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Fabrication Formulas

Bend Allowance (BA) - The amount of added to the sum of the two leg lengths to obtain the flat pattern length.

Bend Deduction (BD) - The amount removed from the sum of the two flange lengths to obtain a flat pattern.



The distance between the outside and inside mold lines. Bend Angle (B<) .A constant based off of the K-Factor used by Pro-Engineer in place of a K-Factor.The gauge of the material in decimal form. K-Factor (K) .Distance between the inside tangent points and the apex of the inside mold lines.The measurement from the surface of the outside radius to the apex of the outside mold lines. sheetmetal. Inside Mold Line (IML) . Outside Mold Line (OML) . Inside Offset (ISOS) .A line that runs parallel to the outside of the workpiece. Outside Radius (OR) .me/formulas-and-functions/ 2/4 .The inside angle between the two legs or flanges of a bend.The final formed outside radius after spring back has occurred.The ratio of the position of the Neutral Axis to the Material Thickness. Inside Setback (ISSB) .The final formed inside radius after spring back has occurred. Inside Radius (IR) .A line that runs parallel to the inside of the workpiece.Me Material Thickness (MT) . Y-Factor (Y) . When calculating the outside offset use the included bend angle.Distance between the outside tangent points and the apex of the outside mold lines.Distance between the inside mold lines and the bend line. Outside Offset (OSOS) . Outside Setback (OSSB) . Inside Through the Material (ISTM) .11/11/13 Fabrication Formulas | SheetMetal.

Crowning is controlled on modern brakes with internal hydraulic systems which can help equalize pressure. tooling and length. Blanking .The process of cutting flat patterns from stock sheeting. plasmas or punch presses. This is used to calculate the back stop location when working off of a flat pattern. This forms a safe edge for handling and stiffens the part’s edge.Light bends added to sheet metal in order to stiffen its surface. sheetmetal. Foil . but rather forced into the bend in order to stiffen the piece.The line across the metal where the punch comes in contact with the metal and the bend begins.Also known as Step Bending. Coining .The process of bending a 4 sided sheet metal box.One of the three types of bending for sheet metal where the outside mold line is not pressed against the die.me/formulas-and-functions/ 3/4 .Me Inside Shift (ISS) .Steel which has been galvanized and then subsequently annealed. Cross Break .In order to prevent rust steel is dipped into molten zinc which alloys itself with the surface of the steel. Galvanneal .The distance from the Outside Mold Line to the original bend line on the flat pattern. Crowning . Terminology Air Bending .A chart used to calculate the tonnage required for a bend based on thickness. done typically with lasers. Air Bend Force Chart . Bump Bending . Bending .A forming process which leaves a circular. Annealing is used to soften material. Curling . Gage.A section of the metal inside a bend which is not bent.Very thin sheet metal made from typically malleable metals such as aluminum and gold. Bottom Bending .One of the three types of bending for sheet metal where the punch penetrates into the sheet metal under high tonnage forming a consistent bend. Annealing . Bend Line Shift (BLS) . closed loop at the end of the sheet. water jets.11/11/13 Fabrication Formulas | SheetMetal. flattened. Galvanized .The length of the workpiece when measured from the apex to the edge of the bend.The thickness of the metal organized by numbers. Gusset .Annealing is a treatment for metals where a material is heated above the recrystallization temperature maintained for a period of time and then cooled. geometry of a part. Flat Pattern .Distance between the outside mold lines and the bend line. relieve internal stresses and improve its cold working prope rties.The general term for the unfolded.One of the three types of bending for sheet metal where the radius of the punch tip is pushed into the sheet metal. Box Bending . the process for forming a large radius with conventional tooling by performing a series bends in close proximity. Bend Line . the smaller the number the thinner the metal. Gauge .The deflection along a bend due to the tooling or brake not being able to apply equal tonnage along the bend.The process of cold working metal to achieve a desired profile. Flange Length .

Obtuse Angle .Length of the workpiece from the edge to the outside tangent point of the bend radius.Also known as R Bending.me/formulas-and-functions/ 4/4 .Me Hem . this is when two bends of the same angle. R Bending . Tolerances . but opposite direction.When the radius of the bend is less than %63 of the material thickness. Tooling . Reflex Angle .11/11/13 Fabrication Formulas | SheetMetal.A geometry term for an angle which is greater than 180° Sharp Bend . Straight Angle .A geometry term for an angle which is equal to 180°. Step Bending . are used to create a ‘z’ shaped profile.A flange that reaches 180° or more.Me 2010.General term for the dies. large radius bending is when the inside radius is greater than 8 times the material thickness.The general term for the sheet metal part being bent. SheetMetal. Large Radius Bending . Neutral Axis . punches and holders found on press brake equipment.Also known as an offset bend. the process for forming a large radius with conventional tooling by performing a series bends in close proximity. Work Piece . Jog .General dimensioning and tolerances of bends and sheet metal. seen commonly with hemming applications. left open or in a variety of tear drop shapes.A light bend typically between 5° and 15° which is used to stiffen a flat piece of metal. Kink .Also known as bump bending. Spring Back .A geometry term for an angle which is greater than 90°. Leg .The amount to which the workpiece resists bending by returning to its original shape. sheetmetal. Hems can be flattened.An imaginary line within the bend where the material goes through no compression or stretching during the bend process.Bending with an inside radius greater than 8 times the material thickness.