Copyiight · :o1o–:o1¸ by Te Ubuntu Manual Team. Some iights ieseived.

Tis woik is licensed undei the Cieative Commons Auiibution–Shaie
Alike ¸.o License. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit
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Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv 1¸.1o can be downloaded foi fiee fiom http·//
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of piinting and deliveiy. We peimit and even encouiage you to distiibute a
copy of this book to colleagues, fiiends, family, and anyone else who might
be inteiested.
Revision numbei· 1¸o Revision date· :o1¸-1o-1õ ::·¡¡·¸, -o¸oo
Piologue ¸
Welcome ¸
Ubuntu Philosophy õ
A biief histoiy of Ubuntu õ
ls Ubuntu iight foi you` ,
Contact details 8
About the team 8
Conventions used in this book 8
1 lnstallation 11
Geuing Ubuntu 11
Tiying out Ubuntu 1:
lnstalling Ubuntu—Geuing staited 1¸
Finishing lnstallation 1,
: Te Ubuntu Desktop :1
Undeistanding the Ubuntu desktop :1
Unity :1
Te Launchei :¸
Te Dash :¸
Woikspaces :õ
Managing windows :õ
Biowsing files on youi computei :8
Files file managei :8
Seaiching foi files and foldeis on youi computei ¸1
Customizing youi desktop ¸1
Accessibility ¸¸
Session options ¸¡
Geuing help ¸¸
¸ Woiking with Ubuntu ¸,
All the applications you need ¸,
Geuing online ¸,
Biowsing the web ¡,
Reading and composing email ¸õ
Using instant messaging õo
Viewing and editing photos õ¡
Watching videos and movies õ8
Listening to audio and music õ,
Buining cus and uvus ,¸
Woiking with documents, spieadsheets, and piesentations ,õ
Ubuntu One ,õ
¡ Haidwaie 8,
Using youi devices 8,
Haidwaie identification 8,
Displays 8,
Connecting and using youi piintei 8,
¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Sound ,o
Using a webcam ,1
Scanning text and images ,:
Keyboaid and mouse ,:
Othei devices ,¸
¸ Sofwaie Management ,¸
Sofwaie management in Ubuntu ,¸
Using the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei ,õ
Managing additional sofwaie ,,
Manual sofwaie installation 1o¸
Updates and upgiades 1o¸
õ Advanced Topics 1o,
Ubuntu foi advanced useis 1o,
lntioduction to the teiminal 1o,
Ubuntu file system stiuctuie 1o,
Secuiing Ubuntu 11o
Why Ubuntu is safe 11o
Basic secuiity concepts 111
Useis and gioups 111
System updates 11¡
Fiiewall 11¡
Enciyption 11¸
Running Windows Piogiams on Ubuntu 11õ
, Tioubleshooting 1:1
Resolving pioblems 1:1
Tioubleshooting guide 1:1
Geuing moie help 1:õ
8 Leaining Moie 1:,
What else can l do with Ubuntu` 1:,
Open souice sofwaie 1:,
Distiibution families 1:,
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its deiivatives 1:8
Finding additional help and suppoit 1¸o
Te Ubuntu community 1¸1
Contiibuting 1¸:
A License 1¸¸
Cieative Commons Auiibution–ShaieAlike ¸.o Legal Code 1¸¸
Cieative Commons Notice 1¸,
Glossaiy 1¡1
Ciedits 1¡¸
lndex 1¡,
Welcome to Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv, an intioductoiy guide wiiuen to
help new useis get staited with Ubuntu.
Oui goal is to covei the basics of Ubuntu (such as installation and woik-
ing with the desktop) as well as haidwaie and sofwaie management, woik-
ing with the command line, and secuiity. We designed this guide to be
simple to follow, with step-by-step instiuctions and plenty of scieenshots,
allowing you to discovei the potential of youi new Ubuntu system.
Canonical ieleases new veisions of Ubuntu eveiy six months, eveiy
fouith ielease is a so-called long-teim suppoit (i1s) veision. Each Ubuntu
ielease has a veision numbei that consists of the yeai and month numbei
of the ielease, and an alliteiative code name using an adjective and an
animal. Code names aie in consecutive alphabetic oidei, allowing a quick
deteimination of which ielease is newei. Ubuntu 1¸.1o (code-named Saucy
Salamandei) is consideied a iegulai ielease and is suppoited by Canonical
with patches and upgiades foi nine months. Te most iecent i1s veision is
Ubuntu 1:.o¡ (Piecise Pangolin), and has suppoit foi five yeais (until Apiil
:o1,). Whenevei a new veision of Ubuntu is ieleased, we will incoipoiate
updates and changes into oui guide, and make a new veision available at
Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv 1¸.1o is not intended to be a compiehensive
Ubuntu instiuction manual. lt is a quick-stait guide that will get you do-
ing the things you need to do with youi computei easily, without geuing
bogged down with technical details. Ubuntu 1¸.1o incoipoiates many new
and impioved featuies, including new icons (some dynamic), moie appeai-
ance options, locally integiated menus, and smait scopes, to name just a
few. With the help of this guide, it should not take long befoie new useis
get used to the Unity desktop enviionment. Unity includes the Staitei, the
Dash, the uuu, indicatois, and an on-scieen display notification system
(osu). All these featuies will be explained in this guide.
Foi moie detailed infoimation on any aspect of the Ubuntu desktop, see
the “Ubuntu Desktop Guide,” which can be obtained in any of the following
‣ in the Dash, type help.
‣ in the indicatoi aiea, click Session indicator ‣ Ubuntu Help.
‣ go to https·//, Ubuntu a¡.ao ‣ Ubuntu Desktop Help.
Teie aie also many excellent iesouices available on the lnteinet. Foi
example, on https·// you will find documentation on in-
stalling and using Ubuntu. At the Ubuntu Foiums (http·//ubuntufoiums.oig)
and Ask Ubuntu (http·//, you will find answeis to many
Ubuntu-ielated questions. You can find more information about Ubuntu’s
online and system documentation in Chapter 8:
Learning More.
lf something isn’t coveied in this manual, chances aie you will find the
infoimation you aie looking foi in one of those locations. We will tiy oui
best to include links to moie detailed help wheievei we can.
õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Ubuntu Philosophy
Te teim “Ubuntu” is a tiaditional Afiican concept oiiginating fiom the
Bantu languages of southein Afiica. lt can be desciibed as a way of con- People sometimes wonder how to pronounce
Ubuntu. Each u is pronounced the same as in
the word put except for the last u which is
pronounced the same as in the word due.
necting with otheis—living in a global community wheie youi actions
affect all of humanity. Ubuntu is moie than just an opeiating system· it is
a community of people coming togethei voluntaiily to collaboiate on an
inteinational sofwaie pioject that aims to delivei the best possible usei
The Ubuntu Promise
‣ Ubuntu will always be fiee of chaige, along with its iegulai enteipiise
ieleases and secuiity updates.
‣ Ubuntu comes with full commeicial suppoit fiom Canonical and hun-
dieds of companies fiom acioss the woild.
‣ Ubuntu piovides the best tianslations and accessibility featuies that the
fiee sofwaie community has to offei.
‣ Ubuntu’s coie applications aie all fiee and open souice. We want you to
use fiee and open souice sofwaie, impiove it, and pass it on.
A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in :oo¡ by Maik Shuulewoith, a successful South
Afiican entiepieneui, and his company Canonical. Shuulewoith iecognized To learn more about Canonical, go to http://
the powei of Linux and open souice, but was also awaie of weaknesses that
pievented mainstieam use.
Shuulewoith set out with cleai intentions to addiess these weaknesses
and cieate a system that was easy to use, completely fiee (see Chaptei 8·
Leaining Moie foi the complete definition of “fiee”), and could compete
with othei mainstieam opeiating systems. With the Debian system as a
base, Shuulewoith began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at fiist, Debian is the Linux operating system that
Ubuntu is based upon. For more information
installation cus weie piessed and shipped woildwide at no cost to the
iecipients. Ubuntu spiead quickly, its community giew iapidly, and soon
Ubuntu became the most populai Linux distiibution available.
With moie people woiking on the pioject than evei befoie, its coie
featuies and haidwaie suppoit continue to impiove, and Ubuntu has gained
the auention of laige oiganizations woildwide.
While laige oiganizations ofen find it useful to pay foi suppoit seivices, For information on Ubuntu Server Edition, and
how you can use it in your company, visit http://
Shuulewoith has piomised that the Ubuntu desktop opeiating system
will always be fiee. Ubuntu is installed on an estimated :¯ of the woild’s
computeis. Tis equates to tens of millions of useis woildwide, and is
giowing each yeai. As theie is no compulsoiy iegistiation, the peicentage
of Ubuntu useis should be tieated as an estimate.
What is Linux?
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of Linux, which is a membei of the Unix
family. Unix is one of the oldest types of opeiating systems, and togethei
with Linux has piovided ieliability and secuiity foi piofessional applica-
tions foi almost half a centuiy. Many seiveis aiound the woild that stoie
data foi populai websites (such as YouTube and Google) iun some vaiiant
of Linux oi Unix. Te populai Andioid system foi smaitphones is a Linux
vaiiant, modein in-cai computeis usually iun on Linux. Even the Mac os x
vvoiocui ,
is based on Unix. Te Linux keinel is best desciibed as the coie—almost the
biain—of the Ubuntu opeiating system.
Te Linux keinel is the contiollei of the opeiating system, it is iesponsi-
ble foi allocating memoiy and piocessoi time. lt can also be thought of as
the piogiam which manages any and all applications on the computei itself.
While modein giaphical desktop enviionments have geneially ieplaced
eaily command line inteifaces, the command line can still be a quick and
efficient way of peifoiming many tasks. See Chaptei õ· Advanced Topics
foi moie infoimation, and Chaptei :· Te Ubuntu Desktop to leain moie
about cNo¬i and othei desktop enviionments.
Linux was designed fiom the giound up with secuiity and haidwaie
compatibility in mind, and is cuiiently one of the most populai Unix-based
opeiating systems. One of the benefits of Linux is that it is inciedibly flex-
ible and can be configuied to iun on almost any device—fiom the smallest
micio-computeis and cellphones to the laigest supei-computeis. Unix was
entiiely command line-based until giaphical usei inteifaces (cuis) emeiged
in 1,,¸ (in compaiison, Apple came out with Mac os ten yeais latei, and
Miciosof ieleased Windows 1.o in 1,8¸).
Te eaily cuis weie difficult to configuie, clunky, and geneially only
used by seasoned computei piogiammeis. ln the past decade, howevei,
giaphical usei inteifaces have giown in usability, ieliability, and appeai-
ance. Ubuntu is just one of many diffeient Linux J:sìr:|vì:ons. To learn more about Linux distributions, see
Chapter 8: Learning More.
Is Ubuntu right for you?
New useis to Ubuntu may find that it takes some time to feel comfoit-
able when tiying a new opeiating system. You will no doubt notice many
similaiities to both Miciosof Windows and Mac os x as well as some dif-
feiences. Useis coming fiom Mac os x aie moie likely to notice similaiities
due to the fact that both Mac os x and Ubuntu oiiginated fiom Unix. Te
Unity shell, which is the default in Ubuntu, is a completely new concept,
which needs some exploiing to get used to it. See Chaptei :· Te Ubuntu
Desktop foi moie infoimation about the Unity shell.
Befoie you decide whethei oi not Ubuntu is iight foi you, we suggest
giving youiself some time to giow accustomed to the way things aie done
in Ubuntu. You should expect to find that some things aie diffeient fiom
what you aie used to. We also suggest taking the following into account·
U|vnìv :s co»»vn:ìy |oseJ. Tat is, Ubuntu is developed, wiiuen, and
maintained by the community. Because of this, suppoit is piobably
not available at youi local computei stoie. Foitunately, the Ubuntu
community is heie to help. Teie aie many aiticles, guides, and manuals
available, as well as useis on vaiious lnteinet foiums and lnteinet Relay
Chat (ivc) iooms that aie willing to assist beginneis. Additionally, neai
the end of this guide, we include a tioubleshooting chaptei· Chaptei ,·
Mony o¡¡|:coì:ons Jes:gneJ [or M:crosoµ V:nJo+s or Moc o: × +:|| noì rvn
on U|vnìv. Foi the vast majoiity of eveiyday computing tasks, you
will find suitable alteinative applications available in Ubuntu. Howevei,
many piofessional applications (such as the Adobe Cieative Suite) aie
not developed to woik with Ubuntu. lf you iely on commeicial sofwaie
that is not compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a tiy,
you may want to considei dual-booting. Alteinatively, some applications To learn more about dual-booting (running
Ubuntu side-by-side with another operating
system), see Chapter 1: Installation.
8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
developed foi Windows will woik in Ubuntu with a piogiam called
Wine. Foi moie infoimation on Wine, see Chaptei õ· Advanced Topics.
Mony co»»erc:o| go»es +:|| noì rvn on U|vnìv. lf you aie a heavy gamei,
then Ubuntu may not be foi you. Game developeis usually design games
foi the laigest maiket. Since Ubuntu’s maiket shaie is not as substantial
as Miciosof’s Windows oi Apple’s Mac os x, fewei game developeis
allocate iesouices towaids making theii games compatible with Linux. lf See Chapter 5: Software Management to learn
more about Ubuntu Software Center.
you just enjoy a game eveiy now and then, theie aie many high quality
games that can be easily installed thiough the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Teie aie also a lot of games available at http·//
Contact details
Many people have contiibuted theii time to this pioject. lf you notice any
eiiois oi think we have lef something out, feel fiee to contact us. We do
eveiything we can to make suie that this manual is up to date, infoimative,
and piofessional. Oui contact details aie as follows·
‣ Website· http·//www.ubuntu-manual.oig/
‣ Readei feedback· feedback(ubuntu-manual.oig
‣ ivc· -ubuntu-manual on
‣ Bug Repoits· https·//÷filebug
‣ Mailing list· ubuntu-manual(
About the team
Oui pioject is an open-souice, volunteei effoit to cieate and maintain qual-
ity documentation foi Ubuntu and its deiivatives.
Want to help?
We aie always looking foi talented people to woik with, and due to the size
of the pioject we aie foitunate to be able to catei to a wide iange of skill
‣ Authois and editois
‣ Piogiammeis (Python oi T
‣ Usei inteiface designeis
‣ lcon and title page designeis
‣ Event oiganizeis and ideas people
‣ Testeis
‣ Web designeis and developeis
‣ Tianslatois and scieenshoueis
‣ Bug iepoiteis and tiiageis
To find out how you can get staited helping, please visit http·//ubuntu-
Conventions used in this book
Te following typogiaphic conventions aie used in this book·
‣ Buuon names, menu items, and othei cui elements aie set in boldfaced
vvoiocui ,
‣ Menu sequences aie sometimes typeset as File ‣ Save As…, which means,
“Choose the File menu, then choose the Save As….”
‣ Monospaced type is used foi text that you type into the computei, text
that the computei outputs (as in a teiminal), and keyboaid shoitcuts.
1 Installation
Getting Ubuntu
Befoie you can get staited with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of Many companies (such as Dell and System76)
sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. If
you already have Ubuntu installed on your
computer, feel free to skip to Chapter 2: The
Ubuntu Desktop.
the Ubuntu installation image foi uvu oi usn. Some options foi doing this
aie outlined below.
Minimum system requirements
lf you aie unsuie whethei it will woik on youi computei, the Live uvu is a
gieat way to test things out fiist. Below is a list of haidwaie specifications
that youi computei should meet as a minimum iequiiement.
‣ 1 GHz x8õ piocessoi (Pentium ¡ oi beuei)
‣ 1 cn of system memoiy (v»¬)
‣ ¸ cn of disk space (at least 1¸ cn is iecommended)
‣ Video suppoit capable of 1o:¡×,õ8 iesolution
‣ Audio suppoit
‣ An lnteinet connection (highly iecommended, but not iequiied)
Downloading Ubuntu
Te easiest and most common method foi geuing Ubuntu is to download
the Ubuntu uvu image diiectly fiom http·//
Choose how you will install Ubuntu·
‣ Download and install
‣ Tiy it fiom a uvu oi usn stick
Download and Install / Try it from a DVD or USB stick
Foi the Do+n|ooJ onJ :nsìo||, oi Try :ì [ro» o uvu or u:ì sì:c| options, select
whethei you iequiie the ¸:-bit oi õ¡-bit veision (¸:-bit is iecommended foi
most useis), then click “Stait download.”
32-bit versus 64-bit
Ubuntu and its deiivatives aie available in two veisions· ¸:-bit and õ¡-bit.
Tis diffeience iefeis to the way computeis piocess infoimation. Comput- 32-bit and 64-bit are types of processor
architectures. Most new desktop computers
have a 64-bit capable processor.
eis capable of iunning õ¡-bit sofwaie aie able to piocess moie infoimation
than computeis iunning ¸:-bit sofwaie, howevei, õ¡-bit systems iequiie
moie memoiy in oidei to do this. Neveitheless, these computeis gain pei-
foimance enhancements by iunning õ¡-bit sofwaie.
‣ lf youi computei has a õ¡-bit piocessoi, install the õ¡-bit veision.
‣ lf youi computei is oldei, a netbook, oi you do not know the type of
piocessoi in the computei, install the ¸:-bit veision.
lf youi computei has a õ¡-bit piocessoi, select the “õ¡-bit” option befoie
you click “Stait download.”
1: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Downloading Ubuntu as a torrent
When a new veision of Ubuntu is ieleased, the download seiveis can get Torrents are a way of sharing files and informa-
tion around the Internet via peer-to-peer file
sharing. A file with the .torrent extension is
made available to users, which is then opened
with a compatible program such as uTorrent,
Deluge, or Transmission. These programs
download parts of the file from other people all
around the world.
“clogged” as laige numbeis of people tiy to download oi upgiade Ubuntu
at the same time. lf you aie familiai with using toiients, you can download
the toiient file by clicking “Alteinative downloads,” and then “BitToiient
download.” Downloading via toiient may impiove youi download speed,
and will also help to spiead Ubuntu to othei useis woildwide.
Burning the DVD image
Once youi download is complete, you will be lef with a file called v|vnìv- While the 64-bit version of Ubuntu is referred
to as the “AMD64” version, it will work on Intel,
AMD, and other compatible 64-bit processors.
1¸.1o-Jes|ìo¡-:¸8o.:so oi similai (:¸8o heie in the filename iefeis to the ¸:-bit
veision. lf you downloaded the õ¡-bit veision, the filename contains o»Jo¡
instead). Tis file is a uvu image—a snapshot of the contents of a uvu—
which you will need to buin to a uvu.
Creating a bootable USB drive
lf youi vc is able to boot fiom a usn stick, you may piefei to use a usn
memoiy stick instead of buining a uvu. Scioll down to “Buin youi uvu
oi cieate a usn diive,” select uvu oi u:ì sì:c|, choose the os you aie using
to cieate the usn diive, and then click S|o+ »e |o+. lf you select the “usn
Stick” option, youi installation will be iunning fiom the usn memoiy stick.
ln this case, iefeiences to Live uvu, will iefei to the usn memoiy stick.
Trying out Ubuntu
Te Ubuntu uvu and usn stick function not only as installation media, but
also allow you to test Ubuntu without making any peimanent changes to
youi computei by iunning the entiie opeiating system fiom the uvu oi usn
Youi computei ieads infoimation fiom a uvu at a much slowei speed In some cases, your computer will not recognize
that the Ubuntu DVD or USB is present as it
starts up and will start your existing operating
system instead. To run Ubuntu from the Live
DVD or USB, we want the computer to look
for information from the Live DVD or USB
first. Changing your boot priority is usually
handled by BIOS settings; this is beyond the
scope of this guide. If you need assistance with
changing the boot priority, see your computer
manufacturer’s documentation for more
than it can iead infoimation off of a haid diive. Running Ubuntu fiom
the Live uvu also occupies a laige poition of youi computei’s memoiy,
which would usually be available foi applications to access when Ubuntu is
iunning fiom youi haid diive. Te Live uvu/usn expeiience will theiefoie
feel slightly slowei than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on youi
computei. Running Ubuntu fiom the uvu/usn is a gieat way to test things
out and allows you to tiy the default applications, biowse the lnteinet, and
get a geneial feel foi the opeiating system. lt’s also useful foi checking that
youi computei haidwaie woiks piopeily in Ubuntu and that theie aie no
majoi compatibility issues.
To tiy out Ubuntu using the Live uvu/usn stick, inseit the Ubuntu uvu
into youi uvu diive, oi connect the usn diive and iestait youi computei.
Afei youi computei finds the Live uvu/usn stick, and a quick load-
ing scieen, you will be piesented with the “Welcome” scieen. Using youi
mouse, select youi language fiom the list on the lef, then click the buuon
labelled Try Ubuntu. Ubuntu will then stait up, iunning diiectly fiom the
Live uvu/usn diive.
Once Ubuntu is up and iunning, you will see the default desktop. We
will talk moie about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chaptei :· Te Ubuntu
Desktop, but foi now, feel fiee to test things out. Open some applications,
change seuings and geneially exploie—any changes you make will not be
iNs1»ii»1ioN 1¸
Figure 1.1: The “Welcome” screen allows you to
choose your language.
saved once you exit, so you don’t need to woiiy about accidentally bieaking
When you aie finished exploiing, iestait youi computei by clicking Alternatively, you can also use your mouse to
double-click the “Install Ubuntu 13.10” icon that
is visible on the desktop when using the Live
DVD. This will start the Ubuntu installer.
the “Powei” buuon in the top iight coinei of youi scieen (a ciicle with
a line thiough the top) and then select Restart. Follow the piompts that
appeai on scieen, including iemoving the Live uvu and piessing Enter
when instiucted, and then youi computei will iestait. As long as the Live
uvu is no longei in the diive, youi computei will ietuin to its oiiginal state
as though nothing evei happened'
Installing Ubuntu—Getting started
At least ¸ cn of fiee space on youi haid diive is iequiied in oidei to install Clicking on the underlined “release notes” link
will open a web page containing any important
information regarding the current version of
Ubuntu. We iecommend 1¸ cn oi moie. Tis will ensuie that you will
have plenty of ioom to install extia applications latei on, as well as stoie
youi own documents, music, and photos. To get staited, place the Ubuntu
uvu in youi uvu diive and iestait youi computei. Youi computei should
load Ubuntu fiom the uvu. When you fiist stait fiom the uvu, you will
be piesented with a scieen asking you whethei you want to fiist tiy out
Ubuntu oi install it. Select the language you want to view the installei
in and click on the Install Ubuntu buuon. Tis will stait the installation
lf you have an lnteinet connection, the installei will ask you if you
would like to “Download updates while installing.” We iecommend you
do so. Te second option, “lnstall this thiid-paity sofwaie,” includes the
Fluendo ¬v¸ codec, and sofwaie iequiied foi some wiieless haidwaie. lf
you aie not connected to the lnteinet, the installei will help you set up a
wiieless connection.
Te “Piepaiing to install Ubuntu” scieen will also let you know if you
have enough disk space and if you aie connected to a powei souice (in case
you aie installing Ubuntu on a laptop iunning on baueiy). Once you have
selected youi choices, click Continue.
1¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Figure 1.2: Preparing to install.
Internet connection
lf you aie not connected to the lnteinet, the installei will ask you to choose
a wiieless netwoik (if available). We recommend that you connect to the
Internet during install, although updates and
third-party software can be installed after
installation completes.
1. Select Connect to this network, and then select youi netwoik fiom the
:. lf the list does not appeai immediately, wait until a tiiangle/aiiow ap-
peais next to the netwoik adaptei, and then click the aiiow to see the
available netwoiks.
¸. ln the Password field, entei the netwoik viv oi vv» key (if necessaiy).
¡. Click Connect to continue.
Figure 1.3: Set up wireless.
Allocate drive space
Te Ubuntu installei will automatically detect any existing opeiating sys- If you are installing on a new machine with no
operating system, you will not get the first
option. The upgrade option is only available if
you are upgrading from a previous version of
tem installed on youi machine, and piesent installation options suitable foi
youi system. Te options listed below depend on youi specific system and
may not all be available·
‣ lnstall alongside othei opeiating systems
iNs1»ii»1ioN 1¸
‣ Upgiade Ubuntu … to 1¸.1o
‣ Eiase … and install Ubuntu
‣ Something else
Install alongside other operating systems.
For »ore co»¡|:coìeJ Jvo|-|ooì:ng seìv¡s, yov +:|| neeJ ìo configvre ì|e ¡orì:-
ì:ons »onvo||y.
Figure 1.4: Choose where you would like to
install Ubuntu.
Upgrade Ubuntu … to 13.10
Tis option will keep all of youi Documents, music, pictuies, and othei
peisonal files. lnstalled sofwaie will be kept when possible (not all youi
cuiiently installed sofwaie may be suppoited on the new veision). System-
wide seuings will be cleaied.
Erase disk and install Ubuntu
Use this option if you want to eiase youi entiie disk. Tis will delete any
existing opeiating systems that aie installed on that disk, such as Miciosof
Windows, and install Ubuntu in its place. Tis option is also useful if you
have an empty haid diive, as Ubuntu will automatically cieate the neces-
saiy paititions foi you.
For»ou:ng o ¡orì:ì:on +:|| Jesìroy ony Joìo cvrrenì|y on ì|e ¡orì:ì:on.
Be svre ìo |oc| v¡ ony Joìo yov +onì ìo so+e |e[ore [or»ou:ng. More
:n[or»oì:on onJ Jeìo:|eJ :nsìrvcì:ons on ¡orì:ì:on:ng ore o+o:|o||e oì
Afei you have chosen the installation type, click Continue, oi Install
Confirm Partition choices and start install
lf you chose Something else, configuie the paititions as you need. Once
you aie happy with the way the paititions aie going to be set up, click the
Install Now buuon at the bouom iight to move on.
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To ieduce the time iequiied foi installation, Ubuntu will continue the
installation piocess in the backgiound while you configuie impoitant usei
details—like youi useiname, passwoid, keyboaid seuings and default time-
Where are you?
Figure 1.5: Tell Ubuntu your location.
Te next scieen will display a woild map. Using youi mouse, click youi
geogiaphic location on the map to tell Ubuntu wheie you aie. Alteinatively,
you can type youi location in the field below the map. Tis allows Ubuntu
to configuie youi system clock and othei location-based featuies. Click
Continue when you aie ieady to move on.
Keyboard layout
Figure 1.6: Verify that your keyboard layout is
Next, you need to tell Ubuntu what kind of keyboaid you aie using.
ln most cases, you will find the suggested option satisfactoiy. lf you aie
unsuie which keyboaid option to select, you can click the Detect Keyboard
Iayout buuon to have Ubuntu deteimine the coiiect choice by asking you
to piess a seiies of keys. You can also manually choose youi keyboaid
layout fiom the list of options. lf you like, entei text into the box at the
iNs1»ii»1ioN 1,
bouom of the window to ensuie you aie happy with youi selection, then
click Continue.
Who are you?
Ubuntu needs to know some infoimation about you so it can set up the
piimaiy usei account on youi computei. When configuied, youi name will
appeai on the login scieen as well as the usei menu, which we discuss in
Chaptei :· Te Ubuntu Desktop.
On this scieen you will need to tell Ubuntu·
‣ youi name
‣ what you want to call youi computei
‣ youi desiied useiname
‣ youi desiied passwoid
‣ how you want Ubuntu to log you in
Figure 1.7: Setup your user account.
Entei youi full name undei Your name. Te next text field is the name
youi computei uses, foi teiminals and netwoiks. You can change this to
what you want, oi keep the piedeteimined name. Next is youi useiname,
the name that is used foi the usei menu, youi home foldei, and behind the
scenes. You will see this is automatically filled in foi you with youi fiist
name. Most people find it easiest to stick with this. Howevei, it can be
changed if you piefei.
Next, choose a passwoid and entei it into both passwoid fields. When
both passwoids match, a stiength iating will appeai to the iight that will
show you whethei youi passwoid is “too shoit,” “weak,” “faii,” oi “stiong.”
You will be able to continue the installation piocess iegaidless of youi
passwoid stiength, but foi secuiity ieasons it is best to choose a stiong
one. Tis is best achieved by having a passwoid that is at least six chai-
acteis long, and is a mixtuie of leueis, numbeis, symbols, and uppei-
case/loweicase. Avoid obvious passwoids that include youi biith date,
spouse’s name, oi the name of youi pet.
One account to log in to everything on Ubuntu
Duiing the installation you have the possibility to log in into youi existing
Ubuntu One account oi to cieate a new one. Fill in all the needed infoima-
tion such as youi email addiess and passwoid and click Continue.
18 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
lf you don’t want to use Ubuntu One oi if you want to cieate youi new
account latei, click Iog in later.
Figure 1.8: Log in to your Ubuntu One account.
Login Options
Finally, at the bouom of this scieen you have two options iegaiding how
you wish to log in to Ubuntu. You may also choose to have Ubuntu enciypt
youi home foldei.
‣ Log in automatically
‣ Requiie my passwoid to log in
– Enciypt my home foldei
Log in automatically
Ubuntu will log in to youi piimaiy account automatically when you stait
up the computei so you won’t have to entei youi useiname and passwoid.
Tis makes youi login expeiience quickei and moie convenient, but if
piivacy oi secuiity aie impoitant to you, we don’t iecommend this option.
Anyone who can physically access youi computei will be able to tuin it on
and also access youi files.
Require my password to login
Tis option is selected by default, as it will pievent unauthoiized people
fiom accessing youi computei without knowing the passwoid you cie-
ated eailiei. Tis is a good option foi those who, foi example, shaie theii
computei with othei family membeis. Once the installation piocess has
been completed, an additional login account can be cieated foi each family
membei. Each peison will then have theii own login name and passwoid,
account piefeiences, lnteinet bookmaiks, and peisonal stoiage space.
Encrypt my home folder
Tis option piovides you with an added layei of secuiity. Youi home foldei
is wheie youi peisonal files aie stoied. By selecting this option, Ubuntu
will automatically enable enciyption on youi home foldei, meaning that
files and foldeis must be deciypted using youi passwoid befoie they can
be accessed. Teiefoie if someone had physical access to youi haid diive
iNs1»ii»1ioN 1,
(foi example, if youi computei was stolen and the haid diive iemoved), they
would not be able to see youi files without knowing youi passwoid.
I[ yov c|oose ì|:s o¡ì:on, |e core[v| noì ìo eno||e ovìo»oì:c |og:n oì o |oìer Joìe.
Iì +:|| covse co»¡|:coì:ons +:ì| yovr encry¡ìeJ |o»e [o|Jer, onJ +:|| ¡oìenì:o||y
|oc| yov ovì o[ :»¡orìonì fi|es.
Finishing Installation
Ubuntu will now finish installing on youi haid diive. As the installation
piogiesses, a slideshow will give you an intioduction to some of the default
applications included with Ubuntu. Tese applications aie coveied in moie
detail in Chaptei ¸· Woiking with Ubuntu. Te slideshow will also highlight
the Ubuntu suppoit options·
Figure 1.9: Ubuntu community support options.
Where to get help for Ubuntu.
Afei appioximately twenty minutes, the installation will complete and
you will be able to click Restart Now to iestait youi computei and stait
Ubuntu. Te uvu will be ejected, so iemove it fiom youi uvu diive and
piess Enter to continue.
Figure 1.10: You are now ready to restart your
Wait while youi computei iestaits, and you will then see the login win-
dow (unless you selected automatic login).
Login Screen
Afei the installation has finished and youi computei is iestaited, you will
be gieeted by the login scieen of Ubuntu. Te login scieen will piesent you
with youi useiname and you will have to entei the passwoid to get past it.
Click youi useiname and entei youi passwoid. Once done, you may click
the aiiow oi piess Enter to get into the Ubuntu desktop. Ubuntu’s login
scieen suppoits multiple useis and also suppoits custom backgiounds foi
each usei. ln fact, Ubuntu automatically will pick up youi cuiient desktop
wallpapei and set it as youi login backgiound.
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Te login scieen allows you to update youi keyboaid language, volume
intensity and enable/disable accessibility seuings befoie you log in to youi
desktop. lt also displays date/time and baueiy powei foi laptops. You can
also shut down oi iestait youi system fiom the login scieen.
Figure 1.11: Login Screen.
2 The Ubuntu Desktop
Understanding the Ubuntu desktop
lnitially, you may notice many similaiities between Ubuntu and othei
opeiating systems, such as Miciosof Windows oi Mac os x. Tis is because
they aie all based on the concept of a giaphical usei inteiface (cui)—:.e.,
you use youi mouse to navigate the desktop, open applications, move files,
and peifoim most othei tasks. ln shoit, things aie visually-oiiented. Tis
chaptei is designed to help you become familiai with vaiious applications
and menus in Ubuntu so that you become confident in using the Ubuntu
Figure 2.1: The Ubuntu 13.10 default desktop.
All cui-based opeiating systems use a Jes|ìo¡ en+:ron»enì. Desktop envi-
ionments encompass many things, including (but not limited to)·
‣ Te look and feel of youi system
‣ Te way the desktop is laid out
‣ How the desktop is navigated by the usei
ln Linux distiibutions (such as Ubuntu), a numbei of desktop enviion- To read more about other variants of Ubuntu,
refer to Chapter 8: Learning More.
ments aie available. Ubuntu uses Unity as the default desktop enviionment.
Afei installing and logging in to Ubuntu, you will see the Unity desktop.
Tis initial view is compiised of the desktop backgiound and two bais—a
hoiizontal one located at the top of youi desktop called the »env |or and a
veitically-oiiented bai at the fai lef called the Lovnc|er.
:: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
The Desktop Background
Below the menu bai at the top of the scieen is an image coveiing the entiie
desktop. Tis is the default desktop backgiound, oi wallpapei, belonging to
the default Ubuntu 1¸.1o theme known as A»|:once. To leain moie about
customizing youi desktop (including changing youi backgiound), see the
section on Customizing youi desktop below.
The Menu Bar
Te menu bai incoipoiates common functions used in Ubuntu. Te icons on
the fai-iight of the menu bai aie located in an aiea of the menu bai called
the :nJ:coìor oreo, oi noì:ficoì:on oreo. Each installation of Ubuntu may
contain slightly diffeient types and quantities of icons based on a numbei of
factois, including the type of haidwaie and available on-boaid peiipheials
upon which the Ubuntu installation is based. Some piogiams add an icon to
the indicatoi aiea automatically duiing installation (e.g., Ubuntu One). Te
most common indicatois aie· For more about:
‣ the Ubuntu One indicator see Ubuntu One
on page 76;
‣ the Messaging indicator see Using instant
messaging on page 60;
‣ the Network indicator see Getting online on
page 39;
‣ the Session indicator see Session options on
page 34.
Key|oorJ :nJ:coìor ( ) allows you to select a keyboaid layout, if moie
than one keyboaid layout is chosen. Te keyboard indicator menu
contains the following menu items· Chaiactei Map, Keyboaid layout
Chait, and Text Entiy Seuings.
Neì+or| :nJ:coìor ( ) manages netwoik connections, allowing you to
connect quickly and easily to a wiied oi wiieless netwoik.
U|vnìv One :nJ:coìor ( ) allows you to backup files online and shaie files
with youi fiiends, family, and cowoikeis.
Messog:ng :nJ:coìor ( ) incoipoiates youi social applications. Fiom heie,
among otheis, you can access instant messengei and email clients.
SovnJ :nJ:coìor ( ) piovides an easy way to adjust the sound volume as
well as access youi music playei and sound seuings.
C|oc| displays the cuiient time and piovides a link to youi calendai and
time and date seuings.
Sess:on :nJ:coìor ( ) is a link to the system seuings, Ubuntu Help, and
session options (like locking youi computei, usei/guest session, logging
out of a session, iestaiting the computei, oi shuuing down completely).
Figure 2.2: The indicators of the menu bar.
Eveiy application has a menuing system wheie diffeient actions can be
executed in an application (like File, Edit, View, etc.), the menuing system
foi an application is appiopiiately called the application menu. ln Unity,
the application menu isn’t on the title bai of the application as is commonly
the case in othei cui enviionments. lnstead, it is located to the lef aiea Note that some older applications may still
display their menu within the application
of the menu bai. To show an application’s menu, just move youi mouse
to the desktop’s menu bai (at the top of the scieen). While youi mouse is
positioned heie, the active application’s menu options will appeai in the
desktop’s menu bai, allowing you to use the application’s menuing options.
When clicking on the desktop, the desktop’s menu bai ieappeais. Tis
capability in Unity to display the application’s menu only when needed is
especially beneficial foi netbook and laptop useis with limited viewable
scieen space. Apple uses a similai appioach in os x wheie all application
menus appeai on a bai at the top of the scieen. lt diffeis, howevei, in that
the menus in Ubuntu appeai only when the mouse is ovei the desktop’s
menu bai.
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The Launcher
Te veitical bai of icons on the lef side of the desktop is called the Launchei.
Te Launchei piovides easy access to applications, mounted devices, and
the Trash. All iunning applications on youi system will place an icon in the
Launchei while the application is iunning.
Figure 2.3: The Ubuntu Launcher on the left
with a sample of applications on it.
To change the Launchei icon size, go to Session Indicator ‣ System
Settings ‣ Appearance, tab Iook.
Te fiist icon at the top of the Launchei is the Dash, a component of
Unity. We will exploie the Dash in a latei section of this chaptei. By default,
othei applications appeai in the Launchei, including the Files file managei,
LibieOffice, Fiiefox, any mounted devices, and the Trash, which contains
deleted foldeis and files, at the bouom of the Launchei.
Holding the Supei key, also known as the Windows key (Win key),
located between the lef Ctrl key and Alt key, will cause Ubuntu to supei-
impose a numbei onto the fiist ten applications in the Launchei and also
display a scieen full of useful shoitcuts. You can launch an application with
a numbei n on it by typing Super+n.
lf you open moie applications than can be shown in the Launchei, the
Launchei will “fold” the application icons at the bouom of the Launchei.
Simply move youi mouse to the bouom of the Launchei, and you’ll see
the Launchei icons “slide” and the folded application icons unfold foi easy
Running applications
To iun an application fiom the Launchei (oi cause an alieady-iunning
application to appeai), just click on the application’s icon.
Applications that aie cuiiently iunning will have one oi moie tiiangles
on the lef side of the icon indicating the numbei of application windows
open foi this application. Running applications also have a back-lit icon on
the Launchei. Some also refer to an application in the
foreground as being in focus.
Figure 2.4: The triangles on each side of the
Firefox icon indicate Firefox is in the foreground
and only one window is associated with Firefox
at this time.
Te application in the foiegiound (i.e. the application that is on top of all
othei open application windows is indicated by a single white tiiangle on
the iight side of its icon.
You can also iun an application thiough the Dash which will be exploied
in the upcoming Te Dash section.
Adding and removing applications from the Launcher
Teie aie two ways to add an application to the Launchei·
‣ Open the Dash, find the application you wish to add to the Launchei, and
diag its icon to the Launchei.
‣ Run the application you want to add to the Launchei, iight-click on the
application’s icon on the Launchei, and select IoH to IaunHer.
To iemove an application fiom the Launchei, iight-click on the applica-
tion’s icon, then select UnloH from IaunHer.
The Dash
Te Dash helps you quickly finding applications and files on youi computei. For more information about the Dash and its
lenses, see:
lf you’ve used Windows in the past, you’ll find the Dash to be similai to
the Windows Stait menu oi the Stait Scieen in Windows 8. Mac useis will
:¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
find the Dash similai to Launchpad in the dock. lf you’ve used a pievious
veision of Ubuntu oi anothei cNo¬i Linux distiibution, the Dash seives
as a ieplacement foi the vaiious cNo¬i : menus. Te Dash allows you
to seaich foi infoimation, both locally (installed applications, iecent files,
bookmaiks, etc.) as well as iemotely (Twiuei, Google Docs, etc.).
Figure 2.5: The Dash
To exploie the Dash, click on the top-most icon on the Launchei, the
icon contains the Ubuntu logo on it. Afei clicking the Dash icon, the desk-
top will be oveilaid by a tianslucent window with a seaich bai on top as
well as a giouping of iecently accessed applications, files, and downloads.
Ubuntu also includes iesults fiom populai web seivices. Te seaich bai
piovides dynamic iesults as you entei youi seaich teims.
Seaiching is accomplished by utilizing one oi moie lenses, also known as
scopes, each lens is iesponsible foi pioviding a categoiy of seaich iesults
foi the Dash. Te seven lenses installed by default at the bouom aie links
to youi Home lens ( ), Applications lens ( ), Files and Folders lens ( ),
Music lens ( ), Photo lens ( ), Videos lens ( ), and Social network
messages lens ( ).
Lenses act as specialized seaich categoiies in the Dash. Fiom the usei’s
peispective, lenses aie simply icons. To the Ubuntu puiist, the pictuies that
appeai hoiizontally at the bouom of the Dash aie |enses, to the iest, these
aie :cons.
Many sites exist on the lnteinet dedicated to cieating and ieleasing
lenses foi the Ubuntu Unity desktop. Some sites even teach you how to
make youi own lenses in oidei to maximize the opeiational efficiencies of
the Ubuntu Unity inteiface.
Search for files and applications with the Dash
Te Dash is an extiemely poweiful tool allowing you to seaich youi com-
putei foi applications and files.
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov :¸
Find files/folders
Te Dash can help you find names of files oi foldeis. Simply type a poition
of the file oi foldei name. As you type, iesults will appeai in the Dash. Te
Files and Folders lens will also assist in finding files oi foldeis—showing
you the most iecently accessed files as well as the most iecent downloads.
You can use the fi|ìer resv|ìs buuon in the top-iight coinei of the Dash to
filtei iesults by auiibutes such as file oi foldei modification times, file type
(.odt, .pdf, .doc, .txt, etc.), oi size.
Find applications
A standaid Ubuntu installation comes with many applications. Useis can
also download thousands moie applications fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei. As you collect an aisenal of awesome applications (and get a bonus Ubuntu Software Center and software manage-
ment will be discussed in detail at Chapter 5:
Software Management.
point foi alliteiation'), it may become difficult to iemembei the name of a
paiticulai application, the Applications lens on the Dash can assist with
this seaich. Tis lens will automatically categoiize installed applications
undei “Recently Used,” “lnstalled,” oi “Moie Suggestions.” You can also If you are new to the world of Ubuntu, be sure
to read the Chapter 3: Working with Ubuntu.
It will provide you assistance in choosing
application(s) to suit your needs.
entei the name of an application (oi a pait of it) into the seaich bai in the
Dash, and the names of applications matching youi seaich ciiteiia will
appeai. Even if you don’t iemembei the name of the application at all, type
a keywoid that is ielevant to that application, and the Dash will find it. Foi
example, type music, and the Dash will show you the default music playei
and any music playei you’ve used.
Figure 2.6: You can see the default results when
you press the Applications lens.
External search results
ln addition to seaiching youi local computei foi applications and files, the
Dash will also seaich vaiious online iesouices (e.g., Results
peitinent to youi seaich ciiteiia aie ietuined to you in the Dash. lf you aie
conceined about local seaich teims being sent ovei the lnteinet, you can
disable this featuie in the Privacy section of the System Seuings.
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Te on|:ne seorc| resv|ìs +:ì|:n ì|e Dos| ore ìvrneJ on |y Je[ov|ì Jvr:ng :n-
sìo||oì:on. I[ yov Jo noì +onì e:ìerno| seorc| resv|ìs, go ìo System Settings ‣
Privacy ‣ Sear Results onJ seì ì|e “Inc|vJe on|:ne seorc| resv|ìs” s+:ìc| ìo
ì|e Off ¡os:ì:on. As on oJJeJ |oyer o[ ¡r:+ocy, yov con o|so ¡re+enì ony seorc|
ocì:+:ìy [ro» |e:ng recorJeJ.
Woikspaces aie also known as viitual desktops. Tese sepaiate views of
youi desktop allow you to gioup applications togethei, and by doing so,
help to ieduce cluuei and impiove desktop navigation. Foi example, you
can open all of youi media applications in one woikspace, youi office suite
in anothei, and youi web biowsei in a thiid woikspace. Ubuntu has foui
woikspaces by default.
Te woikspaces featuie is not activated by default in Ubuntu. To activate
woikspaces, click on Session Indicator ‣ System Settings…‣ Appearance
then click on the Behavior tab and click on the Enable workspaces box.
When this box is checked, you’ll notice anothei icon is added to the bouom
of the Launchei that looks like a window pane. Tis is the woikspaces
Switching between workspaces
lf you’ve activated the woikspace switchei as desciibed above, you can
switch between woikspaces by clicking on the woikspace switchei icon
located on the Launchei. Tis utility allows you to toggle thiough the
woikspaces (whethei they contain open applications oi not) and choose the
one you want to use.
Figure 2.7: The workspace switcher on the
Managing windows
When opening a piogiam in Ubuntu (such as a web biowsei oi a text editoi
—see Chaptei ¸· Woiking with Ubuntu foi moie infoimation on using
applications)—a +:nJo+ will appeai on youi desktop. Te windows seen in
Ubuntu aie veiy similai to those in Miciosof Windows oi Mac os x. Simply
stated, a window is the box that appeais on youi scieen when you stait a
piogiam. ln Ubuntu, the top pait of a window (the ì:ì|e |or) will have the
name of the application to the lef (most ofen, the title will be the same
as the application’s name). A window will also have thiee buuons in the
top-lef coinei. Fiom lef to iight, these buuons iepiesent c|ose window,
»:n:»::e window, and »o::»::e window. Othei window management
options aie available by iight-clicking anywheie on the title bai.
Closing, maximizing, restoring, and minimizing windows
To close a window, click on the close buuon ( ) in the uppei-lef coinei of
the window—the fiist buuon on the lef-hand side. Te buuon immediately
to the iight of the close buuon is the minimize buuon ( ) which iemoves
the window fiom the visible scieen and places it in the Launchei.
Figure 2.8: This is the top bar of a window,
named title bar. The close, minimize, and
maximize buttons are in the top-left corner of
the window.
Tis buuon doesn’t close the application, it just hides the application
fiom view. When an application is minimized to the Launchei, the lef-side
of the icon in the Launchei will display a tiiangle showing you the appli-
cation is still iunning. Clicking the icon of the minimized application will
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov :,
iestoie the window to its oiiginal position. Finally, the iight-most buuon
is the maximize buuon ( ) which causes the application to completely fill
the unused displayable space on the desktop. Clicking the maximize buuon
again will ietuin the window to its oiiginal size. lf a window is maximized,
its top-lef buuons and menu aie automatically hidden fiom view. To make
them appeai, just move youi mouse to the »env |or.
Moving and resizing windows
To move a window aiound the woikspace, place the mouse pointei ovei the
window’s title bai, then click and diag the window while continuing to hold
down the lef mouse buuon. You can also move a window by holding the
Alt key and then clicking and holding the lef mouse buuon while pointing
at the title bai of the window and diagging the window to a new location.
To iesize a window, place the pointei on an edge oi coinei of the window
so that the pointei tuins into a laigei, two-sided aiiow (known as the iesize
icon). You can then click and diag to iesize the window.
Switching between open windows
ln Ubuntu, theie aie many ways to switch between open windows.
1. lf the window is visible on youi scieen, click any poition of it to iaise it
above all othei windows.
:. Use Alt+Tab to select the window you wish to woik with. Hold down
the Alt key, and keep piessing Tab until the window you’ie looking foi
appeais highlighted in the popup window. Ten, ielease the Alt key, and
the application highlighted in the popup will move to the foiegiound of
youi desktop.
¸. Click on the coiiesponding icon on the Launchei by moving youi mouse
to the lef side of the scieen and iight-clicking on the application’s icon.
lf the application has multiple windows open, double-click on the icon in
oidei to select the desiied window.
¡. Piess Ctrl+Super+D to hide all windows and display the desktop, the
same woiks to iestoie all windows.
Moving a window to different workspace
To move a window to a diffeient woikspace, veiify that the window isn’t
maximized. lf it is maximized, click on the iight-most buuon on the lef
side of the title bai to iestoie it to its oiiginal size. Ten iight-click on the
window’s title bai and select·
‣ Move to Workspace Ien, to move the window to the lef woikspace
‣ Move to Workspace Right, to move the window to the iight woikspace
‣ Move to Workspace Down, to move the window to the bouom woikspace
‣ Move to Another Workspace, and then choose the woikspace to wheie
you wish to move the window.
Note that the options available when moving windows to diffeient
woikspaces depends on which woikspace contains the window you aie
moving. lf the window exists in the lowei-iight woikspace, you will not see
a Move to Workspace Down because theie is no woikspace available below
the lowei-iight quadiant of a foui quadiant woikspace.
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Window always on the top or on visible workspace
At times, you may want to foice a window to always be in the foiegiound
so that it can be seen oi monitoied while you woik with othei applications.
Foi example, you may want to biowse the web and, at the same time, view
and answei incoming instant message. To keep a window always in the
foiegiound, iight-click on the window’s title bai, then select Always On
Top. Tis window will now be on the top of all windows opened in the
cuiient woikspace. lf you want to have a window always on the top ie-
gaidless of the woikspace, iight-click on the window’s title bai, then select
Always on Visible Workspace. Tis window will now be on top of all othei
windows acioss all woikspaces.
Browsing files on your computer
Teie aie two ways to locate files on youi computei—seaich foi them oi ac-
cess them diiectly fiom theii foldei. You can seaich foi a file using the Dash
oi the Files file managei. You can also use the Dash oi Files file managei to
access commonly used foldeis (such as Documents, Music, Downloads) as
well as the most iecently accessed files.
Your Home Folder
Te Home foldei is used to stoie peisonal files. Youi Home foldei matches
youi login name and is cieated when youi usei account is cieated. When
opening youi peisonal foldei, you will see a collection of seveial foldeis,
including Desktop (which contains any files that aie visible on the desktop),
Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictuies, Public, Templates, and Videos.
Tese foldeis aie cieated automatically duiing the installation piocess. You
can add moie files and foldeis as needed.
Files file manager
Just as Windows has Windows Exploiei and Mac os x has Findei to biowse
files and foldeis, Ubuntu 1¸.o¡ uses the Files file managei by default.
The Files file manager window
When you select the Files shoitcut in the Launchei, click on a foldei in the Folders are also called directories.
Dash, oi double-click a foldei on the desktop, Ubuntu should open the Files
file managei. Te default window contains the following featuies·
»env |or Te menu bai is located at the top of the scieen. Te Files menu
allows you to modify the layout of the biowsei, show, biowse and ie-
move bookmaiks, open a Help document, open a new window, connect
to a seivei, oi quit. Choosing Enter Iocation will open the Locations
text field wheie you can entei any location diiectly.
ì:ì|e |or Te title bai shows the name of the cuiiently selected foldei. lt
also contains the Close, Minimize, and Maximize buuons.
ìoo||or On the iight side of the toolbai, theie aie five buuons· SearH
(iepiesented by a magnifying glass), View items as a grid, View items
as a list, View options (iepiesented by a down aiiow), and Iocation
options (iepiesented by a cog), clicking on the SearH icon opens a field
so you can seaich foi a file oi foldei by name. Clicking on the options
buuons Iocation options oi View options opens a menu with options.
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov :,
On the lef side of the toolbai, you will see a iepiesentation of youi
cuiient biowsing. Tis is similai to the histoiy function in most web
biowseis, it keeps tiack of wheie you aie and allows you to backtiack if
necessaiy. You can click on any of the locations to navigate back thiough
the file biowsei. Te buuons Previous location and Next location allow
you to navigate thiough pieviously visited locations.
|eµ ¡one Te lef pane of the file biowsei—titled P|oces—has shoitcuts to
commonly used foldeis. You can also bookmaik a foldei thiough the
toolbai by choosing Iocation options (gear) ‣ Bookmark this Iocation.
Once you have bookmaiked the foldei, it should appeai in the lef pane.
Regaidless of the foldei you aie cuiiently biowsing, the lef pane will
always contain the same foldeis.
r:g|ì ¡one Te laigest pane shows the files and foldeis within the foldei
you aie cuiiently biowsing.
Figure 2.9: Files file manager displaying your
home folder.
To navigate to a foldei in Files, double-click on its icon, this may be in
the iight pane, the lef pane, oi the toolbai.
Opening files
A file, in its simplest foim, is data. Data can iepiesent a text document,
database infoimation, oi othei media such as music oi videos. To open a
file, you can double-click on its icon. Ubuntu will to find an appiopiiate ap-
plication with which to open the selected file. ln some cases, you may wish
to open the file with a diffeient application than the one Ubuntu selected.
To select an application, iight-click the icon and select one of the Open
With options.
Creating new folders
To cieate a new foldei fiom within the Files file managei, iight-click in the
blank aiea of the iight pane and select New Folder fiom the popup menu
(this action will also woik on the desktop). Replace the default “Untitled
Foldei” title with youi desiied label (e.g., “Peisonal Finances”). You can also
cieate a new foldei by piessing Ctrl+Shift+N.
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Hidden Files and Folders
lf you wish to hide ceitain foldeis oi files, place a dot (.) in fiont of the
name (e.g., “.Peisonal Finances”). ln some cases, it is impossible to hide files
and foldeis without piefixing them with a dot.
You can easily view hidden files by clicking View options ‣ Show Hidden
Files oi by piessing Ctrl+H. Hiding files with a dot (.) is noì a secuiity
measuie—it is simply a way to help you oiganize youi files.
Copying and moving files and folders
You can cut, copy, and paste files oi foldeis in the Files file managei by
iight-clicking on the item and selecting the coiiesponding buuon fiom the
popup menu. You can also use the keyboaid shoitcuts Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and
Ctrl+V to cut, copy, and paste files and foldeis, iespectively.
Multiple files can be selected by lef-clicking in an empty space (:.e.,
not on a file oi foldei), holding the mouse buuon down, and diagging the
cuisoi acioss the desiied files oi foldeis. Tis “click-diag” action is useful
when you aie selecting items that aie giouped closely togethei. To select
multiple files oi foldeis that aie not positioned next to each othei, hold
down the Ctrl key while clicking on each item individually. Once the
desiied files and/oi foldeis aie selected, iight-click on any of the selected
items to peifoim an action just like you would foi a single item.
When one oi moie items have been “copied,” navigate to the desiied
location, then iight-click in an empty aiea of the window and select Paste
to copy them to the new location. While the co¡y command can be used
to make a duplicate of a file oi foldei in a new location, the cvì command
can be used to move files and foldeis. Tat is, a copy will be placed in a new
location, and the oiiginal will be iemoved fiom its cuiient location.
Note that when you “cut” oi “copy” a file oi foldei, nothing will hap-
pen until you “paste” it somewheie. Paste will only affect the most iecent
item(s) cut oi copied.
To move a file oi foldei, select the item to move, then click Edit ‣ Cut.
Navigate to the desiied location, then click Edit ‣ Paste. lf you click on
a file oi foldei, diag it, then hold down the Alt key and diop it to youi
destination foldei, a menu will appeai asking whethei you want to co¡y,
»o+e, oi |:n| the item.
As with the co¡y command above, you can also peifoim this action using
the iight-click menu, and it will woik foi multiple files oi foldeis at once.
An alteinative way to move a file oi foldei is to click on the item, and then
diag it to the new location.
Using multiple tabs and multiple Files windows
Opening multiple Files file managei windows can be useful foi diagging
files and foldeis between locations. You can also have multiple ìo|s to
biowse multiple locations at once.
To open a second window when biowsing a foldei in Files, select File ‣
New Window oi piess Ctrl+N. Tis will open a new window, allowing you
to diag files and/oi foldeis between two locations. To open a new tab, click
Iocation options (cog) ‣ New Tab oi piess Ctrl+T. A new iow will appeai
above the space used foi biowsing youi files containing two tabs—both will
display the foldei you weie oiiginally biowsing. You can click these tabs
to switch between them to click and diag files oi foldeis between tabs the
same as you would between windows.
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov ¸1
When diagging items between Files windows oi tabs a small symbol
will appeai ovei the mouse cuisoi to let you know which action will be
peifoimed when you ielease the mouse buuon. A plus sign (÷) indicates
you aie about to copy the item, wheieas a small aiiow means the item will
be moved. Te default action will depend on the foldeis you aie using.
Searching for files and folders on your computer
You can seaich foi files and foldeis using the Dash oi the Files file managei. Search for files and folders quickly by pressing
Ctrl+F in Files and then typing what you want
to find.
Search using the Dash
ln the Dash, simply type youi seaich teims in the seaich bai at the top of
the Dash.
Alteinatively, you may use the Applications oi Files & Folders lenses,
heie you can use a filtei to naiiow down youi seaich. Open the diop-down
menu on the iight side of the seaich bai. lf you’ve selected Applications,
you will be able to filtei by application type. lf you’ve chosen Files & Fold-
ers, you can filtei by a host of options, including Iast modified, Type (e.g.,
Documents), oi Size. lt is sufficient to type the fiist few leueis of the file oi
foldei foi which you aie seaiching.
Search using Files file manager
ln Files file managei, click on the magnifying glass buuon oi piess Ctrl+F.
Tis opens the seaich field wheie you can type the name of the file oi foldei
you want to find.
Customizing your desktop
Figure 2.10: You can change most of your
system’s settings here.
One of the advantages to a windowed enviionment thiough Unity is the
ability to change the look and feel of youi desktop. Don’t like the default
Ubuntu theme` Do you have a pictuie of youi thiid cousin’s aunt’s uncle’s
nephew’s pet chihuahua that you’d love to see on youi desktop as wallpa-
pei` All of this (and moie) is possible thiough desktop customizations in
Unity. Most customizations can be ieached via the Session lndicatoi and
¸: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
then selecting System Settings to open the System Seuings application win-
dow. Te Dash, desktop appeaiance, themes, wallpapeis, accessibility, and
othei configuiation seuings aie available heie. Foi moie infoimation see
Session options.
Figure 2.11: You can change the theme in the
Look tab of the “Appearance” window.
The Look tab
Tiough the Iook tab you can change the backgiound, fonts, and window
theme to fuithei modify the look and feel of youi desktop. To begin, open
Appeaiance by eithei iight-clicking on youi backgiound and selecting
Change Desktop BaHground oi selecting Session Indicator ‣ System
Settings ‣ Appearance. Select the Iook tab.
Te»e Te “Appeaiance” window will display the cuiient selected back-
giound wallpapei and theme. Temes contiol the appeaiance of youi win-
dows, buuons, scioll bais, panels, icons, and othei paits of the desktop. Te
A»|:once theme is used by default, but theie aie othei themes fiom which
you can choose. Just click once on any of the listed themes to give a new
theme a tiy. Te theme will change youi desktop appeaiance immediately.
Des|ìo¡ |oc|grovnJ To change the BaHground, eithei select Wallpapers,
Pictures Folder, oi Colors and Gradients fiom the diop-down list. When
Wallpapers is selected, you will see Ubuntu’s default selection of back-
giounds. To change the backgiound, simply click the pictuie you would like
to use. You’ie not limited to this selection. To use one of youi own pictuies,
click the + buuon and navigate to the image you would like to use. Ten
double-click the image, and the change will take effect immediately. Tis
image will then be added to youi list of available backgiounds. Selecting
Pictures Folder opens youi Pictuies foldei wheie you can choose a pictuie
foi the backgiound. Te Colors and Gradients buuon allows you to set
the backgiound to a solid oi giadient coloi. Click on the Solid Color but-
ton, then the PiH a Color to choose a solid coloi. Te Vertical Gradient
and Horizontal Gradient buuons biing up two PiH a Color buuons. Just
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov ¸¸
choose any two colois you like and see if you have achieved the desiied
Lovnc|er :con s::e At the bouom of the Iook tab you find a slidei to
change the size of icons on the Launchei. You may choose fiom a iange
between ¸: and õ¡ pixels.
The Behavior tab
Tiough the behavior tab theie aie seveial options to change the behavioi
of youi desktop.
Avìo-|:Je ì|e Lovnc|er Switch the Auto-hide the IaunHer to eithei show
the Launchei oi ieveal it when moving the pointei to the defined hot spot.
When tuined on, you can choose the ieveal location—Lef side oi Top lef
coinei—and the ieveal sensitivity.
Fno||e +or|s¡oces By default, woikspaces aie not enabled. You can enable
woikspaces by checking this option.
AJJ s|o+ Jes|ìo¡ :con ìo ì|e |ovnc|er Check this option if you want to
show the desktop icon on the Launchei.
Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computei easiei foi people
with ceitain physical limitations. You can find these tools by opening the
Dash and seaiching foi “Univeisal Access” oi by selecting Session Indica-
tor ‣ System Settings ‣ Universal Access. Use the Seeing tab to manage the
text size, the contiast of the inteifaces, enable a zoom tool, oi even a scieen
ieadei. Selecting high-contiast themes and laigei on-scieen fonts can assist
those with vision difficulties. You can activate “Visual Aleits” thiough the
Hearing tab if you have heaiing impaiiment. You can also adjust keyboaid
and mouse seuings to suit youi needs thiough the Typing and Pointing and
CliHing tabs, iespectively.
Figure 2.12: Universal Access allows you to
enable extra features to make it easier to use
your computer.
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Orca screen reader
Oica is a useful tool foi people with visual impaiiments. Oica comes pie-
installed in Ubuntu. To iun Oica, click on the Dash, type Orca, and click
on the displayed iesult. Oica is the “Scieen Readei” pait of Univeisal Ac-
cess and can be launched once the “Scieen Readei” is activated. Oica’s
voice synthesizei will activate and assist you thiough the vaiious options
such as voice type, voice language, Biaille, and scieen magnification. Once
you have finished selecting youi seuings, you will need to log out of the
computei (Oica will offei to do this foi you). When you log back in, the
Oica seuings you selected will automatically iun eveiy time you use youi
Session options
When you have finished woiking on youi computei, you can choose to log
out, suspend, iestait, oi shut down thiough the Session Indicator on the fai
iight side of the top panel.
Logging out
Logging out will leave the computei iunning but ietuin the desktop to
the login scieen. Tis is useful foi switching between useis, such as when
a diffeient peison wishes to log in to theii account oi if you aie evei in-
stiucted to “log out and back in again.” You can also log out by piessing
Ctrl+Alt+Del. Befoie logging out, always veiify that you have saved youi
woik in any open application.
To save eneigy, you can put youi computei into svs¡enJ mode which will
save the cuiient opened applications to inteinal memoiy, powei off all
inteinal devices and haidwaie, and allow you to stait back up moie quickly.
While in a suspended state, the computei will use just a tiickle of eneigy,
this is iequiied because the session is saved to inteinal memoiy, and if no
powei goes to inteinal memoiy, the data will be lost. To put youi computei
in svs¡enJ mode, select suspend fiom the “Session lndicatoi”.
To ieboot youi computei, select Shut Down fiom the “Session lndicatoi”
and click the Restart icon.
Shut down
To totally powei down youi computei, select Power Off fiom the “Session
lndicatoi” and click Power Off.
Other options
Fiom the “Session lndicatoi”, select IoH/SwitH Account to eithei lock the
scieen of the cuiient usei oi switch usei accounts. You can lock youi scieen
quickly by using the keyboaid shoitcut Ctrl+Alt+L. Locking youi scieen is
iecommended if you aie away fiom youi computei foi any amount of time.
1ui unuN1u uisx1ov ¸¸
Getting help
General Help
Like with any othei opeiating system, Ubuntu has a built-in help iefeience
called the Ubuntu Desktop Guide.To access it, click on the Dash and type
Figure 2.13: The built-in system help provides
topic-based help for Ubuntu.
Help. Alteinatively, you can piess F1 while on the desktop, oi select Ubuntu
Help fiom the Help menu in the menu bai. Many applications have theii
own help section which can be accessed by clicking the Help menu within
the application window.
Online Help
lf you can’t find an answei to youi question in this manual oi in the
Ubuntu Desktop Guide, you can contact the Ubuntu community thiough
the Ubuntu Foiums (http·//ubuntufoiums.oig).
Many Ubuntu useis open an account on the foiums to ieceive help and
in tuin piovide suppoit to otheis as they gain moie knowledge. Anothei
useful iesouice is the Ubuntu Wiki (https·//, a
website maintained by the Ubuntu community. On https·//
you find the Official Ubuntu Documentation. On this web page you can
choose between diffeient veisions of Ubuntu.
Heads-Up Display help
Figure 2.14: The HUD (heads-up display) shows
application-specific help information based on
your general input.
¸õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Te uuu (heads-up display) is a keyboaid-fiiendly utility to help you find
commands, featuies, and piefeiences embedded deep within the stacked
menu stiuctuie of an application.
Activate the uuu by tapping the lef Alt key on the keyboaid. lf you
want to know how to load Rhythmbox, the default music playei in Ubuntu,
then just type rhythmbox in the uuu and the options ielated to Rhythmbox
will come up in the list of matching iesults. You can piess the Enter key
to active the command. Te uuu also woiks foi some applications iunning
undei WlNE. uuu comes in handy in applications with deep menus such as
LibieOffice and Gimp.
3 Working with Ubuntu
All the applications you need
lf you aie migiating fiom a Windows oi Mac platfoim, you may wondei
if the piogiams you once used aie available foi Ubuntu. Some of the pio-
giams you alieady use have native Linux veisions. Foi those that don’t,
theie aie fiee and open souice applications that will covei youi needs. Tis
section will iecommend some alteinatives that will woik well on Ubuntu.
Most of the applications listed in this section aie available via the Sof-
waie Centei. Tose followed by an asteiisk (*) can be downloaded diiectly
fiom theii official websites.
Office Suites
‣ Windows· Miciosof Office, LibieOffice
‣ Mac os x· iWoik, Miciosof Office, LibieOffice
‣ Linux· LibieOffice, KOffice, cNo¬i Office, Kexi (database application)
ln Ubuntu you may choose among many office suites. Te most populai
suite is the LibieOffice (foimeily OpenOffice). lncluded in the suite·
‣ Wiitei—woid piocessoi
‣ Calc—spieadsheet
‣ lmpiess—piesentation managei
‣ Diaw—diawing piogiam
‣ Base—database
‣ Math—equation editoi
LibieOffice Suite is installed by default. Note that Base is not installed by
default and it can be installed thiough Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Email Applications
‣ Windows· Miciosof Outlook, Mozilla Tundeibiid
‣ Mac os x·, Miciosof Outlook, Mozilla Tundeibiid
‣ Linux· Mozilla Tundeibiid, Evolution, KMail
As with office suites, theie aie multiple options foi email applications.
One veiy populai email application is Mozilla Tundeibiid, which is also
available foi Windows. Tundeibiid is the default email application in
Ubuntu. Anothei option is Evolution—similai to Miciosof Outlook, it also
piovides a calendai.
Web Browsers
‣ Windows· Miciosof lnteinet Exploiei, Mozilla Fiiefox, Opeia, Chiomium,
Google Chiome
‣ Mac os x· Safaii, Mozilla Fiiefox, Opeia, Chiomium, Google Chiome
‣ Linux· Mozilla Fiiefox, Opeia*, Chiomium, Google Chiome*, Epiphany
Te most populai web biowseis can be installed diiectly fiom the
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. Opeia is available foi download fiom http·//www. Google Chiome is available foi download
fiom https·//
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PDF Readers
‣ Windows· Adobe Aciobat Readei, Foxit Firefox and Google Chrome are also able to
view PDF files.
‣ Mac os x· Adobe Aciobat Readei
‣ Linux· Evince, Adobe Aciobat Readei, Okulai
Evince is a usei-fiiendly and minimalistic ieadei, and it is the default
vui ieadei. lf Evince doesn’t covei youi needs, Adobe Aciobat Readei is
available foi Ubuntu, too.
Multimedia Players
‣ Windows· Windows Media Playei, vic
‣ Mac os x· Qicktime, vic
‣ Linux· Totem, vic, MPlayei, Kaffeine
Foi multimedia, Ubuntu useis have a wide vaiiety of options foi high
quality playeis. VLC is a peiennial favoiite among videophiles. Te classic
and usei-fiiendly Totem is the default media playei in Ubuntu.
Music Players and Podcatchers
‣ Windows· Windows Media Playei, iTunes, Winamp
‣ Mac os x· iTunes
‣ Linux· Rhythmbox, Banshee, Amaiok, Audacity, Miio
Teie aie seveial options foi listening to music with Ubuntu· Rhythmbox
(installed by default) and Amaiok among many otheis. Tese applications
allow you to listen to music and to youi favoiite podcasts. Amaiok is sim-
ilai to Winamp. Teie is Miio foi those who watch video podcasts and 1v
shows fiom the lnteinet.
CD/DVD Burning
‣ Windows· Neio Buining vo¬, lnfiaRecoidei
‣ Mac os x· Buin, Toast Titanium
‣ Linux· Biaseio, K¸b, Gnome-bakei
Teie aie seveial populai disk buining applications such as Gnome-
bakei, Biaseio (Ubuntu’s default buinei application), cu buinei, and K¸b.
Tese buineis aie poweiful tools, offeiing usei-fiiendly inteifaces and
many featuies. Tey aie all open souice and fiee of chaige'
Photo Management
‣ Windows· Miciosof Office Pictuie Managei, Picasa
‣ Mac os x· Apeituie, Picasa
‣ Linux· Shotwell, gTumb, Gwenview, F-Spot
You can view and manage youi favoiite photos with Shotwell, Ubuntu’s
default photo managei, oi with gTumb, Gwenview, and F-Spot.
Graphics Editors
‣ Windows· Adobe Photoshop, ci¬v
‣ Mac os x· Adobe Photoshop, ci¬v
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸,
‣ Linux· ci¬v, lnkscape
ci¬v is a veiy poweiful giaphics editoi. You can cieate youi own giaph-
ics, tapei youi photogiaphs, and modify youi pictuies. ci¬v, a poweiful
alteinative to Photoshop, coveis the needs of novice useis, piofessional
photogiapheis, and designeis alike. ci¬v is not installed by default, but the
application can be installed thiough the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Instant Messaging
‣ Windows· Windows Live Messengei, »i¬, Yahoo' Messengei, Google
‣ Mac os x· Windows Live Messengei, »i¬, Yahoo' Messengei, Adium,
‣ Linux· Empathy, Pidgin, Kopete, aMSN
None of the othei platfoim i¬ clients have Linux veisions. Howevei,
you can use Pidgin, Empathy, oi Kopete to communicate ovei most pio-
tocols including· »i¬, ¬sN, Google Talk (Jabbei/x¬vv), Facebook, Yahoo',
and icç. Tis means you need only one client to communicate with all of
youi fiiends. Te diawback is that some of these clients have limited video
suppoit. lf you aie using ¬sN exclusively, aMSN may be woith a tiy.
VoIP Applications
‣ Windows· Skype, Google Video Chat
‣ Mac os x· Skype, Google Video Chat
‣ Linux· Ekiga, Skype, Google Video Chat
VolP technologies allow you to talk to people ovei the lnteinet. Te
most populai application is Skype, which is available foi Linux. An open-
souice alteinative called Ekiga suppoits voice communication using the siv
piotocol. Note that Ekiga isn’t compatible with Skype.
BitTorrent Clients
‣ Windows· µToiient, Vuze
‣ Mac os x· Tiansmission, Vuze
‣ Linux· Tiansmission, Deluge, KToiient, Flush, Vuze, BitStoim Lite
Teie aie a numbei of BitToiient clients foi Ubuntu· Tiansmission,
Ubuntu’s default client, is simple and light-weight. Deluge, Vuze, and KToi-
ient offei many featuies and can satisfy the most demanding of useis.
Getting online
Tis section of the manual will help you to check youi connection to the
lnteinet and help you configuie it wheie needed. Ubuntu can connect to the
lnteinet using a wiied, wiieless, oi dialup connection. Ubuntu also suppoits
moie advanced connection methods, which will be biiefly discussed at the
end of this section.
A wiied connection is when youi computei connects to the lnteinet
using an Etheinet cable. Tis is usually connected to a wall socket oi a
netwoiking device—like a switch oi a ioutei.
A wiieless connection is when youi computei connects to the lnteinet
using a wiieless iadio netwoik—usually known as Wi-Fi. Most iouteis now
¡o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
come with wiieless capability, as do most laptops and netbooks. Because of
this, Wi-Fi is the most common connection type foi these types of devices.
Wiieless connectivity makes laptops and netbooks moie poitable when
moving to diffeient iooms of a house and while tiavelling.
A dialup connection is when youi computei uses a »oJe» to connect to
the lnteinet thiough a telephone line.
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 3.1: The network connection states: (a)
disconnected, (b) wired, and (c) wireless.
ln oidei to connect to the lnteinet using Ubuntu, you need to use the Net-
woikManagei utility. NetwoikManagei allows you to tuin netwoik con-
nections on oi off, manage wiied and wiieless netwoiks, and make othei
netwoik connections, such as dialup, mobile bioadband, and vvNs.
Figure 3.2: Here you can see the currently active
connection is “Wired connection 1.”
You can access NetwoikManagei by using its icon found in the top panel.
Tis icon may look diffeient depending on youi cuiient connection state.
Clicking this icon will ieveal a list of available netwoik connections. Te
cuiient connection (if any) will have the woid “disconnect” undeineath it.
You can click on “disconnect” to manually disconnect fiom that netwoik.
Tis menu also allows you to view technical details about youi cuiient
connection oi edit all connection seuings. ln the image to the iight, you
will see a check maik next to “Enable Netwoiking.” Deselect “Enable Net-
woiking” to disable all netwoik connections. Select “Enable Netwoiking” to
enable netwoiking again. Tis can be veiy useful when you aie iequiied to
tuin off all wiieless communications, like in an aiiplane.
Establishing a wired connection
lf you aie alieady online at this point as indicated by the NetwoikManagei
icon in the top panel showing a connection, then you may have successfully
connected duiing the Ubuntu setup piocess. You can also simply open a
biowsei and see if you have access to the lnteinet. lf so, you do not need to
do anything foi the iest of this section. lf not, then continue ieading.
lf you have an Fì|erneì cable iunning fiom a wall socket oi netwoiking
device, such as a switch oi ioutei, then you will want to setup a wiied
connection in Ubuntu.
ln oidei to connect to the lnteinet with a wiied connection, you need to
know whethei youi netwoik suppoits uucv (Dyno»:c Hosì Configvroì:on
Proìoco|). uucv is a way foi youi computei to automatically be configuied
to access youi netwoik and/oi lnteinet connection. uucv is usually auto-
matically configuied on youi ioutei. Tis is usually the quickest and easiest
way of establishing a connection to the lnteinet. lf you aie unsuie whethei
youi ioutei is setup to use uucv, you may wish to contact youi isv’s (In-
ìerneì Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer) customei seivice line to check. lf youi ioutei isn’t
configuied to use uucv then they will also be able to tell you what configu-
iation seuings you need in oidei to get online.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¡1
Automatic connections with DHCP
Figure 3.3: This window displays your IP address
and other connection information.
lf youi netwoik suppoits uucv, then you may alieady be set up foi on-
line access. To check this, click on the NetwoikManagei icon. Teie should
be a “Etheinet Netwoik” heading in the menu. lf “Wiied connection 1” ap-
peais diiectly undeineath, then youi machine is cuiiently connected and
piobably setup foi uucv. lf “Disconnected” appeais in giay undeineath the
wiied netwoik section, look below to see if an option labeled “Wiied con-
nection 1” appeais in the list. lf so, click on it to auempt to establish a wiied
To check if you aie online, click on the NetwoikManagei icon in the An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique
number assigned to your machine so that your
router can identify you on the network. Think
of it like a phone number for your computer.
Having this unique address allows the router
to speak to your computer, and therefore
send/receive data.
If you are still not online after following these
steps, you may need to try setting up your
network connection manually using a static IP
top panel and select the Connection lnfoimation option. You should see a
window showing details of youi connection. lf youi iv addiess is displayed
as o.o.o.o oi staits with 1õ,.:¸¡, then youi computei was not successfully
assigned connection infoimation thiough uucv. lf it shows anothei addiess
(e.g., 1,:.1õ8.:1,.1¸¸), then it is likely that youi uucv connection to the
ioutei was successful. To test youi lnteinet connection, you may want to
open the Fiiefox web biowsei to tiy loading a web page. Moie infoimation
on using Fiiefox can be found latei in this chaptei.
Manual configuration with static address
lf youi netwoik does not suppoit uucv, then you need to know a few items
of infoimation befoie you can get online. lf you do not know any of this
infoimation, then you call youi isv.
‣ An ìì oJJress—Tis is a unique addiess used foi identifying youi com-
putei on the netwoik. An iv addiess is always given in foui numbeied
gioups, sepaiated by dots, foi example, 1,:.1õ8.1oo.1o. When connect-
ing using uucv, this addiess will peiiodically change (hence, the name
“dynamic”). Howevei, if you have configuied a static iv addiess, youi iv
addiess will nevei change.
‣ A neì+or| »os|—Tis tells youi computei the size of the netwoik to
which it is being connected. lt is foimaued the same way as the iv ad-
diess, but usually looks something like :¸¸.:¸¸.:¸¸.o.
‣ A goìe+oy—Tis is the iv addiess of the device that youi machine looks
to foi access to the lnteinet. Usually, this will be the ioutei’s iv addiess.
‣ u×: ser+er—Tis is the iv addiess of the uNs (Do»o:n No»e Ser+:ce)
seivei. uNs is what youi computei uses to iesolve iv addiesses to domain
¡: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
names. Foi example http·// iesolves to ,1.18,.,¡.1¸õ.
Tis is the iv addiess of the Ubuntu website on the lnteinet. uNs is
used so you don’t have to iemembei iv addiesses. Domain names (like aie much easiei to iemembei. You will need at least one
uNs seivei addiess but you can entei up to thiee addiesses in case one
seivei is unavailable. lf you do not know youi isv’s uNs seivei addiesses,
Google has uNs seiveis that anyone in the woild can use foi fiee. Te
addiesses of these seiveis aie· Piimaiy— Secondaiy—8.8.¡.¡.
To manually configuie a wiied connection, click on the NetwoikManagei
icon and select Edit Connections. Make suie you aie looking at the Wired
tab inside the “Netwoik Connections” window. Te list may alieady have
an entiy, such as “Wiied connection 1” oi a similai name. lf a connection is
listed, select it and click the Edit buuon. lf no connection is listed, click the
Add buuon.
lf you aie adding a connection, you need to piovide a name foi the
connection. Tis will distinguish the connection being added fiom any
othei connections added in futuie. ln the “Connection Name” field, choose a
name such as “Wiied Home.”
Figure 3.4: In this window you can manually edit
a connection.
To setup the connection·
1. Make suie that the Connect automatically option is selected undei the
connection name.
:. Switch to the :vv¡ Settings tab.
¸. Change the Method to “Manual.”
¡. Click on the Add buuon next to the empty list of addiesses.
¸. Entei youi iv addiess in the field below the Address headei.
õ. Click to the iight of the iv addiess, diiectly below the Netmask headei
and entei youi netwoik mask. lf you aie unsuie, “:¸¸.:¸¸.:¸¸.o” is the
most common.
,. Click on the iight of the netwoik mask diiectly below the Gateway
headei and entei the addiess of youi gateway.
8. ln the nNs Servers field below, entei the addiess of youi uNs seivei(s).
lf you aie enteiing moie than one, sepaiate them with commas—foi
example, “, 8.8.¡.¡”.
,. Click Save to save youi changes.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¡¸
A m~c oJJress :s o |orJ+ore oJJress [or yovr co»¡vìer’s neì+or| corJ. Fnìer:ng
ì|:s :n[or»oì:on :s so»eì:»es :»¡orìonì +|en vs:ng o co||e »oJe» connecì:on.
I[ yov |no+ ì|e m~c oJJress o[ yovr neì+or| corJ, ì|:s con |e enìereJ :n ì|e
o¡¡ro¡r:oìe ìe:ì fie|J :n ì|e Wired ìo| o[ ì|e eJ:ì:ng +:nJo+. To finJ ì|e m~c
oJJresses [or o|| :nsìo||eJ neì+or|:ng Je+:ces, o¡en o ìer»:no| +:nJo+, onJ oì
ì|e co»»onJ |:ne ¡ro»¡ì, ìy¡e ifconfig. T:s +:|| J:s¡|oy o |oì o[ :n[or»oì:on
o|ovì eoc| o[ ì|e neì+or| Je+:ces :nsìo||eJ on ì|e co»¡vìer. Te +:reJ Je+:ces
+:|| |e |o|e|eJ os LAN, LAN, eìc. Te +:re|ess Je+:ces +:|| o¡¡eor os WLAN,
WLAN, eìc.
When you have ietuined to the Netwoik Connections scieen, youi
newly added connection should now be listed. Click Close to ietuin to the
desktop. lf youi connection was configuied coiiectly, the NetwoikManagei
icon should have changed to show an active wiied connection. To test if
youi connection is piopeily set up, simply open a web biowsei. lf you can
access the lnteinet, then you aie connected'
lf youi computei is equipped with a wiieless (Wi-Fi) caid and you have a
wiieless netwoik neaiby, you should be able to set up a wiieless connection
in Ubuntu.
Connecting to a wireless network for the first time
lf youi computei has a wiieless netwoik caid, you can connect to a wiieless
netwoik. Most laptops and netbooks have a built-in wiieless netwoiking
Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wiieless netwoik in iange of youi
computei. To see a list of wiieless netwoiks, click on the NetwoikMan-
agei icon. Undei the “Wiieless Netwoiks” heading you should see a list of
available wiieless netwoiks. Each netwoik will be shown by its name and a
signal metei to the lef showing its ielative signal stiength. Te signal metei
looks like a set of bais similai to what is seen when viewing signal stiength
of a cell phone. Simply put, the moie bais, the stiongei the signal. To im-
piove speed and ieliability of youi wiieless connection, tiy moving closei to
youi ioutei oi wiieless access point.
A wiieless netwoik can be open to anyone, oi it can be piotected with
a passwoid. A small padlock will be displayed by the signal bai if any
wiieless netwoik within iange aie passwoid-piotected. You will need to
know the coiiect passwoid in oidei to connect to these secuied wiieless
To connect to a wiieless netwoik, select the desiied netwoik by clicking
on its name within the list. Tis will be the name that was used duiing
the installation of the wiieless ioutei oi access point. Most isvs (lnteinet
seivice piovideis) piovide pie-configuied iouteis with a stickei on them
detailing the cuiient wiieless netwoik name and passwoid. Most publicly
accessible wiieless netwoiks will be easily identifiable by the name used foi
the wiieless netwoik—foi example “Staibucks-Wiieless.”
lf the netwoik is unpiotected (:.e., the signal metei does not show a pad-
lock), a connection should be established within a few seconds—and with-
out a passwoid iequiied. Te NetwoikManagei icon in the top panel will
animate as Ubuntu auempts to connect to the netwoik. lf the connection
is successful, the icon will change to display a signal metei. An on-scieen
¡¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
notification message will also appeai infoiming you that the connection
was successful.
lf the netwoik is passwoid-piotected, Ubuntu will display a window
called “Wiieless Netwoik Authentication Requiied” as it tiies to make a
connection. Tis means that a valid passwoid is iequiied to make a connec-
tion. Tis is what the scieen should look like·
Figure 3.5: Enter your wireless network
lf you know the passwoid, entei it in the Password field and then click
on the Connect buuon. As you type the passwoid, it will be obscuied fiom
view to pievent otheis fiom ieading the passwoid as you type it. To veiify
the chaiacteis you aie enteiing foi the passwoid, you can view the pass-
woid by selecting the Show Password check box. Ten, you can make the
passwoid obscuie again by deselecting the Show password check box.
Once the passwoid is enteied, click on the Connect buuon. Te Netwoik-
Managei icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu auempts to connect
to the netwoik. lf the connection is successful, the icon will change to dis-
play a signal metei. An on-scieen notification message will also appeai
infoiming you that the connection was successful.
lf you enteied the passwoid incoiiectly, oi if it doesn’t match the coi-
iect passwoid (foi example if it has iecently been changed and you have
foigouen), NetwoikManagei will make anothei auempt to connect to the
netwoik, and the “Wiieless Netwoik Authentication Requiied” window will
ie-appeai so that you can ie-type the passwoid. You can hit the Cancel but-
ton to aboit the connection. lf you do not know the coiiect passwoid, you
may need to call youi isv’s customei suppoit line oi contact youi netwoik
Once you have successfully established a wiieless connection, Ubuntu
will stoie these seuings (including the passwoid) to make it easiei to con-
nect to this same wiieless netwoik in the futuie. You may also be piompted
to select a |eyr:ng passwoid heie. Te keyiing stoies passwoids in one
place so you can access them all in the futuie by iemembeiing just the
keyiing passwoid.
Connecting to a saved wireless network
Ubuntu will automatically tiy to connect to a wiieless netwoik in iange
if it has the seuings saved. Tis woiks on both open and secuie wiieless
lf you have numeious wiieless netwoiks in iange that aie saved on
youi computei, Ubuntu may choose to connect to one netwoik while you
may want to connect to anothei netwoik. To iemedy this action, click on
the NetwoikManagei icon. A list of wiieless netwoiks will appeai along
with theii signal meteis. Simply click on the netwoik to which you wish to
connect, and Ubuntu will disconnect fiom the cuiient netwoik and auempt
to connect to the one you have selected.
lf the netwoik is secuie and Ubuntu has the details foi this netwoik
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¡¸
saved, Ubuntu will automatically connect. lf the details foi this netwoik
connection aie not saved, aie incoiiect, oi have changed, then you will be
piompted to entei the netwoik passwoid again. lf the netwoik is open (no
passwoid iequiied), all of this will happen automatically and the connection
will be established.
Connecting to a hidden wireless network
ln some enviionments, you may need to connect to a hidden wiieless net-
woik. Tese hidden netwoiks do not bioadcast theii names, and, theiefoie,
theii names will not appeai in the list of available wiieless netwoiks even
if they aie in iange. ln oidei to connect to a hidden wiieless netwoik, you
will need to get its name and secuiity details fiom youi netwoik adminis-
tiatoi oi isv.
To connect to a hidden wiieless netwoik·
1. Click on NetwoikManagei in the top panel.
:. Select Connect to a hidden wireless network. Ubuntu will then open
the “Connect to Hidden Wiieless Netwoik” window.
¸. ln the Network name field, entei the name of the netwoik. Tis is also
known as the ::ìu (Ser+:ce Seì IJenì:fier). You must entei the name ex-
actly how it was given to you. Foi example, if the name is “Ubuntu-
Wiieless,” enteiing “ubuntu-wiieless” will not woik as the “U” and “W”
aie both uppeicase in the coiiect name.
¡. ln the Wireless security field, select one of the options. lf the netwoik
is an open netwoik, leave the field set to “None.” lf you do not know the
coiiect seuing foi the field, you will not be able to connect to the hidden
¸. Click the Connect buuon. lf the netwoik is secuie, you will be piompted
foi the passwoid. Piovided you have enteied all of the details coiiectly,
the netwoik should then connect, and you will ieceive an on-scieen
notification infoiming you that the connection was a success.
As is the case with visible wiieless netwoiks, hidden wiieless netwoik
seuings will be saved once a connection is made, and the wiieless netwoik
will then appeai in the list of saved connections.
Disabling and enabling your wireless card
By default, wiieless access is enabled if you have a wiieless caid installed in
youi computei. ln ceitain enviionments (like on aiiplanes), you may need
to tempoiaiily disable youi wiieless caid.
To disable youi wiieless caid, click on the NetwoikManagei icon and
deselect the Enable Wireless option. Youi wiieless iadio will now be tuined
off, and youi computei will no longei seaich foi wiieless netwoiks.
To ieactivate youi wiieless caid, simply select the Enable Wireless op-
tion. Ubuntu will then begin to seaich foi wiieless netwoiks automatically.
lf you aie in iange of a saved netwoik, you will automatically be connected.
Many modein laptops also have a physical switch/buuon built into the
chassis that piovides a way to quickly enable/disable the wiieless caid.
Changing an existing wireless network
At times you may want to change the seuings of a saved wiieless netwoik
—foi example, when the wiieless passwoid gets changed.
To edit a saved wiieless netwoik connection·
¡õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
1. Click on the NetwoikManagei icon and select Edit Connections…
:. A “Netwoik Connections” window will open. Click on the Wireless tab.
¸. By default, saved netwoiks aie in chionological oidei with the most
iecently connected at the top. Find the netwoik you want to edit, select
it, and click on the Edit buuon.
¡. Ubuntu will now open a window called “Editing 〈connecì:on no»e〉”,
wheie 〈connecì:on no»e〉 is the name of the connection you aie editing.
Tis window will display a numbei of tabs.
¸. Above the tabs, theie is a field called Connection name wheie you can
change the name of the connection to give it a moie iecognizable name.
õ. lf the Connect automatically option is not selected, Ubuntu will detect
the wiieless netwoik but will not auempt a connection until it is se-
lected fiom the NetwoikManagei menu. Select oi deselect this option as
,. On the Wireless tab, you may need to edit the ss:n field. A ssiu is the
wiieless connection’s netwoik name. lf this field isn’t set coiiectly,
Ubuntu will not be able to connect to the wiieless netwoik in question.
8. Below the ssiu is a Mode field. Te “lnfiastiuctuie” mode means that
you would be connecting to a wiieless ioutei oi Access Point. Te “ad-
hoc” mode is foi a computei-to-computei connection (wheie one com-
putei shaies anothei’s connection) and is ofen only used in advanced
,. On the Wireless Security tab, you can change the Security field. A
selection of “None” means that you aie using an open netwoik that
doesn’t iequiie a passwoid. Othei selections in this tab may iequiie
additional infoimation·
v¡ì ¡o/1z8-|:ì Key is an oldei secuiity seuing still in use by some oldei
wiieless devices. lf youi netwoik uses this method of secuiity, you
will need to entei a key in the Key field that will appeai when this
mode is selected.
v¡ì 1z8-|:ì Poss¡|rose is the same oldei secuiity as above. Howevei,
instead of having a key, youi netwoik administiatoi should have
piovided you with a passphiase to connect to the netwoik.
vì~ & vì~z Persono| is the most common secuiity mode foi wiieless
netwoiking. Once you select this mode, you will need to entei a
passwoid in the Password field.
lf youi netwoik administiatoi iequiies ii»v, Dynamic viv oi vv» &
vv»: Enteipiise then you will need to have the administiatoi help
you with those modes.
1o. ln the :vv¡ Settings tab, you can change the Method field fiom “Auto-
matic (uucv)” to “Manual” oi one of the othei methods. Foi seuing up
manual seuings (also known as a static addiess), please see the section
above on manual setup foi wiied netwoik connections.
11. When you finish making changes to the connection, click Apply to save
youi changes and close the window. You can click Cancel at any time to
close the window without saving any changes.
1:. Finally, click Close on the “Netwoik Connections” window to ietuin to
the desktop.
Afei clicking Apply, any changes made to the netwoik connection will
take effect immediately.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¡,
Other connection methods
Teie aie othei ways to get connected with Ubuntu·
‣ With NetwoikManagei, you can configuie mobile bioadband connec-
tions to connect to the lnteinet thiough youi cellulai data caiiiei.
‣ You can connect to digital subsciibei line (usi) netwoiks, a method of
connecting to the lnteinet thiough youi phone line via a modem.
‣ lt is also possible foi NetwoikManagei to establish a viitual piivate
netwoik (vvN) connection. Tese aie most commonly used to cieate a
secuie connection to a woikplace netwoik.
Te instiuctions foi making connections using mobile bioadband, usi, oi
vvN aie beyond the scope of this guide.
Browsing the web
Once you have connected to the lnteinet, you should be able to biowse the
web. Mozilla Fiiefox is the default application foi this in Ubuntu.
Figure 3.6: The default Ubuntu home page for
the Firefox web browser.
Starting Firefox
Teie aie seveial ways to stait Fiiefox. By default Ubuntu has the Fiiefox
icon within the Launchei (the veitical bai down the lef side of the scieen).
Select this icon to open Fiiefox. Oi, open the Dash (the top-most icon in the
Launchei) and seaich foi firefox using the seaich box. lf youi keyboaid
has a “vvv” buuon, you can piess that buuon to stait Fiiefox.
Navigating web pages
Viewing your homepage
When you stait Fiiefox, you will see youi home page. By default, this is the
Ubuntu Stait Page.
To quickly go to youi home page, piess Alt+Home on youi keyboaid oi
piess on the home icon in Fiiefox.
¡8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Navigating to another page
To navigate to a new web page, you need to entei its lnteinet addiess (also URL stands for uniform resource locator, which
tells the computer how to find something on
the Internet—such as a document, web page or
an email address. WWW stands for World Wide
Web, which means the web pages by which
most people interact with the Internet.
known as a uvi) into the Location Bai. uvis noimally begin with “http·//”
followed by one oi moie names that identify the addiess. One example
is “http·//” (Noimally, you can omit the “http·//” pait.
Fiiefox will fill it in foi you.)
Figure 3.7: You can enter a web address or
search the Internet by typing in the location bar.
To navigate·
1. Double-click in the Location Bai, oi piess Ctrl+L, to highlight the uvi
that is alieady theie.
:. Entei the uvi of the page you want to visit. Te uvi you type ieplaces
any text alieady in the Location Bai.
¸. Piess Enter.
lf you don’t know the uvi that you need, type a seaich teim into the
Seaich Bai to the iight of the Location bai. Youi piefeiied seaich engine
—Google by default—will ietuin a list of websites foi you to choose fiom.
(You can also entei youi queiy diiectly into the Location Bai).
Selecting a link
Most web pages contain links that you can select. Tese aie known as
“hypeilinks.” A hypeilink can let you move to anothei page, download a
document, change the content of the page, and moie.
To select a link·
1. Move the mouse pointei until it changes to a pointing fingei. Tis hap-
pens whenevei the pointei is ovei a link. Most links aie undeilined text,
but buuons and pictuies on a web page can also be links.
:. Click the link once. While Fiiefox locates the link’s page, status mes-
sages will appeai at the bouom of the window.
Retracing your steps
lf you want to visit a page you have viewed befoie, theie aie seveial ways To go backwards and forwards you can also use
Alt+Left and Alt+Right respectively.
to do so.
‣ To go back oi foiwaid one page, piess the BaH oi Forward buuon by
the lef side of the Location Bai.
‣ To go back oi foiwaid moie than one page, click-and-hold on the ie-
spective buuon. You will see a list of pages you have iecently visited. To
ietuin to a page, select it fiom the list.
‣ To see a list of any uvis you have enteied into the Location Bai, piess
the down aiiow at the iight end of the Location Bai. Choose a page fiom
the list.
‣ To choose fiom pages you have visited duiing the cuiient session, open
the History menu and choose fiom the list in the lowei section of the
‣ To choose fiom pages you have visited ovei the past few months, open
the History ‣ Show All History (oi piess Ctrl+Shift+H). Fiiefox opens a
“Libiaiy” window showing a list of foldeis, the fiist of which is “Histoiy.”
Select a suitable sub-foldei, oi entei a seaich teim in the seaich bai (at
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¡,
the top iight), to find pages you have viewed befoie. Double-click a
iesult to open the page.
Stopping and reloading
lf a page is loading too slowly oi you no longei wish to view a page, piess The Reload button is at the right end of the
Location Bar.
Esc to cancel it. To ieload the cuiient page if it might have changed since
you loaded it, piess on the Reload buuon oi piess Ctrl+R.
Opening new windows
At times, you may want to have moie than one biowsei window open. Tis
may help you to oiganize youi biowsing session beuei, oi to sepaiate web
pages that you aie viewing foi diffeient ieasons.
Teie aie foui ways to cieate a new window·
‣ On the top bai, select File ‣ New Window.
‣ Piess Ctrl+N.
‣ Right-click on Fiiefox’s icon on the Launchei and select Open New
‣ Click on Fiiefox’s icon on the Launchei using youi middle mouse buuon.
Once a new window has opened, you can use it exactly the same as
the fiist window—including navigation and opening tabs. You can open
multiple windows.
Opening a link in a new window
Sometimes, you may want to click a link to navigate to anothei web page,
but do not want the oiiginal to close. To do this, you can open the link in its
own independent window.
Teie aie two ways to open a link in its own window·
‣ Right-click a link and select Open Iink in New Window.
‣ Piess-and-hold the Shift key while clicking a link.
Tabbed browsing
An alteinative to opening new windows is to use To||eJ Bro+s:ng instead.
Tabbed biowsing lets you open seveial web pages within a single Fiiefox A new tab is independent of other tabs in the
same way that new windows are independent
of other windows. You can even mix-and-match
—for example, one window may contain tabs
for your emails, while another window has tabs
for your work.
window, each independent of the othei. Tis fiees space on youi desktop
as you do not have to open a sepaiate window foi each new web page. You
can open, close, and ieload web pages in one place without having to switch
to anothei window.
You can alteinate quickly between diffeient tabs by using the keyboaid
shoitcut Ctrl+Tab.
Opening a new blank tab
Teie aie thiee ways to cieate a new blank tab·
‣ Click on the Open new tab buuon (a gieen plus-sign) on the iight side of
the last tab.
‣ On the top bai, open File ‣ New Tab.
‣ Piess Ctrl+T.
¸o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
When you cieate a new tab, it contains a blank page with the Location
Bai focused. Type a web addiess (uvi) oi othei seaich teim to open a web-
site in the new tab.
Opening a link in its own tab
Sometimes, you may want to click a link to navigate to anothei web page,
but do not want the oiiginal to close. To do this, you can open the link in its
own tab.
Teie aie seveial ways to open a link in its own tab. A tab always opens “in the background”—in
other words, the focus remains on the original
tab. The last method (Ctrl+Shift) is an
exception; it focuses the new tab immediately.
‣ Right-click a link and select Open Iink in New Tab.
‣ Piess-and-hold the Ctrl key while clicking a link.
‣ Click the link using eithei the middle mouse buuon oi both lef and iight
mouse buuons simultaneously.
‣ Diag the link to a blank space on the tab bai oi onto the Open new tab
‣ Piess-and-hold Ctrl+Shift while clicking a link.
Closing a tab
Once you have finished viewing a web page in a tab, you have vaiious ways
to close it·
‣ Click on the Close buuon on the iight side of the tab.
‣ Click the tab with the middle mouse buuon oi the mouse wheel.
‣ Piess Ctrl+W.
‣ Right-click the tab and select Close Tab.
Restoring a closed tab
Sometimes, you may close the wiong tab by accident, oi want to biing back
a tab that you have iecently closed. Biing back a tab in one of the following
two ways·
‣ Piess Ctrl+Shift+T to ie-open the most iecently closed tab.
‣ Select History ‣ Recently Closed Tabs, and choose the name of the tab to
Changing the tab order
Move a tab to a diffeient location on the tab bai by diagging it to a new
location using youi mouse. While you aie diagging the tab, Fiiefox displays
a small indicatoi to show the tab’s new location.
Moving a tab between windows
You can move a tab into a new Fiiefox window oi, if one is alieady open,
into a diffeient Fiiefox window.
Diag a tab away fiom the tab bai, and it will open into a new window.
Diag it fiom the tab bai into the tab bai of anothei open Fiiefox window,
and it will move theie instead.
You can seaich the web fiom within Fiiefox without fiist visiting the home
page of the seaich engine. By default, Fiiefox will seaich the web using the
Google seaich engine.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸1
Searching the web
To seaich the web in Fiiefox, type a few woids into the Fiiefox seaich Bai.
Foi example, if you want to find infoimation about U|vnìv·
1. Move youi cuisoi to the SearH Bar using youi mouse oi piess Ctrl+K.
:. Type the phiase Ubuntu. Youi typing ieplaces any text cuiiently in the
Seaich Bai.
¸. Piess the magnifying glass oi Enter to seaich.
Seaich iesults fiom Google foi “Ubuntu” will appeai in the Fiiefox win-
Selecting search engines
Figure 3.8: These are the other search engines
you can use—by default—from the Firefox
search bar.
lf you do not want to use Google as youi seaich engine in the Seaich Bai,
you can change the seaich engine that Fiiefox uses.
To change youi piefeiied seaich engine, piess the seaich logo (at the
lef of youi Seaich Bai—Google by default) and choose the seaich engine of
youi choice. Some seaich engines, such as Bing, Google and Yahoo, seaich
the whole web, otheis, such as Amazon and Wikipedia, seaich only specific
Searching the web for words selected in a web page
Sometimes, you may want to seaich foi a phiase that you see on a web
page. You can copy and paste the phiase into the Seaich Bai, but theie is a
quickei way.
1. Highlight the woid oi phiase in a web page using youi lef mouse but-
:. Right-click the highlighted text and select SearH |SearH Engine] for
|your selected words].
Fiiefox passes the highlighted text to the seaich engine, and opens a new
tab with the iesults.
Searching within a page
Figure 3.9: You can search within web pages
using the Find Toolbar.
You may want to look foi specific text within the web page you aie
viewing. To find text within the cuiient page in Fiiefox·
1. Choose Edit ‣ Find oi piess Ctrl+F to open the Find Toolbar at the
bouom of Fiiefox.
:. Entei youi seaich queiy into the Find field in the Find Toolbai. Te
seaich automatically begins as soon as you type something into the field.
¸. Once some text has been matched on the web page, you can·
‣ Click on Next to find text in the page that is below the cuiient cuisoi
‣ Click on Previous to find text that is above the cuiient cuisoi posi-
‣ Click on Highlight all to highlight all occuiiences of youi seaich
woids in the cuiient page.
¸: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
‣ Select the MatH case option to limit the seaich to text that has the
same capitalization as youi seaich woids.
To quickly find the same woid oi phiase again, piess F3.
You can skip opening the Find Toolbar altogethei.
1. Tuin on the ielevant Accessibility option with Edit ‣ Preferences ‣
Advanced ‣ General ‣ Accessibility ‣ SearH for text when I start typ-
ing ‣ Close.
:. Now, piovided youi cuisoi is not within a text field, when you stait
typing, it will automatically stait seaiching foi text.
Viewing web pages full screen
To display moie web content on the scieen, you can use Fv|| Screen »oJe.
Full Scieen mode hides eveiything but the main content. To enable Full
Scieen mode, choose View‣ Full Screen oi piess F11. While in full-scieen
mode, move youi mouse to the top of the scieen to ieveal the uvi and
seaich bais.
Piess F11 to ietuin to noimal mode.
Copying and saving pages
With Fiiefox, you can copy pait of a page so that you can paste it elsewheie,
oi save the page oi pait of a page as a file on youi computei.
Copying part of a page
To copy text, links oi images fiom a page·
1. Highlight the text and images with youi mouse.
:. Right-click the highlighted text and select Copy, oi piess Ctrl+C.
To copy just a single image, it is not necessaiy to highlight it. Just iight-
click the image and select Copy.
You can paste the iesults into anothei application, such as LibieOffice.
Copying a link
To copy a text oi image link (uvi) fiom a page·
1. Position the pointei ovei the text, link oi image. Youi mouse pointei
changes to a pointing fingei.
:. Right-click the link oi image to open a pop-up menu.
¸. Select Copy Iink Iocation.
You can paste the link into othei applications oi into Fiiefox’s Location
Saving all or part of a page
To save an entiie page in Fiiefox·
1. Choose File ‣ Save Page As fiom the top bai, oi piess Ctrl+S. Fiiefox
opens the “Save As” window.
:. Choose a location foi the saved page.
¸. Type a file name foi the page.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸¸
¡. Piess Save.
To save an image fiom a page·
1. Position the mouse pointei ovei the image.
:. Right-click the image and select Save Image As. Fiiefox opens the “Save
lmage” window.
¸. Choose a location foi the saved image.
¡. Entei a file name foi the image.
¸. Piess Save.
Changing your home page
Fiiefox shows the |o»e ¡oge when it opens. By default, this is the Ubuntu
Stait Page. You can change youi default home page to a new one, oi even to
seveial new ones.
Figure 3.10: Change Firefox settings in this
To change youi home page·
1. Navigate to the page that you would like to become youi new home
page. lf you want Fiiefox to open moie than one tab when it staits, open
a new tab and navigate to the extia page as many times as you would
like. The home page can also be set by entering the
addresses that should be open in the Home
Page, with a pipe (“|”) separating pages to be
opened in separate tabs.
:. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences ‣ General ‣ Startup ‣ Use Current Pages ‣
Download settings
ln Edit ‣ Preferences ‣ General ‣ Downloads, you can hide oi show the The Downloads window shows the progress
of currently downloading files, and lists files
downloaded in the past. It can be used to open
or re-download files.
Downloads window, tell Fiiefox wheie to place downloaded files, and
whethei oi not to ask wheie each time.
When biowsing the web you may want to come back to ceitain web pages
again without having to iemembei the uvi. To do this, you |oo|»or| each
page. Tese bookmaiks aie saved in the web biowsei, and you can use them
to ie-open to those web pages.
¸¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Bookmarking a page
Afei navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmaiking it.
Teie aie two ways to bookmaik a page·
‣ Fiom the top bai, choose Bookmarks ‣ Bookmark Tis Page, oi piess
Ctrl+D. A window opens, allowing you to piovide a desciiptive name foi
the bookmaik and a location (within the biowsei’s bookmaiks) to save it.
Piess Done to save.
‣ Piess the sìor on the iight-hand side in the Location Bai. lt tuins yellow.
Tis saves the page in the UnsorìeJ Boo|»or|s foldei.
Navigating to a bookmarked page
To navigate to a bookmaiked page, open the Bookmarks menu fiom the top
bai, and choose youi bookmaik. Fiiefox opens the bookmaik in the cuiient
Yov con re+eo| ì|e |oo|»or|s, :nc|vJ:ng ì|e UnsorìeJ Boo|»or|s, :n o s:Je|or
on ì|e |eµ o[ ì|e |ro+ser +:nJo+. Se|ecì View‣ Sidebar ‣ Bookmarks, or ¡ress
Ctrl+B. Re¡eoì, or ¡ress ì|e close button oì :ìs ìo¡, ìo |:Je ì|e s:Je|or.
Deleting or editing a bookmark
To delete oi edit a bookmaik, do one of the following·
‣ lf you aie viewing the page alieady, the stai in the Location Bai will be
yellow. Piess it. Fiiefox opens a small pop-up window, wheie you can
eithei Remove Bookmark oi edit the bookmaik.
‣ Select Bookmarks ‣ Show All Bookmarks oi piess Shift+Ctrl+O. ln
the window that opens, you can navigate to bookmaiks. Select the one
you would like to change. To delete, iight-click and choose Delete oi
piess Delete on youi keyboaid. To edit, change the details shown at the
bouom of the window.
Whenevei you aie biowsing the web, Fiiefox saves youi biowsing histoiy.
Tis allows you to come back to a web page that you have iecently visited
without needing to iemembei oi bookmaik the page’s uvi.
To see youi most iecent histoiy, open the History menu fiom the top
bai. Te menu displays seveial of the most iecent web pages that you have
viewed. Choose one of the pages to ietuin to it.
To view the complete histoiy, eithei·
‣ Select View‣ History oi piess Ctrl+H to view the histoiy in a sidebai,
this ieplaces the bookmaiks sidebai if it is open. (Repeat, oi piess the
close button at its top, to hide the sidebai.)
‣ Select History ‣ Show All History oi piess Shift+Ctrl+H to view the
histoiy in a pop-up window.
Youi biowsing histoiy is categoiized as “Today,” “Yesteiday,” “Last ,
days,” “Tis month,” the pievious five months by name, and finally “Oldei
than õ months.” lf the histoiy foi a categoiy does not exist, that categoiy
will not be listed. Select one of the date categoiies in the sidebai to expand
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸¸
it and ieveal the pages that you visited duiing that time. Once you find the
page you want, select it to ie-display it.
You can also seaich foi a page by its title oi uvi. Entei a few leueis
fiom one oi moie woids oi, optionally, the uvi in the SearH field at the
top of the histoiy sidebai. Te sidebai displays a list of web pages matching
youi seaich woids. Select the page you want. (You can even do this in the
Location Bai, saving you fiom having to open the Histoiy sidebai oi pop-up
Clearing private data
Fiiefox stoies all its data only on youi computei. Neveitheless, if you shaie
youi computei, you may at times want to delete all piivate data.
Select Tools ‣ Clear Recent History oi piess Shift+Ctrl+Delete. Choose
youi Time range to clear, and undei Details which items to cleai, and piess
Clear Now.
Preventing Firefox from recording private data
You can stait a “piivate biowsing” session duiing which Fiiefox will not
iecoid anything peimanently. Tis lasts until you disable piivate biowsing
oi iestait Fiiefox.
Choose Tools ‣ Start Private Browsing oi piess Shift+Ctrl+P. Piess the
Start Private Browsing buuon to confiim. As long as you iemain in this
mode, Fiiefox will not iecoid biowsing, download, foim oi seaich histoiy,
oi cookies, noi will it cache files. Howevei, if you bookmaik anything oi
download files, these will be ietained.
Repeat Tools ‣ Start Private Browsing oi Shift+Ctrl+P, oi iestait Fiie-
fox, to end piivate biowsing.
Using a different web browser
Figure 3.11: The Default Applications where you
can change your preferred browser.
lf you choose to install a diffeient web biowsei on youi computei,
you may want to use it as the default biowsei when you click links fiom
emails, instant messages, and othei places. Canonical suppoits Fiiefox and
Chiomium (Google’s open-souice veision of Chiome), but theie aie seveial
otheis that you can install.
To change youi piefeiied web biowsei, open Session Indicator fiom the
top panel on the fai iight-hand side, and open System Settings ‣ Details ‣
¸õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Default Applications. Choose youi piefeiied web biowsei fiom the diop-
down menu Web.
Reading and composing email
Introduction to Thunderbird
Tundeibiid is an email client developed by Mozilla and is easy to setup and
use. lt is fiee, fast, and comes packed full of useful featuies. Even if you aie
new to Ubuntu and Tundeibiid, you will be up and iunning in no time,
checking youi email and staying in touch with fiiends and family.
Setting up Thunderbird
ln the top iight coinei of the Ubuntu desktop you will see an envelope
icon in the notification aiea. Tis is the »essog:ng »env. Fiom heie, you
can launch Tundeibiid by clicking Set up Mail. Alteinatively, you can
click the Ubuntu buuon in the top lef coinei of the scieen at the top of the
Launchei to biing up the Dash and type thunderbird into the seaich box.
Once Tundeibiid opens, you will be gieeted by a pop-up box piompting
you to setup youi email account.
Figure 3.12: Setting up Thunderbird
Befoie a valid email account is set up in Tundeibiid, the fiist scieen to
appeai will be an intioductoiy message fiom Mozilla inviting you to set
up an email account thiough a local seivice piovidei in youi aiea. Foi the
puiposes of these instiuctions, we will assume you alieady have an email
addiess, so you can click on the buuon in the lowei iight coinei of the
scieen that says Skip this and use my existing email.
On the next scieen titled Mail Account Setup, entei youi name in the
fiist text box, youi email addiess in the second text box (foi example, usei-
name(, and youi email passwoid in the thiid text box.
Once completed, click the Continue buuon. Tundeibiid will auto- If Thunderbird fails to create the account,
you may need to configure it manually, using
the parameters that were sent to you by your
email address provider and your ISP. If you
are still unable to set up your account, you
can get help from community members at
matically set up youi email account foi you. When Tundeibiid finishes
detecting youi email seuings, click Create Account and Tundeibiid will do
the iest. You can also set Tundeibiid as youi default news and vss ieadei
by checking the boxes in the pop-up box that appeai afei you click Create
Account. lf you don’t want to see this message box eveiy time you stait
Tundeibiid, simply deselect Always perform this HeH when starting
Tunderbird. You aie now ieady to stait using Tundeibiid.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸,
Around the Thunderbird workspace
Now that you have youi email account set up, let’s get to know the Tun-
deibiid woikspace. Tundeibiid is designed to be veiy usei-fiiendly and
easy to navigate. When you open the application, you will see the main
woikspace with youi email foldeis (all foldeis window) on the lef. On the
iight of the scieen, you will see two windows. Te top-iight window dis-
plays a list of youi ieceived email, and the bouom-iight window displays
the cuiient email you aie viewing. Te size of these windows can be easily
iesized to suit youi viewing enviionment. To iesize the windows, simply
lef-click and hold the dividing bai that sepaiates two windows and diag it
to the desiied position. Te A|| Fo|Jers window is wheie you can see youi
mail foldeis. Tis window can also include·
In|o: Wheie youi email is stoied and accessed
F»o:| oJJress [o|Jer You will see one of these foldeis foi each of the ac-
counts you have setup
Droµs Wheie youi diaf emails aie stoied
Senì »o:| Wheie the emails you have sent aie stoied
S¡o» Tis is wheie suspected spam email is stoied so you can check them
to make suie you haven’t lost any impoitant emails
Tros| Tis is wheie messages you’ve deleted aie stoied so you can double
check to make suie you haven’t accidentally deleted an impoitant email
(also one of the local foldeis)
I»¡orìonì Tis is wheie emails you have maiked as impoitant aie stoied
SìorreJ Tis is wheie emails you have maiked with a stai aie stoied
Persono| Tis is wheie emails you have maiked as peisonal aie stoied
Rece:¡ìs You can move impoitant ieceipts to this foldei.
Tro+e| You can use this foldei to stoie tiavel emails such as flight times and
Vor| You can stoie woik emails in this foldei to keep them sepaiate fiom
youi peisonal email
Ovì|o: Wheie the emails you aie in the piocess of sending aie stoied (also
one of the local foldeis)
Acioss the top of the Tundeibiid woikspace, you will see at least foui
contiol buuons, Get Mail, Write, Address Book, and Tag. Tese aie used to
get youi mail, wiite youi mail, access youi addiess book, and tag youi email
At the top-iight of the A|| Fo|Jers window, you will see a set of quick
filtei buuons, Unread, Starred, Contact, Tags, and AttaHment. You can use
these buuons to filtei youi email messages so that you only see youi uniead
mail, youi favoiite mail (staiied), mail fiom people in youi addiess book,
mail you have tagged, and mail that includes auachments.
lf you aie accustomed to a moie tiaditional desktop and you have Tun-
deibiid maximized to full scieen, you might be wondeiing wheie the menus
aie located. Tey aie still theie, and if you want to access them, move youi
mouse to the top of the scieen and you will see the familiai menus· File,
Edit, View, Go, Message, Tools, and Help.
At the top of the window that displays youi email, you can see six action
buuons, Reply, Reply All, Forward, ArHive, Junk, and Delete. You will
find these veiy useful foi quickly ieplying to email, foiwaiding youi email
to anothei peison, aichiving (backing up) youi email, maiking an email as
junk mail, and quickly deleting an email. To the lef of these quick action
buuons, you will see infoimation about the email you aie viewing that
¸8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
includes the sendei’s name, the subject of the email, the ieply addiess, and
the iecipient of the email.
Using your address book
At the top of the main woikspace, you will see the Address Book buuon.
Click this buuon to access youi addiess book. Te addiess book opens in a
new window. Fiom heie, you can easily oiganize youi contacts. At the top
of the addiess book window, you will see five buuons, New Contact, New
Iist, Properties, Write, and Delete. Tey function in the following ways·
Ne+ Conìocì Tis buuon allows you to add a new contact and add as much
detail as you wish to save, including name, nickname, addiess, email,
additional email, scieen name, woik numbei, home numbei, fax, pagei
and mobile/cell numbei.
Ne+ L:sì Tis buuon allows you to add lists foi youi contacts such as
family, fiiends, acquaintances, etc.
Pro¡erì:es Tis buuon allows you to iename youi addiess book name. Te
default name is ¡ersono| oJJress |oo|, but you can change the name as
you see fit.
Vr:ìe Tis buuon allows you to quickly send an email to a selected contact
without needing to go back to the main Tundeibiid woikspace. Simply
select a contact fiom youi contacts list and click the Write buuon to
send them an email.
De|eìe Tis buuon allows you to quickly delete a contact fiom youi addiess
book. Just select the contact you want to delete and piess Delete to
iemove the contact fiom youi addiess book.
Checking and reading messages
Tundeibiid will automatically check youi email account foi new mes-
sages eveiy ten minutes, but if you need to manually check foi new mes-
sages at any time, lef-click the Get Mail buuon in the top lef coinei of
the woikspace. Tundeibiid will then check youi email account foi new
messages and download them.
As they aie downloaded, you will see the new email appeai in the mes-
sage window on the iight side of the woikspace. When you click on one of
youi emails, it will appeai in the window below youi email list. lf you want
to view youi email in a full window, double-lef-click youi chosen email,
and Tundeibiid will display the email in a full window in its own tab.
At the top of the open email, you will see infoimation about the email Remote content represent parts of an email
that may be hosted elsewhere. Remote content
might consist of video or audio, but most
often is graphics or HTML content. For security
purposes, Thunderbird will ask you if you wish
to view this remote content.
and the five quick action buuons, Reply, Forward, ArHive, Junk and
Delete as pieviously discussed. lf an email has iemote content, you will
see a message asking if you want to display the email oi not.
You may want to filtei youi emails fiom time to time, this is easily done
with Tundeibiid. When you have an email selected and you want to tag
the email, simply click the Tag buuon and a diop-down list will be dis-
played. ln this diop-down list, you have the options to Remove All Tags oi
Mark as…, Important, Work, Personal, To Do, Iater. You can also create a
New Tag moie suited to youi own peisonal iequiiements.
Composing Messages
To compose a new email message, click the Write buuon in the top lef of
the woikspace. Tis will biing up a new window wheie you can compose
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ¸,
youi new email. ln the To· field, entei the email addiess of the destination
—the contact to whom you aie sending this email. lf theie is moie than one
contact to whom you aie wiiting, sepaiate multiple iecipients with commas.
lf a contact that you aie addiessing is in youi addiess book, you can
addiess them by name. Stait typing the name of the contact, Tundeibiid
will display the list of mailing contacts below youi text. Once you see the
contact you intend to addiess, click on theii email addiess oi use the down
aiiow key and then piess Enter to select the addiess.
lf you would like to caibon-copy (Cc) some contacts, click the To· field
and select Cc·. Contacts who aie listed on the To· and Cc· lines will ieceive
the email, and will see the iest of the contacts to whom an email was sent.
lf you would like to send an email to some contacts without disclosing to
whom youi email was sent, you can send a blind caibon-copy, oi Bcc. To
enable Bcc, select Bcc· by clicking the To· field and selecting Bcc·. Any
contacts enteied in the Bcc· field will ieceive the message, but none of the
iecipients will see the names oi emails of contacts on the Bcc· line.
lnstead of typing the email addiesses oi names of the contacts you aie
addiessing in the message, you can select the contacts fiom youi addiess
book. Stait typing a few leueis fiom youi contact’s fiist oi last name in the
To· field to filtei the list to only show mailing contacts. Once you identify
the contact you would like to addiess, click on theii name in the list. lf
you’ve added the contact in eiioi, delete theii addiess and entei the coiiect
You may entei a subject foi youi email in the Subject field. Messages
should have a subject to help the iecipient identify the geneial contents of
the email while glancing at theii message list. Entei the contents of youi If you do not include a subject in your email,
Thunderbird will warn you about this omission.
message in the big text field below the subject. Teie is no piactical limit on
the amount of text you can include in youi message.
By default, Tundeibiid will auto-detect the coiiect foimat foi youi
email but you can change this by clicking Options then mouse ovei Format
and select youi piefeiied option fiom the list. You have a choice of Avìo-
Deìecì, P|o:n Te:ì On|y, R:c| Te:ì (HTML) On|y, and P|o:n onJ R:c| (HTML)
When you have finished composing youi email, click on the Send buuon
on the window’s toolbai. Youi message will be placed in the Outbox, and
will be sent to youi desiied iecipient.
Attaching files
At times, you may want to send files to youi contacts. To send files, you
will need to auach them to youi email message. To auach a file to an email You can attach quite a few different file types
to emails, but be careful about the size of the
attachments! If they are too big, some email
systems will reject the email you are sending,
and your recipient will never receive it!
you aie composing, click on the AttaH buuon. When the new window
opens, select the file you want to send and click Open. Te file you selected
will then be auached to the email when you click send.
Replying to Messages
ln addition to composing new messages, you may want to ieply to messages
that you ieceive. Teie aie thiee types of email ieplies·
Re¡|y oi Re¡|y ìo SenJer sends youi ieply only to the sendei of the message
to whom you aie ieplying.
Re¡|y ìo A|| sends youi ieply to the sendei of the message as well as any
addiess in To· oi Cc· lines.
õo ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
For+orJ allows you to send the message, with any additional comments
you may add, to some othei contacts.
To use any of these methods, click on the message to which you want
to ieply and then click the Reply, Reply to All, oi Forward buuon on the
message toolbai. Tundeibiid will open the ieply window. Tis window
should look much like the window foi composing new messages, but the
To·, Cc·, Subject·, and main message content fields should be filled in fiom
the message to which you aie ieplying. Edit the To·, Cc·, Bcc·, Subject· oi
main body as you see fit. When youi ieply is finished, click on the Send
buuon on the toolbai. Youi message will be placed in the Ovì|o: and will
be sent.
Using instant messaging
Figure 3.13: This is the icon that Empathy
displays in the launcher.
lnstant messaging allows you to communicate with people in ieal time
online. Ubuntu includes the Empathy application that lets you use instant
messaging featuies to keep in touch with youi contacts. Empathy lets
you connect to many instant messaging netwoiks. You can connect to·
Facebook, Google Talk, Windows Live, Salut, Jabbei, Yahoo', and »i¬. To
stait Empathy, open the Messaging Menu (the envelope icon on the menu
bai), then select Empathy. Note that you will only find it theie afei you
have iun Empathy foi the fiist time (see below).
Figure 3.14: Access Empathy from the Messag-
ing Menu in the menu bar.
Running Empathy for the first time
To iun Empathy foi the fiist time you need to stait it fiom the Dash (see
Te Dash). You should see a scieen similai to that in figuie ¸.1¸. At this
time, Empathy does not know about any of youi instant messaging ac-
Adding accounts
Yov »vsì |o+e e::sì:ng c|oì occovnìs ìo ì|oì ore co»¡oì:||e +:ì| F»¡oì|y. I[
yov Jo noì |o+e on e::sì:ng occovnì, yov +:|| neeJ ìo creoìe one |e[ore conì:nv-
Be aware that when you Add or Remove
accounts using the Online Accounts manager
you will be adding or removing those accounts
to or from all the applications that they
integrate with, not just Empathy.
You can add accounts to be used with empathy by clicking the Account
Settings buuon, as shown in figuie ¸.1¸, oi you can use the menu bai to
navigate to Empathy ‣ Accounts. You should see a dialog similai to that in
figuie ¸.1õ. Tis is the Online Accounts managei.
Click Add account… on the lef-hand side of the window if it is not
alieady selected. At the top of the window, wheie it says S|o+ occovnìs ì|oì
:nìegroìe +:ì|, select F»¡oì|y fiom the diop-down menu. Now click on
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u õ1
Figure 3.15: You should see a window like this
the first time you open Empathy.
Figure 3.16: Add your existing chat accounts
for use in Empathy using the Online Accounts
the name of the chat seivice with which you have an account. Shown in
figuie ¸.1,, we have selected a Google account. You must now entei youi
login ciedentials and authoiize Ubuntu to access youi account.
When you have authoiized Ubuntu to access youi account, you aie
shown all the applications that integiate with the account, including Em-
pathy. All the applications have an ON/OFF buuon to contiol theii inte-
giation with the account. Make suie the ON/OFF buuon is set to ON foi
Empathy. Teie is also an Options buuon foi you to edit details used by
Empathy. Te details shown aie specific to each application. Afei adding
youi accounts, you can now use Empathy to chat with all of youi fiiends,
iight fiom youi Ubuntu desktop'
Communicating with contacts
To communicate with a contact, select the contact in Empathy’s main win-
dow and double-click theii name. Empathy should open a new window
wheie you can type messages to youi contact and see a iecoid of pieviously
exchanged messages.
To send a message to the contact, entei youi message in the text field
õ: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Figure 3.17: You must enter your account
credentials and authorize Ubuntu to use your
Figure 3.18: Chatting with friends in Empathy.
below the conveisation histoiy. When you have typed youi message piess
the Enter key to send the message to youi contact. When the peison you
aie chauing with is typing to you, a small keyboaid icon will appeai next to
theii name in the chat window.
lf you aie communicating with moie than one peison, then all of the
conveisations will be shown eithei in tabs in youi Empathy window oi in
sepaiate windows, depending on the option you have chosen in the menu
item Empathy ‣ Preferences.
Audio and Video Calling
You can use Empathy to chat with youi fiiends using audio and video,
too. To stait an audio oi video call, iight click on the Contact name, then
select Audio Call oi Video Call, as shown in figuie ¸.1,. Tis will notify the
peison you aie tiying to call, and they will be asked if they would like to
answei the call.
Figure 3.19: Right-clicking a contact exposes
many ways to communicate.
lf the peison you aie calling accepts youi call iequest, you will be con-
nected, and you can begin talking. lf the peison you aie calling cannot see
oi heai you, youi webcam oi miciophone may not be piopeily configuied,
see the sections on Sound and Using a webcam, iespectively. You can end
the call by clicking on the ied telephone buuon in the chat window.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u õ¸
Sending and receiving files
Sending a file
When you aie in a conveisation with a contact and you would like to send
them a file, iight-click the contact in the contact list—as in figuie ¸.1,—
and select Send File. Empathy should open the “Select file” window. Find
the file you wish to send, and click on the Send buuon. A “File Tiansfeis”
window will open showing the file and its tiansfei piogiess. When the file
tiansfei is complete, you can close the “File Tiansfeis” window.
Changing your status
You can use youi status to show youi contacts how busy you aie oi what
you aie doing. Youi contacts see youi status next to youi name when they
chat with you. You can use the standaid statuses, which aie·
‣ Available
‣ Busy
‣ Away
‣ lnvisible
‣ Offline
Two of these statuses have additional functionality. Te In+:s:||e status
lets you see which of youi contacts aie online, but does not allow them to
see that you aie online. Te Offl:ne status logs you out entiiely, you will
not be able to see which of youi contacts aie online, noi can they see you oi
chat with you.
You can change youi status in one of two ways. Te fiist method is
in the main Empathy window fiom the diop-down list at the top of the
Te same diop-down list lets you set a custom status by choosing “Cus-
tom Message…” next to the icon that matches youi status. Entei what you
would like youi status to say, and click on the gieen check maik.
Te second method is to click the Messaging Icon on the menu bai, as
shown in figuie ¸.1¡. Fiom this menu, you will see all of the same options
that Empathy piesents, but accessible without having to open Empathy.
Desktop Sharing
Desktop shaiing is a veiy nice featuie available with Ubuntu. lt can be used
foi a lot of puiposes, like tioubleshooting, online meetings, oi just showing
off youi cool desktop to youi fiiend. lt is veiy easy to get iemote desktop
shaiing woiking between two Ubuntu machines.
To shaie youi scieen, you will fiist have to set up Desktop Shaiing. Open
the Desktop Shaiing application fiom the Dash (see Te Dash). Next, select
Allow other users to view your desktop, you may want to deselect Allow
other users to control your desktop.
Afei you have Desktop Shaiing configuied, open Empathy. To begin
shaiing youi desktop, iight-click on the contact you wish to shaie youi
desktop with, and select Share my desktop.
lt should be noted that the othei usei will obviously be able to see the
infoimation displayed on youi scieen. Please be suie to keep this in mind
if you have documents oi files that aie of a piivate natuie open on youi
õ¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Changing account settings
lf you need to add moie accounts afei the initial launch of Empathy, open
the Empathy menu on the menu bai, then select Accounts. Empathy will
then display the Online Accounts managei window.
Editing an account
You might need to edit the details of an account. Select the account you
want to change on the lef side of the Online Accounts window then click
the Options buuon foi Empathy. Te Online Accounts managei should
show the cuiient infoimation foi the account. Once you have made youi
changes, click Done.
Removing an account from Empathy
To stop an account fiom showing in Empathy, select the account on the
lef hand side of the Online Accounts managei window. Ten click on the
ON/OFF buuon foi Empathy and set it to OFF.
Editing contacts
Adding a contact
To add a contact open Empathy ‣ Contacts ‣ Add contacts.. fiom the menu
bai. Empathy opens the “New Contact” window.
ln the Account diop-down list, choose the account you want to add
contacts foi. When cieating a contact you must select the seivice that
matches the seivice youi contact is using.
Afei choosing the account you wish to add the contact to, entei theii
login iu, theii useiname, theii scieen name, oi theii email addiess in the
Identifier text field. Next, in the Alias text field, entei the name you want to
see in youi contact list. Click Add to add the contact to youi list of contacts.
Removing a contact
Right click on the contact that you want to iemove, then select Remove.
Tis will open the “Removing contact” window. Click on the Delete buuon
to confiim that you want to iemove this contact, oi click Cancel to keep the
Viewing and editing photos
Shotwell Photo Managei is the default photo application in Ubuntu. Tis
application allows you to view, tag, edit, and shaie photos. To stait Shotwell
Photo Managei, click on the Dash neai the top-lef of the scieen, then select
the Shotwell Photo Managei icon labeled View Photos. lf you do not see
Shotwell Photo Managei, simply type Shotwell in the seaich bai at the top
of the Dash, the Shotwell Photo Managei application will soon appeai.
Importing Photos
When you launch Shotwell Photo Managei foi the fiist time, you will be
gieeted with the “Welcome'” window which piovides instiuctions on how
to impoit photos. Click OK. You can now impoit photos by diagging photos
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u õ¸
Figure 3.20: Manage your photo collection,
enhance your photos while keeping the original,
and share your memories online using Shotwell
Photo Manager.
into the Shotwell Photo Managei window oi by connecting youi cameia oi
exteinal stoiage device to the computei.
Fro» o J:g:ìo| co»ero Connect youi cameia to the computei using the
data cable, and powei on youi cameia. lf youi cameia is piopeily detected,
you will see a new window piompting you to launch an application. Select
Shotwell Photo Manager in the diop-down menu, then click OK. Youi
cameia will be listed in the Shotwell Photo Managei sidebai. Select youi
cameia in the sidebai. You will see a pieview of the contents stoied in the
cameia’s memoiy. Select individual photos by piessing and holding Ctrl
and clicking on each photo you want to impoit, and then click Import
Selected on the bouom bai of the window. Oi, you can choose to impoit all
photos by clicking Import All.
Fro» yovr co»¡vìer You can impoit photos into Shotwell Photo Managei
by diagging photos fiom the file biowsei into the Shotwell Photo Managei
window. Alteinatively, you can click File ‣ Import From Folder, then select
the foldei containing the photos you want to impoit.
Fro» e:ìerno| |orJ Jr:+e, u:ì flos| Jr:+e, or cu/uvu lmpoiting photos
fiom exteinal stoiage is similai to impoiting fiom youi computei. Youi
exteinal stoiage device may also appeai undei the Camera label on the
Shotwell Photo Managei sidebai. Follow the instiuctions foi impoiting fiom
a cameia oi computei.
Choosing where Shotwell Photo Manager saves photos
Te default location foi the Shotwell Photo Managei Iibrary is youi Pic-
tures foldei in youi home diiectoiy. When impoiting pictuies using the
“lmpoit” window, you will be given the option to copy the files to youi
Iibrary oi keep the files in place.
lf you have youi photos stoied on youi computei, the option Import in
Place will be suitable. Tis will pievent photos fiom being duplicated. lf
õõ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
you aie impoiting photos fiom an exteinal souice, such as a poitable haid
diive, usn flash diive, oi cu/uvu, you should select Copy into Iibrary so
the photos aie copied to youi computei—otheiwise the photos won’t appeai
when you iemove the exteinal souice.
Viewing photos
Choose Iibrary oi any collection in the sidebai to display photos fiom
youi selection. Use the slidei on the bouom bai to adjust the size of the
thumbnails. To view a full-window image, double-click an individual photo.
ln the full-window view, you can navigate thiough the collection using
the backwaid and foiwaid aiiows, zoom in on the image using the slidei,
pan by clicking and diagging the image, and exit the full-window view by
double-clicking the image.
To view the collection in full-scieen mode, piess F11 oi go to View‣
Fullscreen. You can navigate thiough the collection using the toolbai by
moving youi mouse to the bouom of the scieen. To view a slideshow pie-
sentation of the collection, piess F5 oi go to View‣ Slideshow. Piess the Esc
key to exit the Fv||screen oi S|:Jes|o+ views.
Organizing photos
Shotwell Photo Managei makes finding photos of the same type easiei by
using ìogs. You can apply as many tags to a photo as you like. To apply tags
to photos, fiist select the photos. Ten iight-click on the photos and select
Add Tags. Entei the tags you want into the text field, sepaiated by commas.
lf you aie adding new tags, these will appeai in the side bai on the iight
undei the Tags label.
Editing images
You may want to edit some of the photos you impoit into Shotwell Photo
Managei. Foi example, you may want to iemove something at the edge,
adjust the coloi, ieduce the ied-eye effect, oi stiaighten the image. To edit a
photo, double-click on the photo you want to edit, and then click on one of
the following buuons·
Click Rotate to iotate the image ,o¯ clockwise. You can click the buuon
moie than once and it will iotate the image clockwise in ,o¯ inteivals.
Click Crop to change the fiaming of the photo. Te image will daiken and a
selection will appeai. Adjust the selection to youi desiied ciop by diagging
a coinei oi side. lf you want to choose a specific aspect iatio, use the diop-
down menu to select one of the pieset iatios oi entei youi own custom
iatio. A pivot buuon is piovided to change youi selection fiom landscape to
poitiait and vice veisa. Once you aie happy with the selection, click OK to
apply the ciop oi Cancel to discaid it.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u õ,
Red-eye reduction
lf you have taken a photo and the flash has caused the subject to have ied
eyes, you can fix this pioblem in Shotwell Photo Managei.
Click the Red-eye buuon. A ciicle will appeai.
Diag this ciicle ovei one of the subjects eyes and then use the slidei to
adjust the ciicle size.
When the ciicle is ovei the eye, click Apply to fix the ied eye. You will
need to iepeat this foi each individual eye. Use caution when adjusting
the size of the ciicle. A ciicle too laige that coveis the skin may cause
discoloiation when applying the ied-eye ieduction.
Clicking Adjust will biing up a window that lets you edit a few things·
Le+e| Similai to contiast
F:¡osvre How biight the image is
Soìvroì:on How coloiful the image is
T:nì Te oveiall coloi
Te»¡eroìvre Whethei the image is waim (moie yellow) oi cool (moie blue)
S|oJo+s How daik the shadows aie
To change these values, diag the slideis until you aie satisfied with the
image. Click OK to apply the changes, Reset to undo the changes and stait
ovei, oi Cancel to discaid the changes.
Auto-adjustment with Enhance
Click Enhance to let Shotwell Photo Managei automatically adjust the
coloi, levels, exposuie, contiast, and tempeiatuie to cieate a moie pleasing
Reverting an edited photo to the original
When you edit a photo in Shotwell Photo Managei, youi oiiginal image ie-
mains untouched. You can undo all of the changes and ieveit to the oiiginal
veision by iight-clicking on the photo, then selecting Revert to Original.
Tis option is only available foi edited photos.
Sharing your photos
You can easily shaie youi photos on the web using Shotwell Photo Man-
ageis’s Publish featuie. Select the photos you want to shaie, then go to the
top menu and click File ‣ Publish. A new window will appeai asking wheie
the photos aie to be published. Choose Facebook, Flicki, oi Picasa Web Al-
bums in the uppei iight-hand diop-down menu. Some seivices may iequiie
you to authoiize Shotwell Photo Managei befoie allowing the application to
publish photos. Follow the instiuctions in the window, select youi desiied
options, and click Publish to upload youi images to the web.
Further information
We’ve only just touched on the featuies of Shotwell Photo Managei. To
get moie help, select Help ‣ Contents. Tis will load the online manual,
wheie you can get moie detailed instiuctions on how to use Shotwell Photo
Managei effectively.
õ8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Watching videos and movies
To watch videos oi uvus in Ubuntu, you can use the Videos application. To
stait Videos, click on the Dash, then seaich foi “Videos” and select it. Tis
will open the “Videos” window.
Figure 3.21: Videos (Totem) plays music and
Watching uvus may iequiie Ubuntu to install a codei-decodei (also known
as a “codec”), a piece of sofwaie allowing youi computei to undeistand the
contents of the uvu and display the video.
Lego| Noì:ce Poìenì onJ co¡yr:g|ì |o+s J:ffer Je¡enJ:ng on +|:c| covnìry yov
ore :n. P|eose o|ìo:n |ego| oJ+:ce :[ yov ore vnsvre +|eì|er o ¡orì:cv|or ¡oìenì or
resìr:cì:on o¡¡|:es ìo o »eJ:o [or»oì yov +:s| ìo vse :n yovr covnìry.
So that you can play all videos and uvus, you will need to install codecs.
To install the codecs, open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei eithei thiough the
Dash oi the Launchei. When the “Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei” window opens,
use the seaich box in the top iight and seaich foi the following·
‣ ubuntu-iestiicted-extias
‣ libdvdiead¡
‣ libdvdnav¡
Double-click each item above and then click the Install buuon. Tis
may open an “Authenticate” window. lf so, entei youi passwoid, then click
Authenticate to stait the installation piocess.
Playing videos from file
Open the Movie menu, then select Open…. Tis will open the “Select
Movies oi Playlists” window. Find the file oi files that you want to play
and click on the Add buuon. Te video oi videos will stait playing.
Playing a DVD
When you inseit a uvu in the computei, Ubuntu should open the “You have
just inseited a Video uvu. Choose what application to launch” window.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u õ,
Make suie that Open Movie Player is chosen in the diop-down list and
then click OK. Te “Movie Playei” window will open and the movie will
lf the “Movie Playei” window is alieady open, open the Movie menu,
then select Play Disc… and the movie will begin.
Listening to audio and music
Ubuntu comes with the Rhythmbox Music Playei foi listening to youi
music, stieaming lnteinet iadio and managing playlists and podcasts.
Rhythmbox can also help you find and puichase music, along with man-
aging subsciiptions to youi favoiite vss feeds.
Figure 3.22: Rhythmbox Music Player
Starting Rhythmbox
Teie aie seveial ways to stait Rhythmbox.
‣ Open the Dash, type Rhythmbox oi Music and click on the Rhythmbox
Music Playei icon.
‣ Ubuntu comes with an indicatoi menu in the top bai foi sound-ielated
applications and devices. Tis indicatoi looks like a speakei. Afei you’ve
opened Rhythmbox the fiist time, a link to stait Rhythmbox and basic
contiols will be placed heie.
lf you close Rhythmbox by piessing Alt+F4 oi clicking the ied close buuon
( ), it will disappeai fiom view but continue to play in the backgiound.
You can still contiol youi music oi ieopen fiom the sound indicatoi. To quit
Rhythmbox completely, piess Ctrl+Q oi choose Music ‣ Qit fiom the menu
Playing music
To play music, you must fiist impoit music into youi libiaiy. Choose Mu-
sic ‣ Add Music… oi piess Ctrl+O on youi keyboaid to impoit a foldei con-
,o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
taining audio files. You can use the diopdown box to select the foldei wheie
youi music iesides oi click the Other option to find an alteinate foldei.
Te Rhythmbox toolbai contains most of the contiols that you will use
foi biowsing and playing youi music. lf you want to play a song, double-
click a tiack, oi click it and piess the Play buuon on the toolbai, choose
Control ‣ Play fiom the menu bai, oi piess Ctrl+Space. When a song is
playing, the Play buuon will become a Pause buuon. Use this buuon, Con-
trol ‣ Play, oi Ctrl+Space to toggle between playing and pausing the tiack.
Next and Previous buuons aie next to the Play/Pause buuon. Click on
these buuons to play the next and pievious songs in youi libiaiy oi playlist.
Rhythmbox also has options to toggle iepeat mode (Repeat, Control ‣
Repeat oi Ctrl+R) and shuffle mode (Shuffle, Control ‣ Shuffle oi Ctrl+U).
Playing Audio CDs
To play youi cu, inseit it into youi cu diive. lt will automatically appeai
within Rhythmbox in the S:Je Pone beneath youi Music Libiaiy. You can
click the cu (named Audio cu, oi the name of the album) and double-click a
tiack in it to play the tiacks on the cu.
Importing (Ripping) Audio CDs
Begin by inseiting a cu. Rhythmbox will automatically detect it and add it
to the side menu. lf you have an active lnteinet connection, Rhythmbox will
tiy to find the album details via the web. Click the cu. Uncheck any tiacks
you don’t want impoited. Piess the Extract buuon, located at the v¡¡er-|eµ
coinei of the iight panel. Rhythmbox will begin impoiting the cu. As it
finishes each tiack, it will appeai in youi Music Libiaiy.
Listening to streaming audio
Rhythmbox is pie-configuied to enable you to stieam audio fiom vaiious Streaming audio stations are “radio stations”
that broadcast over the Internet. Some of these
are real radio stations that also stream over the
Internet, and others broadcast only over the
souices. Tese include lnteinet bioadcast stations (Radio fiom the Side
Pane), and To listen to an lnteinet iadio station, click on
the Radio icon in the S:Je Pone foi a list of pie-configuied stations. You can
filtei by genie in the »:JJ|e ¡one. To add a new iadio station, select Add
and entei the iadio station uvi. You can browse a selected list of radio stations
Internet_stations or you can use your browser
to search for “Internet radio stations.” Connect digital audio players
Rhythmbox can connect with many populai digital media playeis. Con-
nected playeis will appeai in the De+:ces |:sì. Featuies will vaiy depending
on the playei (and ofen the playei’s populaiity), but common tasks like
tiansfeiiing songs and playlists should be suppoited. lf youi device isn’t
show on the De+:ces |:sì, tiy seaiching foi it by clicking on the Music ‣
CheH for New Devices.
Listen to shared music
lf you aie on the same netwoik as othei Rhythmbox useis (oi most othei DAAP stands for “Digital Audio Access Proto-
col,” and is a method designed by Apple to let
software share media across a network.
music playei sofwaie), you can shaie youi music and listen to theii shaied
music. To do this, click Music ‣ Connect to DAAP Share… Ten entei the
iv addiess and the poit numbei. Click OK. Clicking a shaied libiaiy will
enable you to biowse and play songs fiom othei computeis.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ,1
Figure 3.23: Rhythmbox connected to an
Android device
Manage podcasts
Rhythmbox can manage all of youi favoiite podcasts. Select PoJcosìs fiom
the Side Pane to view all added podcasts. Te toolbai will display additional
options to Bro+se, S|o+ A||, AJJ and U¡Joìe. Choose Add on the toolbai
and entei the uvi of the podcasts to save it to Rhythmbox. Podcasts will be
automatically downloaded at iegulai inteivals oi you can manually update
feeds. Select an episode and click Play. You can also delete episodes.
Party mode
Rhythmbox comes with the option of a “paity mode.” To entei paity mode
piess F11 on youi keyboaid oi use the global menu bai (View‣ Party
Mode), to exit fiom paity mode piess F11 again. Rhythmbox also has a
biowsei bai that is enabled by default (this aiea is the top-iight half of the
piogiam window). lt gives you the option to seaich youi music by aitist oi
Rhythmbox preferences
Te default configuiation of Rhythmbox may not be exactly what you want.
Choose Edit ‣ Preferences to altei the application seuings. Te Piefeiences
tool is bioken into foui main aieas· geneial, playback, music, and Podcasts.
Genero| includes how you want Rhythmbox to display aitist and tiack
infoimation. You can adjust the columns visible in youi libiaiy and how
the toolbai icons aie displayed.
P|oy|oc| options allow you to enable ciossfading and the duiation of the
fade between tiacks.
Mvs:c includes wheie you would like to place youi music files and the
libiaiy stiuctuie foi new tiacks added to Rhythmbox. You can also set
youi piefeiied audio foimat.
PoJcosìs designates wheie podcasts aie stoied on youi computei along
with the ability to change how ofen podcast infoimation is updated.
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Rhythmbox suppoits a wide aiiay of plugins, which add functionality to
Rhythmbox. Many of the plugins piovide basic audio playback, and you
may check a few moie boxes, foi example, to access the Magnatune Stoie.
To view oi change the activated plugins, use the global menu bai (Edit ‣
Managing your music
Rhythmbox suppoits cieating playlists. P|oy|:sìs eithei aie static lists of
songs to be played in oidei, oi can be smait playlists based on filtei ciiteiia.
Playlists contain iefeiences to songs in youi libiaiy. Tey do not contain
the actual songs, but only iefeience them. So, if you iemove a song fiom
a playlist (right-cliH on the song ‣ Remove from Playlist), the song will
iemain in youi libiaiy and on youi haid diive.
To cieate a playlist, choose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Playlist, piess Ctrl+N,
oi iight-click in the lowei blank aiea of the side bai and select New Playlist.
lt appeais in the sidebai as “New Playlist.” Right-click and select Rename
to give the new playlist a name of youi choosing. Diag songs fiom youi
libiaiy to the new playlist in the side pane oi iight-click on songs and select
Add to Playlist and pick the playlist.
S»orì P|oy|:sìs aie cieated in a similai way. Choose Music ‣ Playlist ‣
New Automatic Playlist oi iight-click in the lowei blank aiea of the side
bai and select New Automatic Playlist. Define the filtei ciiteiia. You
can add multiple filtei iules and select a name. Save. You can update any
playlist (including the piedefined ones) by iight-clicking on the name and
choosing Edit.
Rhythmbox suppoits song iatings. Right-cliH a song in your library ‣
Properties ‣ Details and click on the numbei of stais. To iemove a iating,
select zeio stais. Othei song infoimation such as Title, Aitist and Album
can be changed. Right-cliH a song in your library ‣ Properties ‣ Basic.
To iemove a song, right-cliH‣ Remove. To delete a song fiom youi haid
diive entiiely, right-cliH‣ Move to the Rubbish Bin. lf you evei want to
move a song, highlight the song (oi gioup of songs) fiom youi libiaiy and
diag it to a foldei oi to youi desktop. Tis will make a copy of the audio file
in the new location.
Audio codecs
Diffeient audio files (¬v¸, v»v, »»c, occ, etc.) iequiie unique tools to de-
code them and play the contents. Tese tools aie called coJecs. Rhythmbox
auempts to detect any missing codecs on youi system so you can play all of
youi audio files. lf a codec is missing, it automatically tiies to find the codec
online and guides you thiough its installation.
Rhythmbox support
Rhythmbox is used by many useis thioughout the woild. Teie aie a vaii-
ety of suppoit iesouices available in many languages.
‣ Help ‣ Contents oi F1 foi the main help.
‣ Help ‣ Get Help Online to ask questions and iepoit bugs.
‣ Te Rhythmbox website at http·//www.ihythmbox.oig/.
‣ Te Multimedia & Video categoiy of Ubuntu Foiums at http·//ubuntufoiums.
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Burning CDs and DVDs
To cieate a cu oi uvu, open the Dash and seaich foi Brasero Disc Burner.
Once you find Biaseio, double-click it. Tis opens the Biaseio application.
Te buining options appeaiing within Biaseio aie explained below.
Figure 3.24: Brasero burns music, video, data
DVDs and CDs.
Getting Started
Befoie you can use Biaseio, you need to Create a new project. Teie aie
thiee types of media piojects available· Audio Project, Data Project, and
Video Project. Teie aie also two utility piojects available· Disc Copy and
Burn Image. Make youi selection based on youi iequiiements. At this current time, Brasero does not support
Te following options apply foi all piojects except Disc Copy and Burn
Adding files to a project
To add files to the list, click the + buuon. Tis buuon will open the “Select
Files” window. Navigate to the file you want to add, click the desiied file,
then click the Add buuon. Repeat this piocess foi each file until all desiied
files have been added.
Removing files
lf you want to iemove a file fiom the pioject, click the file in the list and
click on the - buuon. To iemove all the files in the list click on the Broom
shaped buuon.
Saving a project
To save an unfinished pioject, choose Project ‣ Save. Te “Save Cuiient
Pioject” window will be opened. Choose wheie you would like to save the
pioject. ln the Name· text field, entei a name foi the pioject. Click the Save
buuon, and youi unfinished pioject will be saved. When saving a pioject,
you aie only saving the paiameteis of the pioject, you’ve buined nothing to
the disc at this time.
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Burning the disc
When you click the Burn… buuon, you will see the “Piopeities of …” win-
You can specify the buining speed in the Burning speed diop-down. lt is
best to choose the highest speed.
To buin youi pioject diiectly to the disc, select the Burn the image
directly without saving it to disc option. With this option selected, no
image file is cieated, and no files aie saved to the haid disk. All data is
saved to the blank cu oi uvu. Note that Biaseio only buins infoimation
onto standaid CDs and DVDs, Biaseio does not buin data onto Blu-Ray
DVDs at this time.
Te Simulate before burning option is useful if you encountei pioblems
buining discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc buining
piocess without actually wiiting data to a disc—a wasteful piocess if youi
computei isn’t wiiting data coiiectly. lf the simulation is successful, Biaseio
will buin the disc afei a ten second pause. Duiing those ten seconds, you
have the option to cancel the buining piocess.
Blanking a disk
Some CDs and DVDs have an vv maiking on them. vv simply indicates
the disc is Re-Wiitable, meaning the cuiient data on the disc can be com-
pletely eiased and new data can be wiiuen to it. To eiase a disc, open the
Tools menu, then select Blank. Te “Disc Blanking” window will be open.
ln the Select a disc diop-down choose the disc that you would like to eiase.
You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shoiten the
amount of time to peifoim the blanking piocess. Howevei, selecting this
option will not fully iemove the files, if you have any sensitive data on youi
disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option.
Once the disc is eiased (blank), you will see Te J:sc +os svccess[v||y
||on|eJ. Click the Close buuon to finish.
Audio project
lf you iecoid youi own music, then you may want to tiansfei this music
onto an audio cu so youi fiiends and family can listen. You can stait an
audio pioject by clicking Project ‣ New Project ‣ New Audio Project.
When buining a music cu, it is impoitant to iemembei that commeicial
music cus usually contains a two-second gap between the songs. To ensuie
youi music has this same gap between songs, click the file and then click
the pause buuon.
You can slice files into paits by clicking the Knife buuon. Tis opens a
“Split Tiack” window. Te Method diop-down gives you foui options, each
option lets you split the tiack in a diffeient way. Once you have split the
tiack, click OK.
ln the diop-down list at the bouom of the main “Biaseio” window, make
suie that you have selected the disc wheie you want to buin the files. Ten
click the Burn buuon.
Data project
lf you want to make a back up of youi documents oi photos, it would
be best to make a data pioject. You can stait a data pioject by clicking
Project ‣ New Project ‣ New Data Project.
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lf you want to add a foldei, click the Folder pictuie, then entei the name
of the foldei.
ln the diop-down list at the bouom of the main “Biaseio” window, be
suie to select the disc wheie you want to buin the files. Ten click the Burn
Video project
lf you want to make a uvu of youi family videos, it would be best to make a
video pioject.
You can stait a video pioject by clicking Project ‣ New Project ‣ New
Video Project.
ln the diop-down list at the bouom of the main “Biaseio” window, be
suie to select the disc wheie you want to buin the files. Ten click the Burn
Disc copy
You can copy a disc by clicking Project ‣ New Project ‣ Disc copy. Tis
opens the “Copy cu/uvu” window.
lf you have two cu/uvu diives, you can copy a disc fiom one to the
othei, assuming the souice disc is in one diive and the destination disc (with
blank media) is in the othei diive. lf you have only one diive you will need
to make an image and then buin it to a disc. ln the Select disc to copy diop-
down choose the disc to copy. ln the Select a disc to write to diop-down
eithei choose image file oi the disc that you want to copy to.
Image file
You can make an image file of youi data as well An image is a single-file
iepiesentation of the contents of the disk. Te file usually has an .iso oi
.img extension. An image file is similai a set of zipped files. Change wheie
the image file is saved by clicking Properties. Tis shows the “Location foi
lmage File”. You can edit the name of the file in the Name· text field.
Te default location to save the image file is youi home foldei, but you
can change the location by clicking the + buuon next to Browse for other
folders. Once you have chosen wheie you want to save the photo oi image,
click Close.
Retuining to the “Copy cu/uvu” window, click Create Image. Biaseio
will open the “Cieating lmage” window and will display the job piogiess.
When the piocess is complete, click Close.
Burn image
To buin an image, open the Project ‣ New Project ‣ Burn Image. Biaseio
will open the “lmage Buining Setup” window. Click on the CliH here to
select a disc image diop-down and the “Select Disc lmage” window will
appeai. Navigate youi way to the image you wish to buin, click on it, and
then click Open.
ln the Select a disc to write to diop-down menu, click on the disc to
which you’d like to wiite, then click Create Image.
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Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
LibieOffice Suite is the default office suite when woiking with documents,
spieadsheets, and slide piesentations.
Working with documents
lf you need to woik with documents, you can use the LibieOffice Woid The LibreOffice Word Processor is known as
LibreOffice Writer. LibreOffice Spreadsheet is
known as Calc, and LibreOffice Presentation is
known as Impress.
Piocessoi. Wiitei has all the featuies you need fiom a modein, full-featuied
woid piocessing and desktop publishing tool including an in-built PDF
cieatoi. lt’s simple enough foi a quick memo, but poweiful enough to cieate
complete books with contents, diagiams, indexes, and moie. You’ie fiee to
concentiate on youi message, while Wiitei will make it look gieat. To stait
the woid piocessoi, open the Dash and seaich foi LibreOffice Writer.
Ten select IibreOffice Writer.
Working with spreadsheets
lf you need to woik with spieadsheets, you can use LibieOffice Spieadsheet
(Calc). Calc is the spieadsheet piogiam you’ve always needed. Newcomeis
find it intuitive and easy to leain. Piofessional data mineis and numbei
ciuncheis will appieciate the compiehensive iange of advanced functions.
To stait the spieadsheet application, open the Dash and seaich foi LibreOf-
fice Calc. Ten select IibreOffice Calc.
Working with presentations
lf you need to woik with slides foi a piesentation, you can use LibieOffice
lmpiess. lmpiess is a tiuly outstanding tool foi cieating effective multime-
dia piesentations. Youi piesentations can be enhanced with :D and ¸D clip
ait, special effects and tiansition styles, animations, and high-impact diaw-
ing tools. To stait the piesentation application, open the Dash and seaich
foi LibreOffice Impress. Ten select IibreOffice Impress.
Getting more help
Each of these applications comes with a compiehensive set of help scieens.
lf you aie looking foi moie assistance with these applications, piess the F1
key afei staiting the application.
Ubuntu One
What is Ubuntu One?
Ubuntu One is a seivice foi stoiing youi files online in youi Ubuntu One
Persono| C|ovJ. Youi Ubuntu One Peisonal Cloud is youi peisonal on-
line stoiage space, and it can be accessed in any web biowsei oi using an
Ubuntu One application (available foi Ubuntu, Mac os x, Windows, iPhone,
and Andioid). Because Ubuntu One stoies youi files online, it’s the peifect
way to backup youi files to pievent data loss. You can also use Ubuntu One
to shaie files with othei people—this makes Ubuntu One a gieat tool foi
fiiends, families, and collaboiative teams. Ubuntu One also piovides sei-
vices foi backing up youi contacts and stieaming music to mobile devices.
Te Ubuntu One seivice is piovided by Canonical.
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How safe is Ubuntu One?
Befoie using Ubuntu One, you should keep the following points in mind·
‣ Uploading, downloading and synchionizing youi infoimation with
Ubuntu One is done ovei an enciypted connection which pievents any-
one fiom eavesdiopping on youi infoimation as it is being tiansfeiied.
‣ Files aie not stoied by Canonical in enciypted foim. lt is impoitant to
keep this in mind when deciding what to upload to Ubuntu One. You can
use othei means to enciypt you data, such as an enciypted zip file.
‣ lnfoimation uploaded to Ubuntu One can potentially be accessed by
Canonical. As with similai online seivices and websites, you aie implic-
itly tiusting them to iespect youi piivacy, so if you feel you cannot tiust
them with ceitain infoimation, don’t upload it to Ubuntu One.
‣ lf you violate the Ubuntu One teims and conditions and stoie illegal
mateiial, Canonical may be iequiied to hand the infoimation ovei to law
enfoicement agencies without youi consent.
‣ Youi online infoimation can be accessed by anybody who knows (oi can
guess) youi account name and passwoid. Foi this ieason, you should
choose a stiong passwoid and keep it secuie.
Getting started with Ubuntu One
To use Ubuntu One, you will need to cieate a fiee Ubuntu One account
using an email addiess. Tis fiee account gives you access to ¸ cn of online
stoiage and the contact syncing seivice, this amount of space is enough
to stoie about 1,¸oo music files oi ¸,ooo photogiaphs (depending media
quality). lncieased data stoiage oi the music stieaming seivice iequiies a
paid subsciiption.
Teie aie two ways to cieate an Ubuntu One account. You can eithei
sign up using the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel (pie-installed in Ubuntu), oi
you can sign up on the Ubuntu One website https·// by
clicking the Sign Up link.
Figure 3.25: This Launcher icon opens the
Ubuntu One Control Panel.
Creating an Ubuntu One account using the Ubuntu One Control Panel
ln the Launchei, click the Ubuntu One icon, as shown in figuie ¸.:¸. Tis
should open the dialog shown in figuie ¸.:õ.
Click the I don’t have an account yet – sign me up buuon.
Fill in the details iequested as shown in figuie ¸.:,. Make suie you use a If you do not have an email address, you can get
one for free at
valid email addiess to which you aie the only peison who has access.
You will also see a co¡ìc|o as pait of the iegistiation piocess. Te
captcha acts as a check that it ieally is a peison filling in the foim and not a
computei (because a computei won’t be able to iead the captcha text). You
should also ieview the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy befoie signing
up. When you’ie satisfied, click Set Up Account.
Within a few minutes, you will ieceive an email containing the veiifica-
tion code. Entei the veiification code into the box as shown in figuie ¸.:8
and click Next.
lf all goes well, you will see a window saying, “You aie now logged into
Ubuntu One.” Click the Finish buuon to dismiss this window. You will
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Figure 3.26: The Ubuntu One Control Panel
Welcome Page.
Figure 3.27: Fill in all fields with your informa-
tion to sign up for an Ubuntu One account.
Figure 3.28: Enter the verification code into the
also ieceive anothei email welcoming you to Ubuntu One. Now that you
aie logged in to Ubuntu One, you can configuie youi Ubuntu machine foi
Ubuntu One file syncing.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u ,,
Configure your Ubuntu machine for file syncing
Te Ubuntu One desktop application syncs youi Ubuntu One Peisonal
Cloud with files on youi local file system. Te teim “sync” is shoit foi
“synchionize”, meaning the contents of youi Ubuntu One local file system
and youi Ubuntu One Peisonal Cloud will be kept identical. Afei logging
into the Ubuntu One desktop application the following dialog (figuie ¸.:,)
should appeai, allowing you to select which files to sync with youi Ubuntu
One Peisonal Cloud.
Figure 3.29: This setup dialog lets you select
which existing Ubuntu One folders you would
like synced with your machine.
lf you have alieady used youi Ubuntu One account, you may have moie
foldeis in this view (figuie ¸.:,). You can choose which Ubuntu One cloud
foldeis you would like synced with youi local file system. lf this is the fiist
time you aie using Ubuntu One, just click the Next buuon.
Yov con o|so c|onge yovr U|vnìv One sync connecì:on seu:ngs oì ì|:s ì:»e |y
c|:c|:ng on ì|e Che Settings |vuon, yov con c|onge ì|:ngs |:|e ì|e »o::»v»
v¡|ooJ onJ Jo+n|ooJ roìe, or :[ noì:ficoì:ons s|ov|J |e o||o+eJ.
Figure 3.30: This setup dialog lets you select
which folders of your local file system you
would like synced with your Ubuntu One cloud
ln the next dialog (figuie ¸.¸o), you can choose which of youi local file
system foldeis you would like synced with youi Ubuntu One cloud stoiage.
Te foldei Ubuntu One is selected foi syncing by default, but you can select
additional foldeis you may want synced—youi pictuies, foi instance. Once
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you’ie finished selecting foldeis, click the Finish buuon to complete the
setup piocess. You aie now ieady to begin using Ubuntu One'
Using Ubuntu One with Files, the file manager
Ubuntu One integiates with Files, the piogiam you use to view youi file
system. You can add, sync, and shaie files diiectly fiom Files.
Adding and Modifying Files
You can add files to youi Ubuntu One foldei (oi any othei foldei that you
have selected foi sync) just as you noimally would, and Ubuntu One will
automatically sync them to youi peisonal cloud. Foi example, if you add
youi vacation photos, you should see a notification message on the scieen
similai to figuie ¸.¸1.
Figure 3.31: When you add files to an Ubuntu
One synced folder, they automatically sync to
your personal cloud.
Afei moving the files into the Ubuntu One synced foldei, you should
ieceive a notification infoiming you that syncing has begun. When sync-
ing completes, the anothei notice will appeai stating that the syncing has
Whenevei you add oi modify files that aie in foldeis synced with Ubuntu
One, they will automatically sync to youi peisonal cloud. Afei syncing is
complete, you can view the files on the Ubuntu One Web ui, and they will
also be synced to any othei computeis oi mobile devices that you aie using
Ubuntu One on.
Managing Folders to Sync
To view which files on youi system aie cuiiently syncing with Ubuntu One,
open the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel by clicking the Ubuntu One Launchei
icon as shown in figuie ¸.:¸, a dialog similai to that in figuie ¸.¸: should
Figure 3.32: The Ubuntu One Control Panel
shows you which folders in your file system are
synced with your Ubuntu One Personal Cloud.
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ln the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel you can see which of youi foldeis aie
synced with youi Ubuntu One Peisonal Cloud. You can also add files fiom
heie, by clicking the Add a folder from this computer buuon.
Using Ubuntu One with the Ubuntu One Web UI
You can access youi files fiom any computei using the Ubuntu One Web ui
at https·// A Ve| UI (Usei lnteiface) is a web site that you
can go to and do the same things that you do on youi computei. Emails, foi
instance, aie commonly accessed thiough a Web Ul. When you fiist ieach
the web page, you will need to log in by clicking Iog in or Sign up in the
uppei iight-hand coinei of the page. On the following page, fill in youi
email addiess and Ubuntu One passwoid, then click the Continue buuon.
Once logged in, you should be taken to youi Dos||oorJ. Te Dashboaid
shows you a summaiy of youi data usage and keeps you infoimed of new
featuies in Ubuntu One. To view youi files, click the Files link in the navi-
gation bai in the uppei poition of the page.
Downloading and Uploading Files
To access youi files fiom the Ubuntu One Web ui, you can simply download
them fiom youi peisonal cloud. To download a file, click More shown to
the iight of the file as shown in the biowsei, then click on Download file as
shown in figuie ¸.¸¸. Clicking Download file will initiate a file download
thiough youi biowsei.
lf you make changes to the file oi want to add a new file to youi peisonal
cloud, simply click the Upload file buuon in the uppei poition of the page.
Tis will upload the file into the cuiient foldei and oveiwiite any old vei-
sions of the file. Once you have uploaded the file, it will be available in youi
peisonal cloud, and will sync to youi Ubuntu machine’s local file system.
Figure 3.33: A file’s More button in the Web UI
gives you many options.
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Making Files Public
You can make a file public on the web by clicking More and choosing the
Publish file buuon—this is also shown in figuie ¸.¸¸. Afei clicking the
Publish file buuon, the Web ui will geneiate a Pv||:c uuì, you can shaie
this uvi with anyone. By diiecting a biowsei to the Public uvi of the file,
the biowsei will begin to download the file oi, depending on the type of file,
display it.
You can make the file piivate again at any time by clicking the Stop
publishing buuon located to the lef of the Public uvi. Afei you click the
Stop publishing buuon the Public uvi field will go away, and the uvi will
stop woiking. lf someone tiies to use a Public uvi foi a file that has been
made piivate, they will ieceive an eiioi message and the file will not be
downloaded oi displayed.
Te Ubuntu One Contiol Panel, on youi desktop, lists all of youi public
files in one place undei the Share links tab. Tis is a convenient way to
keep tiack of the files you aie publishing, and allows you to easily copy
theii links by clicking the Copy link buuon located next to each public file.
Sharing Files
Ubuntu One lets you shaie files with othei Ubuntu One useis, leuing you
collaboiate on files with ease. When one usei makes a change to a shaied
file, the changes automatically sync to the othei useis’ peisonal clouds
and theii local file system, so all useis automatically have the most iecent
veision of the file.
Figure 3.34: Sharing folders with other users
makes collaborating on files simple.
To shaie files in Ubuntu One, you must shaie an entiie foldei. Befoie you
begin to shaie files, you should make suie only the files you want to shaie
aie in this foldei. Ten to shaie this foldei, navigate to it in the Ubuntu One
Web ui and click the More buuon to the iight of the foldei name. ln the
More menu, click on Share folder. A dialog box similai to that shown in
figuie ¸.¸¡ should appeai. Complete the fields in the dialog box, and click
the Share this folder buuon when you aie finished.
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u 8¸
Once you shaie the foldei, the usei you aie tiying to shaie the foldei
with should ieceive an email infoiming them that you would like to shaie
foldei. Tey will then have to accept the shaie iequest. lf the email ad-
diessee you piovide does not yet have an Ubuntu One account, they must
fiist sign up foi an Ubuntu One account befoie they can access the shaied
To stop shaiing a foldei, navigate to it, click the More buuon, and click
Stop sharing.
lf anothei usei shaies a foldei with you, you will ieceive an email in-
foiming you of the shaie, and a link to click on to accept the shaie iequest.
Foldeis that aie shaied with you by othei useis will appeai in the S|oreJ
V:ì| Me foldei inside youi Ubuntu One foldei (~/Ubuntu One/Shared With
To stop syncing files that aie shaied with you, navigate to the foldei in
the Ubuntu One Web ui, click the More buuon, then click the Delete this
share buuon.
Exceeding your Ubuntu One Storage Limit
lf you exceed the stoiage limit of youi Ubuntu One account—¸ cn is the
fiee limit—Ubuntu One will stop syncing youi files to youi Ubuntu One
Peisonal Cloud.
Remedying an Exceeded Storage Limit
You can do seveial things to iemedy an exceeded stoiage limit. Among
them aie·
‣ Delete any files you no longei need.
‣ Move any files you no longei need synced to anothei location that is not
synced with Ubuntu One.
‣ Puichase additional stoiage space—you can puichase additional stoiage
in :o cn blocks.
Purchasing Additional Storage Space
You can puichase additional stoiage space by clicking the Get more storage
buuon at the top of the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel, oi at https·//one.ubuntu.
com/seivices/. Additional stoiage is available in :o cn blocks. See https·// foi the piice of additional stoiage blocks.
Getting Ubuntu One Mobile Apps
8¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Figure 3.35: You can purchase additional
storage space on the Ubuntu One website.
Note that the prices shown here were correct at
the date this manual was published.
Figure 3.36: Ubuntu One accepts credit cards,
and PayPal for purchasing additional storage.
Figure 3.37: This is the icon for the Ubuntu One
Android and iPhone apps.
Ubuntu One has mobile applications foi Andioid and iPhone mobile
devices. Tese applications allow you to access youi peisonal cloud files
on-the-go. You can get moie infoimation about the Andioid and iPhone
applications at https·// and https·//one., iespectively.
Getting Ubuntu One for Windows or Mac
Ubuntu One also has standalone applications which can sync youi Ubuntu
One Peisonal Cloud files to the file system of a Windows oi Mac os x op-
eiating system. Moie infoimation can be found at https·//
vovxiNc vi1u unuN1u 8¸
downloads/windows/ oi https·//, iespec-
Music Streaming Service of Ubuntu One
ln addition to file syncing, Ubuntu One offeis music stieaming seivices.
Tis seivice is not discussed in this manual, but additional infoimation can
be found at https·// Te music stieaming
seivice iequiies a paid subsciiption. See https·//
foi the piice of the seivice and some auiactive special offeis.
4 Hardware
Using your devices
Ubuntu suppoits a wide iange of haidwaie, and suppoit foi new haidwaie
impioves with eveiy ielease.
Hardware identification
Teie aie vaiious ways to identify youi haidwaie in Ubuntu. Te easiest
would be to install an application fiom the Ubuntu Sonware Center, called
Fiistly, open the “Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei”, then use the seaich box in
the top iight coinei to seaich foi sysinfo. Select the Application, click
Install. Entei youi passwoid when piompted, to install the application.
To iun the application, seaich foi Sysinfo at the Dash seaich bai. Click
on the piogiam once you find it. Te Sysinfo piogiam will open a window
that displays infoimation about the haidwaie in youi system.
Hardware drivers
A diivei is a piece of sofwaie which tells youi computei how to communi-
cate with a piece of haidwaie. Eveiy component in a computei iequiies a
diivei to function, whethei it’s the piintei, uvu playei, haid disk, oi giaph-
ics caid.
Te majoiity of giaphics caids aie manufactuied by thiee well-known Your graphics card is the component in your
computer which outputs to the display.
Whether you are watching videos on YouTube,
viewing DVDs, or simply enjoying the smooth
transition effects when you maximize/minimize
your windows, your graphics device is doing the
hard work behind the scenes.
companies· lntel, »¬u/»1i, and Nviui» Coip. You can find youi video caid
manufactuiei by iefeiiing to youi computei’s manual, by looking foi the
specifications of youi computei’s model on the lnteinet, oi by using the
command lspci in a teiminal. Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei houses a num-
bei of applications that can tell you detailed system infoimation. Syslnfo is
one such piogiam that you can use to find ielevant infoimation about youi
System devices. Ubuntu comes with suppoit foi giaphics devices manufac-
tuied by the above companies, and many otheis, out of the box. Tat means
you don’t have to find and install any diiveis youiself, Ubuntu takes caie of
it all.
Keeping in line with Ubuntu’s philosophy, the diiveis that aie used by
default foi poweiing giaphics devices aie open souice. Tis means that the
diiveis can be modified by the Ubuntu developeis and pioblems with them
can be fixed. Howevei, in some cases a piopiietaiy diivei (iestiicted diivei)
piovided by the company may piovide beuei peifoimance oi featuies that
aie not piesent in the open souice diivei. ln othei cases, youi paiticulai
device may not be suppoited by any open souice diiveis yet. ln those
scenaiios, you may want to install the iestiicted diivei piovided by the
Foi both philosophical and piactical ieasons, Ubuntu does not install
iestiicted diiveis by default but allows the usei to make an infoimed choice.
Remembei that iestiicted diiveis, unlike the open souice diiveis foi youi
device, aie not maintained by Ubuntu. Pioblems caused by those diiveis
88 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
will be iesolved only when the manufactuiei wishes to addiess them. To
see if iestiicted diiveis aie available foi youi system, go to System Settings,
then open Sonware and Updates and go to the Additional Diiveis tab. lf
a diivei is piovided by the company foi youi paiticulai device, it will be
listed theie. You can simply click Activate to enable the diivei. Tis piocess
iequiies an active lnteinet connection and it will ask foi youi passwoid.
Once installation is complete you may have to ieboot youi computei to
finish activating the diivei.
Te Ubuntu developeis piefei open souice diiveis because they allow Another useful resource is the official online
documentation (, which
contains detailed information about various
graphics drivers and known problems. This
same documentation can be found by searching
for Help in the Dash search bar or by pressing
F1 on your keyboard.
any pioblem to be identified and fixed by anyone with knowledge within
the community. Ubuntu development is extiemely fast and it is likely that
youi device will be suppoited by open souice diiveis. You can use the
Ubuntu Live uvu to check youi device’s compatibility with Ubuntu befoie
installing, oi go online to the Ubuntu foiums oi to http·//www.askubuntu.
com to ask about youi paiticulai device.
Setting up your screen resolution
One of the most common display ielated tasks is seuing the coiiect scieen
iesolution foi youi desktop monitoi oi laptop.
Ubuntu coiiectly identifies youi native scieen iesolution by itself and Displays are made up of thousands of tiny
pixels. Each pixel displays a different color,
and when combined they all display the image
that you see. The native screen resolution is a
measure of the amount of actual pixels on your
sets it foi you. Howevei, due to a wide vaiiety of devices available, some-
times it can’t piopeily identify youi iesolution.
To set oi check youi scieen iesolution, go to System Settings ‣ Displays.
Te “Displays” window detects automatically the type of display and shows
youi display’s name, size. Te scieen iesolution and iefiesh iate is set to
the iecommended value by Ubuntu. lf the iecommended seuings aie not to
youi liking, you can change the same fiom the Resolution diop-down to
the iesolution of youi choice.
Adding an extra display
Sometimes, you may want to add moie than one display device to youi
desktop, oi may want to add an exteinal monitoi to youi laptop. Doing
this is quite simple. Whethei it’s an extia monitoi, icu 1v, oi a piojectoi,
Ubuntu can handle it all. Ubuntu suppoits the addition of multiple displays
by default, which is as easy as plug and play.
Ubuntu iecognizes almost all the latest monitois, 1vs and piojectois
by default. Sometimes it may happen that youi additional display is not
detected when you connect it to the machine. To iesolve this, go to Sys-
tem Settings ‣ Displays and click on Detect Displays. Tis will detect the
monitois connected to the machine. Tis menu can also be found fiom the
Power Off menu on the top panel. You can also seaich foi Displays at the
Dash seaich bai.
Now, theie aie two modes which you can enable foi youi displays. One
option is to spiead youi desktop acioss two oi moie monitois. Tis is pai-
ticulaily useful if you aie woiking on multiple piojects and need to keep
an eye on each of them at the same time. You can configuie the scieen to
be on any side of youi piimaiy scieen i.e. to youi iight, youi lef oi on the
top(paiticulaily nice if you aie woiking on a laige scieen i.e. a big monitoi
oi a TV connected to youi 1:-1¸ inch laptop), just move the scieen on the
Displays seuings to the side of youi choice.
Te second option is to miiioi the desktop onto each of the displays.
Tis is useful when you aie using a laptop to display something on a laigei
u»vuv»vi 8,
scieen e.g. piojectoi. To enable this option just check the box beside Mir-
ror displays and click Apply to save the seuings. You will get a pop-up
notification asking if you want to keep the cuiient seuing oi ieveit to the
pievious seuing. Click to keep the cuiient seuing. Staiting fiom Ubuntu
1:.o¡, you can also select whethei you want the Unity Launchei in both
the displays oi only in the piimaiy display. Ubuntu 1¸.o¡ intioduces beuei
multi-monitoi suppoit foi highei iesolutions.
Connecting and using your printer
Ubuntu suppoits most new piinteis. You can add, iemove, and change
piintei piopeities by navigating to System Settings ‣ Printing. You can also
seaich foi Piinting fiom the Dash seaich bai. Opening Piinting will display
the “Piinting-localhost” window.
When you want to add a piintei, you will need to make suie that it is
switched on, and plugged into youi computei with a usn cable oi connected
to youi netwoik.
Adding a local printer
lf you have a piintei that is connected to youi computei with a usn cable
then this is teimed a |oco| ¡r:nìer. You can add a piintei by clicking on the
Add Printer buuon.
ln the lef hand pane of the “New Piintei” window any piinteis that you
can install will be listed. Select the piintei that you would like to install and
click Forward.
You can now specify the piintei name, desciiption and location. Each of If your printer can automatically do double
sided printing, it will probably have a duplexer.
Please refer to the instructions that came with
the printer if you are unsure. If you do have a
duplexer, make sure the Duplexer Installed
option is checked and then click the Forward
these should iemind you of that paiticulai piintei so that you can choose
the iight one to use when piinting. Finally, click Apply.
Adding a network printer
Make suie that youi piintei is connected to youi netwoik eithei with an
Etheinet cable oi via wiieless and is tuined on. You can add a piintei by
clicking Add Printer. Te “New Piintei” window will open. Click the “÷”
sign next to Neì+or| Pr:nìer.
lf youi piintei is found automatically it will appeai undei Neì+or|
Pr:nìer. Click the piintei name and then click Forward. ln the text fields
you can now specify the piintei name, desciiption and location. Each of
these should iemind you of that paiticulai piintei so that you can choose
the iight one to use when piinting. Finally click Apply.
You can also add youi netwoik piintei by enteiing the iv addiess of the The default printer is the one that is automat-
ically selected when you print a file. To set a
printer as default, right-click the printer that
you want to set as default and then click Set As
piintei. Select “Find Netwoik Piintei,” entei the iv addiess of the piintei
in the box that ieads Host· and piess the Find buuon. Ubuntu will find the
piintei and add it. Most piinteis aie detected by Ubuntu automatically. lf
Ubuntu cannot detect the piintei automatically, it will ask you to entei the
make and model numbei of the piintei.
Changing printer options
Piintei options allow you to change the piinting quality, papei size and
media type. Tey can be changed by iight-clicking a piintei and choosing
Properties. Te “Piintei Piopeities” window will show, in the lef pane,
select Pr:nìer O¡ì:ons.
,o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
You can now specify seuings by changing the diop-down entiies. Some
of the options that you might see aie explained.
Media size
Tis is the size of the papei that you put into youi piintei tiay.
Media source
Tis is the tiay that the papei comes fiom.
Color Model
Tis is veiy useful if you want to piint in Grayscale to save on ink, oi to
piint in Color, oi Inverted Grayscale.
Media type
Depending on the piintei you can change between·
‣ Plain Papei
‣ Automatic
‣ Photo Papei
‣ Tianspaiency Film
‣ cu oi uvu Media
Print quality
Tis specifies how much ink is used when piinting, Fast Dran using the
least ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.
Ubuntu usually detects the audio haidwaie automatically duiing installa-
tion. Audio in Ubuntu is piovided by a sound seivei named PulseAudio.
Te audio piefeiences aie easily configuiable with the help of a veiy easy to
use cui which comes pieinstalled with Ubuntu.
Volume indicator and sound preferences
A volume icon is piesent on the top panel which piovides quick access to a
numbei of audio ielated functions. When you click on the volume icon you
aie gieeted with foui options· A mute option at the veiy top, a slidei buuon
which you can move hoiizontally to inciease/deciease volume, a shoitcut to
the default music playei, Rhythmbox, and an option foi accessing the Sound
Seuings. Selecting SovnJ Seu:ngs opens up anothei window, which piovides
access to options foi changing input and output haidwaie piefeiences foi
speakeis, miciophones and headphones. lt also piovides options foi seuing
the volume level foi each application. Sound Seuings can also be found
fiom System Settings. lt is known as SovnJ.
Ovì¡vì Te Ovì¡vì tab will have a list of all the sound caids available A microphone is used for making audio/video
calls which are supported by applications like
Skype or Empathy. It can also be used for sound
in youi system. Usually theie is only one listed, howevei, if you have a
giaphics caid which suppoits uu¬i audio, it will also show up in the list.
Te Ovì¡vì tab is used foi configuiing the output of audio. You can in-
If you change your sound output device, it will
remain as default.
u»vuv»vi ,1
ciease/deciease and mute/unmute output volume and select youi piefeiied
output device. lf you have moie than one output device, it will be listed in
the section which ieads “Choose a device foi sound output.” Te default
output haidwaie, which is automatically detected by Ubuntu duiing instal-
lation will be selected. Tis section also allows you to change the balance of
sound on the lef and iight speakeis of youi desktop/laptop.
In¡vì Te second tab is foi configuiing audio In¡vì. You will be able to You should note that by default in any Ubuntu
installation, the input sound for mic is either
very low or muted. You will have to manually
increase the volume or unmute the input to
enable your microphone to record sound or use
it during audio/video calls.
use this section when you have an in-built miciophone in youi system oi
if you’ve plugged in an exteinal miciophone. You can also add a Bluetooth
headset to youi input devices which can seive as a miciophone. You can
inciease/deciease and mute/unmute input volume fiom this tab. lf theie is
moie than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box which
ieads C|oose o Je+:ce [or sovnJ :n¡vì. lf you iun voip applications such as
Skype, you will find the miciophone slidei just below the volume slidei in
the top panel sound menu duiing a voice oi video call. By default, the volume in Ubuntu is set to
maximum during installation.
SovnJ Fffecìs Te thiid tab is SovnJ Fffecìs. You can enable, disable, oi You can add new sound themes by installing
them from Software Center (e. g., Ubuntu
Studio’s GNOME audio theme.) You will get the
installed sound themes from the drop-down
menu. You can also enable window and button
change the existing sound theme fiom this section. You can also change the
aleit sounds foi diffeient events.
A¡¡|:coì:ons Te A¡¡|:coì:ons tab is foi changing the volume foi iunning
The Ubuntu Design Team have made a few
changes to the volume icon post Ubuntu 11.10.
applications. Tis comes in handy if you have multiple audio applications
iunning, foi example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Playei and a
web-based video playing at the same time. ln this situation, you will be able
to inciease/deciease, mute/unmute volume foi each application fiom this
More functionality
Te icon can contiol vaiious aspects of the system, application volume
and music playeis like Rhythmbox, Banshee, Clementine and Spotify. Te
volume indicatoi icon can now be easily iefeiied to as the sound menu,
given the diveise functionality of the icon. Media contiols available include You can start and control the default music
player, Rhythmbox, by simply left clicking on
the sound menu and selecting Rhythmbox from
the list. Clicking the play button also starts the
play/pause, pievious tiack, and next tiack. You can also switch between
diffeient playlists fiom the C|oose P|oy|:sì option. lf the cuiient playing
song has album ait, it will show up beside the name of the cuiient tiack,
otheiwise you will see only the details of the song. lt displays the tiack
name, the aitist name and the album name of the cuiient tiack.
Using a webcam
Webcams ofen come built into laptops and netbooks. Some desktops, such
as Apple iMacs, have webcams built into theii displays. lf you puichase a
webcam because youi computei doesn’t have its own, it will most likely
have a usn connection. To use a usn webcam, plug it into any empty usn
poit of youi desktop.
Almost all new webcams aie detected by Ubuntu automatically. You can There are several applications which are useful
if you have a webcam. Cheese can capture
pictures with your webcam and VLC media
player can capture video from your webcam.
You can install these from the Ubuntu Software
configuie webcams foi individual applications such as Skype and Empathy
fiom the application’s setup menu. Foi webcams which do not woik iight
away with Ubuntu, visit https·// foi help.
,: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Scanning text and images
Scanning a document oi an image is veiy simple in Ubuntu. Scanning is
handled by the application Simple Scan. Most of the time, Ubuntu will
simply detect youi scannei and you should just be able to use it. To scan a
document, follow these steps·
1. Place what you want to scan on the scannei.
:. Click to open the Dash and entei scan.
¸. Click on Simple Scan.
¡. Click to choose between Text oi Photo fiom Document ‣ Scan‣ Text.
¸. Click Scan.
õ. Click the Paper Icon to add anothei page.
,. Click Save to save.
You can save the scanned documents and pictuies in Jvic. You can also
save in vui foimat to enable opening in Aciobat Readei. To do that, add the
extension .pdf at the end of the filename.
Troubleshooting your scanner
lf youi scannei is not detected, Ubuntu may give you a “No devices avail-
able” message when tiying to scan. Teie may be a ieason why Ubuntu
cannot find youi scannei.
‣ Simply unplug the scannei and plug it back in. lf it is a newei usn scan-
nei, it is likely that it will just woik.
‣ Te diivei foi youi scannei is not being automatically loaded. Restait
youi system. lt might help'
‣ Youi scannei is not suppoited in Ubuntu. Te most common type
of scannei not suppoited is old paiallel poit oi Lexmaik All-in-One
‣ s»Ni pioject listing of suppoited scanneis. Te s»Ni (Scannei Access
Now Easy) pioject piovides most of the back-ends to the scanning sof-
waie on Ubuntu.
‣ Check https·//
to find out which scanneis woik with Ubuntu.
Keyboard and mouse
Te keyboaid and mouse aie essential input devices foi a laige numbei
of computei useis today. Teie aie many diffeient makes and models of
keyboaids and mice, including lots of keyboaids with suppoit foi diffeient
ln this section we will look at the diffeient seuings foi youi keyboaid
and mouse. Tis will be of gieat use to inteinational useis.
Te keyboaid is likely to be one of the main ways that you inteiact with
youi computei. Unfoitunately not all keyboaids aie unifoim in design,
they can diffei by countiy, by language oi appeaiance. ln Ubuntu 1¸.1o, the
default language set foi the keyboaid now appeais as an applet menu iight
next to the Netwoik Managei icon. Clicking on the keyboaid applet menu
will show you what is the default language set foi the keyboaid and also
u»vuv»vi ,¸
enable you to access thiee options · 1. Chaiactei Map :. Keyboaid Layout ¸.
Text Entiy Seuings..
Figure 4.1: Keyboard applet menu.
Mouse and Touchpad
A mouse is anothei mode of input and goes hand in hand with the key-
boaid. Ubuntu suppoits all types of plug and play mice, including touch-
pads and tiackballs. lf you aie planning to use a mouse with youi laptop,
just plug it in and Ubuntu will iecognize it instantly.
Teie is a seuings menu undei System Settings ‣ Mouse and TouH-
pad wheie you can change the mouse seuings such as double-click speed,
pointei speed, diag and diop thieshold and lef handed oi iight handed
clicks. lf you aie using touchpad on youi laptop/netbook you can also in-
ciease the sensitivity of youi touchpad. You can also enable hoiizontal, edge
sciolling and two fingei sciolling on youi laptop/netbook.
Multitouch and gesture support
lntioduced in Ubuntu 11.o¡, multi-touch and gestuie suppoit has been
gaining good amount of auention fiom developeis at Canonical. Ubuntu
now has full suppoit foi multitouch gestuies. Tis means that anyone with
a touch-enabled device oi inteiface can use the multitouch featuies. Once
tiiggeied, iesizing and moving windows in touch-fiiendly devices can be
done using thiee fingeied tap on an application window.
Ubuntu 1¸.o¡ impioves upon the functionalities incoipoiated in Ubuntu
11.1o foi options to enable two-fingei sciolling similai to Mac os x laptops
and desktops. Tis seuing can be enabled fiom System Setting ‣ Mouse
and TouHpad ‣ TouHpad. Select “Two-fingei sciolling” fiom the Scro||:ng
options. You can also seaich foi Mouse and Touchpad fiom the Dash seaich
bai and enable the option. Please note that enabling two fingei sciolling
will disable edge sciolling.
Other devices
usn poits aie available as standaid on almost all computeis available now.
Tey aie used to connect a multitude of devices to youi computei. Tese
could include poitable haid diives, flash diives, iemovable cu/uvu/Blu-iay
diives, piinteis, scanneis and mobile phones.
When connected, flash diives and poitable haid diives aie automatically
detected—the file managei will open and display the contents of the diive.
You can then use the diives foi copying data to and fiom the computei.
All new cameias, camcoideis and mobile phone su caids aie automati-
cally detected by Ubuntu. Tese su caids have diffeient types of data, so a
window will appeai with a diop-down menu to choose between video, au-
dio impoit and the file managei—you can choose youi desiied action fiom
this menu.
Fiiewiie is a connection on some computeis that allows you to tiansfei data Firewire is officially known as IEEE 1394. It
is also known as the Sony i.LINK and Texas
Instruments Lynx.
fiom devices. Tis poit is geneially used by camcoideis and digital cameias.
lf you want to impoit video fiom youi camcoidei you can do so by
connecting youi camcoidei to the Fiiewiie poit. You will need to install a To find out more about Kino, visit http://www.
,¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
piogiam called Kino which is available in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Bluetooth is a wiieless technology that is widely used by diffeient types of
devices to connect to each othei. lt is common to see a mouse oi a keyboaid
that suppoits Bluetooth. You can also find cvs devices, mobile phones,
headsets, music playeis and many othei devices that can connect to youi
desktops oi laptop and let you tiansfei data, listen to music, oi play games
as an example.
lf youi computei has Bluetooth suppoit then you should be able to see
a Bluetooth icon on the top panel, usually on the lef side of the volume
icon. lf you click on the Bluetooth icon it will open a diop down menu with
choices to Turn on/off Bluetooth, to Turn on/off visibility of the device,
setup a access to a Bluetooth device and also access Bluetooth seuings.
Figure 4.2: The Bluetooth applet menu.
Te Bluetooth piefeiences can also be accessed fiom System Settings ‣
Bluetooth. lf you want to connect(paii) a new device—foi example, to have
a mobile phone send pictuies oi videos to youi computei—click on the
Bluetooth icon on the top panel and select Setup new device….
Ubuntu will open a window foi new device setup. When you click For-
ward, Ubuntu will show you how many Bluetooth devices aie piesent neai
youi computei. Te list of available devices might take a minute oi so to
appeai on the scieen as youi system scans foi these devices. Each device
will be displayed as soon as it is found by Ubuntu. Once a device you’d like
to connect with appeais in the list, click on it. Ten, choose a viN numbei
by selecting PIN options.
Tiee piedefined viN numbeis aie available, but you can also cieate a When you pair two Bluetooth devices, you are
letting each device trust the other one. After
you pair two devices, they will automatically
connect to each other in the future without
requiring a PIN.
custom viN. You will need to entei this viN on the device you will be paiiing
with Ubuntu.
Once the device has been paiied, Ubuntu will open the “Setup com-
pleted” window. ln Ubuntu, youi computei is hidden by default foi secuiity
ieasons. Tis means that youi Ubuntu system can seaich othei Bluetooth
devices, but otheis cannot find youi Ubuntu system when they peifoim a
seaich on theii own computei. lf you would like to let anothei device find
youi computei, you will have to explicitly allow youi computei to be found.
To allow youi computei to be found by othei bluetooth devices, tuin ’on’
the “Visibility of yovrco»¡vìerno»e” fiom System Settings ‣ Bluetooth. You
can also click on the Bluetooth icon and click on Visible to tuin on visibility
which will make youi computei discoveiable.
You can also add a fancy name foi youi Bluetooth-enabled Ubuntu sys-
tem by changing the text undei Friendly Name.
Anothei featuie piesent in the Bluetooth icon menu is “Send files to Android devices need to be paired at all times,
even while transferring files.
device.” Use this option to send a file to a mobile phone without paiiing
with the computei.
5 Software Management
Software management in Ubuntu
lnstalling sofwaie in Ubuntu extends the functionality and usability of this
opeiating system. Tis chaptei desciibes the way Ubuntu manages sofwaie
installation and how it keeps all sofwaie cuiient.
Package management system
Ubuntu and vaiious othei Linux vaiiants use a collection of sofwaie tools
called a ¡oc|oge »onoge»enì sysìe», oi package managei. A package man-
agei is a collection of tools that make installing, deleting, upgiading, and
configuiing sofwaie easy. A package management system has a database
of sofwaie called a re¡os:ìory wheie individual sofwaie is aiianged into
a collection called a packages. Tese packages, apait fiom the sofwaie,
contain impoitant infoimation about the sofwaie itself, such as the sof-
waie’s name, desciiption, veision, name of the vendoi, and a list of vaiious
Je¡enJenc:es upon which the sofwaie ielies foi piopei installation.
Most othei opeiating systems iequiie a usei to puichase commeicial
sofwaie (online oi thiough a physical stoie) oi seaich the lnteinet foi
a fiee alteinative (if one is available). Te coiiect installation file must
then be veiified foi integiity, downloaded, and located on the computei,
followed by the usei pioceeding thiough a numbei of installation piompts
and options. A package management system iemoves the usei inteiaction
fiom these steps and automates most, if not all, of the installation piocess.
Ubuntu comes with a package management system called AJ+onceJ
Poc|og:ng Too| oi »v1.
As discussed in Chaptei ¸· Woiking with Ubuntu, Ubuntu offeis a wide
iange of applications foi youi daily woik. Ubuntu comes with a basic set
of applications foi common tasks, like suifing the lnteinet, checking email,
listening to music, and oiganizing photos and videos. At times, you may
need an extia level of specialization. Foi example, you may want to ietouch
youi photos, iun sofwaie foi youi business, oi play new games. ln each of
these cases, you can seaich foi an application, install it, and use it—usually
with no extia cost.
Figure 5.1: Software Center icon
By default, Ubuntu piovides a centialized point with two diffeient ways
to biowse the re¡os:ìor:es foi seaiching, installing, and iemoving sofwaie.
‣ Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei
‣ Command line apt-get
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei makes seaiching, installing, and/oi iemoving
applications easy and convenient, it is most ofen the application manage-
ment system used by both beginning and expeit Ubuntu useis. We highly
iecommend the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei foi seaiching, installing, and
iemoving applications, although you can still use the command-line appli-
cation apt-get oi install and use the advanced application Synaptic Package
Managei. Since sofwaie in Ubuntu is deliveied in the foim of ¡oc|oges,
sofwaie installation becomes a one-click, one-step piocess when using the
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
,õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Using the Ubuntu Software Center
Teie aie numeious ways to install sofwaie on an opeiating system. ln
Ubuntu, the quickest and easiest way to find and install new applications is
thiough the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
To stait the application, click on the Dash and seaich foi Ubuntu Sof-
waie Centei.
Figure 5.2: You can install and remove applica-
tions from your computer using the Software
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei can be used to install applications available
in the official Ubuntu iepositoiies. Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei window has
foui sections—a list of categoiies on the lef, a bannei at the top, a “What’s
New” panel below the top bannei, then a “Recommended Foi You” panel,
and finally a “Top Rated” panel at the bouom. Clicking on a categoiy will
take you to a list of ielated applications. Foi example, the lnteinet categoiy
contains the Fiiefox web biowsei application.
Te featuied aieas highlight “What’s New” and “Top Rated” sofwaie.
Each aiea shows diffeient application icons. Just click an icon to get moie
infoimation on the application oi to install it. To see all sofwaie contained
in the aiea, click the More buuon in the uppei-iight coinei of each panel.
Te thiee sections at the top iepiesent youi cuiient view of the Sofwaie
Centei’s catalog. Click the All Sonware buuon to see all installable sof-
waie, click the Installed buuon to see a list of sofwaie alieady installed on
youi computei, and click History to see pievious installations and deletions
oiganized by date.
Find your application
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei displays diffeient souices in the “All Sofwaie”
section. Clicking the aiiow next to “All Sofwaie” will show a list of in-
dividual sections. Selecting “Piovided by Ubuntu” will show fiee, official
sofwaie. “Foi Puichase” will show sofwaie available to buy, and “Canoni-
cal Paitneis” will show sofwaie fiom paitneis of Canonical, such as Adobe.
lf you aie looking foi an application, you may alieady know its specific
name (foi example, vic Media Playei), oi you may just have a geneial
categoiy in mind (foi example, the Sound and Video categoiy includes a
soi1v»vi ¬»N»ci¬iN1 ,,
numbei of diffeient sofwaie applications, such as video conveiteis, audio
editois, and music playeis).
To help you find the iight application, you can biowse the Sofwaie Cen-
tei catalog by clicking on the categoiy ieflecting the type of sofwaie you
seek. When you select a categoiy, you will be shown a list of applications.
Some categoiies have sub-categoiies—foi example, the Games categoiy has
subcategoiies foi Simulation and Caid Games. To move thiough categoiies,
use the baH and forward buuons at the top of the window.
As you view a categoiy of sofwaie, you’ll notice a seaich box in the
uppei-iight coinei of the window. Tis seaich box can be used foi specific
names oi keywoid seaiches within this categoiy.
Figure 5.3: Searching for an application in the
Ubuntu Software Center.
Installing software
Once you have found an application you would like to tiy, installing it is
just one click away.
To install sofwaie·
1. Click the Install buuon to the iight of the selected package. lf you would
like to iead moie about the sofwaie package befoie installing it, fiist
click on More Info buuon just below the selected sofwaie. Tis will take
you to a shoit desciiption of the application as well as a scieenshot and
a web link when available. Related add-ons will be listed below the ap-
plication’s desciiption. You can click Install fiom this scieen as well. You
must be connected to the lnteinet in oidei to install sofwaie thiough the
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. To leain how to set up youi lnteinet connec-
tion, see Geuing online.
:. Afei clicking Install, entei youi passwoid into the authentication win-
dow. Tis is the same passwoid you use to log in to youi account. You
aie iequiied to entei youi passwoid whenevei installing oi iemoving
sofwaie in oidei to pievent someone without administiatoi access fiom
making unauthoiized changes to youi computei. lf you ieceive an Au-
thentication Failuie message afei typing in youi passwoid, check that
you typed it coiiectly and tiy again.
,8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Figure 5.4: Here, clicking on “Install” will
download and install the package “Stellarium.”
¸. Wait until the package is finished installing. Duiing the installation
(oi iemoval) of piogiams, you will see an animated icon of iotating
aiiows to the iight of the History buuon at the top of the scieen. Tis
animated icon is labelled Progress. lf you like, you can go back to the
main biowsing window and choose additional sofwaie packages to be
installed by following the steps above. At any time, clicking the Progress
buuon on the top will take you to a summaiy of all opeiations that aie
cuiiently piocessing. You can also click the X to cancel any opeiation
Once the Sofwaie Centei has finished installing an application, it is
ieady to be used. You can stait the newly installed application by going to
the Dash and typing the name of the application in the seaich bai.
Removing software
Removing applications is veiy similai to installing sofwaie. Fiist, find the
installed sofwaie in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. You can click on the
Installed buuon to see all installed sofwaie listed by categoiies. Scioll
down to the application you wish to iemove. lf you click on the aiiow next
to the Installed buuon, you will find a list of sofwaie piovideis, which can
help you naiiow youi seaich. You can also entei keywoids into the Seaich
field to quickly find installed sofwaie, oi you can seaich by date in the
Histoiy tab (moie on Histoiy below).
To iemove sofwaie·
1. Click the Remove buuon to the iight of the selected application.
:. Entei youi passwoid into the authentication window. Similai to in-
stalling sofwaie, iemoving sofwaie iequiies youi passwoid to help
piotect youi computei against unauthoiized changes. Te package will
then be queued foi iemoval and will appeai undei the piogiess section at
the top.
Removing a package will also update youi menus accoidingly.
soi1v»vi ¬»N»ci¬iN1 ,,
Figure 5.5: Here, clicking on “Remove” will
remove the package “SuperTux 2.”
Software history
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei keeps tiack of past sofwaie management in
the Histoiy section. Tis is useful if you wish to ieinstall an application
pieviously iemoved and do not iemembei the application’s name.
Teie aie foui buuons in the histoiy section—All Changes, Installations,
Updates, and Removals. lf you click the aiiow next to a day, a list of indi-
vidual packages will be shown, along with what was done with them and at
what time.
Software Recommendations
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei iecommends sofwaie based on the sofwaie
alieady installed on youi systems. When you enable iecommendations,
a list of locally installed sofwaie will be peiiodically sent to seiveis of
Canonical. Recommendations will appeai in the same panel. lf you want to
disable these iecommendations, go to View‣ Turn Off Recommendations.
Figure 5.6: You can turn on Software Rec-
ommendations via clicking on the Turn On
Recommendations button.
Figure 5.7: The “People Also Installed” section
shows applications installed by users who also
installed the application which you are about to
Managing additional software
Although the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei piovides a laige libiaiy of appli-
cations fiom which to choose, only those packages available within the
official Ubuntu iepositoiies aie listed. At times, you may be inteiested in
a paiticulai application not available in these iepositoiies. lt is impoitant
1oo ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
to undeistand alteinative methods foi accessing and installing sofwaie in
Ubuntu, such as downloading an installation file manually fiom the lntei-
net, oi adding extia iepositoiies. Fiist, we will look at how to manage youi
iepositoiies thiough Sofwaie & Updates.
Software Sources
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei lists only those applications that aie available
in youi enabled iepositoiies. Repositoiies can be added oi iemoved thiough
the Sofwaie & Updates application. You can open Sofwaie & Updates fiom
the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. Simply go to Edit ‣ Sonware Sources… oi open
the uuu (lef Alt key) and seaich foi “souices.”
Figure 5.8: The Software & Updates program
enables you to add, remove and manage
package repositories.
Managing the official repositories
When you open Sofwaie & Updates, you will see the Ubuntu Sonware tab
wheie the fiist foui options aie enabled by default.
Conon:co|-sv¡¡orìeJ [ree onJ o¡en-sovrce soµ+ore (»o:n) Tis iepositoiy
contains all the open-souice packages maintained by Canonical.
Co»»vn:ìy-»o:nìo:neJ [ree onJ o¡en-sovrce soµ+ore (vn:+erse) Tis ieposi-
toiy contains all the open-souice packages developed and maintained by
the Ubuntu community.
Pro¡r:eìory Jr:+ers [or Je+:ces (resìr:cìeJ) Tis iepositoiy contains piopii-
etaiy diiveis which may be iequiied to utilize the full capabilities of
some of youi devices oi haidwaie.
Figure 5.9: Drivers can be installed or removed
via the Additional Drivers application.
soi1v»vi ¬»N»ci¬iN1 1o1
Soµ+ore resìr:cìeJ |y co¡yr:g|ì or |ego| :ssves (»v|ì:+erse) Tis iepositoiy
contains sofwaie possibly piotected fiom use in some states oi countiies
by copyiight oi licensing laws. By using this iepositoiy, you assume
iesponsibility foi the usage of any packages that you install.
Sovrce coJe Tis iepositoiy contains the souice code used to build sofwaie
packages fiom some of the othei iepositoiies. Building applications fiom
souice is an advanced piocess foi cieating packages, and usually only
conceins developeis. Te Source code option should not be selected
unless you have expeiience with building applications fiom souice.
Selecting the best software server
To distiibute applications and sofwaie, Ubuntu giants peimission to many
seiveis all acioss the woild to act as official »:rrors to host an exact copy of
all the files contained in the official Ubuntu iepositoiies.
When selecting a seivei, you may want to considei the following·
D:sìonce ìo ser+er. Tis will affect the speed you can achieve with the file
seivei—the closei the seivei to youi location, the fastei the potential
Inìerneì Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer. Some lnteinet seivice piovideis offei low-cost oi
unlimited fiee downloads fiom theii own seiveis.
Qo|:ìy o[ ser+er. Some seiveis may only offei downloads at a capped
speed, limiting the iate at which you can install and update sofwaie on
youi computei.
Ubuntu will automatically choose an appiopiiate seivei while installing.
lt is iecommended these seuings not be changed unless youi physical loca-
tion significantly changes oi if you feel a highei speed should be achieved
by youi lnteinet connection. Te guide below will help in choosing an
optimal seivei.
Ubuntu piovides a tool foi selecting the seivei that piovides the fastest
connection with youi computei.
Figure 5.10: You can use automatic selection or
choose a server manually.
1. Click the diopdown box next to “Download fiom·” in the Sofwaie &
Updates window.
:. Select “Othei…” fiom the list.
¸. ln the “Choose a Download Seivei” window, click the Select Best Server
buuon in the uppei-iight. Youi computei will now auempt a connection
with all the available seiveis, then select the one with the fastest speed.
lf you aie happy with the automatic selection, click Choose Server to
ietuin to the Sofwaie & Updates window.
1o: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
lf you aie not happy with the automatic selection oi piefei not to use
the tool, the fastest seivei is ofen the closest seivei to you geogiaphically.
ln this case, simply choose “Othei” then find the neaiest location to youi
location. When you aie happy with the selection, click Choose Server to
ietuin to the Sofwaie & Updates window.
lf you do not have a woiking lnteinet connection, updates and piogiams
can be installed fiom the installation media itself by inseiting youi media
and clicking the box undei “lnstallable fiom cuvo¬/uvu.” Once this box
is checked, the media within the cuvo¬/uvu diive will function as an
online iepositoiy, and the sofwaie on the media will be installable fiom the
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Adding more software repositories
Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional thiid-paity iepositoiies to youi list
of sofwaie souices. Te most common iepositoiies added to Ubuntu aie
called vv»s. A vv» is a Persono| Poc|oge Arc|:+e. Tese aie online ieposito-
iies used to host the latest veisions of sofwaie packages, digital piojects,
and othei applications. vv»s allow you to install sofwaie packages that aie
not available in the official iepositoiies. vv»s also allow you to automati-
cally be notified whenevei updates foi these packages aie available.
lf you know the web addiess of a vv»’s Launchpad site, adding it to youi
list of sofwaie souices is ielatively simple. To do so, you will need to use
the Other Sonware tab in the “Sofwaie & Updates” window.
On the Launchpad site foi a vv», you will see a heading to the lef called
“Adding this PPA to youi system.” Undeineath will be a shoit paiagiaph
containing a unique uvi in the foim of ppa·test-ppa/example. Highlight this
uvi by selecting it with youi mouse, then iight-click and select Copy.
Figure 5.11: This is an example of the Launch-
pad page for the Ubuntu Tweak PPA. Ubuntu
Tweak is an application that is not available
in the official Ubuntu repositories. However,
by adding this PPA to your list of software
sources, it will be easy to install and update this
application through the Software Center.
Retuin to the “Sofwaie & Updates” window, and in the Other Sonware
tab, click Add… at the bouom. A new window will appeai, and you will
see the woids “Apt line·” followed by a text field. Right-click on the empty
space in this text field and select Paste. You should see appeai the uvi you
copied fiom the vv»’s Launchpad site eailiei. Click Add Source to ietuin
to the “Sofwaie & Updates” window. You will see a new entiy has been
added to the list of souices in this window with a selected check box in
fiont (meaning it is enabled).
lf you click Close in the bouom iight coinei of this window, a message
soi1v»vi ¬»N»ci¬iN1 1o¸
will appeai infoiming you that “Te infoimation about available sofwaie
is out-of-date.” Tis is because you have just added a new iepositoiy to
Ubuntu, and it now needs to connect to that iepositoiy and download a list
of the packages it piovides. Click Reload, and wait while Ubuntu iefieshes
all of youi enabled iepositoiies (including this new one you just added).
When it has finished, the window will close automatically.
Congiatulations, you have just added a vv» to youi list of sofwaie
souices. You can now open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei and install appli-
cations fiom this vv» in the same way you pieviously installed applications
fiom the default Ubuntu iepositoiies.
Manual software installation
Although Ubuntu has extensive sofwaie available, you may want to man-
ually install a sofwaie package not available in the iepositoiies. lf no vv»
exists foi the sofwaie, you will need to install it manually. Befoie you
choose to do so, make suie you tiust the package and its maintainei.
Packages in Ubuntu have a .deb extension. Double-clicking a package
will open an oveiview page in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei which will give
you moie infoimation about that package.
Te oveiview piovides technical infoimation about that package, a
website link (if applicable), and the option to install. Clicking Install will
install the package just like any othei installation in the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Figure 5.12: Installing .deb files manually using
software center.
Updates and upgrades
Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage package updates thiough
the Updates tab in the Sofwaie & Updates window.
Ubuntu updates
ln this section, you aie able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to
install on youi system. Te type of update usually depends upon youi
1o¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
piefeiences with iegaids to system stability veisus having access to the
latest developments.
Figure 5.13: You can update installed software
by using the Software Updater application in
I»¡orìonì secvr:ìy v¡Joìes (sovcy-secvr:ìy) Tese updates aie highly iec-
ommended to ensuie youi system iemains as secuie as possible. Tese
updates aie enabled by default.
Reco»»enJeJ v¡Joìes (sovcy-v¡Joìes) Tese updates aie not as impoitant
in keeping youi system secuie. Rathei, updates listed in this section will
keep youi sofwaie updated with the most iecent bug fixes oi minoi
updates that have been tested and appioved. Tis option is also enabled
by default.
Pre-re|eoseJ v¡Joìes (sovcy-¡ro¡oseJ) Tis option is foi those who would
iathei iemain up-to-date with the veiy latest ieleases of applications
at the iisk of installing an update that has uniesolved bugs oi conflicts.
Note that it is possible you will encountei pioblems with these updated
applications, theiefoie, this option is not enabled by default.
Unsv¡¡orìeJ v¡Joìes (sovcy-|oc|¡orìs) Tese aie updates that have not
yet been fully tested and ieviewed by Canonical. Some bugs may occui
when using these updates, and so this option is also not enabled by
Automatic updates
Te middle section of this window allows you to customize how youi sys-
tem manages updates, such as the fiequency with which it checks foi new
packages, as well as whethei it should install impoitant updates iight away
(without asking foi youi peimission), download them only, oi just notify
you about them.
Release upgrade
At the bouom of the Updates tab in the Sofwaie & Updates window, you
will see a diopdown box labeled Notify me of a new Ubuntu version·. Tis
option allows you to tell Ubuntu how you would like to handle ielease
updates. Tis diopdown box contains the following options foi notification·
Ne+er Choose this option if you would iathei not be notified about any
new Ubuntu ieleases.
For ony ne+ +ers:on Choose this option if you always want to have the
latest Ubuntu ielease, iegaidless of whethei it is a long-teim suppoit
ielease oi not. Tis option is iecommended foi noimal home useis.
soi1v»vi ¬»N»ci¬iN1 1o¸
For |ong-ìer» sv¡¡orì +ers:ons Choose this option if you need a ielease
that will be moie stable and have suppoit foi a longei time. lf you use
Ubuntu foi business puiposes, you may want to considei selecting this
Canonical will ielease a new veision of the Ubuntu opeiating system
eveiy six months. Most eveiy ielease is called a nor»o| re|eose. Howevei,
eveiy fouith ielease—oi eveiy :¡ months—Canonical ieleases a |ong-
ìer» sv¡¡orì (i1s) veision of the opeiating system. Long-teim suppoit
ieleases aie intended to be the most stable ieleases available and aie
suppoited foi a longei peiiod of time. Ubuntu 1¸.1o is a noimal ielease.
Ubuntu 1¡.o¡ will be an LTS ielease.
6 Advanced Topics
Ubuntu for advanced users
To this point, we’ve piovided detailed instiuctions on geuing the most fiom
Ubuntu’s basic featuies. ln this chaptei, we’ll detail some of Ubuntu’s moie
advanced featuies—like the teiminal, a poweiful utility that can help you
accomplish tasks without the need foi a giaphical usei inteiface (cui). We’ll
also discuss some advanced secuiity measuies you can implement to make
youi computei even safei.
Tis chaptei has been wiiuen with advanced useis in mind. lf you’ie
new to Ubuntu, don’t feel as though you’ll need to mastei these topics to
get the most out of youi new sofwaie (you can easily skip to the next chap-
tei without any adveise impact to youi expeiience with Ubuntu). Howevei,
if you’ie looking to expand youi knowledge of Ubuntu, we encouiage you
to keep ieading.
Introduction to the terminal
Tioughout this manual, we have focused piimaiily on the GUl. ln oidei
to fully iealize the powei of Ubuntu, you will need to leain how to use the
What is the terminal?
Most opeiating systems, including Ubuntu, have two types of usei intei-
faces. Te fiist is a GUl. Tis is the desktop, windows, menus, and toolbais
you click to get things done. Te second, much oldei type of inteiface is the
command-line inteiface (cii).
Te ìer»:no| is Ubuntu’s CLl. lt is a method of contiolling some aspects
of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on the keyboaid.
Why would I want to use the terminal?
You can peifoim most day-to-day activities without evei needing to open
the teiminal. Howevei, the teiminal is a poweiful and invaluable tool that
can be used to peifoim many useful tasks you might not be able to accom-
plish with a cui. Foi example·
‣ Tioubleshooting any difficulties that may aiise when using Ubuntu
sometimes iequiies you to use the teiminal.
‣ A command-line inteiface is sometimes a fastei way to accomplish a
task. Foi example, it is ofen easiei to peifoim opeiations on many files
concuiiently using the teiminal.
‣ Leaining the command-line inteiface is the fiist step towaids moie
advanced tioubleshooting, system administiation, and sofwaie develop-
ment skills. lf you aie inteiested in becoming a developei oi an advanced
Ubuntu usei, knowledge of the command-line is essential.
1o8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Opening the terminal
You can open the teiminal by clicking Dash then seaiching foi woid “teim”.
You’ll see an application named teiminal. Click on this application to open
a teiminal. Alteinatively, you can open the ìer»:no| by hiuing Ctrl+Alt+T
Te ìer»:no| gives you access to what is called a s|e||. When you type
a command in the teiminal, the shell inteipiets this command, iesulting in
the desiied action. Diffeient types of shells accept slightly diffeient com-
mands. Te most populai is called “bash,” and is the default shell in Ubuntu.
When the teiminal window opens, it will be laigely blank with the excep-
tion of some text at the top lef of the scieen, followed by a blinking block,
known as a cvrsor. Tis text is youi piompt—it displays, by default, youi
login name and youi computei’s name, followed by the cuiient diiectoiy.
Te tilde (-) means that the cuiient diiectoiy is youi home diiectoiy. Fi-
nally, the blinking block is called the cuisoi—this maiks wheie text will be
enteied as you type.
To test a teiminal command, type pwd and piess Enter. Te teiminal
should display /home/yourusername. Tis text is called the “output.” You
have just used the pwd (piint woiking diiectoiy) command, which outputs
(displays) the cuiient diiectoiy.
Figure 6.1: The default terminal window allows
you to run hundreds of useful commands.
All commands in the teiminal follow the same appioach· Type a com-
mand, possibly followed by some paiameteis, and piess Enter to peifoim
the specified action. Poro»eìers (also called s+:ìc|es) aie extia segments
of text, usually added at the end of a command, that change how the com-
mand itself is inteipieted. Tese usually take the foim of -h oi --help, foi
example. ln fact, --help can be added to most commands to display a shoit
desciiption of the command, as well as a list of any othei paiameteis that
can be used with that command.
Ofen, some type of output will be displayed confiiming the action was
completed successfully, although this can depend on the command being
executed. Foi example, using the cd command to change youi cuiient diiec-
toiy (see above) will change the piompt but will not display any output.
Te iest of this chaptei coveis some veiy common uses of the teimi-
nal. Tioughout the second pait of this manual, we will continue to iefei
to the command line, paiticulaily when discussing steps involved in tiou-
bleshooting as well as when desciibing moie advanced management of youi
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 1o,
Ubuntu file system structure
Ubuntu uses the Linux file system, which is based on a seiies of foldeis
in the ioot diiectoiy. Tese foldeis contain impoitant system files that
cannot be modified unless you aie iunning as the ioot usei oi use svJo. Tis
iestiiction exists foi both secuiity and safety ieasons, computei viiuses will
not be able to change the coie system files, and oidinaiy useis should not
be able to accidentally damage anything vital.
Figure 6.2: Some of the most important
directories in the root file system.
We begin oui discussion of the Ubuntu file system stiuctuie at the top
—also known as the ioot diiectoiy—as denoted by /. Te ioot diiectoiy
contains all othei diiectoiies and files on youi system. Below the ioot
diiectoiy aie the following essential diiectoiies·
/bin and /sbin Many essential system applications (equivalent to C:\Windows).
/etc System-wide configuiation files.
/home Each usei will have a subdiiectoiy to stoie peisonal files (foi
example, /home/yourusername) which is equivalent to C:\Users oi
C:\Documents and Settings in Miciosof Windows.
/lib Libiaiy files, similai to .dll files on Windows.
/media Removable media (cuvo¬s and usn diives) will be mounted in this
/root Tis contains the ioot usei’s files (not to be confused with the ioot
/usr Pionounced “usei,” it contains most piogiam files (not to be con-
fused with each usei’s home diiectoiy). Tis is equivalent to C:\Program
Files in Miciosof Windows.
/var/log Contains log files wiiuen by many applications.
Eveiy diiectoiy has a ¡oì|. Te path is a diiectoiy’s full name—it de-
sciibes a way to navigate the diiectoiy fiom anywheie in the system.
Foi example, the diiectoiy /home/yourusername/Desktop contains all the
files that aie on youi Ubuntu desktop. lt can be bioken down into a handful
of key pieces·
‣ /—indicates that the path staits at the ioot diiectoiy
‣ home/—fiom the ioot diiectoiy, the path goes into the home diiectoiy
‣ yourusername/—fiom the home diiectoiy, the path goes into the you-
rusername diiectoiy
‣ Desktop—fiom the yourusername diiectoiy, the path ends up in the
Desktop diiectoiy
11o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Eveiy diiectoiy in Ubuntu has a complete path that staits with the / (the
ioot diiectoiy) and ends in the diiectoiy’s own name.
Diiectoiies and files that begin with a peiiod aie hidden. Tese aie usu-
ally only visible with a special command oi by selecting a specific option.
ln the Files file managei, you can show hidden files and diiectoiies by
selecting the View Options buuon located in the uppei-iight of the win-
dow. Tis will show a diopdown list of options. Select Show Hidden Files.
Hidden files can also be shown by simply piessing Ctrl+H in the Files file
managei. lf you aie using the teiminal, then you would type ls -a and
piess Enter to see the hidden files and diiectoiies. Teie aie many hidden
diiectoiies in youi home foldei used to stoie piogiam piefeiences. Foi ex-
ample, /home/yourusername/.thunderbird stoies piefeiences used by the
Tundeibiid mail application.
Mounting and unmounting removable devices
Any time you add stoiage media to youi computei—an inteinal oi exteinal
haid diive, a usn flash diive, a cuvo¬—it needs to be »ovnìeJ befoie it is
accessible. Mounting a device means to associate a diiectoiy name with the
device, allowing you to navigate to the diiectoiy to access the device’s files.
When a device, such as a usn flash diive oi a media playei, is mounted in
Ubuntu, a foldei is automatically cieated foi it in the »eJ:o diiectoiy, and
you aie given the appiopiiate peimissions to be able to iead and wiite to
the device.
Most file manageis will automatically add a shoitcut to the mounted
device in the side bai of youi home foldei oi as a shoitcut diiectly on the
desktop so that the device is easily accessible. You shouldn’t have to physi-
cally navigate to the »eJ:o diiectoiy in Ubuntu unless you choose to do so
fiom the command line.
When you’ve finished using a device, you can vn»ovnì it. Unmounting a
device disassociates the device fiom its diiectoiy, allowing you to eject it. lf
you disconnect oi iemove a stoiage device befoie unmounting it, you may
lose data.
Securing Ubuntu
Now that you know a bit moie about using the command line, we can use it
to make youi computei moie secuie. Te following sections discuss vaiious
secuiity concepts, along with pioceduies foi keeping youi Ubuntu iunning
smoothly, safely, and secuiely.
Why Ubuntu is safe
Ubuntu is secuie by default foi a numbei of ieasons·
‣ Ubuntu cleaily distinguishes between noimal useis and administiative
‣ Sofwaie foi Ubuntu is kept in a secuie online iepositoiy containing no
false oi malicious sofwaie.
‣ Open-souice sofwaie like Ubuntu allows secuiity flaws to be easily
‣ Secuiity patches foi open-souice sofwaie like Ubuntu aie ofen ieleased
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 111
‣ Many viiuses designed to piimaiily taiget Windows-based systems do
not affect Ubuntu systems.
Just because Ubuntu implements stiong secuiity model by default doesn’t
mean the usei can “thiow caution to the wind.” Caie should always be
taken when downloading files, opening email, and biowsing the lnteinet.
Using a good antiviius piogiam is waiianted as well.
Basic security concepts
Te following sections discuss basic secuiity concepts—like file peimissions,
passwoids, and usei accounts. Undeistanding these concepts will help you
in secuiing youi computei.
ln Ubuntu, files and foldeis can be set up so that only specific useis can
view, modify, oi iun them. Foi instance, you might wish to shaie an impoi-
tant file with othei useis, but do not want those useis to be able to edit the
file. Ubuntu contiols access to files on youi computei thiough a system of
“peimissions.” Peimissions aie seuings configuied to contiol exactly how
files on youi computei aie accessed and used.
To leain moie about modifying peimissions, visit https·//help.ubuntu.
You should use a stiong passwoid to inciease the secuiity of youi computei.
Youi passwoid should not contain names, common woids, oi common
phiases. By default, the minimum length of a passwoid in Ubuntu is foui
chaiacteis. We iecommend a passwoid with moie than the minimum num-
bei of chaiacteis. A passwoid with a minimum of eight chaiacteis which
includes both uppei and lowei case leueis, numbeis, and symbols is consid-
eied stiong.
Locking the screen
When you leave youi computei unauended, you may want to lock the
scieen. Locking youi scieen pievents anothei usei fiom using youi com-
putei until youi passwoid is enteied. To lock the scieen·
‣ Click the session menu icon in the iight coinei of the top panel, then
select IoH, oi
‣ piess Ctrl+Alt+L to lock the scieen. Tis keyboaid shoitcut can be
changed by going to Session Indicator ‣ System Settings…‣ Keyboard ‣
Shortcuts and then selecting System fiom the list in the lef column and
clicking on IoH Screen in the iight column.
Users and groups
User accounts
When Ubuntu is installed, it is automatically configuied foi use by a single
usei. lf moie than one peison will use the computei, each peison should
have his oi hei own usei account. Tis way, each usei can have sepaiate
11: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
seuings, documents, and othei files. lf necessaiy, you can also piotect files
fiom being viewed oi modified by useis without administiative piivileges.
Like most opeiating systems, Ubuntu allows you to cieate sepaiate usei
accounts foi each peison. Ubuntu also suppoits usei gioups, which allows
you to administei peimissions foi multiple useis at the same time.
Eveiy usei in Ubuntu is a membei of at least one gioup. At a baie min-
imum, the usei of the computei has peimissions in a gioup with the same
name as the usei. A usei can also be a membei of additional gioups. You
can configuie some files and foldeis to be accessible only by a usei and a
gioup. By default, a usei’s files aie only accessible by that usei, and system
files aie only accessible by the ioot usei.
Figure 6.3: Add, remove and change the user
Managing users
lf the account you aie using is an administiatoi account, you can manage
useis and gioups using the Useis and Gioups administiation application.
To find this application, click Session Indicator ‣ System Settings…‣ User
Accounts. Ten click the UnloH buuon and entei youi passwoid to unlock
the usei seuings. Next, select the usei that you want to modify fiom the list.
Ten click on the element that you want to change.
AJJ:ng o vser Click the + buuon undeineath the list of the cuiient usei
accounts. A window will appeai with thiee fields. Te Account Type field
contains a list of usei account types. Take caie in deteimining what type
of account to assign a usei. An AJ»:n:sìroìor has full access to all aieas
of Ubuntu, wheieas the SìonJorJ account type is moie limited. Te Full
Name field contains a fiiendly display name. Te Username field is foi the
actual useiname. As you entei the usei’s full name, the Username field will
automatically fill with a loweicase, no space veision of the usei’s full name.
lf you piefei to use a diffeient useiname foi this usei, highlight the existing
useiname and type in the useiname of youi choice. Once all fields aie
filled in, click Add. A new dialog box will appeai showing the usei account
details. New accounts aie disabled by default. To enable an account, click
the Account disabled field next to the Password label. A new window will
appeai allowing you to set the passwoid foi the new usei.
At the top of the new window is a diopdown menu next to the label
Action. By default, the “set a passwoid now” option will be automatically
selected. You may also choose “log in without a passwoid”, howevei, this
is not advised as the account will be available to anyone. Te final option,
“enable this account” is available once a passwoid has been set. Using this
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 11¸
option allows an administiatoi to enable oi disable an account without
losing the passwoid.
Ubuntu piovides a way to cieate a secuie passwoid by clicking the gears
buuon located inside of the New password field. A iandom sequence of
numbeis, leueis, and symbols will be enteied into this field. You can also
simply entei a passwoid of youi choosing by enteiing it into the New
password field. Ten, ie-entei this same passwoid into the space next to
Confirm password.
U|vnìv en[orces ì|e ¡oss+orJ ¡o|:c:es on ì|:s screen, so ¡oy ouenì:on ìo ì|e
sìoìvs :n[or»oì:on |ocoìeJ |eì+een ì|e New password onJ Confirm password
fie|Js [or :n[or»oì:on o|ovì ì|e ¡oss+orJ yov’re seu:ng. I[ ì|ere ore ¡ro||e»s
+:ì| ì|e ¡oss+orJ, U|vnìv +:|| ìe|| yov +|oì :s +rong +:ì| ì|e ¡oss+orJ onJ
+:|| ¡re+enì yov [ro» enìer:ng ì|e so»e ¡oss+orJ :nìo ì|e Confirm password
fie|J vnì:| ì|e ne+ ¡oss+orJ »eeìs ì|e reqv:re»enìs.
MoJ:[y:ng o vser Click on the name of a usei in the list of useis, then click
on the text entiy next to any of the following options·
‣ Account type·
‣ Language·
‣ Passwoid·
‣ Automatic Login·
You may also change the useiname by clicking on the useiname at the top
and enteiing a new name.
De|eì:ng o vser Select a usei fiom the list and click -. Ubuntu will deacti-
vate the usei’s account, and you can choose whethei to iemove the usei’s
home foldei oi leave it in place. lf a usei is iemoved and the usei’s files ie-
main, the only usei who can access the files aie the ioot usei—also known
as the supeiusei—oi anyone associated with the file’s gioup.
Managing groups
Gioup management is accomplished thiough the command line (Teiminal)
oi by adding thiid-paity applications (the lauei is beyond the scope of this
manual). You will find moie infoimation in the section below titled “Using
the command line”.
AJJ:ng o grov¡ To add a gioup, type sudo addgroup groupname and piess
Enter, ieplacing grov¡no»e with the name of the gioup you wish to add.
Foi example, sudo addgroup ubuntuusers will add the gioup v|vnìvvsers
to the list of gioups.
MoJ:[y:ng o grov¡ To altei the useis in an existing gioup, type sudo
adduser username groupname to add a usei, oi sudo deluser username
groupname and piess Enter to iemove a usei ieplacing vserno»e and grov¡-
no»e in these commands with the actual usei and gioup name with which
you’ie woiking.
De|eì:ng o grov¡ To delete a gioup, type sudo delgroup groupname and
piess Enter, ieplacing grov¡no»e with the name of the gioup you wish to
11¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Applying groups to files and folders
To change the gioup associated with a file oi foldei, open the Files file man-
agei and navigate to the appiopiiate file oi foldei. Ten, eithei select the
foldei and then click the gears buuon in the uppei-iight of the window and
choose Properties, oi iight-click on the file oi foldei and select Properties.
ln the Piopeities dialog window, click on the Permissions tab and select the
desiied gioup fiom the Groups diop-down list. Ten close the window.
Using the command line
You can also modify usei and gioup seuings via the command line, but
we iecommend you use the giaphical method above unless you have a
good ieason to use the command line. Foi moie infoimation on using the
command line to modify useis and gioups, see the Ubuntu Seivei Guide at
System updates
Good secuiity happens with an up-to-date system. Ubuntu piovides fiee
sofwaie and secuiity updates. You should apply these updates iegulaily.
See Updates and upgiades to leain how to update youi Ubuntu computei
with the latest secuiity updates and patches.
Trusting third party sources
Noimally, you will add applications to youi computei via the Ubuntu Sof-
waie Centei which downloads sofwaie fiom the Ubuntu iepositoiies as
desciibed in Chaptei ¸· Sofwaie Management. Howevei, it is occasionally
necessaiy to add sofwaie fiom othei souices. Foi example, you may need
to do this when an application is not available in the Ubuntu iepositoiies oi
when you need a veision of sofwaie newei than what is cuiiently in the
Ubuntu iepositoiies.
Additional iepositoiies aie available fiom sites such as http·//www. and Launchpad vv»s which can be added as desciibed in Sof-
waie Souices. You can download the uin packages foi some applications
fiom theii iespective pioject sites on the lnteinet. Alteinatively, you can
build applications fiom theii souice code.
Using only iecognized souices, such as a pioject’s site, vv» oi vaiious
community iepositoiies (such as http·//, is moie secuie
than downloading applications fiom an aibitiaiy (and peihaps less iep-
utable) souice. When using a thiid paity souice, considei its tiustwoithi-
ness, and be suie you know exactly what you’ie installing on youi com-
A fiiewall is an application that piotects youi computei against unautho-
iized access by people on the lnteinet oi youi local netwoik. Fiiewalls
block connections to youi computei fiom unknown souices. Tis helps
pievent secuiity bieaches.
Uncomplicated Fiiewall (uiv) is the standaid fiiewall configuiation pio-
giam in Ubuntu. lt iuns fiom the command line, but a piogiam called Gufw
allows you to use it with a giaphical usei inteiface cui. See Chaptei ¸·
Sofwaie Management to leain moie about installing the Gufw package.
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 11¸
Once Gufw is installed, stait Gufw by clicking Dash ‣ Applications ‣
Firewall configuration. To enable the fiiewall, select the Enable option. By
default, all incoming connections aie denied. Tis seuing should be suitable
foi most useis.
lf you aie iunning seivei sofwaie on youi Ubuntu system (such as a
web seivei, oi an i1v seivei), then you will need to open the poits these
seivices use. lf you have no need to iun any seivei applications oi seivices,
you will likely not need to open any additional poits.
To open a poit click on the Add buuon. Foi most puiposes, the Precon-
figured tab is sufficient. Select Allow fiom the fiist box and then select the
piogiam oi seivice iequiied.
Te Simple tab can be used to allow access on a single poit, and the
Advanced tab can be used to allow access on a iange of poits.
You may wish to piotect youi sensitive peisonal data—foi instance, finan-
cial iecoids—by enciypting it. Enciypting a file oi foldei essentially “locks”
that file oi foldei by encoding it with an algoiithm that keeps it sciambled
until it is piopeily decoded with a passwoid. Enciypting youi peisonal data
ensuies that no one can open youi peisonal foldeis oi iead youi piivate
data without youi authoiization thiough the use of a piivate key.
Ubuntu includes a numbei of tools to enciypt files and foldeis. Tis
chaptei will discuss two of them. Foi fuithei infoimation on using en-
ciyption with eithei single files oi email, see Ubuntu Community Help
documents at https·//
Home folder
When installing Ubuntu, it is possible to enciypt a usei’s home foldei. See
Chaptei 1· lnstallation foi moie on enciypting the home foldei.
Private folder
lf you have not chosen to enciypt a usei’s entiie home foldei, it is possible
to enciypt a single foldei—called Private—in a usei’s home foldei. To do
this, follow these steps·
1. lnstall the ecryptfs-utils sofwaie package fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei. (Foi moie infoimation about the Sofwaie Centei, ieview Using
the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.)
:. Use the teiminal to iun ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the piivate
¸. Entei youi account’s passwoid when piompted.
¡. Eithei choose a mount passphiase oi geneiate one.
¸. Recoid both passphiases in a safe location. Tese ore reqv:reJ :[ yov e+er
|o+e ìo reco+er yovr Joìo »onvo||y.
õ. Log out and log back in to mount the enciypted foldei.
Afei the Private foldei has been set up, any files oi foldeis in it will
automatically be enciypted.
lf you need to iecovei youi enciypted files manually see https·//help.
11õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Running Windows Programs on Ubuntu
As many Windows useis will know, some piogiams that you can use on a
Windows system cease to woik on Ubuntu. Foi example, L:|reOffice woiks
on both Windows and Ubuntu systems, but M:crosoµ Office woiks only on a
Windows system. Since many Windows useis who use Ubuntu want all of
theii Windows piogiams back, many piogiammeis have woiked togethei to
cieate V:ne. V:ne is an acionym foi “Vine I s Not an Fmulatoi”.
Tis section will discuss what Wine is, and how to use it on youi Ubuntu
installation. Foi iecent infoimation about Wine, please visit the official
Wine website at http·//www.winehq.oig.
What is Wine?
Wine is a backgiound application that allows Linux and Mac useis to install
and iun Windows piogiams on theii system. While not eveiy Windows
piogiam is compatible with Wine, many piogiams seem to be completely
compatible with Wine while iunning on Linux oi Mac OS. Foi example,
Miciosof Office may not be compatible without installing additional com-
ponents (such as Miciosof.NET Fiamewoik ¡.o). Te cuiient stable veision
of Wine is 1.õ, and the most iecent development veision is 1.,.:.
Installing Wine
To install Wine Veision 1.õ, follow the following steps·
I[ yov |o+e o ¡re+:ovs +ers:on o[ V:ne :nsìo||eJ, vn:nsìo|| V:ne |e[ore conì:nv:ng
vs:ng ì|e co»»onJ, sudo apt-get remove --purge wine1.* winetricks &&
sudo apt-get autoremove
1. Open the teiminal and type· sudo apt-add-repository ppa:ubuntu-
wine/ppa. Tis will install the Official Wine vv».
:. Afei the teiminal has finished installing the Wine vv», type· sudo apt-
get update. Tis will update the vv» list.
¸. Once the teiminal has finished iefieshing the vv» list, type· sudo apt-
get install -y wine1.6 winetricks. Tis will install Wine 1.õ and
Winetiicks. Winetiicks is a sofwaie centei foi Wine, and is, in most
cases, optional.
Figure 6.4: The Terminal showing the installa-
tion of the Wine PPA.
Duiing the installation of Wine and Winetiicks, you will have to ac-
cept the Miciosof End Usei License Agieement and the Miciosof Coie
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 11,
Fonts License Agieement so that the Miciosof fonts and native files can be
Figure 6.5: The Microsoft Core Fonts EULA
dialog opened in the Terminal.
When accepting the Miciosof Coie Fonts License Agieement, the Ok
buuon is not highlighted. To highlight and accept the Miciosof EULA,
piess the Tab key and then the Enter key. Te Miciosof End Usei License
Agieement will be shown afei you accept the Miciosof Coie Fonts EULA.
By default, the No buuon is highlighted. To highlight the Yes buuon and
accept the Miciosof EULA, piess the Tab key and then the Enter key.
Figure 6.6: The Microsoft Core Fonts EULA
dialog opened in the Terminal.
P|eose Noìe lt is iecommended to ieboot youi system afei installing
Wine and Winetiicks, although this is not always iequiied.
Installing Wine (Alternative)
Foi an alteinative installation of Wine 1.õ (which does not involve the
teiminal), follow these steps·
I[ yov |o+e o ¡re+:ovs +ers:on o[ V:ne :nsìo||eJ, vn:nsìo|| V:ne |e[ore conì:n-
v:ng |y o¡en:ng ì|e U|vnìv Soµ+ore Cenìer, go:ng ìo ì|e Insìo||eJ »env, onJ
se|ecì:ng onJ vn:nsìo||:ng ì|e +ers:on o[ V:ne yov |o+e :nsìo||eJ. (FX. V:ne1.¸,
1. Open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei and go to the Application Menu.
:. Select Edit ‣ Sonware Sources….
¸. When a pop-up appeais, entei youi passwoid to ensuie that any and all
changes have youi appioval. Ten, click OK.
118 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
¡. Anothei window should appeai afei you piess OK, assuming you have
typed youi passwoid coiiectly. On the top of the window, theie will be
a iow of tabs. Click on the second tab, Other Sonware. Click on this
¸. On the bouom of the window, click the Add… buuon.
õ. On the next window, key· ppa:ubuntu-wine/ppa. Ten, click the Add
Source buuon.
,. Seaich foi and install Wine 1.õ and Winetiicks like you would any othei
application in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Duiing the installation of Wine and Winetiicks, the Sofwaie Centei
will piobably fieeze. While the Sofwaie Centei is fiozen, a new window,
that opened undeineath the Sofwaie Centei’s window is waiting foi you to
accept the Miciosof End Usei License Agieement and the Miciosof Coie
Fonts License Agieement so that the Miciosof fonts and native files can be
installed. ln this window, titled “Debconf on youi-computei” (Replace yovr-
co»¡vìer with youi computei’s name.), the Miciosof Coie Fonts EULA
will be shown. To accept the Miciosof Coie Fonts EULA, check the Do you
accept the EUIA license terms' checkbox and click the Forward buuon.
Figure 6.7: The Microsoft Core Fonts EULA
dialog opened in the Software Center.
lt is iecommended to ieboot youi system afei installing Wine and
Winetiicks, although this is not always iequiied.
Configuring Wine
Wine 1.õ/1.,.: contains many featuies that will change the look and feel
of the Windows applications you aie tiying to iun. Foi example, you can
change the theme of the Windows inteiface, and what veision of Windows
you would like to iun (fiom Windows :.o to Windows 8).
To change these seuings, open the Dash and seaich foi Configure Wine.
Ten, open the application.
A¡¡|:coì:on To| ln the Application tab, you can change the way Wine
iuns applications. Some Windows piogiams woik only foi specific veisions
of Windows. Tis featuie allows you to change the veision of Windows
Wine will iun as foi a specific application, oi foi all of them to iun undei
one veision.
L:|ror:es To| ln the Iibraries tab, you can change coie Windows files,
to suit youi needs. Many Windows piogiams install uii files, oi Dynamic
Link Libiaiies. Tese files contain all of the infoimation needed foi an
application to woik on a Windows system. Many uii files aie needed foi
»uv»Nciu 1ovics 11,
Figure 6.8: The Wine configuration open to the
Application Tab.
a Windows system to iun, and aie diffeient between veisions of Windows.
ln this featuie, you may edit oi ieplace existing uii files. Tis allows you to
change the Windows System files, to suit you needs.
Tese fi|es s|ov|J noì |e eJ:ìeJ. Tese ore core fi|es neeJeJ [or V:ne ìo rvn
correcì|y. On|y eJ:ì ì|ese fi|es :[ yov |o+e ìo.
Gro¡|:cs To| ln the Graphics tab, you can change the look and feel of
how Wine iuns. You can make Wine emulate a Viitual Desktop (this featuie
opens a new window that will contain any Windows application that is
cuiiently iunning while this option is in effect), how the applications look,
and what iesolution to iun the application in.
Des|ìo¡ Inìegroì:on To| ln the Desktop Integration tab, you can change
the way buuons, menus, and othei elements appeai in an application. Each
veision of Windows has biought its own unique visual style foi its ap-
plications. ln this featuie, you can install and change the applied theme.
ln this tab, you can also change majoi file foldeis. Foi example, while
using Ubuntu, youi pictuie foldei is located at /home/user/Pictures/
but in Windows, youi pictuie foldei is located at C:\Documents and Set-
tings\User\My Documents\My Pictures\ oi C:\Users\User\My Pictures\.
Tis featuie allows you tell Wine wheie youi foldeis aie, foi quick iefei-
Dr:+es To| ln the Drives tab, you can manage the connected diives that
Wine will be able to access. Unlike Ubuntu, Windows applies a Dr:+e Leuer
to each diive. Tis leuei identifies the diive. Foi example, on eveiy Win-
dows system, the C: diive is the coie diive. lt contains all of the needed files
foi the opeiating system to woik. Te C: diive is the equivalent to rooì (File
System, oi / ) in Ubuntu. Tis featuie allows you to change the diive leueis
foi any diive, oi add a diive leuei foi a specific foldei in youi file system, oi
foi a cu diive.
AvJ:o To| ln the Audio tab, you can change the audio seuings. Tis fea-
tuie allows you to change the audio souice that Wine will use foi Windows
applications (speakeis, miciophones, etc.).
1:o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
A|ovì To| ln the About tab, you can see the cuiient Wine veision you
have installed, including Wine’s note to all useis. Tis featuie also allows
you to add a Name and Company Name to the Windows infoimation. Ap-
plications use this infoimation to identify you by name.
Microsoft .NET Framework and Wine
Miciosof has cieated many piogiams that aie needed to iun commonly
used applications, M:crosoµ .NFT Fro»e+or| being the most common. .NET
Fiamewoik is needed to iun most of the newei applications cieated by
Miciosof, and by othei companies as well. Wine is not fully suppoited by
all veisions of .NET, but is compatible with most veisions. Heie is a list of
.NET veisions, and theii compatibility with Wine·
‣ .NET Fiamewoik 1.o
‣ .NET Fiamewoik 1.1
‣ .NET Fiamewoik :.o* * This framework has known issues running
under Wine and is, in most cases, installable and
stable enough to use for most applications.
‣ .NET Fiamewoik ¸.o*
‣ .NET Fiamewoik ¸.¸
‣ .NET Fiamewoik ¡.o
‣ .NET Fiamewoik ¡.¸*
‣ .NET Fiamewoik ¡.¸.1** ** This framework has not been tested using a
current version of Wine running on Ubuntu, so it
is unknown if it will be compatible or not. Use at
your own risk.
Foi some of the most iecent .NET Fiamewoiks to woik piopeily, you
may have to install Wine 1.,.:. To install Wine 1.,.:, open the Teiminal, and
key sudo apt-get install -y wine1.7.
Foi moie compatibility infoimation about installing and iunning Mi-
ciosof .NET Fiamewoik using Wine, go to· http·//appdb.winehq.oig/
7 Troubleshooting
Resolving problems
Sometimes things may not woik as they should. Luckily, pioblems encoun-
teied while woiking with Ubuntu aie ofen easily fixed. Tis chaptei is
meant as a guide foi iesolving basic pioblems useis may encountei while
using Ubuntu. lf you need any additional help beyond what is piovided
in this chaptei, take a look at othei suppoit options that aie discussed in
Finding additional help and suppoit latei in this book.
Troubleshooting guide
Te key to effective tioubleshooting is to woik slowly, complete all of the
tioubleshooting steps, and to document the changes you made to the utility
oi application you aie using. Tis way, you will be able to undo youi woik,
oi give fellow useis the infoimation about youi pievious auempts—the
lauei is paiticulaily helpful in cases when you look to the community of
Ubuntu useis foi suppoit.
Ubuntu fails to start after I’ve installed Windows
Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Miciosof
Windows as a second opeiating system iunning side-by-side with Ubuntu.
Tis is suppoited in Ubuntu, but you might also find afei installing Win-
dows that you will no longei be able to stait Ubuntu.
When you fiist tuin on youi computei, a “bootloadei” is iesponsible foi
initiating the stait of an opeiating system, such as Ubuntu oi Windows.
When you installed Ubuntu, you automatically installed an advanced boot- A bootloader is the initial software that loads
the operating system when the computer is
powered up.
loadei called cuuì. cvun allows you to choose between the vaiious opeiat-
ing systems installed on youi computei, such as Ubuntu, Windows, Solaiis,
oi Mac os x. lf Windows is installed afei Ubuntu, the Windows installation
iemoved cvun and ieplaced the bootloadei with it’s own. As a iesult, you
can no longei choose an opeiating system to use. You can iestoie cvun and
iegain the ability to choose youi opeiating system by following the steps
below, using the same uvu you used to install Ubuntu.
Fiist, inseit youi Ubuntu uvu into youi computei and then iestait the
computei, making suie to instiuct youi computei to boot fiom the uvu
diive and not the haid diive (see Chaptei 1· lnstallation). Next, choose youi
language (e.g., English) and select Try Ubuntu. Once Ubuntu staits, click
on the top-most icon in the Launchei (the Dash icon). Ten, seaich foi
Terminal using the seaich box. Ten, select Teiminal in the seaich iesults
(oi piess Ctrl+Alt+T). A window should open with a blinking piompt line.
Entei the following, and piess the Enter key·
$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/hda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 1224 64228+ 83 Linux
1:: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
/dev/sda2 * 1225 2440 9767520 a5 Windows
/dev/sda3 2441 14593 97618972+ 5 Extended
/dev/sda4 14532 14593 498015 82 Linux swap
Partition table entries are not in disk order
Tis output shows that youi system (Linux, on which Ubuntu is based) The device (/dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, etc.) we
are looking for is identified by the word “Linux”
in the System column. Modify the instructions
below if necessary, replacing /dev/sda1 with
the name of your Linux device.
is installed on device /dev/sda1, but as indicated by the asteiisk in the
Boot column, youi computei is booting to /dev/sda2 (wheie Windows is
located). We need to fix this by telling the computei to boot to the Linux
device instead.
To do this, cieate a place to connect youi existing Ubuntu installation
with youi tempoiaiy tioubleshooting session·
$ sudo mkdir /mnt/root
Next, link youi Ubuntu installation and this new foldei·
$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/root
lf you’ve done this coiiectly, then you should see the following·
$ ls /mnt/root
bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr
boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var
cdrom initrd.img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz
Now, you can ieinstall cvun·
$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/root /dev/sda
Installation finished. No error reported.
This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/
Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
fix it and re-run the script grub-install.
(hd0) /dev/sda
Next you’ll want to unmount the haid diive. Tis ensuies that the diive
won’t become coiiupted when you ieboot·
$ sudo umount /mnt/root
Finally, iemove the Ubuntu disc fiom youi uvuvo¬ diive, ieboot youi
computei, and then stait enjoying youi Ubuntu opeiating system once
Tis guide may not woik foi all Ubuntu useis due to diffeiences in the
vaiious system configuiation. Still, this is the iecommended and most
successful method foi iestoiing the cvun bootloadei. lf you aie following
this guide and if it does not iestoie cvun on youi computei, then tiy the
othei tioubleshooting methods at https·//
I forgot my password
lf you foigot youi passwoid in Ubuntu, you will need to ieset it using the
“Recoveiy mode.”
To stait the Recoveiy mode, shut down youi computei and then stait
again. As the computei staits up, piess Shift. Select the Recovery mode
option using the aiiow keys on youi keyboaid. Recoveiy mode should be
undei the heading Advanced Options in the list.
Wait until Ubuntu staits up—this may take a few minutes. Once booted,
you +:|| noì be able to see a noimal login scieen. lnstead, you will be pie-
sented with the Recovery Menu. Select root using the aiiow keys and piess
You will now be at a teiminal piompt·
1vouniisuoo1iNc 1:¸
Figure 7.1: This is the grub screen in which you
can choose recovery mode.
To ieset youi passwoid, entei·
# passwd username
Replace “useiname” above with youi useiname, afei which Ubuntu will
piompt you foi a new passwoid. Entei youi desiied passwoid, piess the
Enter key, and then ie-type youi passwoid again, piessing Enter again
when done. (Ubuntu asks foi youi passwoid twice to make suie you did
not make a mistake while typing). Once you have iestoied youi passwoid,
ietuin to the noimal system enviionment by enteiing·
# init 2
Login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu.
I accidentally deleted some files that I need
lf you’ve deleted a file by accident, you may be able to iecovei it fiom
Ubuntu’s Tiash foldei. Tis is a special foldei wheie Ubuntu stoies deleted
files befoie they aie peimanently iemoved fiom youi computei.
To access the Tiash foldei click on the tiash icon at the bouom of the
Unity Launchei.
lf you want to iestoie deleted items fiom the Tiash·
1. Open Tiash
:. Click on each item you want to iestoie to select it. Piess and hold Ctrl
to select multiple items.
¸. Click Restore Selected Items to move the deleted items back to theii
oiiginal locations.
How do I clean Ubuntu?
Ubuntu’s sofwaie packaging system accumulates unused packages and
tempoiaiy files thiough iegulai updates and use. Tese tempoiaiy files, also
called caches, contain files fiom all of the installed packages. Ovei time, this
cache can giow quite laige. Cleaning out the cache allows you to ieclaim
space on youi computei’s haid diive foi stoiing youi documents, music,
photogiaphs, oi othei files.
To cleai the cache, you can eithei use the clean, oi the autoclean option
foi the command-line piogiam apt-get.
To iun clean, open Teiminal and entei· The clean command will remove every
single cached item, while the autoclean
command only removes cached items that can
no longer be downloaded (these items are
often unnecessary).
$ sudo apt-get clean
Packages can also become unused ovei time. lf a package was installed
to assist with iunning anothei piogiam—and that piogiam was subse-
1:¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
quently iemoved—you no longei need the suppoiting package. You can
iemove it with apt-get autoremove.
Load Teiminal and entei·
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
I can’t play certain audio or video files
Many of the foimats used to delivei iich media content aie ¡ro¡r:eìory,
meaning they aie not fiee to use, modify, oi distiibute with an open-souice
opeiating system like Ubuntu. Teiefoie, Ubuntu does not include the ca-
pability to use these foimats by default, howevei, useis can easily configuie
Ubuntu to use these piopiietaiy foimats. Foi moie infoimation about the
diffeiences between open souice and piopiietaiy sofwaie, see Chaptei 8·
Leaining Moie.
lf you find youiself in need of a piopiietaiy foimat, you can install the
iequiied files fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. Ensuie that you have the
Univeise and Multiveise iepositoiies enabled befoie continuing. See the
Sofwaie Souices section to leain how to enable these iepositoiies. When
you aie ieady to continue, install the necessaiy sofwaie as follows·
1. Open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei by seaiching foi it fiom the Dash (the
top-most buuon on the Launchei).
:. Seaich foi ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing “Ubuntu iestiicted
extias” in the seaich box on the iight-hand side of the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei main window. When the Sofwaie Centei finds the appiopiiate
sofwaie, click the aiiow next to its title.
¸. Click Install, then wait while Ubuntu installs the sofwaie.
One piogiam that can play many of these foimats is vic media playei.
lt can be installed fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. Once Ubuntu has
successfully installed this sofwaie, youi iich media content should woik
How can I change my screen resolution?
Te image on eveiy monitoi is composed of millions of liule coloied dots
called pixels. Changing the numbei of pixels displayed on youi monitoi is
called “changing the iesolution.” lncieasing the iesolution will make the
displayed images shaipei, but will also tend to make them smallei. Te
opposite is tiue when scieen iesolution is decieased. Most monitois have
a “native iesolution,” which is a iesolution that most closely matches the
numbei of pixels in the monitoi. Youi display will usually be shaipest when
youi opeiating system uses a iesolution that matches youi display’s native
Te Ubuntu configuiation utility Displays allows useis to change the
iesolution. Open it by clicking on the session indicator and then on Dis-
plays…. Te iesolution can be changed using the diop-down list within
the piogiam. Picking options highei up on the list (foi example, those with
laigei numbeis) will inciease the iesolution.
You can expeiiment with vaiious iesolutions by clicking Apply at the
bouom of the window until you find one that is comfoitable. Typically,
the highest iesolution will be the native iesolution. Selecting a iesolution
and clicking Apply will tempoiaiily change the scieen iesolution to the
selected value, and a dialog box will also be displayed foi ¸o seconds. Tis
dialog box allows you to ieveit to the pievious iesolution seuing oi keep
1vouniisuoo1iNc 1:¸
Figure 7.2: You can change your display
the new iesolution seuing. lf you’ve not accepted the new iesolution and/oi
¸o seconds have passed, the dialog box will disappeai and the display’s
iesolution will ietuin to its pievious seuing.
Figure 7.3: You can revert back to your old
settings if you need to.
Tis featuie was implemented to pievent someone fiom being locked out
of the computei by a iesolution that distoits the monitoi output and makes
it unusable. When you have finished seuing the scieen iesolution, click
Ubuntu is not working properly on my Apple MacBook or MacBook Pro
When installed on notebook computeis fiom Apple—such as the MacBook
oi MacBook Pio—Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computei’s
built-in components, including the iSight cameia and the Aiipoit wiieless
lnteinet adaptei. Luckily, the Ubuntu community offeis documentation
on fixing these and othei pioblems. lf you aie having tiouble installing oi
using Ubuntu on youi Apple notebook computei, please follow the instiuc-
tions at https·// You can select the
appiopiiate guide afei identifying youi computei’s model numbei.
Ubuntu is not working properly on my Asus EeePC
When installed on netbook computeis fiom Asus—such as the EeePC—
Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computei’s built-in components,
including the keyboaid shoitcut keys and the wiieless lnteinet adaptei.
Te Ubuntu community offeis documentation on enabling these com-
ponents and fixing othei pioblems. lf you aie having tiouble installing
oi using Ubuntu on youi Asus EeePC, please follow the instiuctions at
https·// Tis documentation page con-
tains infoimation peitaining specifically to EeePC netbooks.
To enable many of the featuies and Function Keys, a quick fix is to add
“acpi¸osiLinux” to youi giub configuiation. Fiom the Teiminal
$ gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub
1:õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
and veiy caiefully change the line
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash acpi_osi=Linux"
Save and close the file. Ten, fiom the teiminal·
$ sudo update-grub
Afei the command finishes, and you iestait the computei, you will be able
to use the Fn keys noimally.
My hardware is not working properly
Ubuntu occasionally has difficulty iunning on ceitain computeis, usually
when haidwaie manufactuieis use non-standaid oi piopiietaiy compo-
nents. Te Ubuntu community offeis documentation to help you tiou-
bleshoot many common issues in this situation, including pioblems with
wiieless caids, scanneis, mice, and piinteis. You can find the complete
haidwaie tioubleshooting guide on Ubuntu’s suppoit wiki, accessible at
https·// lf youi haidwaie pioblems
peisist, please see Geuing moie help foi moie tioubleshooting options oi
infoimation on obtaining suppoit oi assistance fiom an Ubuntu usei.
Getting more help
Tis guide does not covei eveiy possible woikflow, task, issue, oi pioblem
in Ubuntu. lf you iequiie assistance beyond the infoimation in the manual,
you can find a vaiiety of suppoit oppoitunities online.
Moie details about many suppoit options available to you can be found
at Finding additional help and suppoit latei in this book.
8 Learning More
What else can I do with Ubuntu?
At this point, you should now be able to use Ubuntu foi most daily activ-
ities—such as biowsing the web, sending email, and cieating documents.
Now, you may be inteiested in leaining about othei veisions of Ubuntu
that may integiate into youi digital lifestyle. ln this chaptei, we’ll intioduce
additional veisions of Ubuntu designed and specialized foi ceitain tasks.
We’ll also piovide iesouices foi answeiing any iemaining questions as well
as diiect you to how you can get involved in the woildwide community
of Ubuntu useis. Fiist, we’ll discuss the technologies that make Ubuntu a
poweiful collection of sofwaie and a piogiessive opeiating system.
Open source software
Ubuntu is open souice sofwaie (OSS). OSS diffeis fiom piopiietaiy sof-
waie. Piopiietaiy sofwaie is defined as sofwaie whose souice code is
not fieely available foi modification oi distiibution by anyone but the
iightsholdei. Miciosof Windows and Adobe Photoshop aie examples of
piopiietaiy sofwaie.
Unlike piopiietaiy sofwaie applications, the sofwaie included with
Ubuntu is specifically licensed to piomote shaiing and collaboiation. Te
legal iules goveining Ubuntu’s pioduction and distiibution ensuie that
anyone can obtain, iun, oi shaie it foi any puipose. Useis can modify open
souice sofwaie to suit theii individual needs, to shaie it, to impiove it, oi to
tianslate it into othei languages—piovided they ielease the souice code foi
these modifications so otheis can do the same. ln fact, the teims of many
open souice licensing agieements actually make it illegal noì to do so. Tis
undeistanding helps explain why Ubuntu is called open souice sofwaie.
Foi moie infoimation iegaiding Ubuntu’s sofwaie licensing standaids, see
Because OSS is developed by laige communities of piogiammeis located
thioughout the woild, it benefits fiom both iapid development cycles and
speedy secuiity ieleases when bugs aie identified in the sofwaie. ln othei
woids, OSS is updated, enhanced, and made moie secuie eveiy day as
piogiammeis all ovei the woild continue to impiove it.
ln addition to these technical advantages, OSS also has economic bene-
fits. While useis must adheie to the teims of an OSS licensing agieement
when installing and using Ubuntu, they needn’t pay to obtain this license.
While not all OSS is fiee of monetaiy costs, a vast majoiity of OSS is avail-
able foi fiee.
To leain moie about open souice sofwaie, see the Open Souice lnitia-
tive’s open souice definition, available at http·//www.opensouice.oig/docs/
Distribution families
Ubuntu is one of seveial populai opeiating systems based on Linux. Tese
Linux-based opeiating systems—called Linux “distiibutions”—may look
1:8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
diffeient fiom Ubuntu at fiist glance, but they shaie similai chaiacteiistics
because of theii common ioots.
Linux distiibutions can be divided into two bioad families· the Debian
family and the Red Hat family. Each family is named foi a distiibution on
which subsequent distiibutions aie based. Foi example, “Debian” iefeis to
both the name of a Linux distiibution as well as the family of distiibutions
deiived fiom Debian. Ubuntu is pait of this family. When desciibing iela-
tionships between vaiious open souice piojects, sofwaie developeis ofen
use the metaphoi of tiibutaiies connecting to a common body of watei.
Foi this ieason, you may heai someone say that Ubuntu is located “down-
stieam” fiom Debian, because alteiations to the Debian family ”flow” into
new veisions of Ubuntu. Additionally, impiovements to Ubuntu usually
tiickle “upstieam”—back to Debian and its family membeis as the Debian
family benefits fiom the woik of the Ubuntu community. Othei distiibu-
tions in the Debian family include Linux Mint, Xandios, and CiunchBang
Linux. Distiibutions in the Red Hat family include Fedoia and Mandiiva.
Te most significant diffeience between Debian-based and Red Hat-
based distiibutions is the system each uses foi installing and updating
sofwaie. Tese systems aie called Poc|oge »onoge»enì sysìe»s. Package
management systems aie the means by which useis can install, iemove,
and oiganize sofwaie installed on computeis with open souice opeiating
systems like Ubuntu. Debian sofwaie packages aie uin files, while Red Hat
sofwaie packages aie vv¬ files. Te two systems aie geneially incompati-
ble. Foi moie infoimation about package management, ieview the chaptei
on Chaptei ¸· Sofwaie Management.
You will also find specialized Linux distiibutions foi ceitain tasks. Next,
we’ll desciibe these veisions of Ubuntu and explain the uses foi which each
has been developed.
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives
Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian, seveial distiibutions aie subsequently
based on Ubuntu. Each diffeis with iespect to the sofwaie included as pait
of the distiibution. Some aie developed foi geneial use, while otheis aie
designed foi accomplishing a moie naiiow set of tasks.
Alternative interfaces
Ubuntu 1¸.1o featuies a new giaphical usei inteiface (cui) based on the
open souice uNi1v, desktop. Pievious veisions of Ubuntu use the cNo¬i
desktop. As we explained in Chaptei :· Te Ubuntu Desktop, a “usei intei-
face” is a collection of sofwaie elements—icons, colois, windows, themes,
and menus—that deteimine how someone may inteiact with a computei.
Some people piefei using alteinatives to cNo¬i, so they have cieated
Ubuntu distiibutions featuiing diffeient usei inteifaces. Tese include·
‣ Kubuntu, which uses the xui giaphical enviionment
‣ Lubuntu, which uses the ixui giaphical enviionment
‣ Xubuntu, which uses the xici giaphical enviionment
Additionally, each of these distiibutions may contain default applications
diffeient fiom those featuied in Ubuntu. Foi instance, the default music
playei in Ubuntu is Rhythmbox. ln Lubuntu, the default music playei is
Aqualung, and in Kubuntu, the default is Amaiok. Be suie to investigate
ii»vNiNc ¬ovi 1:,
these diffeiences if you aie consideiing installing an Ubuntu distiibution
with an alteinative desktop enviionment.
Foi moie infoimation about these and othei deiivative distiibutions, see
Task-specific distributions
Othei Ubuntu distiibutions have been cieated to accomplish specific tasks
oi iun in specialized enviionments and seuings.
Ubuntu Server Edition
Te Ubuntu Seivei Edition is an opeiating system optimized to peifoim
multi-usei tasks. Such tasks may include file shaiing, website, oi email
hosting. lf you aie planning to use a computei to peifoim these types of
tasks, you may wish to use this specialized seivei distiibution in conjunc-
tion with seivei haidwaie. While it is possible to iun a seivei-type envi-
ionment using only the desktop veision of Ubuntu, it is not advised as the
Seivei Edition is beuei optimized foi the multi-usei enviionment.
Tis manual does not explain the piocess of iunning a secuie web seivei
oi peifoiming othei tasks with Ubuntu Seivei Edition. Foi details on using
Ubuntu Seivei Edition, iefei to the manual at http·//
Edubuntu is an Ubuntu deiivative customized foi use in schools and othei
educational institutions. Edubuntu contains sofwaie similai to that offeied
in Ubuntu but also featuies additional applications like a collaboiative text
editoi and educational games.
Foi additional infoimation iegaiding Edubuntu, visit http·//www.
Ubuntu Studio
Te deiivative of Ubuntu called Ubuntu Studio is designed specifically foi
people who use computeis to cieate and edit multimedia piojects. Ubuntu
Studio featuies applications to help useis manipulate images, compose
music, and edit video. While useis can install these applications on comput-
eis iunning the desktop veision of Ubuntu, Ubuntu Studio makes them all
available immediately upon installation.
lf you would like to leain moie about Ubuntu Studio (oi obtain a copy
foi youiself), visit http·//ubuntustudio.oig/.
Mythbuntu allows useis to tuin theii computeis into enteitainment sys-
tems. Mythbuntu helps useis oiganize and view vaiious types of multime-
dia content such as movies, television shows, and video podcasts. Useis
with 1v tuneis in theii computeis can also use Mythbuntu to iecoid live
video and television shows.
To leain moie about Mythbuntu, visit http·//www.mythbuntu.oig/.
1¸o ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Finding additional help and support
Tis guide cannot possibly contain eveiything you’ll evei need to know
about Ubuntu. We encouiage you to take advantage of Ubuntu’s vast com-
munity when seeking fuithei infoimation, tioubleshooting technical issues,
oi asking questions about youi computei.
lt’s impoitant to note that the lnteinet is full of thiid-paity iesouices
as well as individuals who post infoimation on blogs and foiums. While
these iesouices can ofen seem like gieat iesouices, some could be mis-
leading oi outdated. lt’s always best to veiify infoimation fiom thiid-paity
souices befoie taking theii advice. When possible, iely on official Ubuntu
documentation foi assistance with Ubuntu.
Now, let’s discuss a few of the available iesouices to leain moie about
Ubuntu and othei Linux distiibutions.
Live chat
lf you aie familiai with lnteinet Relay Chat (ivc), you can use chat clients
such as XChat oi Pidgin to join the channel -ubuntu on ln
this channel, hundieds of volunteei useis can answei youi questions oi of-
fei technical suppoit in ieal time. To leain moie about using lnteinet Relay
Chat to seek help with Ubuntu, visit https·//
LoCo teams
Te Ubuntu community contains dozens of local usei gioups called “LoCo
teams.” Distiibuted thioughout the woild, these teams offei suppoit and
advice, answei questions, and piomote Ubuntu in theii communities by
hosting iegulai events. To locate oi contact the LoCo team neaiest you,
visit http·//
Books and Magazines
Many books have been wiiuen about Ubuntu, and piofessional magazines
ofen featuie news and infoimation ielated to Ubuntu. You will fiequently
find these iesouices at youi local bookstoie oi newsstand. Additionally,
many of these piint publications aie also available as digital downloads foi
puichase in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. To find these iesouices, launch the
Sofwaie Centei, then click on “Books & Magazines” in the lef panel.
Official Ubuntu Documentation
Te Ubuntu Documentation Team maintains a seiies of official wiki pages
designed to assist both new and expeiienced useis wishing to leain moie
about Ubuntu. Te Ubuntu community endoises these documents, which
seive as a ieliable fiist point of iefeience foi useis seeking online help. You
can access these iesouices at http·// To get to the built-in
Ubuntu Desktop Guide, type help in the Dash.
The Ubuntu Forums
Te Ubuntu Foiums aie the official foiums of the Ubuntu community. Mil-
lions of Ubuntu useis use them daily to seek help and suppoit fiom one
anothei. You can cieate an Ubuntu Foiums account in minutes. To cieate
ii»vNiNc ¬ovi 1¸1
an account and leain moie about Ubuntu fiom community membeis, visit
Launchpad Answers
Launchpad, an open souice code iepositoiy and usei community, piovides a
question and answei seivice that allows anyone to ask questions about any
Ubuntu-ielated topic. Signing up foi a Launchpad account takes just a few
seconds. You can ask a question by visiting Launchpad at https·//answeis.
Ask Ubuntu
Ask Ubuntu is a fiee, community-diiven website foi Ubuntu useis and
developeis. Like the Ubuntu Foiums, it allows useis to post questions foi
othei membeis of the Ubuntu community to answei. But Ask Ubuntu also
allows visitois to “vote” on the answeis useis piovide, so the most useful oi
helpful iesponses get featuied moie piominently on the site. Ask Ubuntu is
pait of the Stack Exchange netwoik of websites and is one of the best fiee
Ubuntu suppoit iesouices available. Visit http·// to get
Search Engines
Because Ubuntu is a populai open souice opeiating system, many useis
have wiiuen about it online. Teiefoie, using seaich engines to locate
answeis to youi questions about Ubuntu is ofen an effective means of
acquiiing help. When using seaich engines to answei questions about
Ubuntu, ensuie that youi seaich queiies aie as specific as possible. ln othei
woids, a seaich foi “Unity inteiface” will ietuin iesults that aie less useful
than those associated with the queiy “how to use Ubuntu Unity inteiface”
oi “how to customize Ubuntu Unity inteiface.”
Community support
lf you’ve exhausted all these iesouices and still can’t find answeis to youi
questions, visit Community Suppoit at http·//
The Ubuntu community
Ubuntu is the flagship pioduct cieated by a global community of passionate
useis who want to help otheis adopt, use, undeistand, and even modify oi
enhance Ubuntu. By choosing to install and iun Ubuntu, you’ve become
pait of this community. As you leain moie about Ubuntu, you may wish
to collaboiate with otheis as you piomote Ubuntu to new useis, to shaie
Ubuntu advice, oi to answei othei useis’ questions. ln this section, we’ll
discuss a few community piojects that can connect you to othei Ubuntu
Full Circle Magazine
Full Ciicle Magazine is “the independent magazine foi the Ubuntu Linux
community.” Released eveiy month, Full Ciicle Magazine contains ieviews
of new sofwaie (including games) foi Ubuntu, step-by-step tutoiials foi
1¸: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
piojects you can accomplish with Ubuntu, editoiials discussing impoitant
issues in the Ubuntu community, and Ubuntu tips fiom othei useis. Full
Ciicle Magazine is ieleased in many diffeient foimats and is always fiee.
You can download cuiient and back issues of Full Ciicle Magazine at http·//
The Ubuntu UK Podcast
Pioduced by membeis of the UK’s Ubuntu LoCo team, this bi-weekly online
audio bioadcast (oi “podcast”) featuies lively discussion about Ubuntu and
ofen includes inteiviews with Ubuntu community membeis who woik to
impiove Ubuntu. Episodes aie available at http·//podcast.ubuntu-uk.oig/.
OMG! Ubuntu!
OMG' Ubuntu' is a weblog that aims to infoim the Ubuntu community
about Ubuntu news, events, announcements, and updates in a timely fash-
ion. lt also allows Ubuntu useis to discuss ways they can piomote oi shaie
Ubuntu. You can iead this blog oi subsciibe to it at http·//www.omgubuntu.
Contributing to Ubuntu
As we mentioned eailiei in this chaptei, Ubuntu is a community-maintained
opeiating system. You can help make Ubuntu beuei in a numbei of ways.
Te community consists of thousands of individuals and teams. lf you
would like to contiibute to Ubuntu, please visit https·//
You can also paiticipate in the Ubuntu community by contiibuting to
this manual. You might choose to wiite new content foi it, edit its chapteis
so they aie easiei foi new Ubuntu useis to undeistand and use, oi tianslate
it in youi own language. Oi maybe taking scieenshots is youi passion'
Regaidless of youi talent oi ability, if you have a passion to contiibute to
the Ubuntu community in a meaningful way, then the Ubuntu Manual
Pioject invites you to join' To get involved in the Ubuntu Manual Pioject,
visit http·//ubuntu-manual.oig/getinvolved.
A License
Creative Commons Attribution–ShareAlike 3.0 Legal Code
1ui vovx (»s uiiiNiu niiov) is vvoviuiu uNuiv 1ui 1iv¬s oi 1uis
cvi»1ivi co¬¬oNs vuniic iiciNsi (“ccvi” ov “iiciNsi”). 1ui vovx is
vvo1ic1iu nv covvvicu1 »Nu/ov o1uiv »vviic»nii i»v. »Nv usi oi 1ui
vovx o1uiv 1u»N »s »u1uoviziu uNuiv 1uis iiciNsi ov covvvicu1 i»v
is vvouini1iu.
nv ixivcisiNc »Nv vicu1s 1o 1ui vovx vvoviuiu uivi, vou »cciv1
»Nu »cvii 1o ni nouNu nv 1ui 1iv¬s oi 1uis iiciNsi. 1o 1ui ix1iN1
1uis iiciNsi ¬»v ni coNsiuiviu 1o ni » coN1v»c1, 1ui iiciNsov cv»N1s
vou 1ui vicu1s coN1»iNiu uivi iN coNsiuiv»1ioN oi vouv »cciv1»Nci
oi sucu 1iv¬s »Nu coNui1ioNs.
1. Definitions
(a) “Adaptation” means a woik based upon the Woik, oi upon the Woik
and othei pie-existing woiks, such as a tianslation, adaptation,
deiivative woik, aiiangement of music oi othei alteiations of a lit-
eiaiy oi aitistic woik, oi phonogiam oi peifoimance and includes
cinematogiaphic adaptations oi any othei foim in which the Woik
may be iecast, tiansfoimed, oi adapted including in any foim iecog-
nizably deiived fiom the oiiginal, except that a woik that constitutes
a Collection will not be consideied an Adaptation foi the puipose of
this License. Foi the avoidance of doubt, wheie the Woik is a musical
woik, peifoimance oi phonogiam, the synchionization of the Woik in
timed-ielation with a moving image (“synching”) will be consideied
an Adaptation foi the puipose of this License.
(b) “Collection” means a collection of liteiaiy oi aitistic woiks, such
as encyclopedias and anthologies, oi peifoimances, phonogiams
oi bioadcasts, oi othei woiks oi subject mauei othei than woiks
listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by ieason of the selection and
aiiangement of theii contents, constitute intellectual cieations, in
which the Woik is included in its entiiety in unmodified foim along
with one oi moie othei contiibutions, each constituting sepaiate and
independent woiks in themselves, which togethei aie assembled into
a collective whole. A woik that constitutes a Collection will not be
consideied an Adaptation (as defined below) foi the puiposes of this
(c) “Cieative Commons Compatible License” means a license that is
listed at http·//cieativecommons.oig/compatiblelicenses that has been
appioved by Cieative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this
License, including, at a minimum, because that license· (i) contains
teims that have the same puipose, meaning and effect as the License
Elements of this License, and, (ii) explicitly peimits the ielicensing
of adaptations of woiks made available undei that license undei this
License oi a Cieative Commons juiisdiction license with the same
License Elements as this License.
(d) “Distiibute” means to make available to the public the oiiginal and
copies of the Woik oi Adaptation, as appiopiiate, thiough sale oi
othei tiansfei of owneiship.
1¸¡ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
(e) “License Elements” means the following high-level license auiibutes
as selected by Licensoi and indicated in the title of this License· Auii-
bution, ShaieAlike.
(f) “Licensoi” means the individual, individuals, entity oi entities that
offei(s) the Woik undei the teims of this License.
(g) “Oiiginal Authoi” means, in the case of a liteiaiy oi aitistic woik, the
individual, individuals, entity oi entities who cieated the Woik oi if
no individual oi entity can be identified, the publishei, and in addition
(i) in the case of a peifoimance the actois, singeis, musicians, danceis,
and othei peisons who act, sing, delivei, declaim, play in, inteipiet oi
otheiwise peifoim liteiaiy oi aitistic woiks oi expiessions of folkloie,
(ii) in the case of a phonogiam the pioducei being the peison oi legal
entity who fiist fixes the sounds of a peifoimance oi othei sounds,
and, (iii) in the case of bioadcasts, the oiganization that tiansmits the
(h) “Woik” means the liteiaiy and/oi aitistic woik offeied undei the
teims of this License including without limitation any pioduction
in the liteiaiy, scientific and aitistic domain, whatevei may be the
mode oi foim of its expiession including digital foim, such as a book,
pamphlet and othei wiiting, a lectuie, addiess, seimon oi othei woik
of the same natuie, a diamatic oi diamatico-musical woik, a choieo-
giaphic woik oi enteitainment in dumb show, a musical composition
with oi without woids, a cinematogiaphic woik to which aie assim-
ilated woiks expiessed by a piocess analogous to cinematogiaphy,
a woik of diawing, painting, aichitectuie, sculptuie, engiaving oi
lithogiaphy, a photogiaphic woik to which aie assimilated woiks ex-
piessed by a piocess analogous to photogiaphy, a woik of applied ait,
an illustiation, map, plan, sketch oi thiee-dimensional woik ielative
to geogiaphy, topogiaphy, aichitectuie oi science, a peifoimance, a
bioadcast, a phonogiam, a compilation of data to the extent it is pio-
tected as a copyiightable woik, oi a woik peifoimed by a vaiiety oi
ciicus peifoimei to the extent it is not otheiwise consideied a liteiaiy
oi aitistic woik.
(i) “You” means an individual oi entity exeicising iights undei this Li-
cense who has not pieviously violated the teims of this License with
iespect to the Woik, oi who has ieceived expiess peimission fiom
the Licensoi to exeicise iights undei this License despite a pievious
(j) “Publicly Peifoim” means to peifoim public iecitations of the Woik
and to communicate to the public those public iecitations, by any
means oi piocess, including by wiie oi wiieless means oi public
digital peifoimances, to make available to the public Woiks in such a
way that membeis of the public may access these Woiks fiom a place
and at a place individually chosen by them, to peifoim the Woik to
the public by any means oi piocess and the communication to the
public of the peifoimances of the Woik, including by public digital
peifoimance, to bioadcast and iebioadcast the Woik by any means
including signs, sounds oi images.
(k) “Repioduce” means to make copies of the Woik by any means includ-
ing without limitation by sound oi visual iecoidings and the iight
of fixation and iepioducing fixations of the Woik, including stoiage
of a piotected peifoimance oi phonogiam in digital foim oi othei
electionic medium.
iiciNsi 1¸¸
:. Faii Dealing Rights. Nothing in this License is intended to ieduce, limit,
oi iestiict any uses fiee fiom copyiight oi iights aiising fiom limitations
oi exceptions that aie piovided foi in connection with the copyiight
piotection undei copyiight law oi othei applicable laws.
¸. License Giant. Subject to the teims and conditions of this License, Licen-
soi heieby giants You a woildwide, ioyalty-fiee, non-exclusive, peipet-
ual (foi the duiation of the applicable copyiight) license to exeicise the
iights in the Woik as stated below·
(a) to Repioduce the Woik, to incoipoiate the Woik into one oi moie
Collections, and to Repioduce the Woik as incoipoiated in the Collec-
(b) to cieate and Repioduce Adaptations piovided that any such Adap-
tation, including any tianslation in any medium, takes ieasonable
steps to cleaily label, demaicate oi otheiwise identify that changes
weie made to the oiiginal Woik. Foi example, a tianslation could be
maiked “Te oiiginal woik was tianslated fiom English to Spanish,”
oi a modification could indicate “Te oiiginal woik has been modi-
(c) to Distiibute and Publicly Peifoim the Woik including as incoipo-
iated in Collections, and,
(d) to Distiibute and Publicly Peifoim Adaptations.
(e) Foi the avoidance of doubt·
i. Non-waivable Compulsoiy License Schemes. ln those juiisdictions
in which the iight to collect ioyalties thiough any statutoiy oi
compulsoiy licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensoi ie-
seives the exclusive iight to collect such ioyalties foi any exeicise
by You of the iights gianted undei this License,
ii. Waivable Compulsoiy License Schemes. ln those juiisdictions
in which the iight to collect ioyalties thiough any statutoiy oi
compulsoiy licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensoi waives
the exclusive iight to collect such ioyalties foi any exeicise by You
of the iights gianted undei this License, and,
iii. Voluntaiy License Schemes. Te Licensoi waives the iight to col-
lect ioyalties, whethei individually oi, in the event that the Licen-
soi is a membei of a collecting society that administeis voluntaiy
licensing schemes, via that society, fiom any exeicise by You of the
iights gianted undei this License.
Te above iights may be exeicised in all media and foimats whethei
now known oi heieafei devised. Te above iights include the iight to
make such modifications as aie technically necessaiy to exeicise the
iights in othei media and foimats. Subject to Section 8(f), all iights
not expiessly gianted by Licensoi aie heieby ieseived.
¡. Restiictions. Te license gianted in Section ¸ above is expiessly made
subject to and limited by the following iestiictions·
(a) You may Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik only undei the
teims of this License. You must include a copy of, oi the Unifoim
Resouice ldentifiei (URl) foi, this License with eveiy copy of the Woik
You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim. You may not offei oi impose
any teims on the Woik that iestiict the teims of this License oi the
ability of the iecipient of the Woik to exeicise the iights gianted to
that iecipient undei the teims of the License. You may not sublicense
the Woik. You must keep intact all notices that iefei to this License
and to the disclaimei of waiianties with eveiy copy of the Woik
1¸õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim. When You Distiibute oi Publicly
Peifoim the Woik, You may not impose any effective technological
measuies on the Woik that iestiict the ability of a iecipient of the
Woik fiom You to exeicise the iights gianted to that iecipient undei
the teims of the License. Tis Section ¡(a) applies to the Woik as
incoipoiated in a Collection, but this does not iequiie the Collection
apait fiom the Woik itself to be made subject to the teims of this
License. lf You cieate a Collection, upon notice fiom any Licensoi You
must, to the extent piacticable, iemove fiom the Collection any ciedit
as iequiied by Section ¡(c), as iequested. lf You cieate an Adaptation,
upon notice fiom any Licensoi You must, to the extent piacticable,
iemove fiom the Adaptation any ciedit as iequiied by Section ¡(c), as
(b) You may Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim an Adaptation only undei the
teims of· (i) this License, (ii) a latei veision of this License with the
same License Elements as this License, (iii) a Cieative Commons juiis-
diction license (eithei this oi a latei license veision) that contains the
same License Elements as this License (e.g., Auiibution-ShaieAlike
¸.o US)), (iv) a Cieative Commons Compatible License. lf you license
the Adaptation undei one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must
comply with the teims of that license. lf you license the Adaptation
undei the teims of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) oi (iii) (the
“Applicable License”), you must comply with the teims of the Ap-
plicable License geneially and the following piovisions· (l) You must
include a copy of, oi the URl foi, the Applicable License with eveiy
copy of each Adaptation You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim, (ll) You
may not offei oi impose any teims on the Adaptation that iestiict
the teims of the Applicable License oi the ability of the iecipient of
the Adaptation to exeicise the iights gianted to that iecipient un-
dei the teims of the Applicable License, (lll) You must keep intact all
notices that iefei to the Applicable License and to the disclaimei of
waiianties with eveiy copy of the Woik as included in the Adapta-
tion You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim, (lV) when You Distiibute oi
Publicly Peifoim the Adaptation, You may not impose any effective
technological measuies on the Adaptation that iestiict the ability of a
iecipient of the Adaptation fiom You to exeicise the iights gianted to
that iecipient undei the teims of the Applicable License. Tis Section
¡(b) applies to the Adaptation as incoipoiated in a Collection, but this
does not iequiie the Collection apait fiom the Adaptation itself to be
made subject to the teims of the Applicable License.
(c) lf You Distiibute, oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik oi any Adaptations
oi Collections, You must, unless a iequest has been made puisuant
to Section ¡(a), keep intact all copyiight notices foi the Woik and
piovide, ieasonable to the medium oi means You aie utilizing· (i) the
name of the Oiiginal Authoi (oi pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied,
and/oi if the Oiiginal Authoi and/oi Licensoi designate anothei paity
oi paities (e.g., a sponsoi institute, publishing entity, jouinal) foi auii-
bution (“Auiibution Paities”) in Licensoi’s copyiight notice, teims of
seivice oi by othei ieasonable means, the name of such paity oi pai-
ties, (ii) the title of the Woik if supplied, (iii) to the extent ieasonably
piacticable, the URl, if any, that Licensoi specifies to be associated
with the Woik, unless such URl does not iefei to the copyiight no-
tice oi licensing infoimation foi the Woik, and (iv) , consistent with
Ssection ¸(b), in the case of an Adaptation, a ciedit identifying the
iiciNsi 1¸,
use of the Woik in the Adaptation (e.g., “Fiench tianslation of the
Woik by Oiiginal Authoi,” oi “Scieenplay based on oiiginal Woik
by Oiiginal Authoi”). Te ciedit iequiied by this Section ¡(c) may be
implemented in any ieasonable mannei, piovided, howevei, that in
the case of a Adaptation oi Collection, at a minimum such ciedit will
appeai, if a ciedit foi all contiibuting authois of the Adaptation oi
Collection appeais, then as pait of these ciedits and in a mannei at
least as piominent as the ciedits foi the othei contiibuting authois.
Foi the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the ciedit iequiied by
this Section foi the puipose of auiibution in the mannei set out above
and, by exeicising Youi iights undei this License, You may not im-
plicitly oi explicitly asseit oi imply any connection with, sponsoiship
oi endoisement by the Oiiginal Authoi, Licensoi and/oi Auiibution
Paities, as appiopiiate, of You oi Youi use of the Woik, without the
sepaiate, expiess piioi wiiuen peimission of the Oiiginal Authoi,
Licensoi and/oi Auiibution Paities.
(d) Except as otheiwise agieed in wiiting by the Licensoi oi as may be
otheiwise peimiued by applicable law, if You Repioduce, Distiibute
oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik eithei by itself oi as pait of any Adap-
tations oi Collections, You must not distoit, mutilate, modify oi take
othei deiogatoiy action in ielation to the Woik which would be piej-
udicial to the Oiiginal Authoi’s honoi oi ieputation. Licensoi agiees
that in those juiisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exeicise of the
iight gianted in Section ¸(b) of this License (the iight to make Adap-
tations) would be deemed to be a distoition, mutilation, modification
oi othei deiogatoiy action piejudicial to the Oiiginal Authoi’s honoi
and ieputation, the Licensoi will waive oi not asseit, as appiopiiate,
this Section, to the fullest extent peimiued by the applicable national
law, to enable You to ieasonably exeicise Youi iight undei Section
¸(b) of this License (iight to make Adaptations) but not otheiwise.
¸. Repiesentations, Waiianties and Disclaimei
uNiiss o1uivvisi ¬u1u»iiv »cviiu 1o nv 1ui v»v1iis iN vvi1iNc,
iiciNsov oiiivs 1ui vovx »sis »Nu ¬»xis No vivvisiN1»1ioNs
ov v»vv»N1iis oi »Nv xiNu coNcivNiNc 1ui vovx, ixvviss, i¬
viiiu, s1»1u1ovv ov o1uivvisi, iNciuuiNc, vi1uou1 ii¬i1»1ioN,
v»vv»N1iis oi 1i1ii, ¬ivcu»N1iniii1v, ii1Niss iov » v»v1icui»v
vuvvosi, NoNiNiviNci¬iN1, ov 1ui »nsiNci oi i»1iN1 ov o1uiv ui
iic1s, »ccuv»cv, ov 1ui vvisiNci oi »nsiNci oi ivvovs, vui1uiv ov
No1 uiscoviv»nii. so¬i Juvisuic1ioNs uo No1 »iiov 1ui ixciusioN
oi i¬viiiu v»vv»N1iis, so sucu ixciusioN ¬»v No1 »vviv 1o vou.
õ. Limitation on Liability. ixciv1 1o 1ui ix1iN1 viçiviu nv »vviic»
nii i»v, iN No iviN1 viii iiciNsov ni ii»nii 1o vou oN »Nv iic»i
1uiovv iov »Nv svici»i, iNciuiN1»i, coNsiçiN1i»i, vuNi1ivi ov
ixi¬vi»vv u»¬»cis »visiNc ou1 oi 1uis iiciNsi ov 1ui usi oi 1ui
vovx, iviN ii iiciNsov u»s niiN »uvisiu oi 1ui vossiniii1v oi sucu
,. Teimination
(a) Tis License and the iights gianted heieundei will teiminate automat-
ically upon any bieach by You of the teims of this License. lndividuals
oi entities who have ieceived Adaptations oi Collections fiom You
undei this License, howevei, will not have theii licenses teiminated
piovided such individuals oi entities iemain in full compliance with
1¸8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
those licenses. Sections 1, :, ¸, õ, ,, and 8 will suivive any teimination
of this License.
(b) Subject to the above teims and conditions, the license gianted heie is
peipetual (foi the duiation of the applicable copyiight in the Woik).
Notwithstanding the above, Licensoi ieseives the iight to ielease
the Woik undei diffeient license teims oi to stop distiibuting the
Woik at any time, piovided, howevei that any such election will not
seive to withdiaw this License (oi any othei license that has been, oi
is iequiied to be, gianted undei the teims of this License), and this
License will continue in full foice and effect unless teiminated as
stated above.
8. Miscellaneous
(a) Each time You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik oi a Collec-
tion, the Licensoi offeis to the iecipient a license to the Woik on the
same teims and conditions as the license gianted to You undei this
(b) Each time You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim an Adaptation, Licensoi
offeis to the iecipient a license to the oiiginal Woik on the same
teims and conditions as the license gianted to You undei this License.
(c) lf any piovision of this License is invalid oi unenfoiceable undei
applicable law, it shall not affect the validity oi enfoiceability of the
iemaindei of the teims of this License, and without fuithei action
by the paities to this agieement, such piovision shall be iefoimed
to the minimum extent necessaiy to make such piovision valid and
(d) No teim oi piovision of this License shall be deemed waived and no
bieach consented to unless such waivei oi consent shall be in wiiting
and signed by the paity to be chaiged with such waivei oi consent.
(e) Tis License constitutes the entiie agieement between the paities
with iespect to the Woik licensed heie. Teie aie no undeistandings,
agieements oi iepiesentations with iespect to the Woik not specified
heie. Licensoi shall not be bound by any additional piovisions that
may appeai in any communication fiom You. Tis License may not be
modified without the mutual wiiuen agieement of the Licensoi and
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Access Po:nì A device that allows foi a wiieless connection to a local net-
woik using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc.
o¡¡|eì A small piogiam that iuns in a panel. Applets piovide useful func-
tions such as staiting a piogiam, viewing the time, oi accessing the main
menu of an application.
Conon:co| Canonical, the financial backei of Ubuntu, piovides suppoit foi
the coie Ubuntu system. lt has ovei ¸oo staff membeis woildwide who
ensuie that the foundation of the opeiating system is stable, as well as
checking all the woik submiued by volunteei contiibutois. To leain
moie about Canonical, go to http·//
cìì cii oi command-line inteiface is anothei name foi the teiminal.
Jes|ìo¡ en+:ron»enì A geneiic teim to desciibe a cui inteiface foi humans
to inteiact with computeis. Teie aie many desktop enviionments such
as cNo¬i, xui, xici and ixui, to name a few.
uncì uucv stands foi Dyno»:c Hosì Configvroì:on Proìoco|, it is used by a
uucv seivei to assign computeis on a netwoik an iv addiess automati-
J:o|v¡ connecì:on A dialup connection is when youi computei uses a mo-
dem to connect to an isv thiough youi telephone line.
J:sìr:|vì:on A distiibution is a collection of sofwaie that is alieady com-
piled and configuied ieady to be installed. Ubuntu is an example of a
Jvo|-|ooì:ng Dual-booting is the piocess of being able to choose one of
two diffeient opeiating systems cuiiently installed on a computei fiom
the boot menu. Once selected, youi computei will boot into whichevei
opeiating system you chose at the boot menu. Te teim dual-booting is
ofen used geneiically, and may iefei to booting among moie than two
opeiating systems.
encry¡ì:on Enciyption is a secuiity measuie, it pievents otheis fiom access-
ing and viewing the contents of youi files and/oi haid diives, the files
must fiist be deciypted with youi passwoid.
Fì|erneì ¡orì An Etheinet poit is what an Etheinet cable is plugged into
when you aie using a wiied connection.
cuì Te cui (which stands foi Giaphical Usei lnteiface) is a type of usei in-
teiface that allows humans to inteiact with the computei using giaphics
and images iathei than just text.
ì:ì isv stands foi Inìerneì Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer, an isv is a company that piovides
you with youi lnteinet connection.
L:+e uvu A Live uvu allows you to tiy out an opeiating system befoie you
actually install it, this is useful foi testing youi haidwaie, diagnosing
pioblems and iecoveiing youi system.
ì:: i1s stands foi long-teim suppoit and is a type of Ubuntu ielease that is
officially suppoited foi fai longei than the standaid ieleases.
1¡: ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
»o::»::e When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will fill the
whole desktop, excluding the panels.
»:n:»::e When you minimize an open application, the window will no
longei be shown. lf you click on a minimized application’s icon in the
Launchei, it will be iestoied to its noimal state and allow you to inteiact
with it.
noì:ficoì:on oreo Te notification aiea is an applet on the panel that pio-
vides you with all soits of infoimation such as volume contiol, the cui-
ient song playing in Rhythmbox, youi lnteinet connection status and
email status.
ovì¡vì Te output of a command is any text it displays on the next line
afei typing a command and piessing entei, e.g., if you type pwd into a
teiminal and piess Enter, the diiectoiy name it displays on the next line
is the output.
¡oc|oge Packages contain sofwaie in a ieady-to-install foimat. Most of
the time you can use the Sofwaie Centei instead of manually installing
packages. Packages have a .deb extension in Ubuntu.
¡one| A panel is a bai that sits on the edge of youi scieen. lt contains ap-
plets which piovide useful functions such as iunning piogiams, viewing
the time, oi accessing the main menu.
¡oro»eìer Paiameteis aie special options that you can use with othei
commands in the teiminal to make that command behave diffeiently, this
can make a lot of commands fai moie useful.
ìì~ A peisonal package aichive (vv») is a custom sofwaie iepositoiy that
typically contains eithei packages that aien’t available in the piimaiy
Ubuntu iepositoiies oi newei veisions of packages that aie available in
the piimaiy iepositoiies.
¡ro»¡ì Te piompt displays some useful infoimation about youi computei.
lt can be customized to display in diffeient colois, display the time, date,
and cuiient diiectoiy oi almost anything else you like.
¡ro¡r:eìory Sofwaie made by companies that don’t ielease theii souice
code undei an open souice license.
rovìer A ioutei is a specially designed computei that, using its sofwaie
and haidwaie, ioutes infoimation fiom the lnteinet to a netwoik. lt is
also sometimes called a gateway.
ser+er A seivei is a computei that iuns a specialized opeiating system and
piovides seivices to computeis that connect to it and make a iequest.
s|e|| Te teiminal gives access to the shell, when you type a command into
the teiminal and piess entei the shell takes that command and peifoims
the ielevant action.
Soµ+ore Cenìer Te Sofwaie Centei is wheie you can easily manage sof-
waie installation and iemoval as well as the ability to manage sofwaie
installed via Peisonal Package Aichives.
Syno¡ì:c Poc|oge Monoger Synaptic Package Managei is a tool that, instead
of listing applications (like the Sofwaie Centei) lists individual packages
that can then be installed, iemoved and fixed.
ìer»:no| Te teiminal is Ubuntu’s text-based inteiface. lt is a method of
cioss»vv 1¡¸
contiolling the opeiating system using only commands enteied via the
keyboaid as opposed to using a cui like Unity.
u:ì Univeisal Seiial Bus is a standaid inteiface specification foi connecting
peiipheial haidwaie devices to computeis. usn devices iange fiom
exteinal haid diives to scanneis and piinteis.
+:reJ connecì:on A wiied connection is when youi computei is physically
connected to a ioutei oi Etheinet poit with a cable. Tis is the most
common method of connecting to the lnteinet and local netwoik foi
desktop computeis.
+:re|ess connecì:on A netwoik connection that uses a wiieless signal to
communicate with eithei a ioutei, access point, oi computei.
Tis manual wouldn’t have been possible without the effoits and contiibu-
tions fiom the following people·
Team leads
Kevin Godby—Lead T
Jim Connet—Authois Cooidinatoi
Hannie Dumoleyn—Editois Cooidinatoi c Tianslation Maintainei
Caisten Geilach—Scieenshots
Maiio Buigos
Jim Conneu
Tomas Coiwin
Sayantan Das
Hannie Dumoleyn
Patiick Dickey
Mehmet Kani
Jim Conneu
Hannie Dumoleyn
Sylvie Gallet
Kevin Godby
Mehmet Kani
Andiew Montag
David Piies
Sylvie Gallet Caisten Geilach
Toisten Wilms
Adnane Belmadiaf Kevin Godby
Translation editors
Fian Diéguez (Galician)
Hannie Dumoleyn (Dutch)
Sylvie Gallet (Fiench)
Aleksey Kabanov (Russian)
Xuacu Satuiio (Astuiian)
Daniel Schuiy (Geiman)
Susah Sebut (Malay)
Jose Luis Tiiado (Spanish)
Chiis Woollaid (Biitish English)
John Xygonakis (Gieek)
Andiej Znidaisic (Slovenian)
Past contributors
Biyan Behienshausen (Authoi)
Senthil Velan Bhooplan (Authoi)
John Cave (Authoi)
Che Dean (Authoi)
Rick Fosbuigh (Editoi-in-Chief)
Heiat Gandhi Amiish (Authoi)
Benjamin Humphiey (Pioject Foundei)
Will Kiomei (Authoi)
Paddy Landau (Authoi/Editoi)
Simon Lewis (Authoi)
1¡õ ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
Ryan Macnish (Authoi)
Mez Pahlan (Authoi)
Vibhav Pant (Editoi)
Biian Peiedo (Authoi)
Joel Pickeu (Authoi)
Tony Puisell (Authoi/Editoi)
Kev Qiik (Authoi)
Kaitik Sulakhe (Authoi)
Tom Swaitz (Authoi)
David Wales (Authoi)
Chiis Woollaid (Editoi)
¸:-bit veisus õ¡-bit, 11
accessibility, ¸¸
scieen ieadei, ¸¡
alteinative inteifaces, 1:8–1:,
Apple, see MacBook
adding and iemoving, :¸
piesentation, see LibieOffice
iunning, :¸
seaiching, :¸
spieadsheet, see LibieOffice
woid piocessoi, see LibieOffice
audio, see sound onJ music
audio, playing, see Rhythmbox
Bluetooth, ,¡
tioubleshooting, 1:1
cameia, impoiting photos, õ¸
Canonical, õ
cus and uvus
blanking, ,¡
buining, ,¸–,¸
codecs, õ8
copying, ,¸
playing, õ8, ,o
iipping, ,o
cloud stoiage, see Ubuntu One
audio, ,:
video, õ8
command line, see teiminal
Dash, :¸
Debian, õ, see o|so Linux
deiivatives, 1:8
backgiound, ::
customization, ¸1
appeaiance, ¸:
backgiound, ¸:
theme, ¸:
menu bai, ::
shaiing, õ¸
disk, see cus and uvus
adding secondaiy, 88–8,
changing iesolution, 88
tioubleshooting, 1:¡
diiveis, 8,–88
dual-booting, 1¸
uvus and cus, see cus and uvus
Edubuntu, 1:,
tioubleshooting, 1:¸
email, see Tundeibiid
Empathy, õo–õ¡
add accounts, õo
chauing, õ1–õ:
desktop shaiing, õ¸
setup, õo
enciyption, see secuiity
file system stiuctuie, 1o,–11o
Files, :8
multiple tabs, ¸o
multiple windows, ¸o
window, :8
biowsing, :8
opening files, :,
iecoveiing, 1:¸
sync, see Ubuntu One
files and foldeis
copying, ¸o
cieating, :,
displaying hidden, ¸o
moving, ¸o
seaiching, ¸1
Fiiefox, ¡,–¸¸
installing, 11¡
using, 11¡
FiieWiie, see iiii 1¸,¡
gestuies, ,¸
gioups, see o|so useis
adding, 11¸
deleting, 11¸
files and foldeis, 11¡
managing, 11¸
modifying, 11¸
tioubleshooting, 1:õ
Ask Ubuntu, 1¸1
documentation, 1¸o
foiums, 1¸o
Full Ciicle Magazine, 1¸1
geneial help, ¸¸
heads-up display (uuu), ¸¸
Launchpad Answeis, 1¸1
live chat, 1¸o
online, ¸¸
home foldei, :8
iiii 1¸,¡, ,¸
instant messaging, see Empathy
biowsing, ¡,–¸õ
connecting, ¡o–¡,
wiieless, ¡¸
lnteinet iadio, ,o
keinel, ,
keyboaid, ,:
Launchei, :¸
iunning applications, :¸
LibieOffice, ,õ
Linux, õ–,
Linux distiibutions, 1:,–1:8
Live uvu, see Ubuntu Live uvu
locking the scieen, ¸¡
logging out, ¸¡
login options, 18–1,
Mac os x, see MacBook
tioubleshooting, 1:¸
monitoi, see display
mounting devices, 11o
mouse, ,¸
Movie Playei, õ8
multitouch, ,¸
music, see Rhythmbox
Mythbuntu, 1:,
NetwoikManagei, ¡o
open-souice sofwaie, 1:,
passwoid, see secuiity
photos, see o|so Shotwell
editing, õõ
impoiting, õ¡
viewing, õ¡
podcasts, ,1
piesentation application, ,õ
piintei, 8,
add via usn, 8,
adding via netwoik, 8,
iebooting, ¸¡
Rhythmbox, õ,–,¸
1¡8 ci11iNc s1»v1iu vi1u unuN1u 1¸.1o
lnteinet iadio, ,o
playing music, õ,
podcasts, ,1
scannei, ,:
tioubleshooting, ,:
scieen, see display
enciyption, 11¸
intioduction, 11o–111
passwoids, 111
peimissions, 111
ieseuing passwoids, 1::
scieen locking, 111
system updates, 11¡
Shotwell, õ¡–õ,
shuuing down, ¸¡
Shuulewoith, Maik, õ
slide show, see LibieOffice
adding iepositoiy, 1o:–1o¸
email, ¸,
finding applications, ,õ–,,
installation histoiy, ,,
installing, ,,–,8
managing, ,,–1oo
manual installation, 1o¸
movie playeis, ¸8
multimedia playeis, ¸8
music playeis, ¸8
office suites, ¸,
vui ieadei, ¸8
podcast ieadeis, ¸8
piesentation, ¸,
iecommendations, ,,
iemoving, ,8
iepositoiies, 1oo
seiveis, 1o1–1o:
spieadsheet, ¸,
video playeis, ¸8
web biowsei, ¸,
woid piocessoi, ¸,
Sofwaie Centei, ,õ
input, ,1
output, ,o
iecoiding, ,1
tioubleshooting, 1:¡
volume, ,o
sound effects, ,1
spieadsheet, ,õ
stait up, see boot
suspending the computei, ¸¡
system iequiiements, 11
about, 1o,
using, 1o8
Tundeibiid, ¸õ–õo
setup, ¸õ
Ubuntu image, 1:
touchpad, ,¸
bootable usn diive, 1:
definition of, õ
downloading, 11
histoiy of, õ
installing, 1¸–1,
philosophy of, õ
Ubuntu Live uvu, 1:–1¸
Ubuntu One, ,õ–8¸
Ubuntu Piomise, õ
Ubuntu Seivei Edition, 1:,
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei, ,õ
Ubuntu Studio, 1:,
Unity, :1
Unix, õ, ,
unmounting devices, 11o
about, 1o¸–1o¡
automatic, 1o¡
ielease updates, 1o¡–1o¸
usn, ,¸
useis, see o|so gioups
adding, 11:
cieating duiing installation, 1,–1,
deleting, 11¸
managing, 11:
modifying, 11¸
tioubleshooting, 1:¡
codecs, õ8
playing, õ8
volume, see sound
webcam, ,1
Wi-Fi, ¡¸
windows, :õ
closing, :õ
foice on top, :8
minimizing, :õ
moving, :,
moving between, :,
iesizing, :,
iestoiing, :õ
switching, :,
woid piocessoi, ,õ
woikspaces, :õ
Tis book was typeset with X
Te book design is based on the Tufe-L
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available at http·//
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and designed by Dalton Maag. lt is fieely available foi download at http·//font.
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