30 June 09

GAS TURBINES
Vivek Ghate GMS – CPP vivek.ghate@ril.com

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Index
1. Basics of Gas Turbines. 2. Major Components of Gas Turbines.

3. Categories of Gas Turbines.
4. Performance Comparison of various makes of Gas Turbines. 5. GE’s range of Gas Turbines.

6. Factors affecting the performance of Gas turbines.
7. Gas Turbines at RIL. 8. Maintenance factors of Gas Turbines based on the fuel used. 9. The Hot gas path components & its metallurgy. 10. Gas Turbine Control Systems. 11. Performance Benchmarking.
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GAS TURBINE
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between.

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Buckets 4 of 119 VMG/AG . expanding it in nozzles mechanical/rotational energy is obtained.30 June 09 GAS TURBINE By heating up compressed air.

30 June 09 Brayton Cycle 5 of 119 VMG/AG .

heating that air—a constant-pressure process. where fuel is burned.Expansion. Actual Brayton Cycle: • Adiabatic process . • (2-3) Isobaric Process . 6 of 119 VMG/AG .Heat Rejection.Heat Rejection (in the atmosphere). Some of the work extracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. pressurized air then gives up its energy. • (3-4) Isentropic Expansion .The heated.30 June 09 Ideal Brayton cycle: • (1-2) Isentropic Compression .Compression. expanding through a turbine (or series of turbines).The compressed air then runs through a combustion chamber.Ambient air is drawn into the compressor. • Isobaric process . • (4-1) Isobaric Process . where it is pressurized. • Adiabatic process . • Isobaric process .Heat Addition. since the chamber is open to flow in and out.

30 June 09 GT Cutaway Showing Casing Cross Section 7 of 119 VMG/AG .

8 of 119 VMG/AG . • Extremely suitable for generator drives.30 June 09 Simple Cycle Single Shaft Gas Turbine • Compressor & Turbine are coupled to common single shaft. • Due to larger rotor mass the speed can be easily kept constant. • Normally used in process where less speed variation is required.

• Well suited for mechanical drives & compressors. 9 of 119 VMG/AG . • HP turbine & compressor are attached to one shaft & LP turbine is attached to another shaft.30 June 09 Simple Cycle Two Shaft Gas Turbine • In 2 shaft machines turbine is divided into High Pressure (HP) turbine & Low Pressure (LP) turbine. • These machines provide wide speed range with sufficient power & efficiency.

30 June 09 Open Cycle Gas Turbine Typical Performance 10 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Combined Cycle Power Plant 11 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Cogen Cycle Power Plant 12 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Major Components 13 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Major Components Compressor Turbine Combustion chamber Starting means 14 of 119 VMG/AG .

• 11th stage: Air bleed valves for surge control.30 June 09 Gas Turbine Major Components COMPRESSOR • 17 stage axial flow compressor. TURBINE • 3 Stage Impulse Turbine COMBUSTION CHAMBER • 10 combustors in annular space. Flame scanners in the combustor no 2.8. • 17th stage: Atom air compressor and pulse air. • Extractions 5th stage: bearing cooling and sealing air. • 2 nos. • 4 nos. 15 of 119 VMG/AG . Igniters in combustor no 1 & 10.3 & 7.

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Major Components GT ANNULAR FIRING CROSS FIRE TUBE 2+3+7+8 HAVE SCANNERS 1&10 HAVE IGNITORS 16 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Categories of Gas Turbines 17 of 119 VMG/AG .

Efficiency – 15 to 20%.5-15 MW.Derivative Gas turbines: These are power generation units. which are prime mover of aircraft in the aerospace industry. Efficiency – 35 to 45%.Turbines: In the range from 75 . They often have centrifugal compressors & radial inflow turbines.  Micro .  Industrial Type .5-2.  Aircraft .30 June 09 GAS TURBINE CATEGORIES The Simple Gas Turbine is classified into five broad groups:  Frame Type Heavy . Efficiency – 30 to 39 %. Efficiency – Less than 30%. Efficiency – 15 to 25%.Duty Gas Turbines: Large power generation units ranging from 3 MW to 480 MW in a simple cycle configuration.Gas Turbines: In the range of 2. Used extensively for compressor drive trains.650 kW. 18 of 119 VMG/AG .  Small Gas Turbines: In the range from about 0.5 MW.

Various Manufacturers are:  Solar Turbine  Rolls Royce  Siemens  MHI  GE 19 of 119 VMG/AG .Duty Gas Turbines Gas Turbines up to 20 MW.30 June 09 Frame Type Heavy .

4 21.3 13 8.4 11168 7900 3000 3000 42 49.3 12 19.5 33.30 June 09 Gas Turbine MODEL Make Output (MW) Heat Turbine Exhaust Efficiency Pressure Flow Rate Speed Temp % Ratio (kg/sec) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (C) Saturn 20 Solar 1.35 5.925 3535 2960 2865 3001 24.55 15.7 27.898 17 20 2650 2544 2671 2389 32.8 92.2 488 479 375 412 VMG/AG 20 of 119 .4 17.3 504 560 527 496 501-KB5S Rolls Royce SGT 100 MF-61 Siemens MHI Mars 100 LM1600PE SGT 500 UGT15000+ Solar GE Siemens Zorya Mashproek t 10.2 36 17.2 3.3 29.8 10.897 4.69 14.4 22516 14200 16500 15400 6.8 32.1 30 28.5 72.7 6.

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Gas Turbines up to 60 MW. Various Manufacturers are:  Rolls Royce  Siemens  Alstom  IHI  Mitsubishi 21 of 119 VMG/AG .

5 2389.36 130.30 June 09 Rolls Royce Gas Turbine MODEL ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C) RB211 6761 DLE 2000 TRENT 60 DLE 1996 TRENT 60 WLE 2001 32 51 58 2188 2043 2104 39.45 175.91 2634.78 1093.82 165.5 33 36 94.33 444.7 18 19.3 15.55 151.23 36 34 32.3 91.33 Siemens Gas Turbine MODEL YEAR ISO BASE RATING (MW) HEAT RATE (kcal/kwh) EFFICIENCY % PRESS RATIO FLOW (kg/sec) TURBINE SPEED (rpm) EXHAUST TEMP (Deg C) SGT 700 SGT 800 SGT 900 1999 1998 1982 29.45 6500 6600 5425 517.3 42 40 21.72 2322.89 513.06 45 49.44 423.89 22 of 119 VMG/AG .91 4850 3000 3000 503.

5 40.45 130.5 40.3 2123.48 2123.91 3000 3000 445 450 Mitsubishi Gas Turbine MODEL YEAR ISO BASE HEAT EFFICIENCY RATING RATE % (MW) (kcal/kwh) PRESS FLOW RATIO (kg/sec) TURBINE EXHAUST SPEED TEMP (rpm) (Deg C) MF221 1994 30 2689.78 23 of 119 VMG/AG .18 7200 532.5 30 30 130.30 June 09 IHI Gas Turbine MODEL ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C) LM 6000 1997 PC SPRINT LM 6000 1997 PD SPRINT 46 45.69 32 15 108.

30 June 09 Gas Turbines more than 60 MW 24 of 119 VMG/AG .

3 115.4 172.4 38.9 33.2 288 2722 2559 2363 2246 33.6 36.30 June 09 Alstom Gas Turbine ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST PRESS FLOW MODEL YEAR RATING RATE EFFICIENCY SPEED TEMP RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) % (rpm) (Deg C) GT8C2 GT11N2 GT13E2 GT26 1998 1993 1993 1994 56.3 17 16 15 32 197 400 538 633 6219 3000 3000 3000 508 531 522 615 25 of 119 VMG/AG .

51 2500.5 166 272 279 2364.0 657.63 2233.1 15.8 59 39.7 191.2 3000 3000 3000 3000 588.30 June 09 Ansaldo Energia ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW MODEL YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C) V64.3 A4 1996 1981 1995 2004 68.66 34.5 39.5 2473 1464 2175 26 of 119 14 17 21 442 651 739 Eff % Heat Rate (kcal/kwh) Pressure Ratio Flow (kg/sec) Turbine Speed (rpm) 3000 3000 3000 Exhaust Temp (Deg C) 542 600 587 VMG/AG .3 668.89 546.3A V 94.4 17.8 11.4 510.3 A2 V 94.00 577.43 2200.8 17.2 V 94.7 34.22 Mitsubishi Gas Turbine ISO BASE Model M701 M701F M701G Type SC CC SC RATING (MW) 144 273+142 334 34.4 38.11 575.

1 34.8 11.47 2199.7 (CC) PRESS RATIO 15.9 (CC) 57.78 542.4 17.00 672.90 1509.74 2496.7 163.30 June 09 Siemens Gas Turbine MODEL YEAR ISO BASE RATING (MW) 67.5 36.27 TURBINE SPEED (rpm) 5400 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 EXHAUST TEMP (Deg C) 582.11 582.82 528.5 39 54.18 520.85 2359.2 FLOW (kg/sec) 191.22 SGT 1000F SGT 5 2000E SGT 6 3000E SGT 6 4000F SGT 5 3000E SGT 5 4000F 1996 1981 1997 1995 1997 1995 27 of 119 VMG/AG .8 13.3 188.2 278 290 407 HEAT RATE (kcal/ kwh) 2452.22 581.03 1434.97 EFFICIENCY % 35.

30 June 09 GE’s range of Gas Turbines 28 of 119 VMG/AG .

5 2331.0 2460.1 67.4 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 1517.6 1583.3 1481. dependable power.9 Freq (Hz) 50 50 Kcal/ kwh 1434.30 June 09 GE Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Model The world demands a reliable supply of clean.0 2682.6 193.2 CC SC CC SC CC CC CC SC CC SC 390.2 45.2 126.0 1573.8 255.1 MS9001E MS6001FA MS6001B MS6001C 29 of 119 VMG/AG .7 1656.3 2348. MS9001H MS9001FB MS9001FA Type CC SC O/P (MW) 520 412.1 117. GE offers a wide array of technological options to meet the most challenging energy requirements.2 2546.3 1752.7 75.9 64.3 42.

30 June 09 GE H-System First gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. 30 of 119 VMG/AG .

31 of 119 VMG/AG . NOx emissions: < 25 ppm. 660 MVA Liquid cooled. Single shaft. 23:1 Pressure Ratio. Reheat. Firing Temperature Class: 1430˚C (2600˚F) Heat Rate: 1435 kcal/kwh. Steam Turbine: GE design. Single flow exhaust. Efficiency: 60% 18 Stage Compressor. Generator: GE 550 MW LSTG. HRSG: 3 Pressure level reheat.30 June 09 S 109H 109H System Combined Cycle Power Plant 520 MW. Airflow 687 kg/sec.

6 MW 2332 kcal/kwh 36.2 672.8% 32 of 119 VMG/AG .8 MW 1517.70% 407 MW 1435 kcal/kwh 57.10% 17.90% 17 642.70% 410 MW 1488 kcal/kwh 57.5 kcal/kwh 56.2 kg/sec 582 Deg C Alstom (GT26) 288 MW 2246 kcal/kwh 38.30 June 09 The F Class Comparison GE (MS9001FA) Output Heat Rate Efficiency Pressure Ratio Flow Exhaust Temp.2 kg/sec 602 Deg C Siemens (SGT5-4000F) 278 MW 2200 kcal/kwh 39. 255.3% 32 633 kg/sec 615 Deg C SIMPLE CYCLE COMBINED CYCLE Output Heat Rate Efficiency 390.

30 June 09 H Class Comparison GE (S109H) Siemens (8000H) Combined Cycle Output Heat Rate Efficiency Pressure Ratio Flow 520 MW 530 MW 1435 kcal/kwh 1435 kcal/kwh 60 % 23 687 kg/sec 60 % 19.2 820 kg/sec 33 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 GE Aero derivative Gas Turbine 34 of 119 VMG/AG .

2 42.89 46.47 2243.92 2238.76 2186.01 40 31.44 50 1960.2 30.68 26.9 41.91 32.5 23 23 15.46 11.25 2085.3 28.42 1906.5 3000 3000 3627 213 207 137 407 417 434 LM6000PC LM6000PD sprint LM6000PD LM2500RC LM2500RD LM2500PH GE 10 .48 2132.982 2060.85 41.29 2557 29.998 98. (C) LMS100PA LMS100PB LM6000PC sprint 102.5 3627 3627 3627 3600 3600 3000 11000 129 132 127 92 91 76 47 436 446 448 524 525 497 480 35 of 119 VMG/AG .20 2110.9 29.30 June 09 GE Aero derivative Gas Turbine MODEL OUTPUT (MW) HEAT RATE (kcal/kwh) PRESSURE RATIO TURBINE SPEED (rpm) FLOW (kg/sec) EXHAUST TEMP.7 32.

30 June 09 Factors Affecting the Gas Turbine Performance 36 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Performance Influences on Gas Turbine Output:  Compressor Fouling  Size Influence  Thermodynamic Influence  Ambient condition Influence  GT Speed  Inlet & Exhaust Pressure Loss 37 of 119 VMG/AG .

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Compressor Fouling
Fouling rate is a function of
 Environment  Wind Direction  Filtration System

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Size Influence
Greater Dimensions

Higher Air flow

Higher Output
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Thermodynamic Influence
Mainly determined by the design of the engine Main Component Efficiency  Compressor Pressure Ratio  Turbine Inlet Temperature

The combination of gas temperature and pressure ratio gives a specific output, exhaust temperature and thermal efficiency, which also are influenced by the components efficiency.

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30 June 09 Ambient Conditions Influence Ambient Conditions Influence Ambient Air Pressure (P0) Ambient Air Temperature (T0) Ambient Air Relative Humidity (RH) The gas turbine nominal performance is related to: P = 1.013 bar T = 15°C RH = 60% 41 of 119 VMG/AG .

While the resulting airflow and output decrease proportionately. 42 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Ambient Air Pressure (PO) At constant gas temperature INCREASED ambient air pressure gives: Increased Output Unchanged Unit Efficiency The air density reduces as the site elevation increases. the heat rate and other cycle parameters are not affected.

The following graph shows effect of Ambient Air temperature on output. heat consumption. its performance is changed by Air Temperature that affects the density or mass flow of the air intake to the compressor.30 June 09 Ambient Air Temperature (TO) The gas turbine is an air-breathing engine. heat rate. and exhaust flow. 43 of 119 VMG/AG .

44 of 119 VMG/AG . as shown in Graph. which is less dense than dry air. affects output and heat rate. INCREASED ambient air relative humidity gives: Decreased Output Humid air.30 June 09 Ambient Air Relative Humidity At constant gas temperature.

4 28.35 33.45 29.85 28.2 27.75 26.2 33.6 29.8 27.075 34.55 32.3 29.1 31.35 24.65 27.MW change with speed at different ambient temperature range 35.95 34.75 33.075 34.35 27.7 35.975 29.6 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 34.925 22.35 24.55 28.85 25.125 29.4 31.975 27 36.3 36.225 26.3 32.3 29.9 32.65 24.5 30.35 27.6 26.1 30.625 28.1 24.15 26.65 27.35 30.3 32.15 32.3 23.9 30 28.175 22.65 35.25 31.575 33.8 30.025 24.6 32.975 23.45 29.45 32.55 MW 95 96 97 5degC 35degC 98 99 15degC 40degC 100 101 102 25degC 50degC 103 30degC 104 105 speed % 20degC 45degC 45 of 119 VMG/AG .8 30.6 26.1 27.85 31.7 25.325 28.875 27.2 27.4 25.34 31.75 30 28.1 33.30 June 09 GT Speed Ref: GE perf.75 29.6 23.7 31.46 31.35 33.3 32.5 30.4 28.curve GTF6SP GT .925 36 34.7 28.55 31.975 26.05 30 29.05 30.05 33.65 27.6 26.075 32.475 25.4 33.025 27.5 30.15 26.

50 % Heat rate Increase • 1.50% Power Output Loss • 0.50 % Heat rate Increase • 1.30 June 09 Inlet & Exhaust Pressure Loss Pressure Drop Effects for Frame . 46 of 119 VMG/AG .50% Power Output Loss • 0.6:  4 Inches H2O Inlet Drop Produces: • 1.2 Deg F Exhaust temperature increase.2 Deg F Exhaust temperature increase.  4 Inches H2O Exhaust Drop Produces: • 0.

30 June 09 Gas Turbines with RELIANCE 47 of 119 VMG/AG .

4 12.5 543 543 602 Fr – 9E GE GE Fr – 9 FA GE 390.1 36 40.5 29.36 131 84 418 418 642 480 487.5 39.5 Fr .6 2557 3022 2752 2390 2123 2169 2548 1656 2334 33.0 (cc) 36.80 1517 56.9 (sc) 15.7 33.2 544 518 450 500.2 Fr .8 (sc) 52.20 255.5 32.3 28.06 45.48 30.6 12.057 126.2 18 30 21.30 June 09 RIL Gas Turbines MODEL Make Output (MW) Heat Rate (kcal/kwh) Efficiency % Pressure Ratio Turbine Speed (rpm) Flow (kg/sec) Exhaust Temp (0C) GE 10 .6 SGT 700 LM6000PC LM2500+ GE GE GE SIEMENS GE GE GE 11.30 37.6 17 11000 5100 5100 6500 3000 6100 3000 3000 3000 47 123 146 91.1 193.5 10.982 26.5 12.7 (cc) 48 of 119 17 3000 641 602 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Performance Curves for Gas Turbine 49 of 119 VMG/AG .

96 57.1 255.30 June 09 Performance Curve for Gas Turbine Power Efficienc ISO Heat Flow consumed by y Output Rate (lb/sec) Compressor % % 26.3 37.9 273 294.8 919.93 54.1 33.29 Model Firing Temp (Deg C) 957 1104 1124 1327 Fr – 5 MS – 6541 Fr – 9E Fr – 9FA 50 of 119 VMG/AG .86 61.5 126.4 63.6 3022 2752 2548 2334 28.8 36.5 32.6 1412.

6 45.06 362 1104 544 340 1104 543 407 1327 605 535 1260 450 416 1140 518 51 of 119 VMG/AG .3 37.457 0.20 64.380 0.86 61.421 0.358 0.48 29.361 0.355 73 99 300 559 127 82 46 61 174 304 82 53 % 63.5 MS-6541 Fr-9E Fr-9FA LM6000 PC SGT 700 26.5 126.1 255.47 Fr .29 64.93 54.96 57.30 June 09 Gas Turbine Compressor Power NET OUTPUT (MW) T1 T2 (C) (C) 15 15 15 15 15 15 315 T3 (C) 957 T4 WORK TURBINE COMPRESSOR WORK POWER (C) RATIO (MW) (MW) 487 0.

30 June 09 Effect of Power Consumed by Compressor 40 80 30 70 20 60 10 50 0 MODEL Fr . % VMG/AG .5 MS-6541 Fr-9E Fr-9FA 40 Efficiency % % 52 of 119 % POWER CONSUMED BY THE COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY.

Deg C VMG/AG . % 30 1000 20 10 250 0 Model Fr .5 MS-6541 Fr – 9E Fr .30 June 09 Effect of Firing Temperature 40 1500 1250 Efficiency.9FA 0 750 500 Efficiency % Firing Temp (Deg C) 53 of 119 Firing Temp.

So. 223 Deg C rise in firing temp increases the efficiency by 6%.9 1412.6 2334 36. • • 7 % reduction in compressor power consumption improves the heat rate by 211 kcal/kwh.5 Deg C increase in firing temperature.8 61. the efficiency increases about 1. Remaining 2 % improvement in Heat rate as a result of:       GTD-222 Stage 2 Nozzle Stage – 2 & 3 Honey Comb Shrouds 86i IGV setting Higher RPM Load Gear High Pressure Packing Brush Seal Improved Cooling Stage 1 Nozzle 54 of 119 VMG/AG .96 1104 Fr – 9FA 255.29 1327 • For every 100 Deg F/55.4 54.1 294. Leading to improvement in heat rate by 165 kcal/kwh.5 2752 32.30 June 09 Comparison Model ISO Output Heat Rate Efficiency % Flow (lb/sec) Power consumed by Compressor % Firing Temp (Deg C) MS-6541 37.5%.

• Most uprates on Gas Turbines typically are achieved by Higher Airflow or Higher Firing Temperatures.30 June 09 • Approximately 20% of the Inlet Air to the Axial Flow Compressor gets lost to the Thermal cycle due to losses associated with cooling hot gas path parts or losses due to Large Clearances. 55 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Maintenance Factors of Gas Turbine 56 of 119 VMG/AG .

57 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Combustion System Components Efforts to advance the combustion system are driven by the need for higher firing temperatures and for compliance with regulatory requirements to reduce exhaust emissions.

NOx & CO.30 June 09 Combustion System Components Requirements:  Withstanding Higher Firing Temperature.  Maintenance Interval Extension. 58 of 119 VMG/AG .  Life Time Extension.  Low Emissions etc.

30 June 09 Factors Affecting the Combustion Components Life  Type of fuel  Firing Temperature  Cyclic Effects  Steam or Water Injection Quality of Air 59 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Maintenance factors – Hot gas path (Buckets & Nozzles) 60 of 119 VMG/AG .

Component life Estimated Effect of Fuel Type on Maintenance 61 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Fuel vs.

Component life Various fuels used are RFG. Liquid fuel High radiant energy Impurities (Na. Naphtha.30 June 09 Fuel vs. HSD& LCO . Va) Thermal fatigue failure Hot corrosion = 1.5 hrs of Gas Fuel Operation at Base Load Results 1 hr of Liquid Fuel Operation 62 of 119 VMG/AG . K.

1 hr of peak load operation. 63 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 The Firing Temperature Firing temperature Results Thermal efficiency Power output Creep Distortion Reduced life = 6 hours of base load operation.

30 June 09 Cyclic Effects during Start/Stop 64 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Cyclic Effects Each stop and start of a gas turbine subjects the hot gas path to significant thermal cycles. The severity is phenomenal in the case of emergency start and trips. Control systems are designed and adjusted to minimize this effect. 1 Emergency Trip = 8 Normal Shutdown Cycles 65 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Steam or Water Injection 66 of 119 VMG/AG .

67 of 119 VMG/AG . causes higher transfer of heat to bucket and nozzle resulting in higher metal temperature of these components reducing their life.30 June 09 Steam or Water Injection Steam or water is injected in to the combustion system for: • NOx Reduction • Power Augmentation This steam or water Injection used causes higher dynamic pressure and due to higher specific heat capacity of steam with respect to the gas.

30 June 09 Hot Gas Path Components & its Metallurgy 68 of 119 VMG/AG .

provides a more uniform distribution of cooling air flow for better overall cooling.  Air enters the cooling holes.30 June 09 Combustion Liners (FR1G/FR1H)  The original combustion liner was Louvered which was cooled through louvered punches in liner body (Experiencing cracking in punches during operation)  Replaced with a slot-cooled liner . impinges on the brazed ring and discharges from the internal slot as a continuous cooling film. 69 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09

The Mechanism of Slot Cooled Liner

Advantage
• 139 C lower metal Temp. • Lower Temp. gradient. • Short length provide more stiffness and reduced cooling air.

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TBC Coated Liner
Advantage
•The 380 micron TBC thick provide 38 °C lower temp. in base metal. • For firing temp. 1124 °C the thickness of liner is 15 mil thicker.

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Transition piece Changes
• The Material Hastelloy-X replaced by Nimonic 263 because of superior to creep life time. • The wall thickness is thicker and TBC coated. • T.P was lengthened 15 in to relocate the wear of Liner-T.P interface induced by compressor discharge air. • Increasing inspection interval to 12000 E.O.H. • Redesign of aft bracket allowing the T.P pivot during the thermal cycling.

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as well as the addition of air cooling for some of the components.30 June 09 Turbine Components There have been significant design and material improvements made to the turbine components to improve component designs which can withstand higher firing temperatures due to advanced materials and coatings. 73 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 BUCKETS Stage 1 Bucket (FS2H) Design The original design’s sharp leading edge has been blunted to allow more cooling air to flow to the leading edge. a precipitation hardened. GT-33 is a vacuum plasma spray coating.738 is changed to an Equiaxed (E/A) GTD-111. 74 of 119 VMG/AG . a greater low cycle fatigue. nickel-base super alloy. an increased resistance to through cracking. “INCOAT” refers to an aluminide coating on the cooling holes passages. It also provides the industry standard in corrosion resistance. Materials The original stage 1 bucket was IN. Coatings In 1997 the coating was changed again to GT-33 INCOAT. which reduces thermal gradients and cracks.

Materials The original bucket was made of U-700. In addition it has higher low cycle fatigue strength 75 of 119 VMG/AG Scalloping of bucket shroud Coating GT 33 INCOAT . also a precipitation-hardened.allows for higher firing temperatures. to improve rupture strength. nickelbase super alloy. the material was changed to GTD-111.30 June 09 BUCKETS Stage 2 Bucket (FS2F) Cooling The new stage 2 buckets contains internal air cooling . It resulted in 25% reduction in stress and 80% increase in creep life. Tip Shroud Shroud leading edge was scalloped & tip was thickened & shroud tapered.

nickel-based super alloy. and the underside of the shroud was tapered. 76 of 119 VMG/AG . it was changed to IN-738. These design changes resulted in an increase in creep life of the bucket. the shroud tip was thickened between the seal teeth. and the chord length increased. thus eliminating the process induced strain in the material.30 June 09 BUCKETS Stage 3 Bucket (FS2K) Design The trailing edge was thickened. the shroud leading edge was scalloped. Materials The stage 3 bucket was originally made of U-500. a precipitation hardened. Process Change A new process for the bucket which eliminates the need for the cold straightening step.

30 June 09 NOZZLES Stage 2 Nozzle (FS1P) 77 of 119 VMG/AG .

The body and hook fit are made of310 stainless steel and the cap is made of FSX-414. The two piece design is film cooled using airflow from the stage 2 nozzle to inhibit cracking.30 June 09 SHROUD BLOCKS Stage 1 Shroud Blocks (FS2C) The stage 1 shroud block was redesigned for the 2055°F/ 1124°C firing temperature. The film cooling required additional flow which translates into a performance loss. 78 of 119 VMG/AG . The main advantage of the two piece design is that it allows the damaged caps to be replaced without Having to remove the shroud block bodies or turbine nozzles.

ii. • • Honey Comb Shroud: Reduces Leakage Greater Rub Tolerance Requires Buckets with Cutter Teeth Provides a performance improvement up to 0.6% in both output and heat rate. 79 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 SHROUD BLOCKS Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Honey Comb Seal • i.

30 June 09 MATERIALS Turbine Blades Turbine Nozzles 80 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 MATERIALS Combustors Turbine Wheels 81 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 MATERIALS Compressor Blades 82 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Improvement in Firing Temperature with Blade Material 83 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Control Systems 84 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 RIL Gas Turbine Control System Due to non-availability of spares. 200 lacs per unit. 85 of 119 VMG/AG . Expected cost is Rs. Mark IV system at RIL sites are under proposal for upgrade to Mark VI.

Software Implemented Fault Tolerance Remote I/O capability Discrete Solid State Components ICs Relays & Solid State ICs & MPs ICs & microprocessor Display Analog and Digital Meters. Enhancement Integrated Circuits Micro-Processor TMR & CRT Display SIFT.30 June 09 GE Control System Advances System Type Introduced Total Shipped Sequencing Control Protection Mark I 1966 850 Relays Discrete Solid State Relays Analog Meters & Relay Annunciator Mark II 1973 1825 Mark II ITS 1976 356 Mark IV 1982 1080 TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor CRT & LED Aux. Display Membrane Switches Hardware Based Mark V 1991 530 TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor VGA Color Graphics Keyboard &/or CPD SIFT. Software Implemented Fault Tolerance Mark VI 2004 Ongoing TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor VGA Color Graphics Keyboard &/or CPD SIFT. VGA Graphics 86 of 119 VMG/AG . Solid State Annunciator Input Push buttons and bat handled switches Fault Tolerance Manually Rejects Failed Exhaust Thermocouples Automatic Rejects Failed T/Cs.

30 June 09 Introduction to Control Philosophy Control system Communicates with the turbine to Measure. adjust the parameters It also protects the turbine from abnormal operations 87 of 119 VMG/AG .

Basic Control Parameters of GT 2. Minimum Gate Concept of Six Control Loop       Start up Speed/Load Temperature Acceleration Manual Shut down Main Auxiliary 88 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Introduction to Control Philosophy Gas Turbine Controls 1.

30 June 09 NAP/KER HSD EXHAUST 84 dga BREAKER OPEN UNIT CONTROL DISPLAY IGV CRANK MOTOR AIR INLET CPD 8.75 % TNR 102.57 % SPREAD_1 30 deg C FSR 64 % MSG_FLD1 SIMPLE CYCLE MSG_FLD2 IGV FULL OPEN SC43 AUTO SC43F NAPTHA LIQUID FUEL 100 % RT NAP/KER Master Select OFF CRANK FIRE AUTO CO-GEN SIMPLE 89 of 119 Master Control START FAST START STOP DROOP Load Control BASE LOAD PRESEL MW SETPOINT Fuel Select GAS HSD NAP 100 75 50 25 0 LUBE OIL LOAD CONTROL RAISE ISOCH LOWER VMG/AG . Vib 7.55 barg Max.0 mm/sec GEAR BOX GENERATOR WATTS VARS PF FREQ NORMAL RUN STATUS SELECT2 PRESEL STATUS_FLD UNLOADING FSER_CONTROL SPEED-DROOP SPEED_LVL 14HS FLAME #A#B#C#D GT_SPEED 98.

30 June 09 Controlling and Monitoring Stage Link BOI Mark-V Panel Backup operator Interface <I> Station Turbine Generator 90 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 MARK-V CONTROL PANEL LAYOUT <I> Station <S> <R> <C> <T> < P> < PD > IONET DENET POWER STAGE LINK < QD1 > < CD > 91 of 119 VMG/AG .

 <C> communication processor. <S> and <T> control processor.  <R>. whenever loss of communication between the < I > station and Mark-V panel.  <P> protective processor.  <QD1> & <CD> input & output processor.30 June 09 The MARK-V Control System Description • The Mark-V control system has TMR (Triple Modular Redundant) configuration.  <PD> power distribution processor.  The <BOI> may be used to control the Turbine.  The < I > station is used to control the turbine. 92 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Simple Cycle Package Power Plant Starting Time * Time is in Minutes 93 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Generator Controls & Limit 94 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Dual Fuel transfer Characteristics.Gas to Liquid 95 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Turbine Fuel Control 96 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Gas Fuel Control System 97 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Liquid Fuel Control System 98 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Typical Gas Turbine Starting Characteristics 99 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Exhaust Temperature Control Temperature Controller ensures that the Turbine internals are protected from over heat and Optimum power is produced. Tf = Tx (Pcd/Pa) k 100 of 119 VMG/AG . The firing temperature is difficult to measure and hence the Controller uses the exhaust thermocouples as reference which is directly proportional to Firing Temperature.

The firing temperature remains constant even with increase in MW. FSR & CPR ratio with less exhaust temperatures. 101 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Exhaust/Firing Temperature Relation Curve comparing the load at different ambient.

35 %/sec 0.30 June 09 Acceleration Control 0.10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100% TNH Acceleration Control functions during sudden Load Changes and Start Up 102 of 119 VMG/AG .

103 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Manual Control Manual Control Loop Can be used to limit fuel to prevent over firing and over riding active control.

FSRSD is the minimum of Six Control Loops 104 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Shut Down Control Shut down control loop reduces the fuel at a predetermined during shut down to reduce thermal stresses.

30 June 09 IGV Control IGV Control Loop • Controls air fuel ratio • Prevents Compressor Pulsations 105 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 IGV Control IGV scheduling is required to ensure the protection from Pulsation/Stall by excessive opening at lower speeds/loads and negative pressures at partial loads by less opening IGV Schedule Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loads for Combined Cycle Operation 106 of 119 VMG/AG .

varies for simple and combined cycle operations. CPD IGV control reference Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loads for Combined Cycle Operation 107 of 119 VMG/AG . IGV temperature control never exceeds the base temperature control set point.30 June 09 IGV Control Isothermal The exhaust temp.

30 June 09 Performance Benchmarking 108 of 119 VMG/AG .

• Un-earth and explore the outstanding Reliability issues.30 June 09 Purpose of Benchmarking • Gives feed back on relative performance. 109 of 119 VMG/AG . • Target the initiatives for sustainable development. • Highlight the areas for improvement. • Indicating opportunities for improvement.

Heat rate (Open cycle/Co-gen) . of Forced shutdowns . Power & Steam Cost .Fuel. Power .No.Fuel efficiency improvement Index Fuel . of Unplanned shutdowns hrs % Availability accounting for .30 June 09 Gas Turbine Key Performance Indicators % Reliability accounting for .No.Efficiency (Open cycle/Co-gen) .No. of Emergency trips .MTBF Key performance indicators . Steam Costs & Grid Power Bill .Percentage increase in Grid Power Consumption .Fuel & Grid Power Bill 110 of 119 VMG/AG .Outage duration .

– RIL benchmark for not more than 1 trip/year for one equipment. 111 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance • Number of Emergency Trips • Number of forced shutdowns – These are numbers which indicate the number of equipment trips in each category.

– RIL has a systematic budget approach targeting planned shutdown hours for all the equipment.30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance • Number of unplanned shut down hours – This is number which indicates the number of unplanned shutdown hours in each category. – The Down time hours include planned and unplanned shutdown hours. 112 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance • GT open cycle heat rate Total direct fuel fired in GT in Kcal Power generated from GT in kwh • GT/HRSG Co-gen Efficiency  GT/HRSG Co-gen efficiency = ((A+B)/(C+D))*100 where • A= GT power generation in thermal units • B= HRSG steam generation in thermal units • C= Fuel input to GT in thermal units • D= Fuel input to HRSG supp firing in thermal units 113 of 119 VMG/AG .

 STG Efficiency = (A+B/C)*100 where • A = ST power generation in thermal units • B = Steam generation in thermal units • C = Steam energy input at Steam turbine inlet in thermal units 114 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance STG Cycle Efficiency This is the efficiency in % for STG.

30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance Auxiliary Boiler Thermal Efficiency This is the efficiency in % for Auxiliary Boiler.  Aux Boiler Efficiency = (A/B)*100 where • A = Aux boiler steam generation in thermal units • B = Fuel energy input to boilers in thermal units 115 of 119 VMG/AG .

30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance • Overall fuel utilization efficiency – This is the combined efficiency of the CPP in % – Overall Fuel utilization efficiency =((A+B+C)/(D+E+F))*100 • where • A= GT power generation in thermal units • B= ST power generation in thermal units • C= Steam extraction+PRDS steam energy in thermal units • D= GT input fuel in thermal units • E= HRSG input suppl. fuel in thermal units • F=Aux boiler input fuel in thermal units 116 of 119 VMG/AG .

that indicates fuel efficiency improvement to reference period. • Fuel efficiency improvement index is then = A / B where A = Fuel efficiency for the current period B = Fuel efficiency for the reference period overall 117 of 119 VMG/AG .30 June 09 Benchmarking at a Glance • Fuel efficiency improvement index – This is the number in %.

CPP Benchmarking Criteria Based on Key performance indicators. Ranking allotted to plants Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2008-’09 Jamnagar Hazira Nagothane Baroda Gandhar Patalganga 2007-’08 Baroda Hazira Jamnagar Nagothane Gandhar Patalganga 2006-’07 Patalganga Jamnagar Hazira Gandhar Baroda Nagothane 118 of 119 VMG/AG . No.30 June 09 RIL .

30 June 09 Thank You 119 of 119 VMG/AG .