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Lecture 2.doc

Lecture 2.doc

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General Chemistry Lecture # 2: Matter and Energy Prepared by: Engr. Norman Giovanni M.

Guevarra Matter – is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is classified into t o: !. Pure "ubstances – are pure homogeneous material that is made up of only one #ind of matter. - are particular #ind of matter ith definite$ fi%ed composition &. Elements – is a pure substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other elements by chemical means. It is represented by a symbol. - are the building bloc#s of all substances. a. metals 'e%. (e$ Mn$ !u$ Mg$ !l) b. nonmetals 'e%. C$ *$ +$ N$ Cl) c. metalliods 'e%. ,$ "i$ !s$ "b$ Ge$ -e) .. Compounds – are substances of t o or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions. - can be decomposed by simple chemical change such as electrolysis 'decomposition through the use of electricity) and pyrolysis 'decomposition by means of heat). It is represented by formulas. a. +rganic – are compounds containing carbon e%cept C+$ C+.$ CN etc/ Inorganic – are compounds that do not contain carbon b. !cids – are compounds that give *0 in a solution - are compounds that turns blue litmus paper to red - has a sour taste ,ase – are compounds that give +*1 in a solution - turn red litmus paper to blue and has a bitter taste "alt 1 formed by neutrali2ation 1 an ionic compound made up of a cation other that *0 and anion other than +* 1 or +1. c. Covalent 1 are compounds hose constituent elements are bonded by sharing of electrons 'nonmetal1nonmetal) Ionic1 are compounds hose constituent elements are bonded by transfer of electrons 'metal1nonmetal) d. Electrolytes1 are compounds hose a3ueous solution or molten state conducts electricity Nonelectrolytes1 are compounds hose solution does not conduct electricity ,. Mi%tures1 is a combination of t o or more pure substances that retain their chemical identities. &. *omogeneous – mi%ture in hich the components are evenly distributed throughout thus the components cannot be distinguished from one another. E%: air$ vinegar$ alloy$ soft drin#s a. "olution 1 is a homogeneous mi%ture composed of t o or more substances. In such a mi%ture$ a solute is dissolved in another substance$ #no n as a solvent. ! common e%ample is a solid$ such as salt or sugar$ dissolved in ater$ a li3uid. Gases may dissolve in li3uids$ for e%ample$ carbon dio%ide or o%ygen in ater. .. *eterogeneous – mi%ture in hich the components are not evenly distributed thus the components can be distinguished from one another. E%. Gravel and sand$ oil and ater a. Colloids 1 is a type of chemical mi%ture here one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another. -he particles of the dispersed substance are only suspended in the mi%ture$ unli#e a solution$ here they are completely dissolved ithin. -his occurs because the particles in a colloid are larger than in a solution 1 small enough to be dispersed evenly and maintain a homogenous appearance$ but large enough to scatter light and not dissolve. ,ecause of this dispersal$ some colloids have the appearance of solutions. ! colloidal system consists of t o separate phases: a dispersed phase 'or internal phase) and a continuous phase 'or dispersion medium).

Evaporation – process of separating a mi%ture of soluble solid from a li3uid heating the solution to dryness the li3uid evaporates and the solid particles remains as residue. e.E" !N4 C+MP+7N4" In terms of Mi%ture Composition May be composed of elements$ compounds or both in variable composition "eparation of Components . In a solution$ the dissolved substance does not e%ist as a solid and the t o are homogeneously mi%ed Particle diameter less than &819 m solution &819 1 &81: m colloids greater than &81: m suspensions "EP!. -he suspended particles are visible under a microscope and ill settle over time if left undisturbed. "uspensions 1 containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation.I"+N +( MI<-7. 4ecantation – process of separating a mi%ture of insoluble solid from a li3uid by allo ing the solid particles to settle do n and then carefully pouring the li3uid 'decantate) so as not to disturb the residue. -he internal phase 'solid) is dispersed throughout the e%ternal phase 'fluid) through mechanical agitation$ ith the use of certain e%cipients or suspending agents. -he solid in ith higher vapor pressure ill sublime 'sublimate) hile the solid ith lo vapor pressure ill remain as residue$ hen the mi%ture is heated.y physical or mechanical means Identification of Components Components do not loose their identity Compound Composed of t o or more elements in s definite$ fi%ed proportion by mass +nly by chemical changes ! compound does not resemble the elements from hich it is formed . d. 7nli#e colloids$ suspensions ill eventually settle.Gas Gas 5i3uid Continuous Medium "olid E%ample: N+NE !ll gases are mutually miscible (oam hipped cream 4ispersed Phase 5i3uid 5i3uid !erosol E%amples: fog$ mist$ clouds Emulsion E%amples: mil#$ mayonnaise$ hand cream Gel E%amples: gelatin$ 6elly$ cheese$ opal solid "olid !erosol E%amples: smo#e$ air particulate "ol E%amples:$ pigmented in# "olid "ol E%ample: cranberry glass "olid (oam E%amples: aero gel$ "tyrofoam$ pumice b. (iltration – is a process of separating a mi%ture of insoluble solid and li3uid by pouring the mi%ture through a filter paper o medium in a funnel. C+MP!.!-I+N +( MI<-7. b. -his distinguishes a suspension from a colloid in hich the suspended particles are smaller and do not settle. !n e%ample of a suspension ould be sand in ater. c. =hen the mi%ture is heated the li3uid ith lo boiling point ill distill first 'distillate) hile the li3uid ith high boiling point ill remain as residue. 7sually they must be larger than & micrometer. 4istillation – process of separating a mi%ture of miscible li3uids that have great difference in their boiling points. -he solid particles remain on the filter paper 'residue) and the filtrate passes through the filter paper. "ublimation – process of separating a mi%ture of solid hich greatly differ in their vapor pressure.E" a.

-he original matter can be recovered. Physical properties 1 are the inherent characteristics of substance that can be determined ithout altering its composition.. ?.. Evaporation – li3uid to gas @. E%: tendency of iron to rust$ ood to decay$ alcohol to burn$ fruits to ripen. "ublimation 1 solid to gas :. Properties of Matter . Chemical Properties – describe the ability of a substance to form a ne substance either by reaction ith other substances or by decomposition.& E%tensive or E%trinsic Properties – properties that depends on the amount of material. -he old matter is no longer present. Phase Changes> Phase -ransitions > Change of "tate . -he matter is different. Chemical Change – are changes that result in the formation of a ne substance ith ne properties. Physical Change – are changes in the physical properties or charges in the state of matter ithout accompanying change in composition. evolution of heat 4ifference bet een physical and chemical change: Macroscopic 4efinition -he matter is the same.. Condensation – gas to li3uid A. 5i3uid – indefinite shape but has definite volume. Characteristics: lo density$ easy to e%pand>compress$ fills container. (ree2ing – li3uid to solid . Gas – indefinite shape and volume. formation of precipitate c.7sually occur under conditions of lo &. change in color$ odor or taste b. Ne substances are formed that have different properties and composition from the original material. -he original matter cannot be recovered Microscopic 4efinition -he particles of the substance are rearranged -he particles of the substance are bro#en apart and the atoms are rearranged into ne particle$ forming a ne substance.. Physical change Chemical change . 4eposition – gas to solid or high temperature and lo of high pressure. . E%: a nail rusting . Intensive or Intrinsic properties 1 properties that depends on the #ind of material and independent on the amount. E%: si2e$ shape$ eight$ volume etc.. Characteristics: high density$ hard to e%pand>compress$ rigid shape . Characteristics: *igh 4ensity$ hard to e%pand> compress$ ta#es shape of container.Phases or "tates of Matter &. Melting – solid to li3uid ?. evolution of gas d.are classified as: &.Evidences or indication of chemical change: a.is also referred as chemical reaction.each substance has a set of properties that are characteristic of that substance and give it a uni3ue identity. Changes of Matter &. Properties are personality traits of substances . &. -he ne substances need not to resemble the initial material in any ay. Changes that do not result in the formation of a ne substance. -hey are associated ith its physical e%istence. E%: melting of ice . "olid – has a definite shape and volume.. &. E%: melting point$ free2ing point$ density$ viscosity$ specific heat$ specific gravity etc/ .

ubbing alcohol evaporates on hand Chemical change Mil# goes sour Be elry tarnishes . electrical energy is transformed into radiant energy in a light bulb$ into heat energy in a #itchen stove$ into mechanical energy in the starter of an automobile. -his means that in a chemical reaction$ the total mass of the reactants is e3ual to the total mass of the product. 5a s of Mass and Energy &. Chemical energy is transformed heat energy hen the food e eat is burned in our cells$ into mechanical energy for the contraction of muscles$ into electric energy by electric eels$ into light energy by fireflies. E%: chemical energy of substances$ the ater held in reservoir behind a dam$ a boo# in a table. 5a of Conservation of Energy – states that Fenergy is neither created nor destroyed$ though it can be transformed into one form to anotherG . Potential energy is the stored energy or energy that an ob6ect possesses due to its relative position. -he e%cess energy from reactants$ usually in the form of heat$ is given off by the system. E%: burning ..eaction – a chemical reaction that absorbs heat.. Energy -ransformation -he different forms of energy may be converted from one form to another. !ll of these forms of energy fall under t o general classes: &.E%ample: Physical change !luminum foil is cut Clay is molded into ne shape .utter melts on a arm toast =ater evaporates from the surface of the ocean ! 6uice bo% in the free2er free2es . Energy from outside the system is needed to bring about a chemical reaction. Energy comes in a number of forms: electrical$ mechanical$ radiant$ heat$ light$ sound$ nuclear or atomic$ and solar energy.eaction &. "olar energy is transformed into chemical energy in a gro ing plant. E% : ater that flo s through turbines$ a atch spring slo ly uncoils$ gasoline that burns in an automobile engine$ pitched baseball$ airplane in flight. 5a of Multiple Proportions – states that F hen t o elements combine to form more than one compound$ if the mass of one element is constant$ the ratios of the masses of the other elements are in small hole numbersG.. Every change$ hether physical and chemical$ involves a change in energy.read becomes toast . . . -ypes of Chemical .eaction – a chemical reaction that gives off or evolves heat. 5a of Conservation of Mass 1 states that Fmass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reactionG. E%ample: a. Einetic energy – is the energy that matter possesses due to its motion. E%othermic . 5a of 4efinite Composition or Proportion – states that Fa pure compound is al ays composed of the same elements combined in a definite proportion by eightG. c.ust forms on a nail Gasoline is ignited (ood scraps turned into compost in a compost pile ! match is lit Cou ta#e an antacid to settle your stomach Cour body digest food Cou fry an egg Energy – is that bodyDs or systemDs ability to do or#. @. Endothermic . ?. E%: ice melting N+-E: ! reaction that is e%othermic in one direction is al ays endothermic in the opposite direction. b.

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