CHAPTER 3 “BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND THE GLOBAL CONTEXT”

Objectives A concept of Culture Intercultural Communication Individual Cultural Variables National Cultural Variables

What is Culture? Objective One: A concept of Culture 1. “The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning "to cultivate", generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance.” (Wikipedia) 2. “The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning”

Intercultural Differences Culture is everyday life activities. Culture is: What we wear How we ‘greet’ other people How we communicate with other people (Verbally or non-verbally) What we play What we eat, etc

Difference of culture in terms of Clothing Sub-Continent Clothing (male) Arabian Clothing (male)

Difference of culture in terms of Food Hot Dog; The most popular American Food One of the most popular Chinese foods; Crab

Objective Two: Intercultural Communication Definition: “Intercultural Communication is the management of messages for the purpose of creating meaning across cultures. (Griffin, 3rd ed. 404) Note: Studies have long determined that all of us are more comfortable with persons we know and who hold similar beliefs, traits or interests.

Different Theories about Intercultural Communication: Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory by William B. Gudykunst (1985) Critical Theory by Jurgen Habermas (1964) Critical Theory by Stanley Deetz (1982) Crosscultural Adaptation by Young Kim (1977) Cultural Critical Studies by Stuart Hall (1976) Face Negotiation by Stella Ting-Toomey (1985) Feminist Genre by Karlyn Kohrs Campbell (1973) Genderlect by Deborah Tannen (1984) Marxist Theory by Karl Marx (1984) Meaning of Meaning Theory by I. A. Richards (1936) Muted Group Theory by Chris Kramarae Nonverbal Typologies by Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen (1969) Standpoint Theory by Sandra Harding and Julia T. Wood (1982) Stranger by William Gudykunst (1985)

Objecitve Three: National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Education b. c. d. People’s attitude towards education What is the level of education of middle managers? To what degree is education of women supported in the country? Does education constitute a significant portion of the national budgets?

Education Levels of Chinese, Asian and U.S Managers Highest Level of Education Less than High School High School Graduate Some College Undergraduat e Degree Postgraduate Degree Chinese, % 5.4 31.8 34.6 27.6 0.7 Asian, % 2.5 12.4 19.4 65.4 25.0 U.S, % 0.1 3.2 16.9 79.8 30.0

A quick assumption might be that Asians, particularly Chinese are less interested in education. If you made such an assumption, you will be wrong. We must go beyond surface conlcusions and asses the reasons that Chinese managers lack executive education. 1. In relation to its size, China does not have many institutions of higher educations, by 1985 there were only 1016 institutions of higher education. 2. China is an agrarian economy. Over 800 million people still live in the countryside; 69 % of the labor force is agricultural. Some early Chinese leaders felt that education was not needed in such an environment.

National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Laws & Regulations Laws & Regulations; Degree of formality To what extend are the laws of the country codified? Is there uniform enforcement of the laws & the regulations of the country? Are the laws & regulations of your country accepted and enforced?

In both the developed and underdeveloping nations, various governments regulations affect business communications and the sales of products. For example: Advertising directed at children is restricted in USA & Canada. Advertisement of Cigarettes is restricted in Europe. Countries like France, Mexico have restriction on the use of foreign languages in advertisements.

Can you find advertisement of liquor in any Pakistani newspaper like this? No! Because Laws and Regulations in Pakistan restrict such an advertisement in any newspapers.

What will be the consequence if you still dare to advertise for liquor in Pakistan?

National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Economics Economics; Past history and projections Which economic changes have accurred in the past 5 years that will affect the future? Is the government supportive of the economic changes accurring? How welcome are outside investors in your host country? May funs be removed easily from your host country c) d) e) f)

Some examples of the economic Variations in different Countries/Cultures Under the U.S free-enterprise system, competitors usually set their own prices. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) as a cartel, sets oil prices. Isreali agricultural competitors mutually agree on a price. Japanese businesses have to check with the governemt before initialting major production and trading changes.

National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Politics Politics; Past History and projections for Future Which political changes have accured within past 5 years? How supportive is the government of outside investors? Of joint ventures? What are the protocols, the conventions individuals must respect in the host country?

Some pertinent Examples:

If you are intending to do job or business in North Korea, you need to be cautious of saying/writing anything directed against the government otherwise you might need to face sever consequences. If you are intending to get connected with the field of media, you should know that the present government of Pakistan is much liberal in this regard as compared to previous governments. (This may not be the case in next 5 years due to possible change in reign).

National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Religion Religion: Diversity of belief structure Are you aware of the major religious beliefs that could affect your business relationships? Will the religious holidays affect your rhythm of conducting business? What personal behavior is acceptable and nonacceptable?

National Cultural Variables Politics Religion Social Norms National Cultural Variables Language Economics Laws & Regulations Education

Social Norms Social Norms: Importance of family, influence of past colonial influence Are you aware of the social hierarchies of the country? Is there a rank order of importance for participants at meetings? Who will really make the business decisions? Which country’s influence is still evident after previous colonial control?

A Business group celebrating with Champagne in West What will native people think if you do it in Pakistan?

Language Language: Use of English, and other languages used in business relationships Is it necessary to have an interpreter at business sessions? Is English understood at the oral or written level? Is there a protocol to follow for formal and informal communication?

Why to study and analyze all these factors? “Failure to prepare is preparing to Fail” (Coach John Wooden)

Objective Four: Individual Cultural Variables Manners Decision Making Verbal Communication Acceptable Dress Individual Cultural Variables Nonverbal Communication Food Space Time

Time Prescriptions of Time Is the concept of considered linear or circular What impact will time have upon business decisions? Is time considered variable or an intangible assets?

Space

Perception of Space What is the average acceptable personal space between native and the host country?

Food Perceptions of Food Are you aware of the eating habits of your host? Are their table conventions you should be aware of? Are there foods you might find disagreeable?

Manners Perception of Manners What is the protocol regarding the introduction of persons in a business situation? What are the rules of gift giving? Note: Do not try giving gifts like this to the girls wearing Hijaab

Acceptable Dress Perception of Dress much skin may be exposed in the both an informal and in a formal situation? certain colours disturbing? Will western attire be accepted? Are How

This dress code may be deemed decent in Muslim countries but will people accept this as a business dress code in USA, Europe or any other western country? Our Humble Advice: Don’t get impressed by a girl wearing Hijaab, she might be wearing it reluctantly!! ”‫”ہات ھی ک ے دانت ک ھان ے ک ے اور دک ھان ے ک ے اور‬

Decision Making Perceptions of Decision Making Is the pattern of making decisions consistent from one company to another? Is placement of the major decision maker consistent in a meeting situation? Is an inductive or deductive partner of the decision making preferred?

Verbal Communication Volume varies culture to culture and country to country. voice volume shows different attitude of the human behavior. Different

Nonverbal Communication They say: “Action speaks louder than the words”