Linton University College Course: Arch XYZ Date: IC No.




Alvar Henrik Aalto, born on the 3rd of February 1898 and died on the 11th of May 1976 was a Finnish architect and designer whose works includes architecture, furniture, wardrobe and glassware.  His career spanned from 1920 to 1970 and reflects in the styles of his work, ranging from Nordic Classicism of the early work, to a rational International Style Modernism during the 1930s to a more organic modernist style from the 1940s onwards.

whereby he together with his first wife Aino Aalto – would design not just the building. and furnishings and glassware. is a concern for design as a total work of art. .What is typical for his entire career. however. but give special treatments to the interior surfaces and design furniture. lamps.

 After graduating from Jyväskylä Lyceum School. In 1916 he then enrolled to study architecture at the Helsinki University of Technology Alvar toured Europe and in 1923 he returned to Jyväskylä. . where he opened his first architectural office. completing his basic education in 1916.

particularly Gunnar Asplund and Sven Markelius.LIFEWORK  He is sometimes regarded as among the first and most noteworthy architects of Nordic modernism. . a closer probe of the history shows that Aalto (while a pioneer in Finland) closely followed and had personal contacts with other pioneers in Sweden.

. in the late 1920s.LIFEWORK Cont’d  What they and many others of that generation in the Nordic countries had in common was that they started off from a classical education and were first designing in the so-called Nordic Classicism style – a style that had been a reaction to the previous dominant style of National Romanticism– before moving. towards Modernism.

such as the manor-like house for his mother's cousin Terho Manner in Töysa in 1923. all designed in the classical style. .RETURN  On returning to Jyväskylä in 1923 to establish his own architect's office. a summer villa for the Jyväskylä chief constable in 1923 and the Alatalo farmhouse in Tarvaala in 1924. Aalto busied himself with a number of single-family homes.

and "From doorstep to living room" (1926). "Abbé Coignard's sermon" (1925).HIS WRITINGS  Furthermore.[7] . with articles for professional journals and newspapers. this was the period when Aalto was most prolific in his writings. "Temple baths on Jyväskylä ridge" (1925). Among his most well-known essays from this period are "Urban culture" 1924).

WORKS Fig1.0 Villa Mairea in Noormarkku  .

1 Detail of Baker House facade on the Charles River .Fig 1.

3: Auditorium of the University of Technology. Finland (1949-66) .Fig 1. Helsinki.

Fig 1.4: Finlandia Hall Helsinki by Alvar Aalto .

Fig 1.5: kunsten aalborg museum of modern art .

Maire Gullichsen acted as the main client. inspiring them to be more daring in their designs.MID CAREER  Aalto's mid career was essentially experiments with wood and his deviation from a purist modernism would be tested in built form with the commission to design Villa Mairea (1939) in Noormakku (the luxury home of the young industrialist) couple Harry and Maire Gullichsen. . and worked with Alvar but also Aino Aalto on the design.

The building forms a U-shape around a central inner "garden" the central feature of which is a kidney-shaped swimming pool. but this was never built. The original design was to include a private art gallery. .

including a concert hall.a museum of architecture and headquarters for the Finnish Academy.MONUMENTALISM  In the advanced stage of his works. Aalto proposed a line of separate marble-clad buildings fronting the bay which would house various cultural institutions. .an opera.

but it went through various modifications during the early 1960s leaving just two components of the overall scheme to be realised:  1. Elissa.Main office building in the Kamppi district for the Helsinki Electricity Company (1975). completing works that had neared finishing.the Finlandia Hall concert hall (1976) in front of Toolo Bay  2. . Aalto died in 1976 but his office continued to operate under the direction of his widow. Aalto first presented the plan in 1961.

He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957. From 1925 to 1956 he was a member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne. .**AWARDS ** Aalto's awards included the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture from the Royal Institute of British Architects (1957) and the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects (1963). and was its president from 1963 to 1968. He also was a member of the Academy of Finland.

1955 Designs the Church of Three Crosses at Vuokenninska. 1976 Alvar Aalto dies in Helsinki . Finland to Johan Henrik Aalto and Selma Hackstedt. 1939 Travels extensively in the US and accepts a professorship at MIT until World War II forces him to return to Finland. 1921 Completes an architecture diploma at Helsinki University of Technology. 1928 Starts work on the Viipuri Library. 1952 Marries the architect Elissa Mäkiniemi and builds a house for them in Muursalto.                    SUMMARY OF BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY 1898 Born in Kuortane. 1933 Moves office to Helsinki. They work together on small local projects such as housing and student clubs. 1929 Attends his first Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) conference. 1969 Designs the Iran Museum of Modern Art in Shiraz. Begins work on the Helsinki House of Culture. 1946 After the War. which will eventually be completed after his death in 1988. New York. Sweden. Designs Finnish Pavilion for New York World’s Fair. 1959 Starts working on the Helsinki City Plan and Essen Opera House. Finland. Walter Gropius. Turun Sanomat newspaper offices and the Paimio Sanaotorium. 1934 Builds a new family home in a Helsinki suburb and founds the Artek furniture company with Aino and Maire Gullichsen. 1927 Wins a competition to design an agricultural cooperative in Turku and moves there with his family. He and Aino befriend Le Corbusier. 1923 Returns to Finland and opens the Alvar Aalto Office for Architecture and Monumental Art in Jyväskylä. Work experience with Armas Lindgren in Helsinki and Arvid Berjke in Gothenberg. 1936 Aalto’s Finnish Pavilion for the Paris International Exposition wins praise from Le Corbusier. Aalto returns to MIT and designs Baker House. Exhibition of Aalto’s work at the Museum of Modern Art. Marcel Breuer and the critic Sigfried Giedion. 1938 Starts work on Villa Mairea for Maire Gullichsen and her industrialist husband. 1937 The Savoy Restaurant opens in Helsinki with an interior and furniture designed by Aalto including the wavy glass Savoy Vase. 1924 Marries the architect Aino Marsio. Harry. His Paimio moulded wood furniture is exhibited at Fortnum & Mason department store in London.

architecture. Goran Schildt.‎ 6. Thames & Hudson. 1998 4. www. . Rizzoli International. Alvar Aalto.britannica. www. New Amsterdam Books. 1999 3. Towards a Human Modernism. Alvar Aalto: Mature Years.REFERENCES 1. Malcolm Quantrill.architect. Alvar Aalto: A Critical Study. Goran Schildt. 1991 Alvar Aalto: Masterworks. 1990 2.php 7.

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