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## Sections

• 7 Overview of the simulation
• 7.1 General work description
• 7.2 General flowchart for ex1
• 7.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1
• 8 Start instructions
• 8.1 How to read the manual
• 8.2 Installation of software
• 8.3 Start the program
• 8.3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE
• 8.3.2 Create Model Database
• 8.3.3 ABAQUS 6.4 work area
• 8.3.4 Generate model database
• 9 Modelling
• 9.1 Create the model
• 9.1.1 Create part for ex1
• 9.1.2 Split the model in partitions
• 9.2 Assign the material properties
• 9.2.1 Material properties
• 9.2.2 Create and assign section
• 9.2.3 Absolute zero temperature
• 9.2.4 Create the .tdt-file
• 9.3 Create the assembly
• 9.4 Create Boundary Conditions
• 9.4.1 Displacement/rotation
• 9.4.2 Symmetry
• 9.5 Create Mesh
• 9.6 Define initial conditions
• 9.6.1 Temperature
• 9.6.2 Create the .inp-file
• 10 Solve the problem
• 11 Post processing
• 11.1 SDV results
• 11.2 Plot the results
• 11.2.1 Plot the stress result
• 11.2.2 Animate the stress result
• 11.2.3 Plot the temperature result
• 12 Discussion
• 12.1 Generated files
• 12.2 Results
• 12.3 Approximations
• 13 References

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DEGREE PROJECT
2004:M028
Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson
Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

DEGREE PROJECT
i
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis
Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson
Summary

The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with
the FEA-program ABAQUS. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB
in Gothenburg.

Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. To
simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials, the company
would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. This project is one step in
their development of the simulation routine.

To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process, the
subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS.

This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. The model is created in
the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. When the modelling is finished an input data file
is created. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined
subroutines. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST.

The results of this simulation will be written into two different files, one file is a text file
containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of
nodal temperature and displacement.

Publisher: University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Department of Technology, Mathematics and
Computer Science, Box 957, S-461 29 Trollhättan, SWEDEN
Phone: +46 520 47 50 00 Fax: +46 520 47 50 99 Web: www.htu.se
Examiner: Niklas J ärvstråt
Advisor: Per Lindström, Kvaerner Power AB
Subject: Mechanical Engineering Language: English
Level: Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish, 15 ECTS credits
Number: 2004:M028 Date: J une, 2004
Keywords ABAQUS, Welding, Simulation, TRAST, Phase transformation, Residual stresses
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

ii
Preface

We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas J ärvstråt at the University of
Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. We also
want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this
project.
J ohan Elofsson and Per Martinsson
Trollhättan, 2004
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

iii
Contents
Summary.............................................................................................................................i
Preface.............................................................................................................................. ii
List of symbols..................................................................................................................v
List of symbols..................................................................................................................v
1 Introduction...................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background............................................................................................................1
1.2 Aim.........................................................................................................................1
1.3 Limitations .............................................................................................................2
2 FEA...............................................................................................................................2
2.1 General Knowledge ...............................................................................................2
2.2 General modelling in FEA.....................................................................................2
2.2.1 Creating the model .................................................................................................................2
2.2.2 Meshing the model.................................................................................................................3
2.2.4 Results....................................................................................................................................3
3 Technical equipment.....................................................................................................4
3.1 Used hardware.......................................................................................................4
3.2 Used Software........................................................................................................4
4 Material properties........................................................................................................4
5 Conclusions...................................................................................................................5
5.1 Reflections..............................................................................................................5
5.2 Recommendations for further work .......................................................................5
6 References.....................................................................................................................6
7 Overview of the simulation...........................................................................................1
7.1 General work description ......................................................................................1
7.2 General flowchart for ex1......................................................................................2
7.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1.....................................................................................3
8 Start instructions...........................................................................................................4
8.1 How to read the manual ........................................................................................4
8.2 Installation of software..........................................................................................4
8.3 Start the program...................................................................................................5
8.3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE .............................................................................................................5
8.3.2 Create Model Database..........................................................................................................5
8.3.3 ABAQUS 6.4 work area........................................................................................................5
8.3.4 Generate model database.......................................................................................................6
9 Modelling......................................................................................................................6
9.1 Create the model....................................................................................................6
9.1.1 Create part for ex1.................................................................................................................6
9.1.2 Split the model in partitions...................................................................................................8
9.2 Assign the material properties...............................................................................9
9.2.1 Material properties...............................................................................................................10
9.2.2 Create and assign section.....................................................................................................12
9.2.3 Absolute zero temperature...................................................................................................12
9.2.4 Create the .tdt-file................................................................................................................12
9.3 Create the assembly.............................................................................................13
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

iv
9.4 Create Boundary Conditions ...............................................................................14
9.4.1 Displacement/rotation..........................................................................................................14
9.4.2 Symmetry.............................................................................................................................15
9.5 Create Mesh.........................................................................................................16
9.5.1 Create Sets............................................................................................................................18
9.6 Define initial conditions ......................................................................................18
9.6.1 Temperature.........................................................................................................................18
9.6.2 Create the .inp-file...............................................................................................................19
9.6.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the
.inp-file.................................................................................................................................19
10 Solve the problem.......................................................................................................23
11 Post processing...........................................................................................................23
11.1 SDV results ..........................................................................................................23
11.2 Plot the results .....................................................................................................24
11.2.1 Plot the stress result.............................................................................................................24
11.2.2 Animate the stress result......................................................................................................25
11.2.3 Plot the temperature result...................................................................................................26
12 Discussion...................................................................................................................27
12.1 Generated files.....................................................................................................27
12.2 Results..................................................................................................................27
12.3 Approximations....................................................................................................27
13 References...................................................................................................................28
Appendices
A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

v
List of symbols

FEA =Finite Element Analysis
MAG =Metal Active Gas
PC =Personal Computer
SDV =Solution Dependent Variables
* =Command
** =Comment
NT =Nodal Temperature
U =Displacement
S =Stresses
E =Total strain
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

1
1 Introduction
This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in
Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU).
The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004.
The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding
simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST.

1.1 Background
Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation
system for the global pulp and paper industry e.g. power boilers, evaporators.
The company delivers power boilers worldwide, from small units to giant tailor-made
boilers. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years
of experience. To satisfy their client’s high demands, the company has an intense focus
on research and development [1].
The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved
welding routines. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding
department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEA-
program. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the
development.
The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this
simulation. One project has already been done. That project was a master thesis that
concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2].

1.2 Aim
The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. The
software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. This simulation
with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase
transformations in the material.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

2
1.3 Limitations
The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. The welding
process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. The
energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler
material. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. Several
simplifications will be used.

2 FEA
2.1 General Knowledge
FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made
models. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a
model that is built up by small elements. FEA can be used in some different types of
simulations e g structural, thermal, fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3].
The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. The first
FEA calculations were made without computer help. There were “simple” analyses of
beam structures. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their
development of new products. Then the car industries and middle size companies have
followed. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the
FEA-programs are improved, even small companies can use the technology.

2.2 General modelling in FEA
2.2.1 Creating the model
The first step is to create or import a model. There are possibilities to create the model
in the FEA–programs, but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling.
The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. It is important to
make the model as simple as possible. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small
details, to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

3
2.2.2 Meshing the model
Next step is to mesh the model. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements.
The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time.
Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. Too few
elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much
from reality.
One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas
When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to
avoid great miscalculations of the stresses.

Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions. There are many different kinds of
loads e g temperature, surface-, point- , line-loads etc. To get results with small
deviation from the reality, it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are
applied. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on
the model, it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. Point
loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist
in reality.

2.2.4 Results
The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. It is important to be
aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in
the FEA program. The results from FEA are not 100% correct.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

4
3 Technical equipment
The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage. This
may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4]
3.1 Used hardware
Processor (CPU) speed: 2.8 GHz
RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB
Monitor: 21”
HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB
3.2 Used Software
Operating system: Windows XP
FEA-program: ABAQUS 6.4-2
Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++6.0
Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation,
taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6.4-2
4 Material properties
The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. To
be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. For
example decide if (m, N, Pa) will be used.
The material data used in this simulation are:
Young’s modulus
Poisson’s ratio
Density
Specific heat
Conductivity
Enthalpy
Thermal expansion
Data from IT-diagram
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

5
5 Conclusions
5.1 Reflections
The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. ABAQUS is developed for users that
are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. These files contain data
such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. The interactive
part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. For example creating different
models and give them their boundaries etc. It is also used for plotting the results.
ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. The permanent opportunity of
linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information.
The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem.
Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands, but it’s not giving the
step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files.

5.2 Recommendations for further work
To be able to get good results from the simulation, the appropriate material data for a
specific material must be collected. In this project material data from different materials
has been used in the simulation. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to
get. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material
data.
If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created, the results between
the simulation and an experiment could be compared.
Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13].
In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler
material. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. The
amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%, body flux 21%
and surface flux 41% [10].
One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat
source model as a semi-ovaloid [11].
To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should
be homogeneous. In this simulation it is not. This problem occurs when the plate and
the filler share a number of nodes. The initial temperature of both the filler material and
the plate is given to these shared nodes. One possible way to solve this problem is to
model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes.
Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot.
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

6
6 References
1. Kvaerner Power AB, homepage, http://www.akerkvaerner.com
2. Maneli Faraji, “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for
an industrial application”, Master thesis, Chalmers University of Technology
2004.
3. Kjell Niklasson, ”Allmänt om FEM”, University of HTU 2000.
4. Abaqus system requirements,
http://www.abaqus.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts.html#win32
5. P. Michaleris and A. DeBiccari, “Prediction of Welding Distortion”, Welding
J ournal Research Supplement, 1997, pp.172-181
6. P. Michaleris, J . Dantzig and D. Tortrelli, “Minimizing of Welding Residual
Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”, Welding J ournal Research
Supplement, Nov. 1999, pp.361-366
7. B. A. B Andersson, “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint
Considering Phase Transformations”, Transactions of the ASME. J ournal of
Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol.100 Issue.4, 1978, pp.356-362
8. C. T. Karlsson, “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a
Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material
Modelling”, Engineering Computations, Swansea, Wales, 1989, Vol.6, pp133-
141
9. B. Taljat, T. Zacharia, X.-L. Wang, J . R. Keiser, R. W. Swindeman, Z. Feng and
M. J . J irinec, ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with
Spiral Weld Cladding”, Welding J ournal Research Supplement, Aug. 1998,
pp.328-335
10. J an Langkjær Hansen, “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”,
Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Denmark 2003.
11. Dieter Radaj, “Heat effects of welding”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg,
1992.
12. G. F. Vander Voort, “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”,
USA 1991.
13. Niklas J ärvstråt, ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”,
LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45, Institute of Technology, Linköping 1990, pp I:10.
14. N. J ärvstråt, S. Sjösröm, “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”, 1995
Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis

A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine
TRAST7

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DEGREE PROJECT
2004:M028
Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson
Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2
with
HETVAL Subroutine from
TRAST7

i
Contents

7 Overview of the simulation...........................................................................................1
7.1 General work description ......................................................................................1
7.2 General flowchart for ex1......................................................................................2
7.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1.....................................................................................3
8 Start instructions...........................................................................................................4
8.1 How to read the manual ........................................................................................4
8.2 Installation of software..........................................................................................4
8.3 Start the program...................................................................................................5
8.3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE .............................................................................................................5
8.3.2 Create Model Database..........................................................................................................5
8.3.3 ABAQUS 6.4 work area........................................................................................................5
8.3.4 Generate model database.......................................................................................................6
9 Modelling......................................................................................................................6
9.1 Create the model....................................................................................................6
9.1.1 Create part for ex1.................................................................................................................6
9.1.2 Split the model in partitions...................................................................................................8
9.2 Assign the material properties...............................................................................9
9.2.1 Material properties...............................................................................................................10
9.2.2 Create and assign section.....................................................................................................12
9.2.3 Absolute zero temperature...................................................................................................12
9.2.4 Create the .tdt-file................................................................................................................12
9.3 Create the assembly.............................................................................................13
9.4 Create Boundary Conditions ...............................................................................14
9.4.1 Displacement/rotation..........................................................................................................14
9.4.2 Symmetry.............................................................................................................................15
9.5 Create Mesh.........................................................................................................16
9.5.1 Create Sets............................................................................................................................18
9.6 Define initial conditions ......................................................................................18
9.6.1 Temperature.........................................................................................................................18
9.6.2 Create the .inp-file...............................................................................................................19
9.6.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the
.inp-file.................................................................................................................................19
10 Solve the problem.......................................................................................................23
11 Post processing...........................................................................................................23
11.1 SDV results ..........................................................................................................23
11.2 Plot the results .....................................................................................................24
11.2.1 Plot the stress result.............................................................................................................24
11.2.2 Animate the stress result......................................................................................................25
11.2.3 Plot the temperature result...................................................................................................26
12 Discussion...................................................................................................................27
12.1 Generated files.....................................................................................................27
12.2 Results..................................................................................................................27
12.3 Approximations....................................................................................................27
13 References...................................................................................................................28

ii

Appendices
B Appendix .inp-file
C Appendix .inc-file
D Appendix .tdt-file
E Appendix .dat-file

1
7 Overview of the simulation
7.1 General work description

Create input data
Assign material
data
Create mesh
Solve the problem
Plot the results
Assign boundary
conditions
• Define initial
conditions
• Call the subroutine
HETVAL
• Create .inc-file
Create the model
• Create .tdt-file

2

7.2 General flowchart for ex1

ABAQUS/CAE (modelling)
ex1.inp ex1.inc vtt.tdt
ABAQUS (solver) Trast7_tv
ex1.odb ex1.dat
ABAQUS/CAE (post processing)

3
7.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1

ex1.inp
• Edit inp-file 4.1
• Make ABAQUS
call the subroutine
HETVAL from
TRAST.
• Give the initial
conditions to the
different phases in
HETVAL
ex1.inc
• Create inc-file
4.2
• Give the step
data for the
simulation ex1.
• Request the
result of SDV
from HETVAL
in TRAST
vtt.tdt
• Create tdt-file
4.3
• Give the
material data
that HETVAL
requires for
calculation of
the phase
transformations.
ABAQUS (solver)
• Solve the problem in
ABAQUS command
window 4.5
subroutines in Trast7_tv.
Trast7_tv
• Contains the
subroutine
HETVAL, that
calculate the phase
transformation.
ex1.odb
• Contain the results
ABAQUS/CAE 5.2
ex1.dat
• Contain the results from
the different phase
transformations 5.1
ABAQUS/CAE (post processing)
• Plotting the results for temperature, stresses
and displacement 5.2
ABAQUS/CAE (modelling)
• Create model 3.1
• Assign the material properties 3.2
• Create assembly 3.3
• Create boundary conditions 3.4
• Create Mesh 3.5
• Create Sets and Fields 3.7-3.8
• Create .inp-file 3.9

4
8 Start instructions
8.1 How to read the manual
This description shows generally how to follow the manual.
When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | | , it means that the user
should “click” on this icon.
When the text is Italic, it is a describing sentence for the particular step.
Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.
It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).

8.2 Installation of software
Install ABAQUS 6.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler.
Before the simulation can start, the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked
with ABAQUS.
Copy the subroutine trast7_tv.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv.for, so that
it is recognised as a Fortran source code file.
START > My Computer > C: > Temp
Open trast7_tv.for
Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL
in ABAQUS. [3]
For this simulation in ABAQUS 6.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine
HETVAL is:
SUBROUTINE HETVAL
(CMNAME,TEMP,TIME,DTIME,SVAR,FLUX,PREDEF,DPRED)
Check that the dimensions are correct:
DIMENSION TEMP(2), SVAR(9), PREDEF(*),TIME(2), FLUX(2), DPRED(*)

This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created. (4.5)

5
8.3 Start the program
8.3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE
START > Program > ABAQUS 6.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE

8.3.2 Create Model Database
When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be
created or an old model should be opened.
The “Start Session” window pops up. | Create Model Database |

8.3.3 ABAQUS 6.4 work area
These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.
(Figure 1)
Figure 1

6
8.3.4 Generate model database
To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in
a model database.
Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.
Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK |

9 Modelling
9.1 Create the model
9.1.1 Create part for ex1
The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical
dimensions. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD
program.

Context bar >Module >Part (Figure 2)

Figure 2

Toolbox area >Create Part
The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: Part-1

7
Modeling Space: 3D
Type: Deformable
Base Feature: Solid, Extrusion
Approximate size: 0.2
| continue |

Toolbox area >Create Lines: Rectangle >Prompt area >Give the coordinates for the
first corner: 0, 0 | Enter |
Prompt area >Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.1, 0.01 | Enter |
Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle >Prompt area >| Done | The “Edit Base
Extrusion” window pops up. Give the depth of the model: 0.05 | OK | (Figure 3)

Figure 3

8
9.1.2 Split the model in partitions
The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. To simplify
the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. These groups of
elements (sets) must be named. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into
partitions.
This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material.
First step is to divide the model into two parts, filler material and the plate.
Toolbox area >Create Datum Points >Prompt area >Give the coordinates for the first
point: 0, 0, 0.045 | Enter |
Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0, 0.01, 0.045) | Enter |
Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0.1, 0, 0.045) | Enter |
Toolbox area > Partition Cell >Prompt area > 3 Points
Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 |
Prompt area >| Create Partition | Done |
Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions.

Toolbox area > Create Cell >Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned
Prompt area > | Done |
Prompt area >| 3 Points |
>Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material
>Prompt area >| Create Partition |
>Repeat the last step until all partitions are created
> | Done | (Figure 4)

9
Figure 4

9.2 Assign the material properties
In this step the material properties is given to the model. The name of the material is
also given. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used, as it is in this simulation, the
material name must be identical with the name of the .tdt-file. The creation of the .tdt-
file is described in 4.3.
The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. This data is not
from a specific material. The data for density, specific heat, conductivity and the
enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The thermal expansion is taken from a
welding journal [5]. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary
table for structure material [6].
The material data in the .tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. This material
data is collected from an IT-diagram. Pick a number of points for each phase and read
the result from the diagram. For points when the time variable is short, it is very
important that the reading is accurate.
In this simulation the material data are:
Young’s modulus
Poisson’s Ratio
Density

10
Conductivity
Specific Heat
Thermal expansion
Enthalpy
IT-diagram

9.2.1 Material properties
Context bar >Module > Property
Toolbox area >Create Material >The ”Edit Material” window pops up.
Type the material name: VTT
General > Density > 7.81E3
Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9
Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3

9 variables are assigned by HETVAL. [4]
General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9
To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”.
To make more rows, place the “cursor” in the window and right click.
Select “Insert Row After”. (Figure 5)

Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp. Temp.
0.0 0
12E-6 125
13E-6 250
14E-6 500
15E-6 750
16E-6 900
18E-6 1200

11
Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Cond. Temp.
43.5 0
42.5 200
37.7 400
33.1 600
29.0 800
30.0 1000
Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: Spec. Temp.
473.8 0
502.0 100
551.9 300
650.5 500
851.5 700
563.4 900

| OK | (Figure 5)

Figure 5

12
9.2.2 Create and assign section
In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.
Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up.
Name: Section 1
Category: Solid
Type: Homogeneous | continue |
The “Edit Section” window pops up
Pick material: VTT | OK |

Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window”
Prompt area > | Done |
The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done |

9.2.3 Absolute zero temperature
The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.
Menu bar >Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1
The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up
Write: -273.15 (for Celsius) | OK |

9.2.4 Create the .tdt-file
The .tdt-file is a user defined input file. It contains the IT-diagram for the material. The
data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase
transformations.
START > Program > accessories > wordpad
Open an old .tdt-file or create a new. In this simulation an old .tdt-file has been used
(see Appendix C).
The .tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description):
IPH =The material phase condition.
CEUT =Eutectic carbon content.

13
The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of
phase constituent for each phase (IPH). These values (VL and VR) indicate how much
of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. These results are shown as
curves in the IT-diagram. It is usually 1% and 99%.
CC =Carbon content in the material.
TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). This
variable is read from the IT-diagram
TES =Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). This variable
VEQ =Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase.
LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each
phase. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. The vertical axis is the temperature
(Celsius degrees). Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. Then
read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. In this simulation eleven points are used
to show the different values on the curve. It is also important that the points are picked
so they give a good reflection of the curve.
LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each
phase. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. When a temperature is
selected, read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. The
use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a
extremely long time intervals are considered.
HS =The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase.

Appendix C

9.3 Create the assembly
If the model contains several parts, it is possible to create one model assembly of these
parts. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the
assembly.
Context bar >Module >Assembly
Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up.
Pick: Part 1-1 | OK |

14
9.4 Create Boundary Conditions
To get accurate results from the simulation, it is important that the model have correct
boundary conditions. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by
using symmetry. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. To prevent
the model to translate along the X- and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to
selected areas.
9.4.1 Displacement/rotation
Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the
XY-plane
Toolbox area >Create Boundary Condition >The “Create Boundary Condition”
window pops up.
Pick: Mechanical, Displacement/Rotation | continue |

Prompt area >Show/Hide Selection Option >The “Options” window pops up.
(Figure 6)

Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen
Place the marker over the hidden back >The top area is selected
To be able to select the back >Prompt area >| Next | OK | Done |
The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.
Select: U3 and UR3 | OK |
Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis
Select a point in the XY-plane. Repeat the previous instructions
Select: U1 | OK |

15

Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and
rotate around Z-axis. Pick the upper line on the back of the model. Repeat the previous
instructions
Select: U2 | OK |

9.4.2 Symmetry
Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane
Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition”
window pops up.
Pick: Mechanical, Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue |
Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up.
Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen
Pick one symmetry-area | Done |
The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.
Select: ZSYMM | OK |

Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7)

16

Figure 7

9.5 Create Mesh
In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for
accuracy. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model.
Context bar >Module > Mesh
Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size
Prompt area >0.005 | Enter | Enter |

Toolbox area >Assign mesh controls >The “Options” window pops up.
Select the whole model with a “window”.
Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.
Pick: Hex, Structured | OK |
Prompt area > | Done |

17
Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up.
Select the whole model with a “window”.
Prompt area >| Done | The ”element type” window pops up.

Select: Element Library: Standard
Geometric Order: Linear
Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement

| OK | Prompt area >| Done |
Toolbox area >Mesh part instance >Prompt area >| Yes | (Figure 8)

Figure 8

18
9.5.1 Create Sets
In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names.
These groups are called “sets”.
Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up
| Create | The “Create Set” window pops up
Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up
Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen”
Pick a surface on the first partition >Prompt area >| Next | (to select the whole volume
of the partition)
Prompt area | OK | Done |

Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names:
ELEMENT1, …., ELEMENT8.
| Dismiss |

9.6 Define initial conditions
9.6.1 Temperature
To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature, they must be assigned to a
field.
Menu bar >Field > Manager >The “Field Manager” window pops up

| Create | The “Create Field” window pops up
Category: Other, Temperature | Continue |
Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done |
Magnitude: 20 | OK |

| Create | The “Create Field” window pops up
Category: Other, Temperature | Continue |
Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done |

19
Magnitude: 2000 | OK |
| Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.6.3)
9.6.2 Create the .inp-file
This step will create the .inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.1-
3.6).

Context bar >Module >J ob
Toolbox area >Create J ob >The “Create J ob” window pops up
Pick name: exempel1 | Continue |
The “Edit J ob” window pops up | OK |

Toolbox area >J ob Manager >The ”J ob Manager” window pops up (Figure 9)
| Write Input | Dismiss |

Figure 9

9.6.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in
the .inp-file

START > My Computer > C: > Temp
Open the file: ex1.inp (with e.g. notepad)
This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2]. (The
subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS, see 2.2)

20
**
** MATERIALS
**
*Material, name=VTT
*HEAT GENERATION
**

To assign initial conditions, a set that contain the whole model must be used. The set
that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. This set is created by the program
when the material data is assigned to the model. The name of this set is found in the
.inp-file. This is an example from the .inp-file (Appendix B)

** Section: Section-1
*Solid Section, elset=_PickedSet13, material=VTT
1.,
*End Instance

The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is
used. Add these strings to the .inp-fil, and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the
material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. These
variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. Variable 1-6 are
the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4]. The sum of variables 1-6 must
be equal to 1.

These strings should be reordered after the material data.

**
*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=20
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=1
_PickedSet13, 1.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=2
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=3
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=4
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=5
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=6
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=7
_PickedSet13, 0.0
**

21
Add this string last of all to include the separate .inc-file that contains the step data:
*include,input=ex1.inc

File > Save
Appendix A

The .inc-file contains all the step data. This file is written in “Notepad”. It is also
possibly to reuse old .inc-files. In this simulation some parts of the .inc-file has been
copied from an old simulation. It is also possible to copy the step information from the
.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution.

START > Program > Accessories > Notepad
In the inc-file the information for each step is created, these steps will be included in the
calculation of the results.
An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one, edit and save it with a new
name.
File > Save as
Save in directory C:\Temp
File name: ex1.inc | Save |

This is a part of the ex1.inc-file. In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed, In step 2-8 the
elements are added one by one.

In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. One way to
view these results is to write them into the .dat-file.
The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results
for ELEMENT2 to the .dat-file [3].

** STEP: Step-1
**
*Step, name=Step-1
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,

22
**
*MODEL CHANGE, REMOVE
ELEMENT2, ELEMENT3, ELEMENT4, ELEMENT5, ELEMENT6, ELEMENT7,
ELEMENT8
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
**
*End Step
** ----------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-2
**
*Step, name=Step-2
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
ELEMENT2,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ----------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix B

23
10 Solve the problem
The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv.for and creates a
number of files ( 7.1). One is the .odb-file. This file makes it possible to plot the results
in ABAQUS/CAE.

START > Program > ABAQUS 6.4 > ABAQUS Command

Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp>
Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1.inp | Enter | (Figure 10)
The .odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp

Figure 10

11 Post processing
11.1 SDV results
The SDV results are written to the .dat-flie. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2
are written for every increment in each step.

Open ex1.dat with notepad. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each
step in the file.

Appendix D

24
11.2 Plot the results
The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .odb-file will be opened
in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.

11.2.1 Plot the stress result
Open ABAQUS/CAE
Menu bar > File > Open >The ”Open Database” window pops up
Change File Filter: Output Database(*.odb)
Select: ex1.odb | OK | (Figure 11)

25
11.2.2 Animate the stress result
Toolbox area >Plot Contours >Toolbox area >Animate: Time History

Figure 11

26
11.2.3 Plot the temperature result
Menu bar >Result > Field Output >The “Field Output” window pops up
Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12)

Figure 12

27
12 Discussion
12.1 Generated files
.inp-file: In data file. This file contains the models geometrical data, sets, material data,
boundaries, commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file.
.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation. The file also contains the
commands for the output results.
.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in
progress.
.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation.
.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation
stops due to fails. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used.
.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings, the .dat-file will direct to the .msg-
file. The .msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation.
.odb-file: This file is the result-file. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and
plot the results with contour plot.

12.2 Results
The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in
ABAQUS 6.4. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST. It is addressed to first time
users in ABAQUS. For the manual to be useful, the user should have some FEA
experience. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge.

12.3 Approximations
When the filler material is simulated, sets with elements are created. These sets are
named. In the first step the elements are removed. Then they are added one by one in
each step. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material.
To reduce time in the simulations, it is a good idea to have a separate step file. The .inc-
file can be saved and reused. This will reduce the need of making step data for every
simulation.

28
13 References
15. ABAQUS support, http://www.abaqus.com
16. Niklas J ärvstråt, ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”,
LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45, Institute of Technology, Linköping 1990, pp I:4.
17. ABAQUS documentation
18. N. J ärvstråt, S. Sjösröm, “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”, 1995
19. B. Taljat, T. Zacharia, X.-L. Wang, J . R. Keiser, R. W. Swindeman, Z. Feng and
M. J . J irinec, ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with
Spiral Weld Cladding”, Welding J ournal Research Supplement, Aug. 1998,
pp.328-335
i Göteborg AB, 1999

B Appendix .inp-file

** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1
*Preprint, echo=NO, model=NO, history=NO, contact=NO
**
** PARTS
**
*Part, name=Part-1
*End Part
**
** ASSEMBLY
**
*Assembly, name=Assembly
**
*Instance, name=Part-1-1, part=Part-1
*Node
1, 0.0875, 0.01, 0.045
2, 0.0875, 0.01, 0.05
3, 0.1, 0.01, 0.05
4, 0.1, 0.01, 0.045
5, 0.0875, 0., 0.05
6, 0.1, 0., 0.05
7, 0.1, 0., 0.045
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

455, 0.00625, 0.005, 0.03214286
456, 0.00625, 0.005, 0.02571429
457, 0.00625, 0.005, 0.01928571
458, 0.00625, 0.005, 0.01285714
459, 0.00625, 0.005, 0.006428571
*Element, type=C3D8T
1, 46, 48, 148, 147, 1, 2, 41, 42
2, 147, 148, 47, 45, 42, 41, 3, 4
3, 8, 5, 43, 44, 46, 48, 148, 147
4, 44, 43, 6, 7, 147, 148, 47, 45
5, 54, 56, 150, 149, 9, 10, 49, 50
6, 149, 150, 55, 53, 50, 49, 11, 12
7, 16, 13, 51, 52, 54, 56, 150, 149
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
251, 112, 172, 106, 40, 262, 459, 368, 127
252, 172, 100, 39, 106, 459, 352, 129, 368
253, 13, 56, 54, 16, 128, 353, 369, 145
254, 56, 10, 9, 54, 353, 144, 146, 369
255, 128, 353, 369, 145, 35, 82, 81, 36
256, 353, 144, 146, 369, 82, 33, 34, 81
** Region: (Section-1:Picked)
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet13, internal, generate
1, 256, 1
** Section: Section-1
*Solid Section, elset=_PickedSet13, material=VTT
1.,
*End Instance

*Nset, nset=_PickedSet4, internal, instance=Part-1-1
37, 38, 39, 40, 93, 106, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119,
120, 121, 122
123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,
137, 138, 139
140, 141, 142, 143, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362,
363, 364, 365
366, 367, 368
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet4, internal, instance=Part-1-1
41, 42, 55, 56, 69, 70, 83, 84, 97, 98, 111, 112, 125,
126, 139, 140
153, 154, 167, 168, 181, 182, 195, 196, 209, 210, 223, 224, 237,
238, 251, 252
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet5, internal, instance=Part-1-1
40,
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet6, internal, instance=Part-1-1
26, 27, 29, 30, 69, 71, 75, 76, 156
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet6, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
17, 20, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet7, internal, instance=Part-1-1
19, 22, 26, 29, 67, 76, 84, 86, 159
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet7, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
25, 28, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet8, internal, instance=Part-1-1
18, 19, 21, 22, 61, 63, 67, 68, 154
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet8, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
13, 16, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet9, internal, instance=Part-1-1
18, 21, 34, 36, 68, 78, 80, 81, 157
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet9, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
21, 24, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet10, internal, instance=Part-1-1
9, 16, 34, 36, 54, 81, 145, 146, 369
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet10, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
253, 256, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet11, internal, instance=Part-1-1
9, 12, 15, 16, 50, 52, 53, 54, 149
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet11, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
5, 8, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet12, internal, instance=Part-1-1
2, 5, 12, 15, 48, 53, 58, 60, 151
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet12, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
9, 12, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet13, internal, instance=Part-1-1
2, 3, 5, 6, 41, 43, 47, 48, 148
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet13, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
1, 4, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT1, instance=Part-1-1
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,
74, 75, 76
155, 156
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT1, instance=Part-1-1, generate
17, 20, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT2, instance=Part-1-1
19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 32, 65, 67, 74, 76, 83,
84, 85, 86
159, 160
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT2, instance=Part-1-1, generate
25, 28, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT3, instance=Part-1-1
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65,
66, 67, 68
153, 154
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT3, instance=Part-1-1, generate
13, 16, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT4, instance=Part-1-1

17, 18, 21, 24, 33, 34, 35, 36, 66, 68, 77, 78, 79,
80, 81, 82
157, 158
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT4, instance=Part-1-1, generate
21, 24, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT5, instance=Part-1-1
9, 10, 13, 16, 33, 34, 35, 36, 54, 56, 81, 82, 128,
144, 145, 146
353, 369
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT5, instance=Part-1-1, generate
253, 256, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT6, instance=Part-1-1
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 56
149, 150
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT6, instance=Part-1-1, generate
5, 8, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT7, instance=Part-1-1
1, 2, 5, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 46, 48, 53, 55, 57,
58, 59, 60
151, 152
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT7, instance=Part-1-1, generate
9, 12, 1
*Nset, nset=ELEMENT8, instance=Part-1-1
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
46, 47, 48
147, 148
*Elset, elset=ELEMENT8, instance=Part-1-1, generate
1, 4, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet26, internal, instance=Part-1-1
1, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 24, 25,
28, 31, 32
33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 49, 51, 55,
56, 57, 59
62, 64, 65, 66, 70, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 82, 83, 85,
87, 88, 89
90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102,
103, 104, 105
106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118,
119, 120, 121
122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 137
138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 147, 150, 152, 153, 155, 158,
160, 161, 162
163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175,
176, 177, 178
179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,
192, 193, 194
195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207,
208, 209, 210
211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223,
224, 225, 226
227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239,
240, 241, 242
243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255,
256, 257, 258
259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271,
272, 273, 274
275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287,
288, 289, 290
291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303,
304, 305, 306
307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319,
320, 321, 322
323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335,
336, 337, 338

339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351,
352, 353, 354
355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367,
368, 370, 371
372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384,
385, 386, 387
388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400,
401, 402, 403
404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416,
417, 418, 419
420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432,
433, 434, 435
436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448,
449, 450, 451
452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet26, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
29, 252, 1
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet27, internal, instance=Part-1-1
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32
33, 34, 35, 36, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49,
50, 51, 52
53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65,
66, 67, 68
69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81,
82, 83, 84
85, 86, 128, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153,
154, 155, 156
157, 158, 159, 160, 353, 369
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet27, internal, instance=Part-1-1
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 253,
254, 255, 256
*Nset, nset=_PickedSet28, internal, instance=Part-1-1
38, 40, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123,
124, 125, 126
127,
*Elset, elset=_PickedSet28, internal, instance=Part-1-1, generate
41, 251, 14
*End Assembly
**
** MATERIALS
**
*Material, name=VTT
*HEAT GENERATION
*Conductivity
43.5, 0.
42.5, 200.
37.7, 400.
33.1, 600.
29., 800.
30.,1000.
*Density
7810.,
*Depvar
9,
*Elastic
2.1e+11, 0.3
*Expansion
0., 0.
1.2e-05, 125.
1.3e-05, 250.
1.4e-05, 500.
1.5e-05, 750.

1.6e-05, 900.
1.8e-05,1200.
*Specific Heat
473.8, 0.
502.,100.
551.9,300.
650.5,500.
851.5,700.
563.4,900.
**
**
*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=20
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=1
_PickedSet13, 1.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=2
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=3
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=4
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=5
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=6
_PickedSet13, 0.0
*INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=FIELD, VARIABLE=7
_PickedSet13, 0.0
**
** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
**
*Physical Constants, absolute zero=-273.15
**
** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
**
** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation
*Boundary
_PickedSet4, 3, 3
_PickedSet4, 6, 6
** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet13, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation
*Boundary
_PickedSet28, 2, 2
** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation
*Boundary
_PickedSet5, 1, 1
** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet6, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet7, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet8, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet9, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet10, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet11, ZSYMM
** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre
*Boundary
_PickedSet12, ZSYMM

**
** FIELDS
**
** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature
*Initial Conditions, type=TEMPERATURE
_PickedSet26, 20.
** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature
*Initial Conditions, type=TEMPERATURE
_PickedSet27, 2000.
*include,input=ex1.inc

C Appendix .inc-file

** STEP: Step-1
**
*Step, name=Step-1
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
*MODEL CHANGE, REMOVE
ELEMENT2, ELEMENT3, ELEMENT4, ELEMENT5, ELEMENT6, ELEMENT7,
ELEMENT8
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
**
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-2
**
*Step, name=Step-2
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
ELEMENT2,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-3
**
*Step, name=Step-3
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
element3,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-4
**
*Step, name=Step-4

*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
element4,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-5
**
*Step, name=Step-5
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
element5,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-6
**
*Step, name=Step-6
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
element6,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-7
**
*Step, name=Step-7
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 10.,
**
element7,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES

U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------
**
** STEP: Step-8
**
*Step, name=Step-8
*Coupled Temperature-Displacement, creep=none
1., 100.,
**
element8,
**
*NODE FILE,FREQUENCY=1,GLOBAL=YES
U,NT
**
*EL FILE,FREQUENCY=1,POSITION=NODES,DIRECTIONS=YES
S,E
**
*EL PRINT, ELSET=ELEMENT2, FREQUENCY=1
SDV
*End Step
** ---------------------------------------------------------------

D Appendix .tdt-file

CEUT
.0065
IPH VL VR
2/4 0.01 0.99
3 0.01 0.99
5 0.01 0.99
CC IPH TES TEF VEQ TEL LOG(TIL) TER LOG(TIR)
0.01 2/4 750 570 500E-3 570.0 3.14
600.0 2.70
650.0 2.08
670.0 1.90
690.0 1.84
700.0 1.85
740.0 2.62
760.0 4.97
3 750.0 570.0 1 570.0 4.20 570.0 4.51
600.0 3.43 600.0 3.95
650.0 2.57 650.0 3.18
670.0 2.37 670.0 3.00
680.0 2.34 680.0 2.98
690.0 2.32 690.0 2.94
700.0 2.35 700.0 2.96
710.0 2.39 710.0 3.02
720.0 2.53 720.0 3.18
740.0 2.62 740.0 9.03
760.0 4.56 760.0 20.0
5 570.0 320.0 1 320.0 1.22 320.0 2.66
350.0 1.11 350.0 2.55
400.0 0.948 400.0 2.53
420.0 0.926 420.0 2.57
440.0 0.917 440.0 2.71
460.0 0.939 460.0 2.86
480.0 0.993 480.0 3.16
500.0 1.09 500.0 3.88
520.0 1.29 520.0 6.77
540.0 1.81 540.0 15.0
560.0 2.44 560.0 30.0
6 320.0
IPH HS
2 590.E6
3 590.E6
4 590.E6
5 590.E6
6 640.E6
! LH0 TS TL
! 0.0 0.0 0.0
! 512.E6 111. 201.0

E Appendix .dat-file

E L E M E N T O U T P U T

THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT
SET
ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2

ELEMENT PT FOOT- SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 SDV4 SDV5 SDV6 SDV7 SDV8 SDV9
NOTE

25 1 0.5282 8.0915E-06 2.8260E-04 0.000 0.1651 0.3065 278.4 0.000 0.000
25 2 0.5248 1.4596E-05 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.1648 0.3090 277.9 0.000 0.000
25 3 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
25 4 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
25 5 0.5282 8.0915E-06 2.8260E-04 0.000 0.1651 0.3065 278.4 0.000 0.000
25 6 0.5248 1.4596E-05 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.1648 0.3090 277.9 0.000 0.000
25 7 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
25 8 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
26 1 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
26 2 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
26 3 0.5227 5.4425E-06 4.2423E-08 0.000 0.1588 0.3185 276.7 0.000 0.000
26 4 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.3212 276.3 0.000 0.000
26 5 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
26 6 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
26 7 0.5227 5.4425E-06 4.2423E-08 0.000 0.1588 0.3185 276.7 0.000 0.000
26 8 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.3212 276.3 0.000 0.000
27 1 0.5282 8.0915E-06 2.8260E-04 0.000 0.1651 0.3065 278.4 0.000 0.000
27 2 0.5248 1.4596E-05 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.1648 0.3090 277.9 0.000 0.000
27 3 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
27 4 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
27 5 0.5282 8.0915E-06 2.8260E-04 0.000 0.1651 0.3065 278.4 0.000 0.000
27 6 0.5248 1.4596E-05 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.1648 0.3090 277.9 0.000 0.000
27 7 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
27 8 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
28 1 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
28 2 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
28 3 0.5227 5.4425E-06 4.2423E-08 0.000 0.1588 0.3185 276.7 0.000 0.000
28 4 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.3212 276.3 0.000 0.000
28 5 0.5252 3.5802E-06 5.4916E-04 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 277.7 0.000 0.000
28 6 0.5215 9.0226E-06 3.4575E-08 0.000 0.1647 0.3138 277.2 0.000 0.000
28 7 0.5227 5.4425E-06 4.2423E-08 0.000 0.1588 0.3185 276.7 0.000 0.000
28 8 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.3212 276.3 0.000 0.000

MAXIMUM 0.5282 1.4596E-05 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.1651 0.3212 278.4 0.000 0.000
ELEMENT 25 25 25 25 25 26 25 25 25

MINIMUM 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1588 0.3065 276.3 0.000 0.000
ELEMENT 26 26 26 25 26 25 26 25 25