SIZING GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS AND RESISTORS

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PURPOSE & SCOPE......................................................................................................3
DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................4
APPLICABILITY...........................................................................................................4
RESPONSIBILITIES......................................................................................................4
PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS...............................................................................5
REFERENCES..............................................................................................................11
ATTACHMENTS.........................................................................................................11

1.0 PURPOSE & SCOPE
This procedure outlines the method to be followed for preparation of the Generator
Neutral Grounding and Transformer Neutral Grounding and Resistor Sizing and is
intended to assure uniformity of all such systems.
This procedure depicts grounding schemes as well as sizing of grounding equipment
for the following electrical systems and equipment:
• Main Generator,
• Main Transformer,
• Unit Auxiliary Transformer, Startup Transformer,
• Low-Voltage Load Center Transformer,
• Diesel Generator (if provided),
• AC and DC UPS systems

2.0 DEFINITIONS
Generator Neutral Grounding The purposes of generator neutral grounding through
an impedance are to limit the damage at the point of fault, limit transient overvoltages and provide a sensitive means of detection for insulation deterioration.
There are two acceptable methods of grounding unit connected generators; resistor
grounding and resonant (reactor) grounding. Resistance Grounding resistance
grounded system uses a resistor in the neutral-to-ground circuit to limit the maximum
value of short circuit current during a line to ground fault limiting the current and
reducing the extent of damage to equipment caused by the heating and mechanical
stresses generated by the short circuit currents Low Resistance Grounding in a low
resistance grounded system the value of resistance is usually selected so that the
ground fault current is large enough to trip protective devices selectively, yet low
enough to limit damage to equipment High Resistance grounding In a high
resistance grounded system the value of resistance is selected so that it is of sufficient
value to limit fault currents to very low values, usually equal to the total charging
current of the system Resonant (Reactor) Grounding This grounding scheme is
similar to resistance grounding except the resistor is replaced with a reactor
equivalent to the system charging current to form a tuned (resonant) circuit.
3.0 APPLICABILITY
This procedure is applicable to all projects.
4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES
4.1 Lead Electrical Engineer
The Lead Electrical Engineer is responsible for sizing the grounding transformers and
resistors.
5.0 PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Equipment Grounding Requirements
5.1.1
Main Generator
Main generator shall always be high resistance grounded.
5.1.2
Main Transformer
Main transformer for the generating plant shall always be solidly grounded at the high
side. Low side connected to the generator is always delta connected. No special
equipment is required for high side grounding.
5.1.3
Unit Auxiliary Transformer
Unit auxiliary transformer connected to the generator leads shall always have the high
side delta connected. Low side of this transformer is generally wye connected and
shall be low resistance grounded allowing a maximum of 1000A ground fault current.
Grounding resistor directly connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10-sec
rating. Low resistance grounding shall always be used unless specifically required by
the client.
Cases, where low side of this transformer is also delta connected, due to phasing,
grounding bank of T-type or zigzag type with a resistor allowing a 1000A maximum
ground fault shall be used. Rating of the grounding equipment shall of a minimum of
10 sec.
When the contract requires a different method, a calculation similar to Attachment 7.2
shall be performed.

5.1.4
Startup Transformer
Startup transformer, when used, may have either delta or wye connection for high or
low side winding. For high side, wye connection, neutral shall be solidly grounded.
For low side wye connection, neutral shall be low resistance grounded. For low side
delta, grounding bank of T-type or zigzag transformers with a resistor allowing a
1000A maximum ground fault current. Rating of this equipment shall of a minimum
of 10 sec.
5.1.5
Load Center Transformer
Transformer feeding low voltage load center shall be delta/wye-solidly grounded,
neutral, unless specifically required by the client to be different.
5.1.6
Diesel Generators
Diesel generators, when provided shall be low resistance grounded at the medium
voltage and solidly grounded at low voltage distribution. Low resistance grounding
shall allow a maximum of 1000A ground fault current. Grounding resistor directly
connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10 sec rating.
5.2 Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation Method
Attachment 7.1 provides a recent project calculation for sizing the generator and
transformer grounding transformer.
The following consideration must be analyzed when recommending and selecting a
method of Generator Grounding.
1) The damage at the point of fault is greatly reduced when the unit is resonant
grounded as compared to resistor grounded.
2) Surges on the high voltage system will not appear between generator neutral and
ground because of the wye-delta transformation of the main transformer.
3) Transient overvoltage on the unfaulted phases are limited by resonant grounding.
Arcing or current surges are reduced by resonant grounding. This precludes the
possibility of transient overvoltage due to arcing grounds.
4) The appearance of zero sequence voltage on the transmission system for a line to
ground fault impresses a transient voltage on the generator system. This voltage
is a function of the capacitive coupling reactance in the unit step-up transformer
and the zero sequence impedance of the generator system. The transient voltage
on the generator system (phase to ground EO) will be higher in magnitude with
resonant grounding than with resistor grounding. This voltage must be controlled
within acceptable limits by the proper selection of the coil constant of the
reactor.
5) Resonant grounding provides increased sensitivity for detection of insulation
deterioration at any location in the generator system and neutral connected
apparatus.
6) When resistance grounding is used, there is a dead zone where faults cannot be
detected. This dead zone is a circle at the system neutral concentric with all zero
sequence fault voltages. By using the resonant grounding, this dead zone can be
offset by introducing a voltage to displace the system neutral.
This procedure summarizes the required data and the calculations that must be
performed to specify the distribution transformer, reactor or resistor ratings.

5.3 Required Data
5.3.1
GENERATOR:
phase
Eg
Cg
E30g
Eog

5.3.2

MVA, three

= Phase to phase voltage
V
= Single phase to ground capacitance
mmf
= Zero sequence normal third harmonic voltage
V
= Zero sequence normal fundamental frequency voltage
V

=
=
=
=

MAIN TRANSFORMERS:
phase

MVA, three

Nm
= Number of transformers
Cm
=
phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)
mmf
Ct
= High to low side winding per phase capacitance
mmf
EHO = High side zero sequence voltage for a fault on the high side
of the transformer
V

5.3.3

UNIT STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER:

Nu

=

Cu

= Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)
mmf

5.3.4
Cb

5.3.5

Number of unit station service transformers

=
Single
=
=
=

MVA, three phase
=
=

ISOLATED PHASE BUS:
= Total single phase to ground capacitance
mmf

=

SURGE CAPACITORS:

Cs
mmf

=

Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)

=

Eφm
V

=

Maximum acceptable voltage the system equipment can take without damage =

5.4 Calculations For Resonant Grounding
Eg
= 3

Ege

= Generator phase to neutral voltage
V

C

= Total system capacitance = 3. (Cg+NmCm+NuCu+Cb+Cs)
mmf

Xc

1
= Total system capacitive reactance = ω ⋅ C

=
=

1012
or 2π ⋅ f ⋅ C

=

ohms

Ege ⋅

1
Xc

Ic

= System capacitive fault current =
amps

=

XL

= Effective inductive reactance for resonant ground = Xc
ohms

=

ELP = Distribution transformer primary voltage ≥ Ege
V available

=

ELS

=

Distribution transformer secondary voltage

= 120/240 V

TR

=

-3
Continuous distribution transformer rating = Ic ⋅ Ege ⋅ 10

= KVA

If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by
the factors from the following table:
TIME

FACTOR

1 Minute
5 Minutes
30 Minutes
1 Hour
2 Hours
Xct

=

0.212
0.357
0.55
0.625
0.714

Capacitive coupling reactance between high and low side of

1012
2π ⋅ f ⋅ C t
the main transformer =
LS

= Assumed total losses for the reactor

R

=

=ohms
=5%

Effective zero sequence resistance in the generator
neutral for this loss =

3⋅ XL ⋅

100
LS

= ohms

K.Eog =

Neutral voltage displacement due to generator's

100
⋅ Eog
fundamental zero sequence voltage = LS

=

V
ER

=

Neutral displacement due to fault on the high side

EHO ⋅ R
R − j ⋅ X ct
of the main transformer =

=

V

=

Phase to ground voltage for a ground fault on the high
of the main transformer = Ege + KEog + ER

= V

If Eφ calculated above is more than the maximum acceptable voltage
(Eφ M) increase the reactor losses (LS) to a higher value and
recalculate R, KEog and ER
XLS

=

Reactance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

XL

( E LS ) 2

( E LP ) 2

=

ohms
RLS

=

Resistance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

X LS ⋅

KL

=

=

Secondary current =

ELP
ELS

E ge ⋅
Vs

=

XLSKVA =

= ohms

Coil constant = 100
LS

Ic ⋅
Is

LS
100

Secondary voltage =
Reactor’s KVA =
Fault resistance

=

E LS
E LP

amps

=

Is . Vs .10-3

rF

=

IFO

E ge
R + 3 ⋅ rF
= Zero sequence fault current =

= KVA

=

ohms

=

amps

V

IF

=

Fault current = 3 . IFO

Eao

=

Percentage neutral voltage displacement (Relay Sensitivity)
=

wF

=

=

I FO ⋅ R ⋅ 100
Ege

amps

=

amps

Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF

=

watts

Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable
steps, calculate and plot wF and Eao against resistance.

5.4.1

180 Hz, No Fault Or Normal Conditions

Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance
(Z)
=%

Xe
ohms
XL3

3 ⋅ Z ⋅ 10 − 2 ⋅ ( ELP )
TR ⋅ 103
= Primary reactance =
=

2

=

Third harmonic reactance in the generator neutral 3 XL

=

ohms

(Including distribution transformer reactance)

I30p

E30 g
j ⋅ 3 ⋅ X L 3 + 3 ⋅ RL − j ⋅ X c = amps
= Third harmonic zero sequence current =
I 30 p ⋅

ELP
ELS

I30s

=

Reactor current =

V30s

=

Third harmonic normal voltage across the reactor

=

I30s

.

= amps

3 (RL + jXL3 = jXe)

=V

5.5 Calculations For Resistor Grounding
Eg
3

Ege

=

Generator phase to neutral voltage =

C

=

Total system capacitance = 3(Cg + NmCm + NuCu + Cb + Cs)

Xc

1
1012
=
wc 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f c
= Total system capacitive resistance =

=V
= mmf

= ohms

Ic
Ireq

E ge ⋅

1
Xc

=

System capacitive fault current =

= amps

=

Assuming neutral current (Minimum 5 amps) = Ic

= amps

E ge
I req

Req

=

Equivalent resistance in the generator neutral =

Ep

=

Distribution transformer primary voltage ≥ Ege

TR

=

Continuous distribution transformer rating
= Ireq . Ege . 10-3

= ohms
= Vavailable

= KVA

If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by
the factors given under resonant grounding.
Es

= Distribution transformer secondary voltage

Req ⋅
Rs = Grounding resistor in the secondary =

Vs = Maximum secondary voltage =

I req ⋅
Is

= Secondary current =

= 120/240 V

( Es ) 2

(E )

2

p

= ohms

Es
⋅ E ge
Ep

=V

Ep
Es =

amps

RsKVA=

Grounding resistors KVA = Is . Vs . 10-3

rF

Fault resistance

=

Zero sequence fault current =

IF

=

Fault current = 3 . IFO

WF

=

Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF

KV

= ohms

3 ⋅ rF − 3 ⋅
IFO

=

E ge
( Req ⋅ j ⋅ X x )

(R

eq

− j ⋅ Xc )

=
=
=

amps
amps
watts

I FO ⋅ 3

(− R ⋅ j ⋅ X )
( R − j ⋅ X ) ⋅ 100
eq

eq

Eao

=

Percentage neutral voltage displacement =

c

c

E ge

Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable
steps,
calculate and plot WF and Eao against fault resistance.

5.5.1

=

%

=

%

180 Hz, No Fault, or Normal Condition:

Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance
(Z)

3 ⋅ Z ⋅ 10 − 2 ⋅ ( E p )
Xe

=

Primary reactance =

2

TR ⋅ 103

= ohms

E30 g

I30p

=

Third harmonic zero sequence current =

I 30 p ⋅
I30s

=

Ground resistor currents =

V30s

=

Ground resistor normal voltage =

3 ⋅ ( Req + j ⋅ X e ) − j ⋅ X c

Ep
Es
I 30 s ⋅ 3 ⋅ Rs

= amps

= amps
=

V

5.6 Required Calculation Inputs
The following is a summary of the required inputs to the calculation to satisfy this
procedure:
1) Contract grounding requirements of medium-voltage and low-voltage auxiliary
system.
2) Unit auxiliary, startup and load center transformer connections.
3) Capacitance to ground for:
• Generator
• Surge arrester (if applied between generator and transformer)
• Generator step-up and unit auxiliary transformers
• Isolated Phase Bus Duct
5.7 Required Calculation Outputs
The following is a summary of the required outputs to the calculation provided by this
procedure:
1) Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation and Equipment Rating.
2) Medium-Voltage Neutral Grounding Equipment Rating.

6.0 REFERENCES
6.1
EPRI Power Plant Electrical Reference Series, Volume 8, “Station Protection.”
7.0 ATTACHMENTS
7.1
Sample Project Calculation- Generator and Transformer Grounding Equipment
Ratings (pdf)
7.2
Sample Project Calculation- Neutral Grounding Transformer and Resistor Sizing
Calculation4 kV Auxiliary distribution System (zip)