## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PURPOSE & SCOPE......................................................................................................3

DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................4

APPLICABILITY...........................................................................................................4

RESPONSIBILITIES......................................................................................................4

PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS...............................................................................5

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................11

ATTACHMENTS.........................................................................................................11

1.0 PURPOSE & SCOPE

This procedure outlines the method to be followed for preparation of the Generator

Neutral Grounding and Transformer Neutral Grounding and Resistor Sizing and is

intended to assure uniformity of all such systems.

This procedure depicts grounding schemes as well as sizing of grounding equipment

for the following electrical systems and equipment:

• Main Generator,

• Main Transformer,

• Unit Auxiliary Transformer, Startup Transformer,

• Low-Voltage Load Center Transformer,

• Diesel Generator (if provided),

• AC and DC UPS systems

2.0 DEFINITIONS

Generator Neutral Grounding The purposes of generator neutral grounding through

an impedance are to limit the damage at the point of fault, limit transient overvoltages and provide a sensitive means of detection for insulation deterioration.

There are two acceptable methods of grounding unit connected generators; resistor

grounding and resonant (reactor) grounding. Resistance Grounding resistance

grounded system uses a resistor in the neutral-to-ground circuit to limit the maximum

value of short circuit current during a line to ground fault limiting the current and

reducing the extent of damage to equipment caused by the heating and mechanical

stresses generated by the short circuit currents Low Resistance Grounding in a low

resistance grounded system the value of resistance is usually selected so that the

ground fault current is large enough to trip protective devices selectively, yet low

enough to limit damage to equipment High Resistance grounding In a high

resistance grounded system the value of resistance is selected so that it is of sufficient

value to limit fault currents to very low values, usually equal to the total charging

current of the system Resonant (Reactor) Grounding This grounding scheme is

similar to resistance grounding except the resistor is replaced with a reactor

equivalent to the system charging current to form a tuned (resonant) circuit.

3.0 APPLICABILITY

This procedure is applicable to all projects.

4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

4.1 Lead Electrical Engineer

The Lead Electrical Engineer is responsible for sizing the grounding transformers and

resistors.

5.0 PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Equipment Grounding Requirements

5.1.1

Main Generator

Main generator shall always be high resistance grounded.

5.1.2

Main Transformer

Main transformer for the generating plant shall always be solidly grounded at the high

side. Low side connected to the generator is always delta connected. No special

equipment is required for high side grounding.

5.1.3

Unit Auxiliary Transformer

Unit auxiliary transformer connected to the generator leads shall always have the high

side delta connected. Low side of this transformer is generally wye connected and

shall be low resistance grounded allowing a maximum of 1000A ground fault current.

Grounding resistor directly connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10-sec

rating. Low resistance grounding shall always be used unless specifically required by

the client.

Cases, where low side of this transformer is also delta connected, due to phasing,

grounding bank of T-type or zigzag type with a resistor allowing a 1000A maximum

ground fault shall be used. Rating of the grounding equipment shall of a minimum of

10 sec.

When the contract requires a different method, a calculation similar to Attachment 7.2

shall be performed.

5.1.4

Startup Transformer

Startup transformer, when used, may have either delta or wye connection for high or

low side winding. For high side, wye connection, neutral shall be solidly grounded.

For low side wye connection, neutral shall be low resistance grounded. For low side

delta, grounding bank of T-type or zigzag transformers with a resistor allowing a

1000A maximum ground fault current. Rating of this equipment shall of a minimum

of 10 sec.

5.1.5

Load Center Transformer

Transformer feeding low voltage load center shall be delta/wye-solidly grounded,

neutral, unless specifically required by the client to be different.

5.1.6

Diesel Generators

Diesel generators, when provided shall be low resistance grounded at the medium

voltage and solidly grounded at low voltage distribution. Low resistance grounding

shall allow a maximum of 1000A ground fault current. Grounding resistor directly

connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10 sec rating.

5.2 Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation Method

Attachment 7.1 provides a recent project calculation for sizing the generator and

transformer grounding transformer.

The following consideration must be analyzed when recommending and selecting a

method of Generator Grounding.

1) The damage at the point of fault is greatly reduced when the unit is resonant

grounded as compared to resistor grounded.

2) Surges on the high voltage system will not appear between generator neutral and

ground because of the wye-delta transformation of the main transformer.

3) Transient overvoltage on the unfaulted phases are limited by resonant grounding.

Arcing or current surges are reduced by resonant grounding. This precludes the

possibility of transient overvoltage due to arcing grounds.

4) The appearance of zero sequence voltage on the transmission system for a line to

ground fault impresses a transient voltage on the generator system. This voltage

is a function of the capacitive coupling reactance in the unit step-up transformer

and the zero sequence impedance of the generator system. The transient voltage

on the generator system (phase to ground EO) will be higher in magnitude with

resonant grounding than with resistor grounding. This voltage must be controlled

within acceptable limits by the proper selection of the coil constant of the

reactor.

5) Resonant grounding provides increased sensitivity for detection of insulation

deterioration at any location in the generator system and neutral connected

apparatus.

6) When resistance grounding is used, there is a dead zone where faults cannot be

detected. This dead zone is a circle at the system neutral concentric with all zero

sequence fault voltages. By using the resonant grounding, this dead zone can be

offset by introducing a voltage to displace the system neutral.

This procedure summarizes the required data and the calculations that must be

performed to specify the distribution transformer, reactor or resistor ratings.

5.3 Required Data

5.3.1

GENERATOR:

phase

Eg

Cg

E30g

Eog

5.3.2

MVA, three

**= Phase to phase voltage
**

V

= Single phase to ground capacitance

mmf

= Zero sequence normal third harmonic voltage

V

= Zero sequence normal fundamental frequency voltage

V

=

=

=

=

MAIN TRANSFORMERS:

phase

MVA, three

Nm

= Number of transformers

Cm

=

phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)

mmf

Ct

= High to low side winding per phase capacitance

mmf

EHO = High side zero sequence voltage for a fault on the high side

of the transformer

V

5.3.3

UNIT STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER:

Nu

=

Cu

**= Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)
**

mmf

5.3.4

Cb

5.3.5

Number of unit station service transformers

=

Single

=

=

=

**MVA, three phase
**

=

=

**ISOLATED PHASE BUS:
**

= Total single phase to ground capacitance

mmf

=

SURGE CAPACITORS:

Cs

mmf

=

Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)

=

Eφm

V

=

Maximum acceptable voltage the system equipment can take without damage =

**5.4 Calculations For Resonant Grounding
**

Eg

= 3

Ege

**= Generator phase to neutral voltage
**

V

C

**= Total system capacitance = 3. (Cg+NmCm+NuCu+Cb+Cs)
**

mmf

Xc

1

= Total system capacitive reactance = ω ⋅ C

=

=

1012

or 2π ⋅ f ⋅ C

=

ohms

Ege ⋅

1

Xc

Ic

**= System capacitive fault current =
**

amps

=

XL

**= Effective inductive reactance for resonant ground = Xc
**

ohms

=

**ELP = Distribution transformer primary voltage ≥ Ege
**

V available

=

ELS

=

Distribution transformer secondary voltage

= 120/240 V

TR

=

-3

Continuous distribution transformer rating = Ic ⋅ Ege ⋅ 10

= KVA

**If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by
**

the factors from the following table:

TIME

FACTOR

1 Minute

5 Minutes

30 Minutes

1 Hour

2 Hours

Xct

=

0.212

0.357

0.55

0.625

0.714

Capacitive coupling reactance between high and low side of

1012

2π ⋅ f ⋅ C t

the main transformer =

LS

= Assumed total losses for the reactor

R

=

=ohms

=5%

**Effective zero sequence resistance in the generator
**

neutral for this loss =

3⋅ XL ⋅

100

LS

= ohms

K.Eog =

Neutral voltage displacement due to generator's

100

⋅ Eog

fundamental zero sequence voltage = LS

=

V

ER

=

Neutral displacement due to fault on the high side

EHO ⋅ R

R − j ⋅ X ct

of the main transformer =

=

V

Eφ

=

**Phase to ground voltage for a ground fault on the high
**

of the main transformer = Ege + KEog + ER

= V

**If Eφ calculated above is more than the maximum acceptable voltage
**

(Eφ M) increase the reactor losses (LS) to a higher value and

recalculate R, KEog and ER

XLS

=

Reactance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

XL

( E LS ) 2

⋅

( E LP ) 2

=

ohms

RLS

=

Resistance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

X LS ⋅

KL

=

=

Secondary current =

ELP

ELS

E ge ⋅

Vs

=

XLSKVA =

= ohms

**Coil constant = 100
**

LS

Ic ⋅

Is

LS

100

Secondary voltage =

Reactor’s KVA =

Fault resistance

=

E LS

E LP

amps

=

Is . Vs .10-3

rF

=

IFO

E ge

R + 3 ⋅ rF

= Zero sequence fault current =

= KVA

=

ohms

=

amps

V

IF

=

Fault current = 3 . IFO

Eao

=

**Percentage neutral voltage displacement (Relay Sensitivity)
**

=

wF

=

=

I FO ⋅ R ⋅ 100

Ege

amps

=

amps

Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF

=

watts

**Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable
**

steps, calculate and plot wF and Eao against resistance.

5.4.1

180 Hz, No Fault Or Normal Conditions

**Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance
**

(Z)

=%

Xe

ohms

XL3

3 ⋅ Z ⋅ 10 − 2 ⋅ ( ELP )

TR ⋅ 103

= Primary reactance =

=

2

=

Third harmonic reactance in the generator neutral 3 XL

=

ohms

(Including distribution transformer reactance)

I30p

E30 g

j ⋅ 3 ⋅ X L 3 + 3 ⋅ RL − j ⋅ X c = amps

= Third harmonic zero sequence current =

I 30 p ⋅

ELP

ELS

I30s

=

Reactor current =

V30s

=

Third harmonic normal voltage across the reactor

=

I30s

.

= amps

3 (RL + jXL3 = jXe)

=V

**5.5 Calculations For Resistor Grounding
**

Eg

3

Ege

=

Generator phase to neutral voltage =

C

=

Total system capacitance = 3(Cg + NmCm + NuCu + Cb + Cs)

Xc

1

1012

=

wc 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f c

= Total system capacitive resistance =

=V

= mmf

= ohms

Ic

Ireq

E ge ⋅

1

Xc

=

System capacitive fault current =

= amps

=

Assuming neutral current (Minimum 5 amps) = Ic

= amps

E ge

I req

Req

=

Equivalent resistance in the generator neutral =

Ep

=

Distribution transformer primary voltage ≥ Ege

TR

=

**Continuous distribution transformer rating
**

= Ireq . Ege . 10-3

= ohms

= Vavailable

= KVA

**If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by
**

the factors given under resonant grounding.

Es

= Distribution transformer secondary voltage

Req ⋅

Rs = Grounding resistor in the secondary =

Vs = Maximum secondary voltage =

I req ⋅

Is

= Secondary current =

= 120/240 V

( Es ) 2

(E )

2

p

= ohms

Es

⋅ E ge

Ep

=V

Ep

Es =

amps

RsKVA=

Grounding resistors KVA = Is . Vs . 10-3

rF

Fault resistance

=

Zero sequence fault current =

IF

=

Fault current = 3 . IFO

WF

=

Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF

KV

= ohms

3 ⋅ rF − 3 ⋅

IFO

=

E ge

( Req ⋅ j ⋅ X x )

(R

eq

− j ⋅ Xc )

=

=

=

amps

amps

watts

I FO ⋅ 3

(− R ⋅ j ⋅ X )

( R − j ⋅ X ) ⋅ 100

eq

eq

Eao

=

Percentage neutral voltage displacement =

c

c

E ge

**Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable
**

steps,

calculate and plot WF and Eao against fault resistance.

5.5.1

=

%

=

%

180 Hz, No Fault, or Normal Condition:

**Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance
**

(Z)

3 ⋅ Z ⋅ 10 − 2 ⋅ ( E p )

Xe

=

Primary reactance =

2

TR ⋅ 103

= ohms

E30 g

I30p

=

Third harmonic zero sequence current =

I 30 p ⋅

I30s

=

Ground resistor currents =

V30s

=

Ground resistor normal voltage =

3 ⋅ ( Req + j ⋅ X e ) − j ⋅ X c

Ep

Es

I 30 s ⋅ 3 ⋅ Rs

= amps

= amps

=

V

**5.6 Required Calculation Inputs
**

The following is a summary of the required inputs to the calculation to satisfy this

procedure:

1) Contract grounding requirements of medium-voltage and low-voltage auxiliary

system.

2) Unit auxiliary, startup and load center transformer connections.

3) Capacitance to ground for:

• Generator

• Surge arrester (if applied between generator and transformer)

• Generator step-up and unit auxiliary transformers

• Isolated Phase Bus Duct

5.7 Required Calculation Outputs

The following is a summary of the required outputs to the calculation provided by this

procedure:

1) Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation and Equipment Rating.

2) Medium-Voltage Neutral Grounding Equipment Rating.

6.0 REFERENCES

6.1

EPRI Power Plant Electrical Reference Series, Volume 8, “Station Protection.”

7.0 ATTACHMENTS

7.1

Sample Project Calculation- Generator and Transformer Grounding Equipment

Ratings (pdf)

7.2

Sample Project Calculation- Neutral Grounding Transformer and Resistor Sizing

Calculation4 kV Auxiliary distribution System (zip)

- 440_OPI_en_1202
- Grounded Neutral
- Isoloc 2012_1
- SIZING+GROUNDING+TRANSFORMERS+AND+RESISTORS
- Uniten Arsepe 08 l5
- C-406EA Conversion Guide
- IS 3043.pdf
- System Neutral Grounding
- 2391 Revision 2000 V6.0
- HR003-05 High Resistance Ground Gde
- 1
- New Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation .ppt
- Db Boq Lot 3 Elektro
- LC32SB24U
- tpas.1981.316647
- Copper Bonded Grounding Rod.pdf
- Discrete Semiconductor Devices and Circuits_8_Design Project Dual-Output AC-DC Power Supply
- E21-22
- Electrical Assignment 10
- 02 Yt 16 Grounding Systems
- Manual Hipot
- Differential Protection 8
- Reibot - Easy High Voltage - ReiBot
- Arrester Tran Quell Polyp Orce in t
- 6605C99
- Vigirex_katEN06_4
- Discrete Semiconductor Devices and Circuits_7_Design Project AC-DC Power Supply
- Choose the Most Suitable Electrical Protection Devices
- Cable Fault Finding Guide
- 262-uriondo

- 33.pdf
- 60617-10-1996
- NS220-Overhead Design Manual.pdf
- Guide_for_Transformer_Fire_Safety_Practices.pdf
- Application Guide for TRV for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.pdf
- Scientific Industrial EMC
- Insulation coordination for UHV AC systems.pdf
- Grounding of Outdoor High Voltage
- Ground Grid Design
- 01 Rakov CIGRE Lightning Parameters
- Weather-based Loading of Overhead Lines.pdf
- Changes in IEEE80 1[1]
- Transient phenomena.pdf
- Appendix B - T-Line & Substation Components
- Insulation_Co-ordination_Aspects_for_Power_Stations_with_Generator_Circuit-Breakers[1].pdf
- Sub Station Engineering
- ANSI Std C57.120-1991(IEEE Loss Evaluation Guide For
- Construction Earthing Manual
- Exploration of IEC60502-4&IEC60840 as Compared to IEEE404-2006
- HV Surge Arrester
- How to Apply for Electconn
- WG A325 Surge+Arrester Poster 20122[1]
- HV_Chap10
- Chapter 18 -Substation Design Manual Rev 1 - 17-1-2012
- MR Technical Data
- Appendix E - Technology[1]
- IEEE IEC ComparisonDocument
- Maritime Earthing Guidelines
- iec60214-2004
- Preparation of Transformer Specifications1

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading