel Signaling (CCS) Signaling System Number (SS7) is a form of Common Channel Signaling.

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Channel Associated Signaling (CAS)
 In-Band Signaling  Signaling is transmitted in the same frequency band as used by voice.  Voice path is established when the call setup is complete, using the same path that the call setup signals used.

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Common Channel Signaling
 Out of Band signaling  Employs separate, dedicated path for signaling.  Voice trunks are used only when a connection is established, not before.  Faster Call Setup.  Enable a wide range of services:  Caller ID, toll-free calling. Voice Trunks Switch A Switch B

Signaling Link
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CAS vs. CCS
Switch 1 Signaling and Speech Switch 2

Channel Associated Signaling

Signaling

STP Speech

STP

Switch 1

Switch 2

Common Channel Signaling
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FDM carrier systems
• Out-band signalling • In-band or voice frequency (VF) Signalling

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PCM signalling

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Inter-Register Signalling
• Advantage of link by link signalling:

1.

Signals suffer transmission
impairments of a single link

2.

Different signalling systems may be used on different links.

In end-to end signalling, the originating register controls the setting up of a connection until it reaches its final destination

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Inter-Register Signalling
• CCITT from signalling system no.2 provides both forward and backward signalling.

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Common channel signalling
• Associated signalling—direct CCS

link between two exchanges.
• Non-associated signalling---CCS links form a signalling network, and signal

passes through various intermediate
nodes. • Quasi-associated signalling---CCS messages routed through only one intermediate node(signal Transfer point).
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SS7
• • out-of-band signaling architecture Functionalities- supporting
• • • • call-establishment Billing routing, and information-exchange functions

Created and controlled by various bodies around the world, but the principal

organization with responsibility for their administration is the International
Telecommunications Union or ITU-T.
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SS7 History
 CCITT developed a digital signaling standard called Signaling System 6  SS6 was based on Packet-Switched, proprietary data network.  Uses 2.4 Kbps data links to send packets of data to distant switches to request service.  SS7 began deployment in 1983, was initially used for inter office network, but now it is deployed in local central offices.  Provide a global standard for call setup, routing, control and database access.

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SS7 Principle
 Out of band Signaling  Higher Signaling data rates (56Kbps & 64 Kbps)  Signaling traffic is busty and of short duration, hence operates in connectionless mode using packet switching  Variable length signal units with maximum size limitation

 Optimum use of bandwidth

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Components of SS7

SSP

STP

SCP

SSP – Signaling Switching Points

STP - Signaling Transfer Points
SCP – Signaling Control Points
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Components of SS7
SSP’s:

 Telephone switches equipped with SS7 software  Capable of originating, terminating or switch calls
STP’s:

 Packet switches of SS7 network
 Route incoming signaling messages to proper destination
SCP’s:

 Databases providing information necessary for advanced call-processing

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Typical SS7 Network

SCP’s

SSP’s

STP’s
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SS7 Network Flow
signaling transfer point (STP):
• packet-switches of SS7 network
• send/receive/route signaling messages

signaling control point (SCP):
•“services” go here • e.g., database functions

signaling switching point (SSP):
user • endpoints of SS7 network

• attach directly to end

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SS7 Network Architecture

STP

STP

STP

STP

STP

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SS7 Link Types

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SS7 Link Types
A link (access) B link (bridge) Connects signaling end point (SCP or SSP) to STP Connects an STP to another STP; typically, a quad of B links interconnect peer (or primary) STPs (STPs from a network connect to STPs of another network) Connects STPs performing identical functions, forming a mated pair (for greater reliability) Connects a secondary (local or regional) STP pair to a primary (inter-network gateway) STP pair in a quad-link configuration; the distinction between B and D links is arbitrary

C link (cross) D link (diagonal)

E link (extended)
F link (fully associated)

Connects an SSP to an alternate STP
Connects two signaling end points (SSPs and SCPs) in the same local network

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SS7 Protocol Suite
OSI Layers
Application
Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

OMAP

MAP

TCAP SCCP

ISUP

MTP Level 3 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1
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Message Transfer Part
• The function of MTP is to ensure the signaling traffic can be transferred and delivered reliably between the end-users and the network.

• MTP is provided at three levels
• Signaling data link functions (MTP Level 1) provide an interface to the actual physical channel over which

communication takes place.

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MTP Level 2
• Signaling link functions (MTP Level 2) correspond to the second layer in the OSI reference model. • Provides a reliable link for the transfer of traffic between two directly

connected signaling points.
• Variable Length packet messages (called message signal units MSUs) are defined in MTP Level 2. • Implements flow control, error detection and correction.

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MTP Level 3
• Signaling network functions (MTP Level 3) provide procedures that transfer messages between signaling nodes. • Level 3 have two major functions as Signaling Message Handling and Signaling Network Management. • Signaling message handling is used to provide routing, distribution and traffic discrimination. • Traffic discrimination is the process by which a signaling point determines whether or not a packet data messages in intended for its use or not.
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CCITT signalling System no.7

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ISUP (Integrated Services User Part)
 It defines the procedures used to setup, manage, and release trunk circuits that carry

voice and data calls over the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
 Provides services to ISDN applications.  Most used to set up and tear down phone calls between switches.

 ISUP messages
 IAM, initiate a call  ANM, a call has been accepted  REL, a call disconnect

 A connection-oriented protocol
 Related to the establishment of connections between users
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TCAP (Transaction capabilities applications part)
• TCAP in SS7 refers to the application layer which invokes the services of

SCCP and the MTP in a hierarchical format
• One application at a node is thus able to execute an application at another node and use these results.

• For connectionless signaling
• Thus, TCAP is concerned with management of transactions and procedures between remote applications.

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(Operation Maintenance and Administration Part)

OMAP

• OMAP functions
– Monitoring – Coordination – Control functions to ensure that trouble free communications are possible.

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Example: signaling a POTS call
4. STP X forwards IAM SSP B 2. SSP A formulates Initial Address Message (IAM), forwards to STP W 3. STP W forwards IAM to STP X

Y
1. caller goes offhook, dials callee. SSP A decides to route call via SSP B. Assigns idle trunk A-B

W

X A B
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Example: signaling a POTS call
5. B determines it serves callee, creates address completion message (ACM[A,B,trunk]), rings callee phone, sends ringing sound on trunk to A 6. ACM routed to Z to Y to A

W
7. SSP A receives ACM, connects subscriber line to allocated A-B trunk (caller hears ringing)

Z

Y A

X B
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Example: signaling a POTS call
8. Callee goes off hook, B creates, sends answer message to A (ANM[A,B,trunk])

9. ANM routed to A

W
10. SSP A receives ANM, checks caller is connected in both directions to trunk. Call is connected!

Z

Y A

X B
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Example: signaling a 800 ca11
800 number: logical phone number

Translation to physical phone number needed, e.g., 1-800-CALL_ATT translates to 162-962-1943 3. M performs lookup, sends reply to A

2. STP W forwards request to M

M

W

1. Caller dials 800 number, A recognizes 800 number, formulates translation query, send to STP W

Y A A B
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