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Vector calculus Gradient Divergence Curl (mathematics) Laplace operator Gradient theorem Green's theorem Stokes' theorem Divergence theorem Green's function 1 5 11 14 22 27 28 31 37 42

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Vector calculus

1

Vector calculus

Vector calculus (or vector analysis) is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3 dimensional Euclidean space The term "vector calculus" is sometimes used as a synonym for the broader subject of multivariable calculus, which includes vector calculus as well as partial differentiation and multiple integration. Vector calculus plays an important role in differential geometry and in the study of partial differential equations. It is used extensively in physics and engineering, especially in the description of electromagnetic fields, gravitational fields and fluid flow. Vector calculus was developed from quaternion analysis by J. Willard Gibbs and Oliver Heaviside near the end of the 19th century, and most of the notation and terminology was established by Gibbs and Edwin Bidwell Wilson in their 1901 book, Vector Analysis. In the traditional form using cross products, vector calculus does not generalize to higher dimensions, while the alternative approach of geometric algebra, which uses exterior products does generalize, as discussed below.

Basic objects

The basic objects in vector calculus are scalar fields (scalar-valued functions) and vector fields (vector-valued functions). These are then combined or transformed under various operations, and integrated. In more advanced treatments, one further distinguishes pseudovector fields and pseudoscalar fields, which are identical to vector fields and scalar fields except that they change sign under an orientation-reversing map: for example, the curl of a vector field is a pseudovector field, and if one reflects a vector field, the curl points in the opposite direction. This distinction is clarified and elaborated in geometric algebra, as described below.

Vector operations

Algebraic operations

The basic algebraic (non-differential) operations in vector calculus are referred to as vector algebra, being defined for a vector space and then globally applied to a vector field, and consist of: scalar multiplication multiplication of a scalar field and a vector field, yielding a vector field: vector addition addition of two vector fields, yielding a vector field: dot product multiplication of two vector fields, yielding a scalar field: cross product multiplication of two vector fields, yielding a vector field: . ; ; ;

There are also two triple products: the scalar triple product and the vector triple product, but these are less used.

Vector calculus

2

Differential operations

Vector calculus studies various differential operators defined on scalar or vector fields, which are typically expressed in terms of the del operator ( ). The four most important differential operations in vector calculus are:

Operation Gradient Curl Notation Description Measures the rate and direction of change in a scalar field. Measures the tendency to rotate about a point in a vector field. Domain/Range Maps scalar fields to vector fields. Maps vector fields to (pseudo)vector fields. Maps vector fields to scalar fields.

Divergence

Measures the magnitude of a source or sink at a given point in a vector field. A composition of the divergence and gradient operations.

Laplacian

Maps scalar fields to scalar fields.

where the curl and divergence differ because the former uses a cross product and the latter a dot product, and f denotes a scalar field and F denotes a vector field. A quantity called the Jacobian is useful for studying functions when both the domain and range of the function are multivariable, such as a change of variables during integration.

Theorems

Likewise, there are several important theorems related to these operators which generalize the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimensions:

Theorem Gradient theorem Green's theorem Statement Description The line integral through a gradient (vector) field equals the difference in its scalar field at the endpoints of the curve L. The integral of the scalar curl of a vector field over some region in the plane equals the line integral of the vector field over the closed curve bounding the region. The integral of the curl of a vector field over a surface in the surface. Divergence theorem The integral of the divergence of a vector field over some solid equals the integral of the flux through the closed surface bounding the solid. equals

Stokes' theorem

the line integral of the vector field over the closed curve bounding

Generalizations

Different 3-manifolds

Vector calculus is initially defined for Euclidean 3-space, which has additional structure beyond simply being a 3-dimensional real vector space, namely: an inner product (the dot product), which gives a notion of length (and hence angle), and an orientation, which gives a notion of left-handed and right-handed. These structures give rise to a volume form, and also the cross product, which is used pervasively in vector calculus. The gradient and divergence only require the inner product, while the curl and the cross product also requires the handedness of the coordinate system to be taken into account (see cross product and handedness for more detail). Vector calculus can be defined on other 3-dimensional real vector spaces if they have an inner product (or more generally a symmetric nondegenerate form) and an orientation; note that this is less data than an isomorphism to Euclidean space, as it does not require a set of coordinates (a frame of reference), which reflects the fact that vector calculus is invariant under rotations (the special orthogonal group SO(3)).

Vector calculus More generally, vector calculus can be defined on any 3-dimensional oriented Riemannian manifold, or more generally pseudo-Riemannian manifold. This structure simply means that the tangent space at each point has an inner product (more generally, a symmetric nondegenerate form) and an orientation, or more globally that there is a symmetric nondegenerate metric tensor and an orientation, and works because vector calculus is defined in terms of tangent vectors at each point.

3

Other dimensions

Most of the analytic results are easily understood, in a more general form, using the machinery of differential geometry, of which vector calculus forms a subset. Grad and div generalize immediately to other dimensions, as do the gradient theorem, divergence theorem, and Laplacian (yielding harmonic analysis), while curl and cross product do not generalize as directly. From a general point of view, the various fields in (3-dimensional) vector calculus are uniformly seen as being k-vector fields: scalar fields are 0-vector fields, vector fields are 1-vector fields, pseudovector fields are 2-vector fields, and pseudoscalar fields are 3-vector fields. In higher dimensions there are additional types of fields (scalar/vector/pseudovector/pseudoscalar corresponding to 0/1/n€1/n dimensions, which is exhaustive in dimension 3), so one cannot only work with (pseudo)scalars and (pseudo)vectors. In any dimension, assuming a nondegenerate form, grad of a scalar function is a vector field, and div of a vector field is a scalar function, but only in dimension 3 and 7[1] (and, trivially, dimension 0) is the curl of a vector field a vector field, and only in 3 or 7 dimensions can a cross product be defined (generalizations in other dimensionalities either require vectors to yield 1 vector, or are alternative Lie algebras, which are more general antisymmetric bilinear products). The generalization of grad and div, and how curl may be generalized is elaborated at Curl: Generalizations; in brief, the curl of a vector field is a bivector field, which may be interpreted as the special orthogonal Lie algebra of infinitesimal rotations; however, this cannot be identified with a vector field because the dimensions differ - there are 3 dimensions of rotations in 3 dimensions, but 6 dimensions of rotations in 4 dimensions (and more generally dimensions of rotations in n dimensions). There are two important alternative generalizations of vector calculus. The first, geometric algebra, uses k-vector fields instead of vector fields (in 3 or fewer dimensions, every k-vector field can be identified with a scalar function or vector field, but this is not true in higher dimensions). This replaces the cross product, which is specific to 3 dimensions, taking in two vector fields and giving as output a vector field, with the exterior product, which exists in all dimensions and takes in two vector fields, giving as output a bivector (2-vector) field. This product yields Clifford algebras as the algebraic structure on vector spaces (with an orientation and nondegenerate form). Geometric algebra is mostly used in generalizations of physics and other applied fields to higher dimensions. The second generalization uses differential forms (k-covector fields) instead of vector fields or k-vector fields, and is widely used in mathematics, particularly in differential geometry, geometric topology, and harmonic analysis, in particular yielding Hodge theory on oriented pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. From this point of view, grad, curl, and div correspond to the differential of 0-forms, 1-forms, and 2-forms, respectively, and the key theorems of vector calculus are all special cases of the general form of Stokes' theorem. From the point of view of both of these generalizations, vector calculus implicitly identifies mathematically distinct objects, which makes the presentation more elegant but the underlying mathematical structure and generalizations less clear. From the point of view of geometric algebra, vector calculus implicitly identifies k-vector fields with vector fields or scalar functions: 0-vectors and 3-vectors with scalars, 1-vectors and 2-vectors with vectors. From the point of view of differential forms, vector calculus implicitly identifies k-forms with scalar fields or vector fields: 0-forms and 3-forms with scalar fields, 1-forms and 2-forms with vector fields. Thus for example the curl naturally takes as input a vector field, but naturally has as output a 2-vector field or 2-form (hence pseudovector field), which is then interpreted as a vector field, rather than directly taking a vector field to a vector field; this is reflected in the curl of a vector field in higher dimensions not having as output a vector field.

Freeman & Company. Technical Report RL 915.Vector calculus 4 References € Michael J. H. springerlink. Div Grad Curl and all that: An informal text on vector calculus. A historical study of vector analysis [2]. ISBN•0-7167-0462-5. net/ 2027. pdf http:/ / books. google. Dover Publications. University of Michigan. External links Vector Calculus Video Lectures [3] from University of New South Wales on Academic Earth A survey of the improper use of • in vector analysis [4] (1994) Tai. ISBN•0-393-92516-1. ISBN•0-486-67910-1. umich. W. edu/ ~kevinlg/ i256/ Nonortho_math. € Chen-To Tai (1995). edu/ handle/ 2027. Vector Calculus.E. org/ courses/ vector-calculus http:/ / hdl. handle. W. Chen Expanding vector analysis to an oblique coordinate system [5] Vector Analysis: [6] A Text-book for the Use of Students of Mathematics and Physics. com/ books?id=R5IKAAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover http:/ / www. Marsden (1976). (based upon the lectures of Willard Gibbs) by Edwin Bidwell Wilson. published 1902. htm . € J. ac. maricopa. € Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Vector Analysis [7] € € € € References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. € H. lib. com/ content/ r3p3602pq2t10036/ http:/ / deepblue. 42/ 7868 http:/ / academicearth. M. 42/ 7869 http:/ / www. mc. soton. A History of Vector Analysis : The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System. Norton & Company. uk/ staff/ aldrich/ vector%20analysis. W. Schey (2005). Reprint edition. economics. Crowe (1967). Radiation Laboratory.

The gradient of at a point is a vector pointing in the direction of the steepest slope or grade at that point. is . rather than just the direction of greatest change. If the hill height function gradient of when derivative of is differentiable. At each point in the room. the scalar field is in black and white. so at each point the temperature is (we will assume that the temperature does not change in time). This observation can be mathematically stated as follows. the road goes around the hill at an angle (the gradient vector). then the dotted with a unit vector gives the slope of the hill in the direction of the vector. the gradient of at that point will show the direction the temperature rises most quickly. For example. If a road goes directly up the hill. with a given unit vector is equal to the directional . Consider a surface whose height above sea level at a point given by the magnitude of the gradient vector. is 60ƒ. the dot product of the gradient of in the direction of that unit vector. . More precisely. then the steepest slope on the road will also be 40%. Suppose that the steepest slope on a hill is 40%. the gradient of a scalar field is a vector field which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar field. is differentiable. If. and its corresponding gradient is represented by blue arrows. A further generalization for a function from one Banach space to another is the Fr‚chet derivative. which is 40% times the cosine of 60ƒ. then the steepest slope along the road will be 20%. then it will have a shallower slope. A generalization of the gradient for functions on a Euclidean space which have values in another Euclidean space is the Jacobian. The magnitude of the gradient will determine how fast the temperature rises in that direction. projected onto the horizontal plane.Gradient 5 Gradient In vector calculus. and whose magnitude is the greatest rate of change. In the above two images. The steepness of the slope at that point is The gradient can also be used to measure how a scalar field changes in other directions. black representing higher values. by taking a dot product. instead. if the angle between the road and the uphill direction. Interpretations Consider a room in which the temperature is given by a scalar field.

More generally. Here and are the musical isomorphisms. del. the gradient may be defined using the exterior derivative: is . The notation is: is denoted or where is also used for the . When a function also depends on a parameter such as time. The gradient of a vector or the transpose of the Jacobian matrix It is a second-rank tensor.y)•=•€(cos2x•+•cos2y)2 depicted as a vector field on the bottom plane The gradient (or gradient vector field) of a scalar function (the nabla symbol) denotes the vector differential operator. the gradient often refers simply to the vector of its spatial derivatives only.Gradient 6 Definition The gradient of the function f(x. but it is often taken to be a column vector. . The gradient of f is defined to be the vector field whose components are the partial derivatives of Here the gradient is written as a row vector. That gradient.

. The approximation is as follows: is the gradient of f computed at . The gradient is then the corresponding column vector. The and called the differential or (total) derivative of . which maps to or at a point in is a linear map from at for any to . the above expression expands to which is often written using the standard vectors : Example For example. Differential or (exterior) derivative The best linear approximation to a function which is often denoted by function . is given by matrix multiplication. best linear approximation to f at x0. the gradient of the function in Cartesian coordinates is: Gradient and the derivative or differential Linear approximation to a function The gradient of a function close to . where from the Euclidean space to at any particular point x0 in characterizes the for . In Cartesian coordinates. is called the differential or exterior derivative of gradient is therefore related to the differential by the formula differential 1-form.e. If is viewed as the space of (length vector and is an example of a as the row ) column vectors (of real numbers).Gradient 7 Expression in 3-dimensional rectangular coordinates The form of the gradient depends on the coordinate system used. then one can regard so that . i. The . and the dot denotes the dot product on This equation is equivalent to the first two terms in the multi-variable Taylor Series expansion of f at x0. .

then the product rule asserts that the product (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) of the functions f and g is differentiable at a. then More generally. then which follows by the chain rule above. Because of this. If the function f:U•‚•R is differentiable. the usual properties of the derivative hold for the gradient: Linearity The gradient is linear in the sense that if f and g are two real-valued functions differentiable at the point a„Rn. This is true in the sense that if A is an orthogonal matrix. differential 1-forms themselves transform contravariantly (by pullback) under . In this language the gradient is the differential. whereas the gradient is only invariant under orthogonal transformations (because of the implicit use of the dot product in its definition). As a consequence. and „ and … are two constants. if instead I…Rk. From this point of view. and so the gradient is a special type of tensor. Thus is a function from U to the space R such that where ƒ is the dot product. First. Although the components of a differential 1-form transform covariantly under coordinate transformations. There are two forms of the chain rule applying to the gradient. as a covariant vector field is the same thing as a differential 1-form.Gradient 8 Gradient as a derivative Let U be an open set in Rn. whereas the components of a vector field in the usual sense transform contravariantly. Then Transformation properties Although the gradient is defined in term of coordinates. suppose that the function g is a parametric curve. and Chain rule Suppose that f:A‚R is a real-valued function defined on a subset A of Rn. it is common to blur the distinction between the two concepts using the notion of covariant and contravariant vectors. For the second form of the chain rule. The differential is more natural than the gradient because it is invariant under all coordinate transformations (or diffeomorphisms). and that f is differentiable at a point a. If g is differentiable at a point c „ I such that g(c) = a. a function g : I ‚ Rn maps a subset I … R into Rn. and moreover Product rule If f and g are real-valued functions differentiable at a point a„Rn. then the differential of f is the (Fr‚chet) derivative of f. that is. then „f+…g is differentiable at a. it is contravariant under the application of an orthogonal matrix to the coordinates.[1] [1] Unfortunately this confusing language is confused further by differing conventions. so it is called a covariant vector field. the components of the gradient transform covariantly under changes of coordinates. then the following holds: where (Dg)T denotes the transpose Jacobian matrix. and that h is differentiable at the point c = f(a) „ I. suppose that h : I ‚ R is a real valued function on a subset I of R. A vector transforming in this way is known as a contravariant vector.

Conservative vector fields The gradient of a function is called a gradient field. and can be evaluated by the gradient theorem (the fundamental theorem of calculus for line integrals).g).•z)•=•c. denoted X(f)) is the function that takes any point x„M to the directional derivative of f in the direction X. a level surface in three-dimensional space is defined by an equation of the form F(x. For this reason differential 1-forms are sometimes said to be contravariant rather than covariant. any embedded hypersurface in a Riemannian manifold can be cut out by an equation of the form F(P)•=•0 such that dF is nowhere zero. Riemannian manifolds For any smooth function f on a Riemannian manifold (M. More precisely. in a coordinate chart by: where Xj denotes the jth component of X in this coordinate chart. the local form of the gradient takes the form: Generalizing the case M=Rn. . The relation between the exterior derivative and the gradient of a function on Rn is a special case of this in which the metric is the flat metric given by the dot product.Gradient diffeomorphism. Conversely. So. since . in which case vector fields are covariant rather than contravariant. evaluated at x. The gradient of F is then normal to the hypersurface.•y. It follows that in this case the gradient of f is orthogonal to the level sets of f. then the dot product of the gradient at a point x with a vector v gives the directional derivative of f at x in the direction v. If we draw a surface through this point P and the function has the same value at all points on this surface. a (continuous) conservative vector field is always the gradient of a function. (sometimes is given such that for denotes the inner product of tangent vectors at x defined by the metric g and from an open subset of M to an open subset of Rn. For example. 9 Further properties and applications Level sets If the partial derivatives of f are continuous. Let us consider a function f at a point P. In other words. More generally. the gradient is the vector field associated to the differential 1-form df using the musical isomorphism (called "sharp") defined by the metric g. A (continuous) gradient field is always a conservative vector field: its line integral along any path depends only on the endpoints of the path. the gradient of f is the vector field any vector field where . The gradient of F is then normal to the surface. the gradient of a function is related to its exterior derivative.then this surface is called a 'level surface'.

and Formulas for Reference and Review. e‡ and ez are unit vectors pointing along the coordinate directions.M. Michiel.. References € Korn. ISBN•0-486-41147-8. ISBN•978-1556080104 € Weisstein.•139†142): where is the azimuthal angle.).Gradient 10 Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems In cylindrical coordinates. and All That (2nd ed.•139†142): where is the azimuth angle and is the zenith angle. H. OCLC•43864234. Eric W. pp. Korn..springer. pp. New York: Dover Publications. (1992). € Schey.P. . Div. Theorems. (2001). Grad. Springer. W. External links € Kuptsov. L.W. " Gradient (http://mathworld. in Hazewinkel.wolfram.htm). Theresa M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. "Gradient" (http://eom. is the axial coordinate.•157†160. Norton. and e†. Granino Arthur (2000). the gradient is given by (Schey 1992. OCLC•25048561.com/Gradient. ISBN•0-393-96251-2. Curl. In spherical coordinates (Schey 1992.de/G/g044680.html)" from MathWorld. Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers: Definitions. pp.

The result. If the air cools and contracts. and the integral is a surface integral with n being the outward unit normal to that surface. in terms of a signed scalar. More technically. The relevant vector field for this example is the velocity of the moving air at a point. . Therefore the divergence of the velocity field in that region would have a positive value. the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point. z be a system of Cartesian coordinates on a 3-dimensional Euclidean space. It is a local measure of its "outgoingness"‡the extent to which there is more exiting an infinitesimal region of space than entering it. If air is heated in a region it will expand in all directions such that the velocity field points outward from that region. div F. as the physical interpretation suggests. (Note that we are imagining the vector field to be like the velocity vector field of a fluid (in motion) when we use the terms flow. In light of the physical interpretation. the result is invariant under orthogonal transformations. The divergence of a continuously differentiable vector field F = U i + V j + W k is equal to the scalar-valued function: Although expressed in terms of coordinates. and let i. a vector field with constant zero divergence is called incompressible or solenoidal † in this case. the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. the divergence of a three dimensional vector field is the extent to which the vector field flow behaves like a source or a sink at a given point. apply them to the components of F. divergence is a vector operator that measures the magnitude of a vector field's source or sink at a given point.Divergence 11 Divergence In vector calculus. If the divergence is nonzero at some point then there must be a source or sink at that position[1] . as the region is a source. S(V) is the boundary of V. no net flow can occur across any closed surface. is a function of the location p. Formally. For example. The common notation for the divergence €ˆF is a convenient mnemonic.•k be the corresponding basis of unit vectors. where the dot denotes an operation reminiscent of the dot product: take the components of • (see del). consider air as it is heated or cooled. this is considered an abuse of notation. sink and so on.) More rigorously. Definition of divergence In physical terms. and sum the results. From this definition it also becomes explicitly visible that div F can be seen as the source density of the flux of F. As a result. The intuition that the sum of all sources minus the sum of all sinks should give the net flow outwards of a region is made precise by the divergence theorem. where |V | is the volume of V. Application in Cartesian coordinates Let x. y.•j. the divergence is negative and the region is called a sink.

measured by the homology of the chain complex (where the first map is the gradient. Moreover. It is a special case of the more general Helmholtz decomposition which works in dimensions greater than three as well. and finally the source-density div v by the circulation-density €Šv. B. There is a product rule of the following type: if is a scalar valued function and F is a vector field. This "decomposition theorem" is in fact a by-product of the stationary case of electrodynamics. Most importantly. can be similarly written: one only has to replace the scalar potential ‰(r) by a vector potential A(r) and the terms €€‰ by +€ŠA. The divergence of the curl of any vector field (in three dimensions) is equal to zero: If a vector field F with zero divergence is defined on a ball in R3. the divergence is a linear operator. then there exists some vector field G on the ball with F = curl(G). the latter statement might be false (see Poincar‚ lemma). For regions in R3 more complicated than this. Properties The following properties can all be derived from the ordinary differentiation rules of calculus. these parts are explicitly determined by the respective source-densities (see above) and circulation densities (see the article Curl): For the irrotational part one has with The source-free part.Divergence 12 Decomposition theorem It can be shown that any stationary flux v(r) which is at least two times continuously differentiable in and vanishes sufficiently fast for |r| ‚ ˆ can be decomposed into an irrotational part E(r) and a source-free part B(r). for all vector fields F and G and all real numbers a and b. These are the beginnings and main motivations of de Rham . The degree of failure of the truth of the statement.e. the third is the divergence) serves as a nice quantification of the complicatedness of the underlying region U. i. then or in more suggestive notation Another product rule for the cross product of two vector fields F and G in three dimensions involves the curl and reads as follows: or The Laplacian of a scalar field is the divergence of the field's gradient. the second is the curl.

If in a Euclidean coordinate system where and .g. the divergence is a linear operator. the divergence can be expressed as: Here the superscript is one of the two musical isomorphisms.Divergence cohomology. and is the Hodge dual. with itself and the last is Divergence can also be generalised to tensors. On a Riemannian or Lorentzian manifold the divergence with respect to the metric volume form can be computed in terms of the Levi Civita connection where the second expression is the contraction of the vectorfield valued 1 -form expression is the traditional coordinate expression used by physicists. define The appropriate expression is more complicated in curvilinear coordinates. 13 Relation with the exterior derivative One can establish a parallel between the divergence and a particular case of the exterior derivative. If we define: its exterior derivative is given by Thus. and it satisfies the "product rule" for any scalar-valued function . The divergence is then This means that the divergence measures the rate of expansion of a volume element as we let it flow with the vectorfield. using the exterior derivative. e. Generalizations The divergence of a vector field can be defined in any number of dimensions. a . on such a The divergence can be defined on any manifold of dimension n with a volume form (or density) Riemannian or Lorentzian manifold. the divergence of a contravariant vector given by . For any n. Generalising the construction of a two form for a vectorfield on manifold a vectorfield X defines a n-1 form the function defined by Standard formulas for the Lie derivative allow us to reformulate this as obtained by contracting X with . In Einstein notation. when it takes a 2-form to a 3-form in R3.

which relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field to the line integral of the vector field around the boundary curve. If the vector field represents the flow velocity of a moving fluid.html). Retrieved 2007-09-28. Theorems.•157†160.phas.Divergence where is the covariant derivative.ca/~jess/hr/skept/ Gradient/node4. Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers: Definitions. Theresa M. The attributes of this vector (length and direction) characterize the rotation at that point. phas. The direction of the curl is the axis of rotation. Unlike the gradient and divergence. The name "curl" was first suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1871. (1999-04-07).(p for the contravariant vector and q for the covariant one).ubc. as determined by the right-hand rule. At every point in the field. New York: Dover Publications. Vector Calculus. pp. some authors define the divergence of any mixed tensor by 14 using the "musical notation #": If T is a (p. Korn.edu/~nykamp/m2374/readings/divcurl) Curl (mathematics) In vector calculus. html) References 1.umn. Notes [1] DIVERGENCE of a Vector Field (http:/ / musr. Granino Arthur. A vector field whose curl is zero is called irrotational. Equivalently. ubc. then the curl is the circulation density of the fluid. ISBN•0-486-41147-8. and Formulas for Reference and Review. "DIVERGENCE of a Vector Field" (http://musr. Korn. The alternative terminology rotor or rotational and alternative notations rot F and •ŠF are often used (the former especially in many European countries. the curl is represented by a vector. the curl (or rotor) is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a 3-dimensional vector field. but only in three dimensions is the geometrically defined curl of a vector field again a vector field.q-1)-tensor . ca/ ~jess/ hr/ skept/ Gradient/ node4. some generalizations are possible. The curl is a form of differentiation for vector fields. Jess H. Brewer.math.[1] . the latter using the del operator and the cross product) for curl and curl F. and the magnitude of the curl is the magnitude of rotation. The corresponding form of the fundamental theorem of calculus is Stokes' theorem.that is we trace the covariant derivative on the first two covariant indices.q)-tensor. External links € The idea of divergence and curl (http://www. This is a similar phenomenon as in the 3 dimensional cross product. then we define the divergence of T to be the (p. and the connection is reflected in the notation •Š for the curl. 2. curl does not generalize as simply to other dimensions.

The above formula means that the curl of a vector field is defined as the infinitesimal area-density of the circulation of that field.2 ‚ 1. is the .x3) are the Cartesian coordinates and (u1. the projection of the curl of F onto is defined to be the limiting value of a closed line integral in a plane orthogonal to as the path used in the integral becomes infinitesimally close to the point. denoted curl F or •ŠF. then the orientation of C is chosen so that a vector tangent to C is positively oriented if and only if forms a positively oriented basis for R3 (right-hand rule). To this definition fit naturally (i) the Kelvin-Stokes theorem.u2. The remaining two components of curl result from cyclic Intuitive interpretation Suppose the vector field describes the velocity field of a fluid flow (maybe a large tank of water or gas) and a small ball is located within the fluid or gas (the centre of the ball being fixed at a certain point). the curl operator maps C1 functions from R3 to R3 to C0 functions from R3 to R3. in cartesian coordinates. If is any unit vector.3. spherical.1. Implicitly. as a global formula corresponding to the definition. and (ii) the following "easy to memorize" definition of the curl in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. divided by the area enclosed.g. The rotation axis (oriented according to the right hand rule) points in the direction of the curl of the field at the centre of the ball. If the ball has a rough surface it will be made to rotate by the fluid flowing past it.2. and the angular speed of the rotation is half the value of the curl at this point.1. whereas is the unit-vector perpendicular to the plane (see caption at right).[3] . then length of the coordinate vector corresponding to index-permutation: 3.Curl (mathematics) 15 Definition The curl of a vector field F.u3) are the curvilinear coordinates. or even elliptical or parabolical coordinates: If (x1. or cylindrical.x2. If is an outward pointing in-plane normal. curl is defined by:[2] Convention for vector orientation of the line integral Here is a line integral along the boundary of the area in question. e.3 ‚ 2. at a point is defined in terms of its projection onto various lines through the point. and A is the magnitude of the area. As such.

the above definition is rarely used because in virtually all cases. for instance. . and z-axes. the metric tensor is used to lower the index on F. In other words. This expands as follows:[4] Although expressed in terms of coordinates. In a general coordinate system. and it is useful as a mnemonic in Cartesian coordinates if we take • as a vector differential operator del. The notation •ŠF has its origins in the similarities to the 3 dimensional cross product. Expanded in Cartesian coordinates (see: Del in cylindrical and spherical coordinates for spherical and cylindrical coordinate representations). for F composed of [Fx. polar-toroidal coordinates (common in plasma physics) using the notation •ŠF will yield an incorrect result. and is the Hodge dual. where ek are the coordinate vector fields.Curl (mathematics) 16 Usage In practice. y-. and the Einstein summation convention implies that repeated indices are summed over. the curl is given by[2] where ‹ denotes the Levi-Civita symbol. and how to extend the curl to any oriented three dimensional Riemannian manifold. •ŠF is. using the exterior derivative. then the direction of the curl is also reversed. if the orientation is reversed. respectively. This formula shows how to calculate the curl of F in any coordinate system. and k are the unit vectors for the x-. Fy. If certain coordinate systems are used. Fz]: where i. the curl can be expressed as: Here and are the musical isomorphisms. curl is a chiral operation. Equivalently. Equivalently. for which simpler representations have been derived. Such notation involving operators is common in physics and algebra. Since this depends on a choice of orientation. the result is invariant under proper rotations of the coordinate axes but the result inverts under reflection. the curl operator can be applied using some set of curvilinear coordinates. j.

If we calculate the curl: Which is indeed in the negative z direction. into the page will be in the negative z direction. the curl is actually a constant. In this case. If we are to keep a right-handed coordinate system. Plotting the curl of F is not very interesting: . we see immediately its tendency to rotate clockwise. The lack of x and y directions is analogous to the cross product operation.•y). If we stick a paddle wheel anywhere. we expect the curl to be into the page. which depends on x and y linearly: Its plot looks like this: Simply by visual inspection. Using the right-hand rule. irrespective of position.Curl (mathematics) 17 Examples A simple vector field Take the vector field. we can see that the field is rotating. The "amount" of rotation in the above vector field is the same at any point (x. as expected.

if we placed a small paddle wheel there. Intuitively. but if we closely look at the right. say. the larger "current" on its right side would cause the paddlewheel to rotate clockwise. By contrast. if we look at a point on the left and placed a small paddle wheel there. we see a larger field at. x=4 than at x=3. which corresponds to a curl in the positive z direction. which corresponds to a curl in the negative z direction.Curl (mathematics) 18 A more involved example Suppose we now consider a slightly more complicated vector field: Its plot: We might not see any rotation initially. Let's check out our guess by doing the math: . the larger "current" on its left side would cause the paddlewheel to rotate counterclockwise.

The curl of the gradient of any scalar field is always the zero vector: If is a scalar valued function and F is a vector field. then . it can be shown that: which can be construed as a special case of the previous example with the substitution v ‚ €. its plot is a bit more interesting: 19 Curl of F with the x=0 plane emphasized in dark blue We note that the plot of this curl has no dependence on y or z (as it shouldn't) and is in the negative z direction for positive x and in the positive z direction for negative x. Since this curl is not the same at every point. it can be shown that In the case where the vector field v and € are interchanged: which introduces the Feynman subscript notation €F.Curl (mathematics) Indeed the curl is in the positive z direction for negative x and in the negative z direction for positive x. Another example is € € [ € Š F ]. which means the subscripted gradient operates only on the factor F. Identities Consider the example € € [ v Š F ]. as expected. Using Cartesian coordinates. Using Cartesian coordinates.

this is known as Hodge duality. Thus on an oriented pseudo-Riemannian manifold. there is an isomorphism between k-vectors and -vectors. 1-forms. -forms. as described below. curl. and 2-forms. The geometric interpretation of curl as rotation corresponds to identifying bivectors (2-vectors) in 3 dimensions with the special orthogonal Lie algebra of infinitesimal rotations (in coordinates. whose dimension is Writing only dimensions. they correspond to the derivatives of 0-forms. and the 3-dimensional fibers to vector fields. Differential forms In 3 dimensions. and likewise. skew-symmetric 3Š3 matrices). curl. respectively. taking care of orientation: corresponds to Thus corresponds to Thus. the three nontrivial occurrences of the exterior derivative correspond to grad. and a pseudo-Riemannian metric gives an isomorphism between vectors and covectors). while AmpŒre's law relates the curl of the magnetic field to the current and rate of change of the electric field. which involves a number of steps. and on an oriented vector space with a nondegenerate form (an isomorphism between vectors and covectors). and denoting the space of k-forms by the binomial coefficient a row of Pascal's triangle: the 1-dimensional fibers correspond to functions.Curl (mathematics) 20 Descriptive examples € In a vector field describing the linear velocities of each part of a rotating disk.. one obtains -form. Faraday's law states that the curl of an electric field is equal to the opposite of the time rate of change of the magnetic field.e. 2-vectors) and these all being 3-dimensional spaces. or more generally pseudo-Riemannian manifold. the curl has the same value at all points. . in particular on (the tangent space of) an oriented pseudo-Riemannian manifold. identifying 0-forms and 3-forms with functions. Note that modulo suitable identifications. or indeed any manifold. and div. a differential 0-form is simply a function of three functions . without any notion of a Riemannian metric. omit dx). and 1-forms and 2-forms with vector fields: € grad takes a function (0-form) to a vector field (1-form). Concretely. and div are most easily generalized and understood in the context of differential forms. Generalizations The vector calculus operations of grad. on € 1-forms and 1-vector fields: the 1-form € 1-forms and 2-forms: one replaces by corresponds to and this is given by: corresponds to the vector field (i. and -vector fields. In a nutshell. k-forms can be identified with k-vector fields (k-forms are k-covector fields. while representing rotations by vectors corresponds to identifying 1-vectors (equivalently. a differential 1-form is a linear combination a differential 2-form is a linear combination of three functions and a differential 3-form is defined by a single function: The exterior derivative of a k-form is a and the exterior derivative by d yields a sequence: Here is the space of sections of the exterior algebra note that for or vector bundle over Rn. On a Riemannian manifold. one can interchange k-forms. € Of the four Maxwell's equations two. Faraday's law and AmpŒre's law can be compactly expressed using curl. k-vector fields. Differential forms and the differential can be defined on any Euclidean space.

Curl geometrically 2-vectors correspond to the exterior power in the presence of an inner product. Only in 3 dimensions (or trivially in 0 dimensions) is which is the most elegant and common case. y) is simply a vertical vector field (in the z direction) whose magnitude is the curl of the 2-dimensional vector field. Grad and div generalize to all oriented pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. Considering curl as a 2-vector field (an antisymmetric 2-tensor) has been used to generalize vector calculus and associated physics to higher dimensions. as taking the differential twice yields zero ( ). is In 2 dimensions the curl of a vector field is not a vector field but a function. in 4 dimensions the dimensions are 21 so the curl of a 1-vector field (fiberwise 4-dimensional) is a 2-vector field.Curl (mathematics) € curl takes a vector field (1-form) to a vector field (2-form). while in 4 dimensions the curl of a vector field is. as 2-dimensional rotations are given by an angle (a scalar . This has dimensions. but is rather perpendicular to it. with the same geometric interpretation. In 3 dimensions the curl of a vector field is a vector field as is familiar (in 1 and 0 dimensions the curl of a vector field is 0. because the spaces of 0-forms and n-forms is always (fiberwise) 1-dimensional and can be identified with scalar functions. Curl does not generalize in this way to 4 or more dimensions (or down to 2 or fewer dimensions). while the spaces of 1-forms and -forms are always fiberwise n-dimensional and can be identified with vector fields. Thus there is no curl function from vector fields to vector fields in other dimensions arising in this way. which is fiberwise 6-dimensional and cannot be identified with a 1-vector field. one can define a curl of a vector field as a 2-vector field in general. because there are no non-trivial 2-vectors).an orientation is required to choose whether one counts clockwise or counterclockwise rotations as positive).[5] See also € € € € € € € Del Gradient Divergence Nabla in cylindrical and spherical coordinates Vorticity Cross product Helmholtz decomposition . € div takes a vector field (2-form) to a function (3-form). in coordinates these are the of skew-symmetric matrices. which are geometrically considered as the special orthogonal Lie algebra infinitesimal rotations. as described below. Nor can one meaningfully go from a 1-vector field to a 2-vector field to a 3-vector field ( ). at each point an element of the 6-dimensional Lie algebra Note also that the curl of a 3-dimensional vector field which only depends on 2 coordinates (say x. geometrically. However. as in the examples on this page. and allows one to interpret the differential of a 1-vector field as its infinitesimal rotations. note that this is not the div.

now called Laplace's equation. where the operator gives a constant multiple of the mass density when it is applied to a given gravitational potential. A. pp. External links € The idea of divergence and curl (http://www. George B. . up to a constant depending on the dimension. 2006 References € Arfken. com/ books?id=R5IKAAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover). Josiah Willard. Korn. ISBN 978-0120598762. It is usually denoted by the symbols •. For these reasons. For instance. p. McDavid. Mathematical Methods For Physicists. the Laplacian is given by sum of all the (unmixed) second partial derivatives of the function. In image processing and computer vision. and Hans J. ISBN•0-486-41147-8. Theorems. € Korn. " Curl (http:/ / mathworld. It occurs in the differential equations that describe many physical phenomena. org/ MathematicalClassificationofPhysicalQuantities_Maxwell. Edwin Bidwell (1902). Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers: Definitions. The Laplacian is the simplest elliptic operator. Granino Arthur and Theresa M. and is at the core of Hodge theory as well as the results of de Rham cohomology.umn. com/ Curl. such as electric and gravitational potentials. it is extensively used in the sciences for modelling all kinds of physical phenomena.math. The Laplacian •€(p) of a function € at a point p. Academic Press. google. 43. Eric W. Solutions of the equation •€ = 0. wave propagation. clerkmaxwellfoundation. In other coordinate systems such as cylindrical and spherical coordinates. 6 edition (June 21. [5] Generalizing Cross Products and Maxwell's Equations to Universal Extra Dimensions (http:/ / arxiv. 2005). expressed symbolically. pdf) [2] Weisstein. wolfram. the Laplacian operator has been used for various tasks such as blob and edge detection. who first applied the operator to the study of celestial mechanics. and represent the possible gravitational fields in free space. and quantum mechanics. the net rate at which a chemical dissolved in a fluid moves towards or away from some point is proportional to the Laplacian of the chemical concentration at that point. Wilson. and Formulas for Reference and Review.Curl (mathematics) 22 Notes [1] Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. is the rate at which the average value of € over spheres centered at p deviates from €(p) as the radius of the sphere grows.W. In a Cartesian coordinate system. html)" from MathWorld. The Laplace operator is named after the French mathematician Pierre-Simon de Laplace (1749†1827). [4] Arfken. the diffusion equation for heat and fluid flow. org/ abs/ hep-ph/ 0609260). [3] Gibbs. Weber. the resulting equation is the diffusion equation.. The Laplacian represents the flux density of the gradient flow of a function.edu/~nykamp/m2374/readings/divcurl) Laplace operator In mathematics the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space. the Laplacian also has a useful form. March 9th. Vector analysis (http:/ / books. 1871 (http:/ / www. •2 or •ˆ•.D. McMullen. C. are the so-called harmonic functions. New York: Dover Publications.•157†160.

then the charge distribution itself is given by the Laplacian of •: {{{}}} (1) {{{}}} This is a consequence of Gauss's law. then by Gauss's law the flux of the electrostatic field E is equal to the charge enclosed (in appropriate units): .[1] Specifically. The Laplace operator itself has a physical interpretation for non-equilibrium diffusion as the extent to which a point represents a source or sink of chemical concentration. defined as the divergence (•ˆ) of the gradient (•€). the Laplacian of € is the sum of all the unmixed second partial derivatives in the Cartesian coordinates : •••(2) As a second-order differential operator. it can be shown that this implies The left-hand side of this equation is the Laplace operator. The expression (1) (or equivalently (2)) defines an operator • : Ck(Rn) ‚ Ck€2(Rn).Laplace operator 23 Definition The Laplace operator is a second order differential operator in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. the Laplace operator (via Laplace's equation) arises naturally in the mathematical description of equilibrium. if V is any smooth region. in a sense made precise by the diffusion equation. or more generally an operator • : Ck(Ž) ‚ Ck€2(Ž) for any open set Ž. By the divergence theorem. then the Laplacian of € is defined by •••(1) Equivalently. then the net flux of u through the boundary of any smooth region V is zero. provided there is no source or sink within V: where n is the outward unit normal to the boundary of V. if u is the density at equilibrium of some quantity such as a chemical concentration. Motivation Diffusion In the physical theory of diffusion. the Laplace operator maps Ck-functions to Ck€2-functions for k•‰•2. Since this holds for all smooth regions V. Density associated to a potential If • denotes the electrostatic potential associated to a charge distribution q. Thus if € is a twice-differentiable real-valued function. Indeed.

. In cylindrical coordinates. The same approach implies that the Laplacian of the gravitational potential is the mass distribution. if E is stationary around f. Energy minimization Another motivation for the Laplacian appearing in physics is that solutions to that make the Dirichlet energy functional stationary: in a region U are functions To see this.Laplace operator where the first equality uses the fact that the electrostatic field is the gradient of the electrostatic potential. The divergence theorem now gives 24 and since this holds for all regions V. In spherical coordinates: . In Cartesian coordinates. then variations. Three dimensions In three dimensions. and is a function that vanishes on the boundary of U. it is common to work with the Laplacian in a variety of different coordinate systems. and the associated potential is unknown. where the last equality follows using Green's first identity. Conversely. Often the charge (or mass) distribution are given. This calculation shows that if stationary around f. In polar coordinates. then E is by the fundamental lemma of calculus of Coordinate expressions Two dimensions The Laplace operator in two dimensions is given by where x and y are the standard Cartesian coordinates of the xy-plane. Finding the potential function subject to suitable boundary conditions is equivalent to solving Poisson's equation. (1) follows. suppose Then is a function.

The signs in front of the spatial derivatives are negative. Spectral theory The spectrum of the Laplace operator consists of all eigenvalues • for which there is a corresponding eigenfunction € with If Ž is a bounded domain in Rn then the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian are an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2(Ž). the x . When Ž is the n-sphere. homogeneous of degree zero. the spherical Laplacian of a function defined on SN€1•…•RN can be computed as the ordinary Laplacian of the function extended to RN\{0} so that it is constant along rays. The two radial terms can be equivalently rewritten as As a consequence. The additional factor of c is needed if space and time are measured in different units.. while they would have been positive in the Euclidean space. Generalizations D'Alembertian The Laplacian can be generalized in certain ways to non-Euclidean spaces.e. or ultrahyperbolic. or indeed for the Dirichlet eigenvalue problem of any elliptic operator with smooth coefficients on a bounded domain. because it is the differential operator appearing in the four-dimensional wave equation. i. a similar factor would be required if. by the Poincar‚ inequality and Kondrakov embedding theorem). known as the spherical Laplacian. where it may be elliptic. In general curvilinear coordinates ( ): where summation over the repeated indices is implied. with the parametrization x•=•r‡•„•RN with r representing a positive real radius and ‡ an element of the unit sphere SN€1. for example.[2] It can also be shown that the eigenfunctions are infinitely differentiable functions.Laplace operator 25 (here ‡ represents the azimuthal angle and • the zenith angle). applied to the inverse of the Laplacian (which is compact.[3] More generally. where is the Laplace†Beltrami operator on the (N€1)-sphere. In the Minkowski space the Laplacian becomes the d'Alembert operator or d'Alembertian: The D'Alembert operator is also known as the wave operator. This result essentially follows from the spectral theorem on compact self-adjoint operators. the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian are the well-known spherical harmonics. N dimensions In spherical coordinates in N dimensions. these results hold for the Laplace†Beltrami operator on any compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. It is also the leading part of the Klein†Gordon equation. hyperbolic.

Addison-Wesley-Longman. " Laplacian (http://mathworld. in Hazewinkel. which is related Laplace†Beltrami operator by the Weitzenb‘ck identity. grad. ISBN•978-0821807729. by a similar formula. and Sands. Eric W. (2001). 26 Laplace•Beltrami operator The Laplacian can also be generalized to an elliptic operator called the Laplace•Beltrami operator defined on a Riemannian manifold.Laplace operator direction were measured in meters while the y direction were measured in centimeters. Notes [1] Evans 1998. ISBN•978-0393969979. External links € Weisstein. M (1970). Elliptic partial differential equations of second order..com/Laplacian. Volume 2. Theorem 8. Indeed. € M. "Laplace operator" (http://eom. and all that. L (1998). American Mathematical Society.htm). € Feynman. H. Trudinger.. € Gilbarg.6 [3] Gilbarg & Trudinger 2001.html)" from MathWorld. D.2 [2] Gilbarg & Trudinger 2001.springer. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. ’2.11 References € Evans. W W Norton & Company. € Schey. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.wolfram. The Laplace†Beltrami operator. physicists usually work in units such that c=1 in order to simplify the equation. N. Shubin (2001). when applied to a function. which can also be expressed using the Hodge dual. . Springer. curl. The d'Alembert operator generalizes to a hyperbolic operator on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. The Laplace†Beltrami operator can also be generalized to an operator (also called the Laplace†Beltrami operator) which operates on tensor fields. Michiel. Partial Differential Equations. Div.A. ISBN•978-1556080104. trace of the function's Hessian: where the trace is taken with respect to the inverse of the metric tensor. Springer. ISBN•978-3540411604. R. the Laplacian is defined on differential forms „ by This is known as the Laplace•de Rham operator. R. in terms of which the Laplacian is expressed as Here dŠ is the codifferential. Another generalization of the Laplace operator that is available on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds uses the exterior derivative.de//l/l057510. Corollary 8. Leighton. M. "Chapter 12: Electrostatic Analogs". (1996). More generally.

By Stokes' theorem: But because . Let L be a 1-segment (curve) from p to q. Proof Let be a 0-form (scalar field). The gradient theorem implies that line integrals through irrotational vector fields are path independent. By placing as potential. says that a line integral through a gradient field (any conservative vector field can be expressed as a gradient) can be evaluated by evaluating the original scalar field at the endpoints of the curve: It is a generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus to any curve in a plane or space (generally n-dimensional) rather than just the real line. Restricting the curve to Euclidean space and expanding in Cartesian coordinates: . Work done by conservative forces does not depend on the path followed by the object.Gradient theorem 27 Gradient theorem The gradient theorem. is a conservative field. also known as the fundamental theorem of calculus for line integrals. as the above equation shows. In physics this theorem is one of the ways of defining a "conservative" force. but only the end points.

Green's theorem gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. piecewise smooth. and in particular. stating that the sum of fluid outflows at any point inside a volume is equal to the total outflow summed about an enclosing area. In physics. A similar proof exists for when D is a type II region where C1 and C3 are straight lines.Green's theorem 28 Green's theorem In mathematics. If L and M are functions of (x. Green's theorem can be demonstrated. If it can be shown that If D is a simple region with its boundary consisting of the curves C1. and . Green's theorem can be used to determine the area and centroid of plane figures solely by integrating over the perimeter. and let D be the region bounded by C. C2. Proof when D is a simple region The following is a proof of the theorem for the simplified area D. C4. a type I region where C2 and C4 are vertical lines. an arrow pointing in the counterclockwise direction may be drawn in the small circle in the integral symbol. y) defined on an open region containing D and have continuous partial derivatives there. C3. In plane geometry. The general case can be deduced from this special case by approximating the domain D by a union of simple domains. It is the two-dimensional special case of the more general Stokes' theorem. Let C be a positively oriented. then For positive orientation. area surveying. and is named after British mathematician George Green. simple closed curve in the plane 2 . Green's theorem is mostly used to solve two-dimensional flow integrals.

Then The integral over C3 is negated because it goes in the negative direction from b to a. a ‹ x ‹ b. then Green's theorem is proven in the first case. Similar computations give (2). C4. with the unit normals pointing up (in +z direction) to match the "positive orientation" definitions for both theorems. The expression inside the integral becomes Thus we get the right side of Green's theorem . as C is oriented positively (counterclockwise). Define the type I region D as pictured on the right by: 29 where g1 and g2 are continuous functions on [a. we get (1). use the parametric equations: x = x. C2. C3. Then With C3. Relationship to the Stokes theorem Green's theorem is a special case of Stokes' theorem. a ‹ x ‹ b. Compute the double integral in (1): Now compute the line integral in (1). y = g1(x). meaning Therefore. b]. On C2 and C4. Start with the left side of Green's theorem: Then by Stokes' Theorem: The surface is just the region in the plane . With C1. use the parametric equations: x = x.Green's theorem are true. x remains constant. C can be rewritten as the union of four curves: C1. when applied to a region on the xy-plane: We can augment the two-dimensional field into a three-dimensional field with a z-component that is always 0: . Combining (3) with (4). y = g2(x).

[2] http:/ / mathworld. com/ GreensTheorem. Since tangential along a curve. Thomson. counterclockwise) curve along the boundary. So . Calculus (6th ed.Green's theorem 30 Relationship to the divergence theorem Considering only two-dimensional vector fields.e. which would be . wolfram. is a vector pointing To see this.[1] The area of D is given by: Provided we choose L and M such that: Then the area is given by: Possible formulas for the area of D include[1] : External links € Green's Theorem on MathWorld [2] Reference [1] Stewart. an outward normal would be a vector which points 90ƒ to the right.). Brooks/Cole. Green's theorem is equivalent to the following two-dimensional version of the divergence theorem: where is the outward-pointing unit normal vector on the boundary. The length of this vector is Now let the components of . html . consider the unit normal in the right side of the equation. James. Then the right hand side becomes which by Green's theorem becomes Area Calculation Green's theorem can be used to compute area by line integral. and the curve C is the positively-oriented (i.

b] is a simple example of a one-dimensional manifold with boundary.Stokes' theorem 31 Stokes' theorem In differential geometry. Integrating f over the interval may be generalized to integrating forms on a higher-dimensional manifold. So. the integral of over is defined as follows: Let {ƒi} be a partition of unity associated with a locally finite cover {Ui.e. More generally. William Thomson first discovered the result and communicated it to George Stokes in July 1850. € By the choice of F. Stokes' theorem applies to oriented manifolds M with boundary. € The two points a and b form the boundary of the open interval. In this case. we define the integral of i. oriented coordinate chart {U. In the parlance of differential forms. function.[2] Introduction The fundamental theorem of calculus states that the integral of a function f over the interval [a. also called the generalized Stokes' theorem) is a statement about the integration of differential forms on manifolds.[1] [2] Stokes set the theorem as a question on the 1854 Smith's Prize exam [3]. that dF = f•dx. the natural orientation of the interval gives an orientation of the two boundary points. Intuitively. i. First. The general Stokes theorem applies to higher differential forms instead of F. nor the partition of unity. More generally. For example. Two technical conditions are needed: the manifold has to be orientable. via the pullback of ‚ to Rn. Its boundary is the set consisting of the two points a and b. which led to the result bearing his name. suppose that ‚ is compactly supported in the domain of a single. •}. then define the integral where each term in the sum is evaluated by pulling back to Rn as described above. this is saying that f(x)•dx is the exterior derivative of the 0-form. So the fundamental theorem reads: General formulation Let be an oriented smooth manifold of dimension n and let over as be an n-differential form that is compactly supported on . that is.e. . Stokes' theorem (or Stokes's theorem. it does not depend on the choice of the coordinate charts. € A closed interval [a. This quantity is well-defined. b is taking the difference F(b)•€•F(a). as they are at opposite ends of the interval. . •i} of (consistently oriented) coordinate charts.. which both simplifies and generalizes several theorems from vector calculus. b] can be calculated by finding an antiderivative F of f: Stokes' theorem is a vast generalization of this theorem in the following sense. a inherits the opposite orientation as b. "integrating" F over two boundary points a. and the form has to be compactly supported in order to give a well-defined integral. The boundary ŒM of M is itself a manifold and inherits a natural orientation from that of the manifold. F: in other words.

of the equation is often used to formulate integral laws. the differential forms.h. Differential k-forms can be integrated over a k-simplex in a natural way. generated by singular k-simplices is said to consist of singular k-chains of M. with exterior derivative. d. which defines de Rham cohomology. then is an (n•€•1)-form with compact support on and denotes the boundary of with 32 An integration manifold known as "normal" (here instead of called D) for the special case n=2 Here is the exterior derivative. is a so-called "normal manifold". Stokes' theorem says that this is a chain map from de Rham cohomology to singular cohomology.. On the level of forms. such that after a partial integration concerning this variable.Stokes' theorem Stokes' theorem reads: If its induced orientation. which can be segmented into vertical stripes (e.h.. Topological reading. This gives a homomorphism from de Rham cohomology to singular cohomology. On the other hand. cohomology) is called the smooth singular homology (resp.h. d. as the connecting map. A smooth singular k-simplex of M is a smooth map from the standard simplex in Rk to M. This gives a linear map from the space of k-forms to the k-th group in the singular cochain. the l. Sk.g. These groups. On the r. then leads to equivalent differential formulations (see below). and . integration over chains Let M be a smooth manifold. by pulling back to Rk. as in the figure on the is an embedded oriented submanifold of some bigger manifold on A proof becomes particularly simple if the submanifold r.s. which is defined using the manifold structure only..h. over manifolds that can be written as . the exterior derivative. this means: 1. behaves like the dual of Œ on forms. i. the linear functionals on Sk. where the complementary mutual orientations are visible through the arrows. Sk*. Extending by linearity allows one to integrate over chains. The corresponding homology (resp. i. have zero integral over boundaries. parallel to the xn direction). a circle is is closed.s. define a chain complex. Œ. a k-form defines a functional on the k-chains.e. closed forms. nontrivial contributions come only from the upper and lower boundary surfaces (coloured in yellow and red. The theorem is often used in situations where which the form is defined.e. In other words. cohomology) of M.s. .s. [4] sometimes used within the integral sign to stress the fact that the (n-1)-manifold The r. together with boundary map. The free abelian group. respectively). form a cochain complex.

. It thus suffices to prove Stokes' theorem for sufficiently fine tilings (or. it is worthwhile to examine the underlying principle by considering an example for d = 2 dimensions. and the use of dual formulations. Underlying principle To simplify these topological arguments. have zero integral over cycles. which usually is not difficult. such that: .e. which shows that. . simplices).. The traditional forms are often considered more convenient by practicing scientists and engineers but the non-naturalness of the traditional formulation becomes apparent when using other coordinate systems. if the boundaries sum up to the empty set: 33 and this form is unique up to exact forms. older and have familiar names. i. So the converse to 1 and 2 above hold true. In other words. De Rham's theorem shows that this homomorphism is in fact an isomorphism. in an oriented tiling of a manifold. there exist a closed form.Stokes' theorem 2. then for any corresponding real numbers. i.e. exact forms. . As a consequence. only the contribution from the boundary remains. if {ci} are cycles generating the k-th homology group. even familiar ones like spherical or cylindrical coordinates. their contributions to the path integral thus cancel each other pairwise. the interior paths are traversed in opposite directions. equivalently. The essential idea can be understood by the diagram on the left. Special cases The general form of the Stokes theorem using differential forms is more powerful and easier to use than the special cases. Because in Cartesian coordinates the traditional versions can be formulated without the machinery of differential geometry they are more accessible. {ai}. There is potential for confusion in the way names are applied.

Q and R are the components of F. with surface . following the right-hand rule.Stokes' theorem 34 Kelvin•Stokes theorem This is a (dualized) 1+1 dimensional case. must have positive orientation. its boundary and the "normal" vector n. points toward the viewer. The curve of the line integral. This special case is often just referred to as the Stokes' theorem in many introductory university vector calculus courses and as used in physics and engineering. Œ“. The classical Kelvin†Stokes theorem: An illustration of the Kelvin†Stokes theorem. meaning that dr points counterclockwise when the surface normal. is a special case of the general Stokes theorem (with n = 2) once we identify a vector field with a 1 form using the metric on Euclidean three-space. It is also sometimes known as the curl theorem. d•. for a 1-form (dualized because it is a statement about vector fields). These variants are frequently used: •• •• . The formula can be rewritten as: •• where P. One consequence of the formula is that the field lines of a vector field with zero curl cannot be closed contours. which relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field over a surface “ in Euclidean three-space to the line integral of the vector field over its boundary.

Caution must be taken to avoid cases with moving boundaries: the partial time derivatives are intended to exclude such cases. For example. where U is a function of the temperature . http:/ / www. the scaling factors for the terms differ. . Green's theorem Green's theorem is immediately recognizable as the third integrand of both sides in the integral in terms of P.Electrodynamics from Ampere to Einstein. see below. Classical Electrodynamics. 1975). one should keep in mind here that in thermodynamics. Jackson. and R cited above. vii. such as CGS or Gaussian units. (with C and S not necessarily ) 35 (with C and S not necessarily stationary) The above listed subset of Maxwell's equations are valid for electromagnetic fields expressed in SI units. I. the integration path W is a one-dimensional closed line on a much higher-dimensional manifold. org/ SmithsPrizeExam_Stokes. Q. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Olivier Darrigol. New York. 146. p. e. However. in a thermodynamic application. In other systems of units. Faraday's law of induction and AmpŒre's law take the forms[5] [6] respectively. in Gaussian units. p. where frequently expressions as appear (wherein the total derivative. Preface. Divergence theorem Likewise the Ostrogradsky-Gauss theorem (also known as the Divergence theorem or Gauss's theorem) is a special case if we identify a vector field with the n€1 form obtained by contracting the vector field with the Euclidean volume form. if one considers the differential consequences of the integral postulate [5] J. If moving boundaries are included. therefore the circle is redundant and often left away.D.e. 2nd Ed (Wiley. should not be mixed-up with the exterior one). one has and the circle is really necessary. the volume and the electrical polarization of the sample. interchange of integration and differentiation introduces terms related to boundary motion not included in the results below: Name Maxwell-Faraday equation Faraday's law of induction: stationary) AmpŒre's law (with Maxwell's extension): Differential form Integral form (using Kelvin•Stokes theorem plus relativistic invariance.ISBN 0198505930 Oxford (2000) Spivak (1965). where c is the speed of light in vacuum.Stokes' theorem In electromagnetism Two of the four Maxwell equations involve curls of 3-D vector fields and their differential and integral forms are related by the Kelvin†Stokes theorem. pdf For mathematicians this fact is known. clerkmaxwellfoundation.g.

caltech. aspx) . Pacific Grove. ISBN 3-400-00013-2 € Katz.jstor. James.an expository explanation . Principles of Optics. 1980). 5th edition W. John. New York: McGraw-Hill. Born and E. 6th Ed.id=4370) on PlanetMath € Differential Forms and Stokes' Theorem Jerrold E. H. Freeman: 2003.edu (http://tutorial. Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions. Springer-Verlag 2003.com/legacy/college/ hugheshallett/0471484822/theory/hh_focusontheory_sectionm.0.Stokes Theorem from lamar. 2003.Stokes' theorem [6] M. Brooks/Cole. 2nd ed. Georg. External links € Proof of the Divergence Theorem and Stokes' Theorem (http://higheredbcs.edu/help/uploads/wiki/files/177/Diff_Forms_pauses. 36 Further reading € Joos. 5th ed.org/ sici?sici=0025-570X(197905)52:3<146:THOST>2. James.2-O). Anthony Tromba. Caltech (https:// www. ISBN•978-0-8053-9021-6 € Stewart.. Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts.pdf) € Calculus 3 . 13th ed.math. Victor J. HarperCollins. Vector Calculus.from=objects&. CA: Brooks/Cole. Walter (1976). € Lee. Introduction to Smooth Manifolds.org/?op=getobj&. Cambridge. Mathematics Magazine 52 (3): 146†156 € Marsden.wiley. Wolf. "The History of Stokes' Theorem" (http://links. Principles of Mathematical Analysis. Jerrold E. ISBN•0-07-054235-X € Spivak.edu/classes/calcIII/stokestheorem. Michael (1965). (Cambridge University Press.CO.pdf) € Proof of general Stokes theorem (http://planetmath. Theoretische Physik. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Wiesbaden 1980. € Stewart.lamar. ISBN 978-0-387-95448-6 € Rudin. 2001. Marsden Control and Dynamical Systems. (May 1979).cds.

The divergence theorem is thus a conservation law which states that the volume total of all sinks and sources.[1] Intuition If a fluid is flowing in some area. the volume integral of the divergence. it states that the sum of all sources minus the sum of all sinks gives the net flow out of a region. then we need to add up the sources inside the region and subtract the sinks. and the vector field's divergence at a given point describes the strength of the source or sink there. is equal to the net flow across the volume's boundary. So. The fluid flow is represented by a vector field. and we wish to know how much fluid flows out of a certain region within that area. in particular in electrostatics and fluid dynamics. More precisely. also known as Gauss' theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss).[2] Mathematical statement Suppose V is a subset of Rn (in the case of n = 3. then we have A region V bounded by the surface S=ŒV with the surface normal n . or Gauss•Ostrogradsky theorem is a result that relates the flow (that is.Divergence theorem 37 Divergence theorem In vector calculus. V represents a volume in 3D space) which is compact and has a piecewise smooth boundary S. The theorem is a special case of the more general Stokes' theorem. Intuitively. The divergence theorem says that this is true. If F is a continuously differentiable vector field defined on a neighborhood of V. the divergence theorem states that the outward flux of a vector field through a closed surface is equal to the volume integral of the divergence on the region inside the surface. the divergence theorem. The divergence theorem is an important result for the mathematics of engineering. which generalizes the fundamental theorem of calculus. Ostrogradsky's theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky). flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface. integrating the field's divergence over the interior of the region should equal the integral of the vector field over the region's boundary.

In terms of the intuitive description above. . like any of the surfaces on the left.Divergence theorem 38 The divergence theorem can be used to calculate a flux through a closed surface that fully encloses a volume. Corollaries By applying the divergence theorem in various contexts. (dS may be used as a shorthand for ndS. the result is € Applying the divergence theorem to the cross-product of two vector fields € Applying the divergence theorem to the product of a scalar function.) The left side is a volume integral over the volume V.) By the symbol within the two integrals it is stressed once more that ŒV is a closed surface. in which case the theorem is the basis for Green's identities. and a non-zero constant vector. the right side is the surface integral over the boundary of the volume V. It can not be used to calculate the flux through surfaces with boundaries. . like those on the right. and the right-hand side represents the total flow across the boundary ŒV. and n is the outward pointing unit normal field of the boundary ŒV. the following theorem can be proven:[3] . vector identities). f. € Applying the divergence theorem to the product of a scalar function g and a vector field F. (Surfaces are blue. the left-hand side of the equation represents the total of the sources in the volume V. other useful identities can be derived (cf. The closed manifold ŒV is quite generally the boundary of V oriented by outward-pointing normals. boundaries are red. the result is A special case of this is .

Divergence theorem € Applying the divergence theorem to the cross-product of a vector field F and a non-zero constant vector. the following theorem can be proven:[3] 39 Example Suppose we wish to evaluate A vector field on a sphere (this is not the field in the example). . because the unit sphere W has volume . but we can simplify the derivation of the result using the divergence theorem: Since the functions and are odd on (which is a symmetric set with respect to the coordinate planes). one has Therefore. where S is the unit sphere defined by and F is the vector field The direct computation of this integral is quite difficult.

C. and Gauss' law for gravity. by George Green in 1825 and in 1831 by Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. a host of physical laws can be written in both a differential form (where one quantity is the divergence of another) and an integral form (where the flux of one quantity through a closed surface is equal to another quantity). who also gave the first proof of the theorem. Examples Verify the planar variant of the divergence theorem for a region R. and Gauss's law for gravity. The divergence theorem states that any such continuity equation can be written in a differential form (in terms of a divergence) and an integral form (in terms of a flux). .y)=2yi + 5xj. Continuity equations Continuity equations offer more examples of laws with both differential and integral forms. History The theorem was first discovered by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1762. . Generically. probability. energy. electromagnetism. Green's theorem. and a number of other fields. which follows from the inverse-square Coulomb's law. Two examples are Gauss' law (in electrostatics). variations on the Divergence theorem are called Gauss's Theorem. see either of those articles for details. The derivation of the Gauss' law-type equation from the inverse-square formulation (or vice-versa) is exactly the same in both cases. and Ostrogradsky's theorem. which follows from the inverse-square Newton's law of universal gravitation. In fluid dynamics. Inverse-square laws Any inverse-square law can instead be written in a Gauss' law-type form (with a differential and integral form. as described above). related to each other by the divergence theorem. or other quantities. Then a vector equation of At a point on C. then later independently rediscovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1813. quantum mechanics. Subsequently. these equations state that the divergence of the flow of the conserved quantity is equal to the distribution of sources or sinks of that quantity. that can be represented parametrically by: such that C is where s units is the length arc from the point s = 0 to the point P on C. relativity theory. Gauss's law for magnetism.Divergence theorem 40 Applications Differential form and integral form of physical laws As a result of the divergence theorem. with F(x. Therefore. momentum. there are continuity equations that describe the conservation of mass. Three examples are Gauss's law (in electrostatics). where R is the region bounded by the circle Solution: The boundary of R is the unit circle.

Calculus: Early Transcendentals (6 ed. This article was originally based on the GFDL article from PlanetMath at http:/ / planetmath. Fuller. p. ISBN•9780486671642 [3] MathWorld (http:/ / mathworld. org/ encyclopedia/ Divergence.wolfram. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Robert (1992). . Wolfram Demonstrations Project.com/home/kmath330/kmath330. Dover Publications. " Divergence Theorem (http://mathworld. ISBN•9780495011668 [2] Byron. Eric W.•22. € Weisstein.).. Frederick. and because . com/ DivergenceTheorem.com/DivergenceTheorem. html) External links € Differential Operators and the Divergence Theorem (http://www.html . "Vector Calculus". . wolfram.com/TheDivergenceGaussTheorem/) by Nick Bykov. James (2008).wolfram. Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics.Divergence theorem 41 Because . Thus Notes [1] Stewart.mathpages.html)" from MathWorld. htm) at MathPages € The Divergence (Gauss) Theorem (http://demonstrations.

that is when L has constant coefficients with respect to x. specifically in quantum field theory. and in quantum mechanics. to refer to various types of correlation functions. where the Green's function of the Hamiltonian is a key concept. Green's functions in general are distributions. of a linear differential operator L•=•L(x) acting on distributions over a subset of the Euclidean space Rn. that is. some combination of symmetry.Green's function 42 Green's function In mathematics. the Green's function as used in physics is usually defined with the opposite sign. at a point s. electrodynamics and statistical field theory. In the modern study of linear partial differential equations. Green's functions are also a useful tool in solving wave equations. a Green's function is a type of function used to solve inhomogeneous differential equations subject to specific initial conditions or boundary conditions. Green's functions are studied largely from the point of view of fundamental solutions instead. then the Green's function is not unique. in practice. with important links to the concept of density of states. This property of a Green's function can be exploited to solve differential equations of the form {{{}}} If the kernel of L is non-trivial. not necessarily proper functions. the term is also used in physics. Under many-body theory. then the Green's function can be taken to be a convolution operator.•s). boundary conditions and/or other externally imposed criteria will give a unique Green's function. Also. who first developed the concept in the 1830s. even those that do not fit the mathematical definition. If the operator is translation invariant. However. the Green function is the same as the impulse response of linear time-invariant system theory. is any solution of {{{}}} (1) {{{}}} where {{{}}} (2) is the Dirac delta function. As a side note. that is. In this case. G(x. Definition and uses A Green's function. Green's functions are named after the British mathematician George Green. diffusion equations. This definition does not significantly change any of the properties of the Green's function. .

the study of which constitutes Fredholm theory. The right hand side is now given by the equation (2) to be equal to L u(x). And this suggests. a linear differential operator of the form and let D be the boundary conditions operator Let f(x) be a continuous function in [0. The problem now lies in finding the Green's function G that satisfies equation (1). we can take the operator L outside of the integration on the right hand side. then if we multiply the equation (1) for the Green's function by f(s). However the method gives a theoretically exact result. Although f(x) is known. Framework Let L be the Sturm†Liouville operator. thus: Because the operator L=L(x) is linear and acts on the variable•x alone (not on the variable of integration s). In modern theoretical physics.Green's function 43 Motivation Loosely speaking. obtaining. Such an integral equation is known as a Fredholm integral equation. A Green's function can also be thought of as a right inverse of L. and then perform an integration in the s variable. may be quite difficult to evaluate. if such a function G can be found for the operator L. we can obtain the function u(x) through knowledge of the Green's function in equation (1). {{{}}} (3) {{{}}} Thus. Green's functions are also usually used as propagators in Feynman diagrams (and the phrase Green's function is often used for any correlation function). the integral in equation•(3). u(x). can be determined by the integration given in equation (3).l]. Green's functions for solving inhomogeneous boundary value problems The primary use of Green's functions in mathematics is to solve non-homogeneous boundary value problems. This process has resulted from the linearity of the operator•L. For this reason. Aside from the difficulties of finding a Green's function for a particular operator. Not every operator L admits a Green's function. In other words. the solution of equation (2). the Green's function is also sometimes called the fundamental solution associated to the operator•L. We shall also suppose that the problem . This can be thought of as an expansion of f according to a Dirac delta function basis (projecting f over ”(x•€•s)) and a superposition of the solution on each projection. and the source term on the right hand side in equation (2). this integration cannot be performed unless G is also known. we obtain.

3. Derivative "jump": Symmetry: G(x. The general study of the Green's function written in the above form. only the trivial solution exists for the homogeneous problem). Theorem There is one and only one solution u(x) which satisfies and it is given by where G(x..e. Complete means that the set of functions (i. . s)=G(s. x) Finding Green's functions Eigenvalue expansions If a differential operator L admits a set of eigenvectors eigenvalues.e. is known as Fredholm theory. For . 4.s) is continuous in x and s 2.. which was assumed true. then it is possible to construct a Green's function from these eigenvectors and satisfies the following completeness relation: Then the following holds: where * represents complex conjugation.Green's function 44 is regular (i. Applying the operator L to each side of this equation results in the completeness relation. 5. a set of functions and scalars such that ) that are complete.s) is a Green's function satisfying the following conditions: 1. and its relationship to the function spaces formed by the eigenvectors. G(x. For .

Compute and apply the chain rule for the Plugging this into the divergence theorem produces Green's theorem: Suppose that the linear differential operator L is the Laplacian. With no boundary conditions. then the value of the function inside the volume is known everywhere. we can solve for everywhere inside a volume where either (1) the value of (Neumann boundary conditions). Laplacian. To derive Green's theorem. subject to either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions. it is possible to solve Laplace's equation or Poisson's equation . as electric charge density. the Green's function for the Laplacian (Green's function for the three-variable Laplace equation) is: . the Green's function should be chosen such that vanishes when either x or x' is on the bounding surface.Green's function 45 Green's functions for the Laplacian Green's functions for linear differential operators involving the Laplacian may be readily put to use using the second of Green's identities. the Green's function is chosen such that its normal derivative vanishes on the bounding surface. The defining property of the Green's function still holds: . is interpreted as the electric potential. and that there is a Green's function G for the Let in Green's theorem. In electrostatics. Thus only one of the two terms in the surface integral remains. if the problem is to solve a Neumann boundary value problem. Suppose the problem is to solve for is specified on the bounding surface of the is specified on the bounding surface volume (Dirichlet boundary conditions). In other words. and the normal derivative as the normal component of the electric field. If the problem is to solve a Dirichlet boundary value problem. or (2) the normal derivative of inside the region. Then the integral reduces to simply due to the defining property of the Dirac delta function and we have: This form expresses the well-known property of harmonic functions that if the value or normal derivative is known on a bounding surface. conversely. begin with the divergence theorem (otherwise known as Gauss's theorem): Let operator: and substitute into Gauss' law. Then: Using this expression.

the boundary condition at The equation of is skipped for similar reasons. and the general solution is For . and plugging in this expression for the Green's function. this gives the familiar expression for electric potential in terms of electric charge density (in the CGS unit system) as 46 Example Given the problem Find the Green's function. To summarize the results thus far: Second step: The next task is to determine Ensuring continuity in the Green's function at and .Green's function Supposing that the bounding surface goes out to infinity. the boundary condition at implies The equation of For is skipped because implies if and . First step: The Green's function for the linear operator at hand is defined as the solution to If . implies One can also ensure proper discontinuity in the first derivative by integrating the defining differential equation from to and taking the limit as goes to zero: The two (dis)continuity equations can be solved for and to obtain So the Green's function for this problem is: . then the delta function gives zero.

org/ resources/ 1877 http:/ / www. citizendium. ISBN 0-486-63947-9. ISBN 1-58488-297-2 € A. Boca Raton. Then. com/ GreensFunction. Let L be d/dx. Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering. org/ ?op=getobj& amp. gov/ div853/ greenfn/ tutorial. wolfram. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. Jauho Tutorial on Green's functions [6] Boundary Element Method (for some idea on how Green's functions may be used with the boundary element method for solving potential problems numerically) [7] € At Citizendium [8] € € € € € € € References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / mathworld. Chapters 18 and 19. Dover Publications. Also. Polyanin and V. the Heaviside step function H(x € x0) is a Green's function of L at x0. Leonard. 1972. html http:/ / www. org/ wiki/ Green%27s_function . html http:/ / planetmath. "Green's Function [1]" from MathWorld. nist. 2003. P. Green's function for differential operator [2] at PlanetMath. html http:/ / planetmath.. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. assume a Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed at x=0 and a Neumann boundary condition is imposed at y=0. Wiley. Then the Green's function is References € S. Zaitsev. boulder. The Classical Electromagnetic Field.from=objects& amp. F. € Let n•=•2 and let the subset be the quarter-plane { (x. (Chapter 5 contains a very readable account of using Green's functions to solve boundary value problems in electrostatics.id=6355 http:/ / planetmath. € Eyges. ISBN 1-58488-299-9 External links Weisstein. htm http:/ / en. Bayin (2006).id=7963 http:/ / nanohub. D. Handbook of Linear Partial Differential Equations for Engineers and Scientists. y ‰ 0 } and L be the Laplacian. 2002. Eric W.Green's function 47 Further examples € Let n•=•1 and let the subset be all of R.) € A. Green's function [3] on PlanetMath GreenFunctionsAndConformalMapping [4] on PlanetMath Introduction to the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green Function Technique [5] by A. S. Boca Raton. org/ ?op=getobj& amp. Polyanin.from=objects& amp. Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations (2nd edition). sg/ home/ mwtang/ bemsite. org/ encyclopedia/ GreensFunctionForDifferentialOperator. y) : x. D. edu. ntu. New York.

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