Muscle Physiology

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Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Functional Units
• Motor Unit: One motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it supplies
– Large Motor Unit: One motor unit branches to many fibers • For coarse, broad
movements

– Small Motor Unit: One motor unit branches to few fibers • For precise movements

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Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Electrical Response
• Myogram: measures muscle response to nervous stimulation (electrical activity within muscle fibers).

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Muscle Response
• Twitch: The response of muscle to a single, brief threshold stimulus
– 3 Phases
• Latent: From point of stimulus to beginning of contraction (when tension begins to increase) • Contraction: When muscle begins to shorten until the point of greatest

tension

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

• Relaxation: Muscle tension decreases and muscle returns to resting

length

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Graded Responses

• • • •

->variations in degree of muscle contraction ->required for proper control of skeletal movement Change the frequency of the stimulus Change the strength of the stimulus
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10 October 2003

Responses
• Wave Summation:
– Unchanging stimuli applied in rapid succession – Muscle unable to relax – Tension generated is summed together

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Responses
• Tetany:
– Summations increase tension to maximum – Produces one long, sustained contraction

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Responses
• Recruitment:
– Increased voltage to muscle fibers – Recruits additional muscle fibers – More fibers contracting yields more tension

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Responses
• Homeostatic Conditions:
– ATP, Ca++, temperature, oxygen – Treppe: muscle warm up
• Stair case effect

– Fatigue: decreased ability to contract
• Caused by:
– ATP Deficit

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Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Muscle Tone
• Constant state of slight tension • Maintains body posture, balance • Initiated by spinal reflexes respond to proprioiceptors • Maintains readiness to contract

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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Got Notes?
• http://www.rit.edu/~gsp8334

10 October 2003

Gavin Page: Muscle Physiology

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