Zhang 1 Sarah Zhang Kristen Foster CO 150, 400 October 21, 2013 How can We Balance Tourism Development and

the Conservation of Historical Villages? An Annotated Bibliography Historical villages are precious cultural heritages of human being. The tourism to historical villages has had an incredible increase in the past a few years. At the same time, the argument between tourism development and conservation emerges, which arouses my interests. I can see the advantages of tourism development that the booming tourist industry promotes the local economy and a sense of pride. It also makes more people have access to appreciating the charm of historical villages. However, I am worried that the natural and human environments are damaged because of tourism development. Additionally, I am wondering if the residents really get the expected benefits but disturbed by an amount of tourists. The project I intend to do research includes the following questions: 1) what effects does the tourism industry have on the conservation and sustainability of historical villages? 2) What’s the priority of tourism development and conservation of historical villages? These research questions address my problem that how can we balance the tourism development and conservation of historical village? I conducted this research from October 3rd 2013 to October 26th 2013. There are four items in the bibliography, three of which are scholarly articles published in peer reviewed journals. The other is also a scholarly article, but published from a conference.

Zhang 2 Wang, Yi, and Bill Bramwell. "Heritage Protection and Tourism Development Priorities in Hangzhou China: A Political Economy and Governance Perspective." Tourism Management 33.4 (2012): 988-998, Google scholar. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. This scholarly article is written for the specialists who conduct research on the heritage protection and tourism development. The authors try to balance the priorities of heritage preservation and tourism exploitation from the perspective of government interventions based on the case of culture heritages at West Lake in Hangzhou, China. The authors support their point through primary research and secondary research. They analyze the neglected deterioration and destruction from tourism while pursuing the economic benefits forced by the market. To solve this problem, they stress the importance and function of governanment involvement in keeping heritage conservation and sustainable development.

The article’s credibility can be reflected in many respects. The evidences in the article come from primary research and official data, which makes it more reliable; in addition, the article was published in 2012, so that it meets the requirement of currency. However, there isn’t any normative conclusion of his interview results, which will decrease its professional credibility.

This article provides a new perspective in thinking about the priorities of heritage protection and tourism development. The authors argue their points from the insight of government stakeholder, showing the importance of government intervention for maintaining the heritages’ continuity.

Zhang 3 Yang, Jingjing, Chris Ryan, and Lingyun Zhang. "Social Conflict in Communities Impacted by Tourism." Tourism Management 35 (2013): 82-93. Google Scholar. Web. 17 October. 2013. This academic article is written for scholars who conduct research on the social conflict resulting from tourism. The authors attempt to establish “a tension-directed tourism development system” (82) to explore tourism’s impact on social conflict between the governments, tourists, entrepreneurs, and locals. The main types of evidence are personal experiences and primary research. The authors claim that the social conflicts caused by tourism development are reflected in culture diversity and unequal economic distributions. They also analyze the different roles of the various stakeholders groups as well as their sub-groups in the “tension-directed tourism development system” (82).

There are several factors that contribute to the articles’ credibility. The article was published in 2013, which shows recent research; at the same time, it was published in a peer-review journal, which increases its reliability. One limitation in this article is that there are not enough examples to support the authors’ thesis.

The article helps me understand the tourism’s effects from the perspective of social conflicts, and the “tension-directed tourism system” (82) proposed in the article presents a clear relationship among the four stakeholders, which are the governments, the entrepreneurs, the tourists and the locals. The article presents the causations of the social conflicts in tourism development standing on the point of the four stakeholders respectively.

Zhang 4 Zeng,Yingying, and Zining Jin. "A Study into Solutions to Negative Environmental Externalities of Rural Tourism." International Conference on Applied Social Science Research. N.p.: Atlantis Press, 2013. 126-130. Web. 5 Oct. 2013. This scholarly research paper was written for the professors who study about the negative environmental effects of rural tourism. The authors conducted the research to explore the negative environmental externalities and try to find a solution to eliminate the externalities based on quotations and primary research. The authors claim that the “information inadequacy” (126) and the “difficulties of benefit compensation for the villagers” (126) are the two adverse impacts of rural development. They put forward a new method to solve the problems about profit distribution among tourism companies, government, and residents.

This research is supported by Shenzhen Social Science Fund, which makes it reliable; meanwhile, this report was published in 2013, which makes it quite current. However, there is no quantifiable data in the report, which decreases its credibility.

This article helps me evaluate the economic benefits of residents by analyzing the benefit compensation. It also informs me about what the residents in the historical villages gain from the tourism development. The stakeholders in this article are tourism companies, governments and the residents.

Zhang 5 Zhang Dongwei, et al. "Promoting Living Space Protection While Ensuring Sustainable Tourism in Yuhu Village, Lijiang City." International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 18.6 (2011): 553-558. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. This scholarly article is written for other researchers who share a similar interest in protecting the living space in historical villages. The authors use quotations, graphs and photographs as evidences to explore a general way of balancing the tourism development and living space promotion of historical villages, such as Yuhu. The authors stated the significance of promoting living space from various aspects. Additionally, the article presents the three sustainable principles of living space integrity under the tourism development, which are “low cost, recyclable and high efficiency” (556).

There are several aspects that contribute to the article’s credibility. Firstly, this article was published in a peer reviewed journal, which contributes to its credibility; besides, there are photographs in the article corresponding to the analysis, which make the research more reliable because visual evidence is provided. However, the humanity factor in the living space conservation is ignored, which is one limitation of the article.

This article helps me analyse the dilemma between tourism development and the local living space maintenance. The article offers information standing on two stakeholders’ views of the conservation of living space and tourism development, the residents and governments.

Zhang 6 Works Cited Wang, Yi, and Bill Bramwell. "Heritage Protection and Tourism Development Priorities in Hangzhou China: A political Economy and Governance Perspective." Tourism Management 33.4 (2012): 988-998. Google Scholar. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. Yang, Jingjing, Chris Ryan, and Lingyun Zhang. "Social Conflict in Communities Impacted by Tourism." Tourism Management 35 (2013): 82-93. Google Scholar. Web. 17 October. 2013 Zeng,Yingying, and Zining Jin. "A Study into Solutions to Negative Environmental Externalities of Rural Tourism." International Conference on Applied Social Science Research. N.p.: Atlantis Press, 2013. 126-130. Web. 5 Oct. 2013. Zhang Dongwei, et al. "Promoting Living Space Protection While Ensuring Sustainable Tourism in Yuhu Village, Lijiang City." International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 18.6 (2011): 553-558. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.