You are on page 1of 17



The world of second language acquisition has many acronyms. Several of these are included below. In addition, a number of key events and educational terms and that are used with ESL/LEP students and their academic development are important for you to know. There will be a quiz on this later. :-)

ESL = English as a Second Language; English learned in an environment where English is the predominant language of communication. EFL = English as a Foreign Language; English learned in an environment where a language other than English is the predominant language of communication. SLA = Second Language Acquisition; the study of how second and subsequent languages are learned. NS = Native speaker. NNS = Non-native speaker. L1 = First Language, mother tongue; language used first and most often by a speaker. L2 = Second Language; any language learned after the mother tongue; could become dominant language. LEP = Limited English Proficient; term used denote English language learners where English is the L2 LEP: Limited English Proficient, A student who is not fully English proficient, speaks a language other than English at home, and does not demonstrate English language skills of comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing at a level that would place him/her in a mainstream, English only class setting. FEP = Fluent English Proficient; educational/governmental term used to designate those English language learners that have reached a specific proficiency in the L2.

IEP = Individualized Education Program or Prescription; educational/governmental term used for description of services to be rendered and specified conditions thereof for students with learning disabilities and special needs. Bilingual Education (BE): An educational program in which two languages are used during instruction in order to 1) continue primary language (Ll) development, 2) provide instruction in content in both Ll and L2, and 3) English acquisition. BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to-face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners. CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement. These skills usually take five to seven years to fully develop in second language learners. Comprehensible Input (CI): Language that is understood by the learner. Focuses on meaning first and uses simplified speech. Foreigner Talk: The simplified speech native speakers use when talking to foreigners. Caretaker Talk (formerly known as Motherese; this term is now terribly un-PC): The simplified speech that adults use when talking to children just learning to speak. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) The basis for educating students with disabilities in classrooms comes from the concept of least restrictive environment (LRE), a provision in the federal laws that have governed special education since 1975 with the passage of PL 94142. LRE is a student's right to be educated in the setting most like the educational setting for nondisabled peers in which the student can be successful, with appropriate supports provided. Mainstreaming and Inclusion are interpretations of LRE. Mainstreaming: Mainstreaming is the term for placing students with disabilities or special needs in general education setting only when they can meet traditional academic expectations with minimal assistance, or when those expectations are not relevant, for example, participation in school assemblies, art, music, health, and physical education in order to have social interactions with the other students. There is no separation of students based on need or ability. All students are placed in classrooms designed for native English speakers that function at the perceived "normal" level. Inclusion: Inclusion represents the belief that students with disabilities should be integrated into general education classrooms, community activities and resources, and home settings as students who do not have disabilities. Within classrooms, students work toward their IEP goals. The term inclusion has been broadened in order to create what is known as inclusive learning communities where all children belong, those with and without disabilities and those with linguistic, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic differences, such as ESL/LEP students.

Code Switching: The alternate use of two languages. Speaking one language and using words from another, their native language. Pull Out: Classes in which students are withdrawn from the mainstream regular subject classes for one or more periods a week, for English language instruction classes in smaller groups. Silent Period: A time during which ESL students observe, gather and absorb information without speaking while developing listening comprehension skills and sorting out structures in the language such as the sound system (phonetics) and vocabulary. Students also take in aspects of deep culture that are not taught such as the "common sense" aspects of everyday functioning. This period varies in length depending on the student. Affective Filter: The psychological barrier that allows input to be filtered through to a language processing mechanism. A high filter is full of anxiety and stress while a low filter has little anxiety increasing comprehension and attention. Lau vs. Nichols: (1974) The United States Supreme Court decision which found the San Francisco Board of Education failing in the duty of providing equal access to education of Chinese speaking students who were enrolled in mainstream, English only classes. Providing ESL students with the same materials as native speakers does not satisfy the requirement of equal access to education. Sheltered English: Also referred to as transition or bridge classes, students cover the same content areas as mainstream, English only classes but they do so in a manner that adapts the language components of the classes to meet the needs of the language minority students' English proficiency levels. Adaptations include simplified speech, contextualization, task-function orientation, and interactional activities. Transitional Bilingual Program: Content based instruction is given in L1 while students continue to receive ESL instruction. These classes are used until students are able to shift to a complete and proficient use of L2 in content areas. ESP: English for Special Purposes, Classes are designed to give students instruction in specific content areas. TESOL: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. This is a national and professional association.

Is your head spinning yet? That just scratches the surface, but at least you will be conversant with other professionals in the field.

Terminology Quiz Using the knowledge you gained from the Terminology page, respond to the following questions. You will need to fill in some blanks and also supply short answers to other questions. When you are finished, print your responses out and turn them in to your instructor. Good luck!

1. When speaking with a young child, you usually modify your discourse so that the child will understand you. For example, you use vocabulary that s/he can comprehend and you choose topics that are familiar to small children (such as toys, cartoons, etc.). You would not engage in a discussion of quantum physics with this youngster. You are, therefore, employing


2. By the same token, when you make these same modifications when speaking with a NNS of English, you are using


3. Identify the phenomenon taking place in the following mini-conversation between two NSs of Spanish who live in New York city: Ay, I am super cansado. I think I am going to echar una siesta. Oh, no seas tan lazy. Come over to my house and we can jugar al bisbol or algo as. These speakers are engaging in : the practice of changing back and forth between two different languages during a conversation. 4. It is the first day of school and you have just received your class lists. You notice that you have several students that appear to be of Laotian nationality. You also have a note requiring your presence at a meeting with each of these students, their parents, and the ESL teacher. Because you have worked your way through this module, you know that these meetings have been called in order to write an for each of these students. This legal document will have a large impact on how you deal with each of these students in your regular classroom. 5. Explain the difference between ESL and EFL. Which environment are you most likely to work after graduation?

Code Sw itching

ESL is English as a Second language w hich is predominantly taught w here English is used most frequently to communicate. EFL is English as a Foreign w hich is taught predominantly w here another language other than English is the most common form of communicating.

6. Eun is a new student from Korea. She speaks very little English and spend a large portion of her school day in ESL classes. Eun can be termed an
Pull Out


7. Billiam is from Haiti and speaks Creole at home with his family. Therefore, Creole is his

8. At school, on the other hand, he speaks English, which he has learned very well. Thus, English is Billiam's


9. SLA research suggests that students must have much can understand, in order to learn a second language.

, or language that they

10. The court case that requires equal access to education for all students is 11. Most second language learners go through a and absorb language but do little to no speaking of their own.
Silent Period

Lau vs Nichols

wherein they listen, observe,

12. Many language learners experience high anxiety in language classes. This often interferes with efficient language learning. In SLA terms, when a learners conditions are not optimal for language learning. 13. Explain the difference between BICS and CALP.
Affective Filter

is high,

BICS is Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills w hich are skills necessary to function in everyday life and take about tw o years to develop. CALP is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency w hich are aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement and take about five to seven years to develop.

14. You are teaching an English class to graduate students from Saudi Arabia. They are all studying Engineering and are most interested in learning to read journals and materials that deal with their field. This class can be termed an curriculum and purpose for this group of students.

class because you have a particular

15. An educational program in which two languages are systematically used during instruction is known as
Bilingual Education

16. In a class, the students study the same content area curriculum as NSs but the instruction is modified to adapt the language components of the class to meet the needs of the language minority students' English proficiency levels. 17. Explain the concept of LRE. Discuss how inclusion could impact your classroom.
LRE is the Least Restrictive Environment. This is a student's right to be educated in the same setting as non disabled peers in w hich a student can be successful w ith appropriate supports provided. Inclusion is the belief that there should be an integrated classroom setting betw een students w ith and w ithout disabilities. This could impact a classroom because a teacher w ill have to take more time explaining things and speaking at a slow er pace in order for everyone to comprehend the information.

Sheltered English

My name:

Mitchell Kenigsberg

Activity 3 1. Monday, 1/5/98 Bilingual education in the US (8 min. 24 sec.) 1. No, bilingual education has been around as early as the 1600s. People were taught different European languages as the speakers native language was German. 2. It was a parent boycott against Bilingual Education in the 1990s. 3. Professionals realized in California that half of all Mexican-American Californians dropped out of school before the 8th grade. 4. This was a case where an Asian student who couldnt speak English was placed in an all English speaking class. This was seen as unconstitutional because it didnt give the student equal opportunities to learn. Due to this case, a BE program was developed. 5. The public had several shifts regarding BE in the United States. Around the 1960s BE had a very powerful upsurge and the public was all for BE. Around the 1990s, the publics opinion started to change and the public turned against BE. Later on the public started to believe in BE once again. Some still see BE as another failure.

2. Tuesday, 1/6/98 Different instructional approaches in Orlando (8 min. 48 sec.) 1. The fast track is also known as English immersion. This is used to teach children to read and write as quickly as possible. The slow track is used for students to master their native language first and then they can learn English. 2. Some arguments in favor of developing L1 literacy is once students are able to master their native language, it makes learning English a whole lot easier. Students are also able to naturally speak a different language which can ultimately make them bilingual and successful later on. 3. Sheltered English is a program in which a child is expected to learn English in two years or less because there is little emphasis on a students native language. 4. A Bad teacher in this audio refers to teachers who are not able to speak English fluently. Teachers and parents are frustrated that people are instructing their students who cant even speak the language fluently that the instructor is trying to teach. 3. Wednesday, 1/7/98 Miami's Coral Way program (8 min. 35 sec.) 1. The school was opened up in 1963. Chinese, Russian, Haitian, Cuban, and Latin American students are involved. About 40% of the students are in this BE program because it is one of the most successful programs in the world. 2. This program has been so successful because this school has teachers who can speak multiple languages which might make the students feel more comfortable which will enhance the success rate of the students. 3. Parents might choose to send their parents to this school because most of the children here are all in the same situation where they are trying to learn the language of English. So most of the children here would feel like outcasts at a regular public school but since they

are all together at this school, students feel as if they are normal. This school also not only teaches them English but also works on preserving the native language of the students. 4. Thursday, 1/8/98 Instruction of LEPs in California (8 min. 39 sec.) 1. This school has been around since 1968. 90% of students start out speaking Spanish as their primary language. By the time they graduate, most are fluent and literate in two languages. Three quarters of the students go on to graduate and move on to college. 2. When students enter school, 80% of students were speaking Spanish and only 20% of students spoke English. As you move up in grades, the numbers begin to get closer and then eventually switch. Once in high school, all students are in mainstream classes. 3. There are so many students who speak different languages and it is difficult to adapt to them all. Also some school districts try and push students to learn as fast as they can, while other school districts take their time and teach at a slow and moderate pace. 4. The English for the Children initiative is essentially another name for the fast track. Students are expected to be able to speak fluent English within a year. While this is shown through studies that it takes at least two years minimal to even learn a new language. 5. Friday, 1/9/98 Bilingual students, poverty, and special needs (8 min. 24 sec.) For discussion: 1. What is meant by academic language and why is this so important to acquire? 2. What are some other problems (besides language) that some LEP students face? How might these affect their academic performance? 1. Academic language is the language that is used in textbooks and on exams. It is so important to acquire because students need to understand what they are reading and taking in. To them what they are reading is just words; they might not actually understand what they are reading and why it is significant. 2. Another issue that some LEP students face is poverty. Poverty affects their academic performance because some of these students might not have the means in order to present a successful environment. Students also do not have standardized tests which can match up with their needs.

Ten Common Fallacies About Bilingual Education The article that I read was quite interesting and was quite refreshing to read. It is kind of funny how there are all these fallacies being spread around the United States in regards to bilingual education programs. This article reviews ten of the most common fallacies when it comes to bilingual education and then a brief paragraph or so explaining and developing on how these are fallacies and not true at all. Some of these fallacies include English is losing ground to other languages in the United States, the best way to learn English is through total immersion, bilingual education is far more costly than English language instruction, and lastly languageminority parents do not support bilingual education because they feel it is more important for their children to learn English than to maintain the native language.

In my opinion I do not have any idea where any of these fallacies came from and I am actually a bit surprised about a few of them. In my opinion these are arrogant individuals who think they are better than everyone else who seem to be afraid of change and learning a new culture. English will always be my first language and my native language, but I can also speak a few other languages. I took seven years of Spanish, 6 years of Hebrew school, a year of French, and through my family I learned some other languages along the way. Just like the students who are in these BE classes, not only do they keep their native language but they also will learn different languages which can broaden their horizons and make them more well-rounded individuals. What I found most interesting was that bilingual education additions to a school is not really that pricey and in my opinion seems to be pretty reasonable. With that being said I think that more schools should implement more bilingual education programs in order to make their school more appealing, as well as help more students learn a new language with the proper instruction and tools.

Activity 4

1. What is this literary selection about? Write your response in the box below.
I have absolutely no idea.

Hmm, that wasn't so easy, was it? Of course, it could be that you are a visual learner rather than an auditory learner. Perhaps if you viewed the literary text, you could answer the question. 2. What information did you glean from reading the text? Write your response in the box below.
I have no clue because i can't read Arabic or understand it.

Task: Ok, let's try another class. Class: Chinese history. Instructor: Song Jie Now, answer the question below in the space provided: 3. What is this historical selection about? Write your response in the box below.
Something about Brow n.

This is not getting any better, is it? Ok, let's take a look at this text and see if it helps. 4. What information did you glean from reading the text? Write your response in the box below.

I have no clue because i do not understand Chinese nor can i read it.

Task: Alright, alright. You are probably saying: "Sure, those are LCTLs (well, if you did the terminology page and quiz you might say that). I could probably understand it if she spoke something like Spanish." Well, let's try Spanish, then. Everybody speaks some Spanish, after all, and there are lots of cognates. Class: Psychology Instructor: Patricia Martnez de la Vega Mansilla Now, answer the question below in the space provided: 5. What is this Psychology lecture about? List any ideas or words that are familiar to you. Write your response in the box below.
color red, programs, something about differences, concert, conductors, important, children, instruction.

Perhaps this time the visual representation will help. Take a look at the corresponding text and see what you can glean from it. 6. Write down any ideas you comprehend from this lecture or, at the very least, as many cognates as you can find. Write your response in the box below.
Something about a proximal zone of a female psychologist.

Task: Well, that was a little easier, wasn't it? But it still wasn't like understanding everything the teacher was saying, right? Let's try a completely different content area: Physical Education.

Surely THAT will be easier.

Class: Physical Education Instructor: Wolfgang Krause 7. What is this instructor trying to teach you? What does he want you to do?
I have no idea w hat the instructor is trying to teach or w hat he w ants us to do.

Class: Physical Education, Take Two Instructor: Wolfgang Krause 8. Now do you understand what to do? Why?
Yes i understand much clearer now because the instructor visually show ed me w hat he w anted me to do.

Every culture has its myths, legends, and stories that are commonly known to everyone. In the United States, for example, everyone "knows" that:

setting an example not to lie.

Lincoln walked several miles to return a few cents to a customer, thus exemplifying his honesty. Whether or not these stories are true, people can recite them by heart, make reference (veiled or otherwise) to them and expect to be understood completely. The historical Chinese text above is an example of this type of cultural knowledge; everyone in China knows about the origin of the

Duanwu Festival and will recite the same story. But you probably did not understand much, if anything, from the recitation or the reading, did you? This is due to several factors:

unfamiliar cultural knowledge

ESL/LEP students deal with these problems on a daily basis when they are in content classes. While not all ESL/LEP students are dealing with a new writing system, they are confronted with the other factors that loom large in their understanding or lack thereof. Reflection: In this simulation, you are in these classes for credit and a grade, just like your ESL/LEP students. Keeping this in mind, respond to the following questions: 9. How did you feel when you could not understand the spoken lecture, the written text, or the instructions without demonstration? Write your response in the box below.
I felt like i w as in a totally different w orld. I w as completely out of my comfort zone and it made me feel like an outsider because i couldn't read the language or understand w hat the instructor w as trying to teach me because i do not speak that language.

10. What should you keep in mind when preparing lessons in your content area for all students, including those who are ESL/LEP? Write your response in the box below.
I need to keep in mind that the ESL/LEP students might not understand w hat i am trying to teach them or instruct them to do. I need to go very slow ly and make sure i demonstrate w hat i w ould like my students to do in the classroom.

My name:

Mitchell Kenigsberg

Activity 5 1. Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.




1. Based on the responses of the students above, name at least 5 difficulties that ESL/LEP students encounter when placed in a content class. Write your response in the box below.
Teachers speak to fast, teacher doesn't speak enough, teacher uses slang terms, teacher uses names/figures w hich are not understood, teachers voice may not be loud enough for students to understand.


Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.

2. ESL/LEP students are often placed in the back of the class where they cannot "interrupt" the flow of the lesson. Where should ESL/LEP students be placed or seated in a class? Why? Write your response in the box below.
LEP/ESL students should sit in the front of the class so students are able to understand the teacher easier and it also allow s the students to ask the teacher any questions easier.


Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.

3. Research shows that frequently teachers do not call on ESL/LEP students for a variety of reasons, some valid and some not. Do these students want to interact during the class? What might prevent them from trying to interact? Should this have any impact on how you structure your lesson activities? If so, explain how. If not, why not? Write your response in the box below.
These students w ant to interact during class so they can build up their social skills and interact w ith their classmates. What prevents students from interacting is that the students do not understand w hat their classmates are talking about until much later in the conversation if they even do understand w hat is being talked about. This should impact how i structure my lesson activities because i w ould w ant all my students interacting w ith each other regardless if they are English speaking students or if they are ESL/LEP students. In my classroom everyone is equal because they all have something in common, w hich is they are all in my class and they are my students.


Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.

4. Which skills do these students find more difficult? Explain why. Which skills are easier for them? Why? How might you consider this information when planning activities that will include ESL/LEP students? Write your response in the box below.
Writing and speaking tend to be the more difficult tasks because it involves more thinking because the students need to think about w hat they are trying to say because they are so used to speaking and w riting in their native language. Reading seems to be an easier task because students are able to go back as many times as they w ant and can learn at their ow n speed. I might consider this information by allow ing the ESL students to take a little more time w hen it comes to examinations because i understand the difficulty it is to sw itch languages and adapt to a new one.


Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.

5. What do these students do when they do not understand what is happening in class? List 3 strategies they use. Why do they use certain strategies and not others? Discuss the cultural phenomenon that is problematic in this situation. Write your response in the box below.

Usually they talk to the professor after class, look up the answ er in a book, and sometimes they w ill ask a classmate. They generally ask after class because they feel that they w ould be disrupting the class and they do not w ant to do that. Also, in Jay's home country, he stated that asking a question in the middle of class is a sign of disrespect.


Listen to the question:

Now listen to what each student has to say in response.

6. Based on the above responses and previous information the students have provided, list at least 6-7 things you as the teacher can do to help these students toward better comprehension in class. Write your response in the box below.
Speak slow er, speak louder, speak clear, w rite larger terms and concepts out on a board, give handouts on notes before class, allow interaction amongst the students as much as possible so all the students feel comfortable and accepted.

My name:

Mitchell Kenigsberg

Activity 6

I would define LEP as students who were not originally from this country who have difficulty understanding various tasks such as reading, writing, speaking, or understanding a different language. LEP students are students who speak a different native language then what the majority of the region they are in speaks. I am not an LEP student but I had neighbors growing up who, now after doing this, I believe to be LEP students. My neighbors were from Japan and their children spoken English but sometimes it wasnt very clear to understand. Also, after school they would go to a center which would help them enhance their reading, writing, and speaking skills. I never realized how difficult it was for them until after doing this assignment. So now that I look back, I feel that I wasnt being a good friend to them because I was speaking, writing, and reading English like it was no big deal. I never realized how much they possibly struggled to grasps our language. I think that nine of the top twenty LEP groups are Hispanics, Chinese, Russians, Germans, Indians, French, Korean, Japanese, and Italian. The top twenty LEP grounds are Spanish, Chinese, French, German, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Italian, Korean, Russian, Polish, Arabic, Portuguese, Japanese, French Creole, Greek, Hindi, Persian, Urdu, Gujarathi, and Armenian.