Prabal Talukdar
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail:

boiling occurs. Likewise. when the temperature of a vapor is lowered to Tsat. dropwise condensation P.Talukdar/MechIITD 2 . condensation occurs. film condensation. in addition to the properties of the fluid in each phase. • free convection boiling. Boiling and condensation differ from other forms of convection in that they depend on the latent heat of vaporization hfg of the fluid and the surface tension σ at the liquid–vapor interface. and film boiling. nucleate boiling.Introduction Thermodynamics states that when the temperature of a liquid at a specified pressure is raised i dt to th the saturation t ti t temperature t Tsat at t that th t pressure. Heat transfer coefficients h associated with boiling and condensation are typically much higher than those encountered in other forms of convection processes that involve a single phase.

Boiling Heat Transfer • B Boiling ili  is i  a liquid li id‐to‐vapor phase h  change h   process just like evaporation. fruits. and vegetables. g Note that evaporation involves no bubble formation or bubble motion P.Talukdar/MechIITD 3 . but there are  significant differences between the two.  Evaporation occurs at the liquid–vapor liquid vapor  interface when the vapor pressure is less  than the saturation pressure of the liquid at a  given temperature Examples of evaporation are the drying of clothes.

Talukdar/MechIITD 4 . Boiling • Boiling. l  on the h  other h  hand. h d  occurs at the solid–liquid  interface when a liquid is brought  into contact with a surface  p  Ts maintained at a temperature sufficiently above the saturation  temperature Tsat of the liquid The boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapor bubbles P.Evaporation Vs.

  • The temperature difference between  the vapor in a bubble and the  surrounding di  liquid li id is i  the th  driving d i i  force f   for heat transfer between the two  phases P.  • The pressure difference between the  liquid and the vapor is balanced by the  surface tension at the interface. • The temperature and pressure of the  vapor in a bubble are usually different  than those of the liquid.Talukdar/MechIITD 5 .Bubble • The boiling processes in practice do  not occur under d  equilibrium lb   conditions.

 causing the bubble to grow  and rise to the top under the influence  of buoyancy. heat will  be transferred from the liquid to the  bubble. P.Talukdar/MechIITD 6 .Heat Transfer • When h  the h  liquid li id is i  at a lower l   temperature than the bubble. causing some of the vapor  inside the bubble to condense and the  bubble to collapse eventually eventually.  • When the liquid is at a higher  temperature than the bubble. heat will  be transferred from the bubble into  the liquid.

Pool Boiling and Flow Boiling Boiling is called pool boiling in the absence of bulk fluid flow and flow boiling (or forced convection boiling) in the presence of it it.Talukdar/MechIITD 7 . Pool Boiling Flow Boiling P.

depending on the bulk liquid temperature P.Talukdar/MechIITD 8 .Subcooled and Saturated Boiling Pool and flow boiling are further classified as subcooled boiling or saturated boiling.

temperature remains i close l to t saturation t ti temperature t t P.Talukdar/MechIITD 9 .Saturated Pool Boiling g There is sharp increase in temperature near to the surface but through most of the liquid.

Talukdar/MechIITD 10 . depending on the value of the excess temperature ΔTexcess P. Nukiyama Nukiyama. Nukiyama noticed that boiling takes different forms. who used electrically heated nichrome and platinum wires immersed in liquids in his experiments.Nukiyama’s Experiment The pioneering work on boiling was done in 1934 by S S.

Boiling Regimes P.Talukdar/MechIITD 11 .

but it is practically independent of the geometry of the heating surface.Talukdar/MechIITD 12 .Boiling Curve Typical boiling curve for water at 1 atm pressure The specific shape of the curve depends on the fluid–heating surface material combination and the fluid pressure. P.

13 . bubbles forms on the heating surface until the liquid is heated a few degrees above b th the saturation t ti temperature.Talukdar/MechIITD In practice.Boiling Curve Typical boiling curve for water at 1 atm pressure Natural Convection Boiling (to Point A on the Boiling Curve) P.

and bubbles form at such great rates at such a large number. B i isolated l t d bubbles are formed at various preferential nucleation sites on the heated surface P.Talukdar/MechIITD In region B–C. the heater temperature is further increased. Forms numerous continuous columns 14 of vapor in the liquid . The bubbles form at an increasing rate at an increasing number of nucleation sites as we move along the boiling curve toward point C.Boiling Curve Nucleate Boiling (between Points A and C) Typical boiling curve for water at 1 atm pressure The first bubbles start forming at point A of the boiling curve at various preferential sites on the heating surface. Two distinct Region: I region In i A A–B.

making it difficult for the liquid to reach the heater surface and wet it. typically under 30°C for water At large values of ΔTexcess. and reaches a maximum at point C. the heat flux increases at a lower rate (In the next fig this trend can be seen) with increasing ΔTexcess. the rate of evaporation ti at t the th heater h t surface f reaches h such high values that a large fraction of the heater surface is covered by bubbles. Consequently. P.Talukdar/MechIITD 15 . fig.Nucleate boiling is the most desirable boiling regime in practice because high heat transfer rates can be achieved in this regime with relatively small values of ΔTexcess .

 J.Talukdar/MechIITD 16 . maximum  h decreases with  increasing ΔTexcess although heat flux q continues to rise . q = h ΔTexcess Nucleate  Boiling in  Jets and  coloumn regime (B‐C)  Prof. Westwater P.W.Point P is the inflection point where  h is maximum.

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