# RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE THANDALAM – 602 105.

DEPARTMENT OF EEE LAB MANUAL
CLASS SEMESTER SUBJECT CODE SUBJECT : II YEAR EEE : IV SEM : EE225 : E!"#\$%&#'! M'#(&)"* I L'+

SYLLABUS EE2259 -- ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY – I
AIM To expose the students to the operation of D.C. machines and transformers and give them experimental skill.

1. 2. 3. 4. . \$. (. *.
+.

Open circuit and load characteristics of separately and self excited DC shunt generators. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and cumulative connection. Load characteristics of DC shunt and compound motor. Load characteristics of DC series motor. !win"urne#s test and speed control of DC shunt motor. %op&inson#s test on DC motor ' generator set. Load test on single)phase transformer and three phase transformer connections. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer. !umpner#s test on transformers. !eparation of no)load losses in single phase transformer.

1,.

Ex.No.1 OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM: To obtain open circuit characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator and to find its critical resistance. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.No. 1 " \$ * & . PRECAUTIONS: 1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine. ". The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine. \$. +,+T s-itch is kept open during starting and stopping. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats +,+T +-itch Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-1 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0.(A (0-1&00 rpm ".&s/.mm. T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 " 1 1 0e-

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

After closing the +.. .". *. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position' field rheostat of motor to minimum position' +.+T s-itch is opened. . #oltmeter and ammeter readings are taken -hen the +.+T s-itch is kept open. &.+T s-itch is opened and D.+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat' maximum position of generator field rheostat' D. 21 ad3usting the field rheostat' the motor is brought to rated speed. \$.+T s-itch' b1 var1ing the generator field rheostat' voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.

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f 25mps4 .C%##)'\$ I.\$"() Eo /2o.TABULAR COLUMN: F+).\$&1 S. /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) 2o.f -o .N o.f Ohms . MODEL GRAPH: -o 23olts4 Critical /esistance 0 -o 1 .

.RESULT: Thus open circuit characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator are obtained and its critical resistance is determined.

2 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR AIM: To obtain internal and external characteristics of DC shunt generator.mm.No. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position. PROCEDURE: A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats 4oading %heostat Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-" A (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"00Ω ' 0.Ex.&s/. ". APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. \$. 1 " \$ * & . The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position. 6o load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping. T*!) !C !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 " 1 1 0e- .(A &5)' "\$0# (0-1&00 rpm ". PRECAUTIONS: 1.No.

7nder no load condition' Ammeter and #oltmeter readings are noted' after bringing the voltage to rated voltage b1 ad3usting the field rheostat of generator. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat' D. *. &. . 4oad is varied graduall1 and for each load' voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted.1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.+T s-itch is opened. ". \$. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum position' D.+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed.

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& :. ".)2. *.43 :C LO5D <8= 23.. 7 C % . +uppl1 is given b1 closing the D. %eadings of Ammeter and #oltmeter are noted. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.3 2(5 . \$.+T s-itch.)3.DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE: 9 D 6 ! 7 ! 8 . Armature resistance in 8hms is calculated as %a 9 (#x1.use 2(5 9 A ) 2.45 :C 51 G 22.3 DC !upply 9 V ) 2. .use 52 ) PROCEDURE: 1.

\$&1 C%##)'\$ I /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) R)&+&\$"'3) R" /O40&1 TABULAR COLUMN: F+).\$& I" 5 IL 6 I.TABULAR COLUMN: S.No.\$"() 2 /2o. /A0!&1 Lo"C%##)'\$ IL /A0!&1 T)#0+'".\$"() /21 2o.No. /A0!&1 E( 52 6 I" R" /2o. 2o.S.\$&1 FORMULAE: . C%##)'\$ I. 2o.

4 = .f %a 9 9 > > > > > > # = .f= .f (Amps ?enerated emf in #olts Terminal #oltage in #olts Armature Current in Amps 4ine Current in Amps 0ield Current in Amps Armature %esistance in 8hms MODEL GRAPH: 3L= .<g .L 2.L 2-xt Char4 RESULT: .L 25mps4 .nt Char4 3 3s .4 .23olts4 .a %a (#olts .a <g # .3s .a .

Thus the load characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator is obtained. .

T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 " 1 0e- . APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-1 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0.Ex. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.(A (0-1&00 rpm ".No. ". 1 " \$ * & PRECAUTIONS: 1.&s/.mm.No.7 OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR AIM: To obtain open circuit characteristics of separatel1 excited DC shunt generator.

+T s-itch is opened. 21 ad3usting the field rheostat' the motor is brought to rated speed. \$. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 4.PROCEDURE: 1. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat' maximum position of generator field rheostat' D. &. ". 21 var1ing the generator field rheostat' voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken. .+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position' field rheostat of motor to minimum position' D.

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TABULAR COLUMN: S. /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) 2o..\$"() Eo /2o. F+).\$&1 MODEL GRAPH: -o 23olts4 .C%##)'\$ I.f 25mps4 .No.

.RESULT: Thus open circuit characteristics of separatel1 excited DC shunt generator is obtained.

Ex. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.No. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position.8 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR AIM: To obtain internal and external characteristics of DC separatel1 excited DC shunt generator. 6o load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping. PROCEDURE: 1. PRECAUTIONS: 1.(A &5)' "\$0# (0-1&00 rpm ". A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats 4oading %heostat Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-" A (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"00Ω ' 0.mm.No. The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position. T*!) !C !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 " 1 1 0e- .&s/. \$. ". Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 1 " \$ * & .

". 7nder no load condition' Ammeter and #oltmeter readings are noted' after bringing the voltage to rated voltage b1 ad3usting the field rheostat of generator.+T s-itch is opened. . Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum position' D.+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed. 4oad is varied graduall1 and for each load' voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted. *. &. \$. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat' D.

DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE: .

use 52 ) PROCEDURE: 1.& :. +uppl1 is given b1 closing the D. %eadings of Ammeter and #oltmeter are noted.45 :C 51 G 22.3 DC !upply 9 V ) 2.3 2(5 . ". TABULAR COLUMN: . 7 C % .use 2(5 9 A ) 2. \$. Armature resistance in 8hms is calculated as %a 9 (#x1..9 D 6 ! 7 ! 8 .+T s-itch. *.43 :C LO5D <8= 23.)3. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.)2.

a 9 9 # = . C%##)'\$ I. 2o.No. 2o.\$& I" 5 IL 6 I.\$"() /21 2o.f (Amps .No.4 = . /A0!&1 Lo"C%##)'\$ IL /A0!&1 T)#0+'".S.\$"() 2 /2o.a %a (#olts .\$&1 C%##)'\$ I /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) R)&+&\$"'3) R" /O40&1 TABULAR COLUMN: F+).S.\$&1 FORMULAE: <g . /A0!&1 E( 52 6 I" R" /2o.

f %a > > > > > > ?enerated emf in #olts Terminal #oltage in #olts Armature Current in Amps 4ine Current in Amps 0ield Current in Amps Armature %esistance in 8hms MODEL GRAPH: 3L= .L 25mps4 Thus load characteristics of separatel1 excited DC shunt generator is obtained.<g # .23olts4 .nt Char4 3 3s .L 2-xt Char4 RESULT: .f= .4 .a .L 2.3s . .

&s/. \$. 2rake drum should be cooled -ith -ater -hen it is under load. 1 " \$ * & PRECAUTIONS: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostat Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0.5 LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM: To conduct load test on DC shunt motor and to find efficienc1.No. ".Ex.mm. 0ield rheostat should be kept in the minimum position. DC shunt motor should be started and stopped under no load condition. .No.(A (0-1&00 rpm ". APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 1 0e- PROCEDURE: 1.

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K-/ S2.5"% P& .!\$'-" V .B'!')#" R"'3&)S1.5"% P1 .K-/ S2""3 N .TABULAR COLUMN: V.%21/ T.6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 S. .S1∼ S2/K- Circumference of the >ra&e drum 0 cm.6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.A12*/ S2%&).V.!\$*/ C0%%")\$ I . .%40" T .N.N1/ O0\$20\$ P..

)atts "π 6T 8utput .o-er .i 9 #.m 9 -----------.(1 6m .m 100 x"π Tor/ue T 9 (+1 ∼ +" x % x @.x 100A .)atts .nput .o-er .FORMULAE: Circumference % 9 ------------------.0 8utput .o-er .o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------.nput .

.MODEL GRAPHS: 7or@ue 7 2?m4 !peed ? 2rpm4 -fficiency A !peed ? 2rpm4 ? η 7 y3 y2 y1 y x 7or@ue 7 2?m4 Output 6ower 28atts4 RESULT: Thus load test on DC shunt motor is conducted and its efficienc1 is determined.

\$. ".(A (0-1&00 rpm ". A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostat Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0.&s/. 1 " \$ * & PRECAUTIONS: 1. DC compound motor should be started and stopped under no load condition. T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 1 0e- . 2rake drum should be cooled -ith -ater -hen it is under load.Ex. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. 0ield rheostat should be kept in the minimum position.mm.No.9 LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR AIM: To conduct load test on DC compound motor and to find its efficienc1.No.

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.A12*/ S2%&).TABULAR COLUMN: V.6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.N1/ O0\$20\$ P.!\$*/ C0%%")\$ I .5"% P& ..!\$'-" V .N.S1∼ S2/K- .K-/ S2.K-/ S2""3 N .%21/ T.B'!')#" R"'3&)S1.6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 S.V.%40" T .5"% P1 .

o-er .nput .i 9 #.o-er .(1 6m .nput .)atts .m 100 x"π Tor/ue T 9 (+1 ∼ +" x % x @.o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------.0 8utput .FORMULAE: Circumference % 9 ------------------.o-er .m 9 -----------.x 100A . )atts "π 6T 8utput .

MODEL GRAPHS: y3 y2 y1 7or@ue 7 2?m4 !peed ? 2rpm4 -fficiency A ? !peed ? 2rpm4 η y 7 Output 6ower 28atts4 x RESULT: 7or@ue 7 2?m4 Thus load test on DC compound motor is conducted and its efficienc1 is determined. .

No.&s/. 6o load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping. The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position. \$.(A &5)' "\$0# (0-1&00 rpm ".Ex.: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR AIM: To obtain the load characteristics of DC Compound generator under cumulative and differential mode condition.mm. PRECAUTIONS: 1. T*!) !C !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 " 1 1 0e- . A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats 4oading %heostat Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-" A (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"00Ω ' 0.No. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. ". The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position. 1 " \$ * & .

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. ". After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat' D,+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed. \$. 7nder no load condition' Ammeter and #oltmeter readings are noted' after bringing the voltage to rated voltage b1 ad3usting the field rheostat of generator. *. 4oad is varied graduall1 and for each load' voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted. &. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum position' D,+T s-itch is opened. .. The connections of series field -indings are reversed the above steps are repeated. B. The values of voltage for the particular currents are compared and then the differential and cumulative compounded DC generator is concluded accordingl1.

TABULAR COLUMN: C%0%,"\$+;),* Co0!o%'-)S.No. 2 /2o,\$&1 IL /A0!&1 2 /2o,\$&1 IL /A0!&1 D+..)#)'\$+",,* Co0!o%'-)-

MODEL GRAPH:

3 23olts4

Cumulatively Compounded

Differentially Compounded

.L 25mps4

RESULT: Thus load characteristics of DC compound generator under cumulative and differential mode condition are obtained .

APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.&s/. The motor should be started and stopped -ith load ".mm.No. T*!) !C !C Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 0e- PRECAUTIONS: 1.No.Ex. . 2rake drum should be cooled -ith -ater -hen it is under load. 1 " \$ * A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # (0-\$000 rpm ".< LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR AIM: To conduct load test on DC +eries !otor and to find efficienc1.

". *.+T s-itch is closed and starter resistance is graduall1 removed.+T s-itch is opened. After bringing the load to initial position' D. . 0or various loads' #oltmeter' Ammeter readings' speed and spring balance readings are noted. After checking the load condition' D. \$.PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

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.5"% P1 .A12*/ S2%&)..%21/ T.TABULAR COLUMN: V.N.6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 S.K-/ S2.!\$'-" V .5"% P& .K-/ S2""3 N .V.S1∼ S2/K- .%40" T .!\$*/ C0%%")\$ I .6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.N1/ O0\$20\$ P.B'!')#" R"'3&)S1.

)atts "π 6T 8utput .o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------.(1 6m .o-er .)atts .m 100 x"π Tor/ue T 9 (+1 ∼ +" x % x @.nput .nput .o-er .m 9 -----------.o-er .i 9 #.0 8utput .FORMULAE: Circumference % 9 ------------------.x 100A .

Output 6ower 28atts4 .MODEL GRAPH: 7or@ue 7 2?m4 y3 y2 !peed ? 2rpm4 -fficiency A y1 7 - ? RESULT: Thus load test on DC series motor is conducted and its efficienc1 is determined.

&s/. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats Tachometer %esistive 4oad Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0. No.No.(A (0-\$000 rpm &5)'"\$0# ". APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.Ex.mm. T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 1 1 0e- PRECAUTIONS: The field rheostat should be in the minimum position at the time of starting and stopping the motor PROCEDURE: . 1 " \$ * & . 9 S=INBURNE>S TEST AIM: To conduct +-inburneCs test on DC machine to determine efficienc1 -hen -orking as generator and motor -ithout actuall1 loading the machine.

1. &. .+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 21 ad3usting the field rheostat' the machine is brought to its rated speed. ". Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. After checking the minimum position of field rheostat' D. \$.+T s-itch is opened. The armature current' field current and voltage readings are noted. The field rheostat is then brought to minimum position D. removed. *.

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T.\$'! L.6'\$\$*/ 2 S. N.A12*/ I' ..A12*/ I' R' .5"% .TABULAR COLUMNS: AS MOTOR: V .6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 .V.**"* 6 .5"% .6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.!\$*/ IL .6'\$\$*/ O0\$20\$ P.

6'\$\$*/ O0\$20\$ P.A12*/ I'2R' .6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.!\$*/ I1 .\$'! L.A12*/ I' .**"* . V .AS GENERATOR: S..6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 . N.5"% .6'\$\$*/ T.5"% .V.

A12*/ . I.45 :C 51 M 22. 7 C % .)2.A12*/ /2o..)3.use 52 ) .No.3 2(5 .\$&1 DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE: 9 D 6 ! 7 ! 8 .3 DC !upply 9 V ) 2. Io 2 .use 2(5 9 A ) 2.TABULAR COLUMN: S.43 :C LO5D <8= 23.

& :. %eadings of Ammeter and #oltmeter are noted. ". TABULAR COLUMN: S.No.\$"() 2 /2o. +uppl1 is given b1 closing the D. \$. Armature resistance in 8hms is calculated as %a 9 (#x1.\$&1 C%##)'\$ I /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) R)&+&\$"'3) R" /O40&1 FORMULAE: .+T s-itch. 2o.PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. *.

a 9 .o G .4 -atts 9 .o-er 9 #.4 G .o-er 9 .a 9 .f Amps Copper loss Total losses 8utput .4 9 HHHHH Amps (Assume 1&A' "&A' &0A' B&A of rated current Armature current ." E % F Constant losses )here .f Amps Copper loss Total losses .o-er 8utput .nput .f Amps .nput .4 = .nput .4 -atts 9 .4 9 HHHHH Amps (Assume 1&A' "&A' &0A' B&A of rated current Armature current .a" %a -atts 9 Copper loss = Constant losses 9 #.a" %a -atts 9 Copper loss = Constant losses 9 #.ao" %a -atts 9 (.ao AS MOTOR: 4oad Current .o-er <fficienc1 η A AS GENERATOR: 4oad Current .E 100A .o G .o-er G Total losses 8utput po-er 9 ---------------------.Dot %esistance %a 9 1.

.nput .o-er MODEL GRAPH: 5s a Denerator AC 5s a :otor OB76B7 6O8-/ 6.C machine is predetermined b1 +-inburneCs test.nput .nput .E 100A .o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 .o-er =Total losses 8utput po-er 9 ----------------------. 284 RESULT: Thus the efficienc1 of the D..

&s/. 0ield %heostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor. ".mm.No.No. #ar1ing armature voltage -ith field current constant.(A &0Ω ' \$. T*!) !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 <ach 1 1 0e- PROCEDURE: .Ex. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats Tachometer Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0. b. 1 " \$ * & PRECAUTIONS: 1. 1? SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM: To obtain speed control of DC shunt motor b1 a. #ar1ing field current -ith armature voltage constant APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.&A (0-\$000 rpm ". Armature %heostat should be kept in the maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor.

".. Armature 2ringing voltage field is fixed to to various minimum values position and and for each armature fixed value' to b1 ad3usting maximum the field rheostat' speed is noted for various field currents. After checking the maximum position of armature rheostat and minimum position of field rheostat' D.Co'\$#o. .: 1.1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. rheostat rheostat position D. ". /++1 F+).: 1. 0ield current is fixed to various values and for each fixed value' b1 var1ing the armature rheostat' speed is noted for various voltages across the armature.+T s-itch is opened.+T s-itch is closed /+1 A#0"\$%#) Co'\$#o.

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Co'\$#o.. /A1 S!))N /#!01 2"2 5 F+).C%##)'\$ I.\$&1 S!))N /#!01 /++1 F+).f2 .: 2"1 5 F+).7 5 A#0"\$%#) 2o.f1 .: I. C%##)'\$ I.f3 MODEL GRAPHS: !peed ? 2rpm4 3a1 3a3 3a2 .No.\$"() 2" / 2o.\$"() 2" / 2o.C%##)'\$ I.\$"() 2" / 2o. /A1 S!))N /#!01 !peed ? 2rpm4 .TABULAR COLUMN: /+1 A#0"\$%#) 2o.1 5 A#0"\$%#) S. 2o.\$&1 S!))N /#!01 I. /A1 S!))N /#!01 2"7 5 F+).2 5 A#0"\$%#) 2o.S.f 25mps4 3a 23olts4 .\$"() Co'\$#o.No.\$&1 S!))N /#!01 I.

Ex. 11 .RESULT: Thus the speed control of DC +hunt !otor is obtained using Armature and 0ield control methods.No.

".HOP@INSON>S TEST AIM: To conduct DopkinsonCs test on a pair of identical DC machines to pre-determine the efficienc1 of the machine as generator and as motor. The field rheostat of the motor should be in the minimum position at the time of starting and stopping the machine. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.+T s-itch should be kept open at the time of starting and stopping the machine.&s/. \$. T*!) !C !C !C !C )ire )ound Digital Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 " 1 1 " 1 1 0e- PRECATUIONS: 1. 1 " \$ * & . The field rheostat of the generator should be in the maximum position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.(A (0-\$000 rpm &5)'"\$0# ". +.00 # 1"&0Ω ' 0. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter %heostats Tachometer %esistive 4oad Connecting )ires R"'() (0-1 A (0-"0 A (0-\$00 # (0-.mm.No. .

2. The voltmeter #1 is made to read Iero b1 ad3usting field rheostat of generator and +.PROCEDURE: 1. \$. The rheostats and +. 4. After checking the minimum position of field rheostat of motor' maximum position of field rheostat of generator' opening The motor is brought to its rated speed b1 ad3usting the field rheostat of the motor. &. \$. .+T s-itch is closed.+T s-itch' D.+T s-itch are brought to their original positions and D. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.+T s-itch is opened.+T s-itch is closed and starting resistance is graduall1 removed. 21 ad3usting field rheostats of motor and generator' various Ammeter readings' voltmeter readings are noted. of +.

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N.5'\$\$*/ G")"%'\$.** P"% M=# 5=2 . S022!8 V.** 6.% A%1'\$0%" C0 L.TABULAR COLUMN: S.**"* 6 .\$.% A%1'\$0%" C0 L.5'\$\$*/ T.A12*/ I.A12*/ I2 .\$'! S\$%'8 !.V.A12*/ I: .!\$*/ I1 . .A12*/ I1 < I2 ..** 6 .5'\$\$*/ .5'\$\$*/ S\$%'8 L.!\$'-" V.A12*/ M.

5"% .A12*/ F&"!3 L.AS MOTOR: M.** .!\$*/ I1 .6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 AS GENERATOR: M.A12*/ I: .A12*/ F&"!3 L.% A%1'\$0%" C0 L.6'\$\$*/ E77&#&")#8 η 9 .6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P..!\$*/ I1 .% A%1'\$0%" C0 L.** 6 .6'\$\$*/ *\$%'8 !.** 6 .** .V.5"% .5"% .**"* =2.A12*/ I2 .V. V .6'\$\$*/ S.N.6'\$\$*/ O0\$20\$ P.6'\$\$*/ T.**"* 6 .\$.6'\$\$*/ T.N.\$'! L.A12*/ I2 .\$'! L.\$.**"* =2.5"% .**"* 6 .6'\$\$*/ S. V .6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.6'\$\$*/ S\$%'8 !..6'\$\$*/ O0\$20\$ P.

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No.+T s-itch. Armature resistance in 8hms is calculated as %a 9 (#x1.PROCEDURE: 1.& :.\$&1 C%##)'\$ I /A0!&1 A#0"\$%#) R)&+&\$"'3) R" /O40&1 FORMULAE: . 2o. %eadings of Ammeter and #oltmeter are noted.\$"() 2 /2o. ". \$. TABULAR COLUMN: S. +uppl1 is given b1 closing the D. *. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

\$ = ):" -atts .(.o-er= Total 4osses .nput po-er G Total 4osses <fficienc1 η A AS GENERATOR: 8utput .nput .x 100A ." " %a = ."" %a = #." -atts 9 Armature Cu loss= 0ield 4oss = +tra1 loss 9 . 9 ):" -atts.* = ):" -atts 8utput po-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------------------------." " %a = #.\$ # 9 Armature Cu loss = 0ield loss = stra1 loss 9 (..1= ."" %a -atts.1 .1=.o-er Total 4osses 9 ------------------------------------."" %a -atts 9 # .1 -atts 9 (."=.o-er !otor armature cu loss ?enerator armature cu loss Total +tra1 losses ) +tra1 loss per machine AS MOTOR: .nput . 9 Armature input = +hunt field input 9 (.x 100A 8utput .nput .1=.1 = .1= ." " %a -atts 9 ." # = .\$# 9 (.o-er 9 #.o-er Total 4osses 9 #.

MODEL GRAPH: 5s a Denerator 9> 5s a :otor OUTPUT PO6ER P0 .No.6/ RESULT: Thus DopkinsonCs test is conducted on a pair of identical DC machines the efficienc1 of the machine as generator and as motor are predetermined Ex. 12 .

PRECAUTIONS: 1.No. !. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: To conduct load test on single phase transformer and to find efficienc1 and percentage regulation. The AC suppl1 is given and removed from the transformer under no load condition. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter )attmeter Auto Transformer %esistive 4oad Connecting )ires R"'() (0-10 A (0-& A (0-1&0 # (0-\$00 # (\$00#' &A (1&0#' &A 1φ ' (0".mm T*!) !. !.&s/. PROCEDURE: 1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum position. 7pf 7pf Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0e- . 1 " \$ * & .0 # &5)' "\$0# ". ". !.

+T s-itch is closed.+T s-itch is opened. The load is increased and for each load' #oltmeter' Ammeter and )attmeter readings on both primar1 and secondar1 sides are noted. . Ammeter' #oltmeter and )attmeter readings on both primar1 side and secondar1 side are noted. &. *. After checking the no load condition' minimum position of auto transformer and D.". Again no load condition is obtained and D. \$.

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.!\$*/ P%&1'%8 I1 .TABULAR COLUMN: S.)3'%8 V2 I2 62 .5"% 61 ? MF O0\$20\$ P.V.6'\$\$*/ I)20\$ P.A12*/ 61 .!\$*/ .V.A12*/ .) .6'\$\$*/ S"#.'3 V1 .N. L.5"% 62 ? MF E77&#&")#8 η 9 9 R"-0!'\$&.

#04 (+econdar1 %egulation % A 9 -----------------------------.x 100A #64 MODEL GRAPHS: -fficiency η A /egulation / A η / RESULT: Thus the load test on single phase transformer is conducted.o-er #64 .nput .x 100A .nput .o-er 9 )1 x !ultiplication factor 8utput . Output 6ower 28atts4 .o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------.FORMULAE: 8utput .o-er 9 )" x !ultiplication factor .

mm T*!) !.0 7. 1 " \$ * PRECAUTIONS: 1. !.No.No.0 Copper %"'\$+\$* 1 1 " 1 1 0e- PROCEDURE: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: .e/uivalent circuit. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. A!!"#"\$%& Ammeter #oltmeter )attmeter Connecting )ires R"'() (0-" A (0-& A (0-1&0 # (1&0#' &A (1&0#' &A ". 4. 17 OPEN CIRCUIT A SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: To predetermine the efficienc1 and regulation of a transformer b1 conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and to dra. !.&s/.Ex. Auto Transformer should be in minimum voltage position at the time of closing J opening D.+T +-itch.

+T s-itch is closed. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer' D.+T s-itch is closed. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Auto transformer variac is ad3usted get the rated primar1 current. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and D.+T s-itch is opened. *. \$. #oltmeter' Ammeter and )attmeter readings on primar1 side are noted. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and D. &. . #oltmeter' Ammeter and )attmeter readings on primar1 side are noted. ". ".1. Auto transformer variac is ad3usted get the rated primar1 voltage. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer' D. \$.+T s-itch is opened. *. &. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

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o cos φ o .\$&1 Io /A0!&1 =o /="\$\$&1 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: 2&3 /2o.TABULAR COLUMN: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: 2o /2o.\$&1 I&3 /A0!&1 =&3 /="\$\$&1 FORMULAE: Core loss> )o 9 #o.

.sc /. Eo 0 ))))))) Ω .2 Eo1 0 ))))))) Ω <2 P)#3)'\$"() E.ω 3sc Fo2 0 ))))))) Ω .o"-& "'.o sin φ o (Amps 3....o-er .)o cos φ o )o φ o 9 ------#o .2 /o1 0 ))))))) Ω <2 . /o 0 ))))))) Ω .!.+3+)'3*: .ω 9 .sc2 E.9 -----------------------------------------------.o 9 cos-1 ------#o .µ 9 ..o .µ Eo2 0 2 Fo2 ) /o224112 32 <0 ))))))) 0 2 31 8sc /o2 0 ))))))) Ω .o-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------. (E x 5#A rating x 1000 x cos φ 8utput po-er = losses 8utput .o cos φ o (Amps 3.o# ".nput .

f lead x 100 9 0 lagging ) 0 leading . 3 / o 1 E o 1 o o / o E L O A D o FL′ 0 FL1<2 ? ..!C o E UI2ALENT CIRCUIT: / .f lag and 0.(E x 5#A rating x 1000 x cos φ 9 ------------------------------------------------------------(E x 5#A rating x 1000 x cos φ = )o = E")sc P)#3)'\$"() R)(%."\$+o': (E x .( p.( p. and the po-er factor is' upf' o.sc (%o" cos φ ± Eo"sin φ %A 9 -------------------------------------#" )here E is the load and it is 1 for full load' K for half load' L load' M load etc.

MODEL GRAPHS: -fficiency η A A lagging Output power 28atts4 6ower factor A leading .

.RESULT: Thus the efficienc1 and regulation of a transformer is predetermined b1 conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and the e/uivalent circuit is dra-n.

Transformer should be operated under rated values.No. No.0 7. !. ".0 !. 1 " \$ * & N"0) o. 18 SUMPNER>S TEST AIM : To predetermine the efficienc1 and regulation of a given single phase Transformer b1 conducting back-to-back test and also to find the parameters of the e/uivalent circuit. !.&s/. APPARATUS RE UIRED: S. .Ex. Auto Transformer -hose variac should be in Iero position' before s-itching on the ac suppl1. \$4) A!!"#"\$%& Auto Transformer )attmeter Ammeter #oltmeter Connecting )ires R"'() (0-"B0 # \$00 #' 10A B& #' & A (0-" A (0-"0 A (0-B& # (0-1&0 # ". Copper %"'\$+\$* " 1 1 1 1 1 1 0e- PRECAUTIONS: 1.mm T*!) 4. !.

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1 Cos ϕ o .A " #" 9 #s:" x A %o" 9 )c : .)atts " )" 0ull load copper loss of each transformer )c 9 -----.9 .o .1 9 ---." ϕ o 9 Cos-1 --------#1 .Eo" 9 √ Oo"" G %o"" .1 CosΦ o %o 9 #1 : ."" %o" .1 CosΦ Eo 9 #1 : ..N Copper loss at various loads 9 ."" Oo" 9 #" : .1 . " )o )o 9 #1.N 9 .)atts.FORMULAE: )1 Core loss of each transformer )o 9 ----.

nput ." : # (%o" CosΦ o = Eo"+inΦ o E 100 3.o-er (1 7pf > \$5(" ." : # (%o" CosΦ o .Eo"+inΦ o E 100 8utput . 4eading pf > . 7pf > .o-er 9 8utput .nput .o-er .f > \$5.o-er = Core loss = Cu loss 8utput po-er <fficienc1 η A 9 -------------------------.E 100A .CosΦ o . 4agging pf > ." : # (%o" CosΦ o E 100 2.PERCENTAGE REGULATION: 1.

!C / o / o 1 E o 1 .. 3 o o E / ? MODEL GRAPHS: o o L O 5 D A -fficiency A /egulation Cos φ 0 1 Cos φ 0 ..E UI2ALENT CIRCUIT: ..* 2Lead G Lag Cos φ 0 1 Cos φ 0 .* Lag Cos φ 0 .* Lead !econdary Current 25mps4 !econdary Current 25mps4 .

RESULT: Thus the efficienc1 and regulation of a given single phase Transformer is carried out b1 conducting back-to-back test and the e/uivalent circuit parameters are found out. .

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. PROCEDURE: 1. *. The alternator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position. \$4) A!!"#"\$%& %heostat )attmeter Ammeter #oltmeter Connecting )ires R"'() 1"&0F ' 0.&s/.No. 15 SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES IN A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: To separate the edd1 current loss and h1steresis loss from the iron loss of single phase transformer.mm T*!) )ire )ound 4. ". The DC motor is started b1 using the \$ point starter and brought to rated speed b1 ad3usting its field rheostat. . 1 " \$ * & N"0) o. \$. 2.0 !C !. The fre/uenc1 is varied b1 var1ing the motor field rheostat and the readings of fre/uenc1 are noted and the speed is also measured b1 using the tachometer. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.Ex.(A \$00 #' &A (0-" A (0-\$00 # ". 21 var1ing the alternator filed rheostat graduall1 the rated primar1 voltage is applied to the transformer. +uppl1 is given b1 closing the D. No.+T s-itch. Copper %"'\$+\$* " 1 1 1 0e- PRECAUTIONS: 1. . APPARATUS RE UIRED: S.

.. The above procedure is repeated for different fre/uencies and the readings are tabulated. B. The motor is s-itched off b1 opening the D,+T s-itch after bringing all the rheostats to the initial position.

TABULAR COLUMN: S.No. S!))N /#!01 F#)B%)'3* . /HC1 2o,\$"() 2 /2o,\$&1 ="\$\$0)\$)# #)"-+'( ="\$\$& I#o' ,o&& =+ /="\$\$&1 =+ D . Eo%,)&

FORMULAE USED: 1. 0re/uenc1' f 9(,P6+ : 1"0 in DI , 9 6o.of ,oles J 2. D1steresis 4oss )h 9 A P f in )atts 4. ;ron 4oss )i 9 )h = )e in )atts The Constant 2 is R()i : f : Rf 6s 9 +1nchronous speed in rpm. A 9 Constant (obtained from graph )i : f 9 A = (2 P f

3. <dd1 Current 4oss )e 9 2 P f" in )atts 2 9 Constant (slope of the tangent dra-n to the curve Dere the Constant A is distance from the origin to the point -here the line cuts the Q- axis in the graph bet-een ) i : f and fre/uenc1 f.

8f y x 5 f

MODEL GRAPH:

.RESULT: Thus separation of edd1 current and h1steresis loss from the iron loss on a single-phase transformer is conducted.