CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.

XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

SENSORS IN CONTROL SYSTEMS
David Zook Dresden Associates, Golden Valley, MN, U.S.A Ulrich Bonne Honeywell Laboratories, Plymouth, MN, U.S.A Tariq Samad Honeywell Laboratories, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A Keywords: Transducer, semiconductor, power dissipation, signal processing, compensation, self-checking, biosensors, miniaturization, reliability, biology, sensing principles, manufacturing.

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Contents 1. Introduction 2. Sensor Fundamentals and Classifications 3. Sensors in Control Systems 4. Sensor Technology Developments 5. Biological Systems, Chemical sensors, and Biosensors 6. Sensor-Enabled Visions for the Future Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary
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Sensors and analyzers are a control system’s window to the world. A sensor is defined as a device that converts a physical stimulus into a readable output, and the definition is illustrated with several examples of engineered and biological sensors. The design of sensors is driven by desired improvements on one or more of surprisingly many performance features and attributes: signal-to-noise ratio, reliability, safety and intrinsic safety, accuracy, response time, dynamic range, cost, power consumption, size, electromagnetic interference immunity, etc. Recent trends and developments in sensor technology include the increasing use of signal processing for compensation, typically used for reducing cross-sensitivity to secondary variables; multivariable inferential sensing, which allows sensing solutions to be developed for parameters that are infeasible to directly measure online; and self-checking and self-compensating sensors that enhance reliability and reduce maintenance costs. The chapter also discusses biological sensors with specific reference to olfaction and chemical sensing; in these modalities, our best artificial sensors are no match for biology. In conclusion, visions for improved safety and efficiency through sensor-enabled automation in automobiles, commercial aircraft, health care, asset management, and other areas are outlined.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

An earlier version of this chapter appeared in Automation, Complexity and Control: An Integrated View, T. Samad and J. Weyrauch, eds., 2000. Portions © John Wiley & Sons Limited; reproduced with permission. 1. Introduction Control is more than information processing; it implies direct interaction with the physical world. Control systems include sensors and actuators, the critical pieces needed to ensure that our automation systems can help us manage our activities and environments in desired ways. By extracting information from the physical world, sensors provide inputs to control and automation systems. We may label our times the Information Age, but it would be a mistake to believe that advances in automation and control are solely a matter of more complex software, Web-enabled applications, and other developments in information technology. In particular, progress in control depends critically on advances in our capabilities for measuring and determining relevant aspects of the state of physical systems. Technologists tasked with automation and control of systems of ever-increasing levels of complexity, whether as designers, operators, or managers, or in other capacities, thus need to be familiar with sensor technology. The increasing sophistication of sensors and sensing systems, the considerations driving this sophistication, new sensors and uses of sensors in control systems, the increasing reliability of sensors, and the like are topics whose relevance today is not limited to sensor application specialists. Our objective in this chapter is to discuss sensors from these points of view. Our focus is on the role of sensors in control systems and the trends and outstanding needs therein. Since excellent reviews of recent sensor developments and current applications already exist, we give some selected examples of new sensor developments, without any claims at comprehensiveness. Rather, our goal is to point out the benefits of increased sensor sophistication as well as key approaches and areas where more understanding is needed. In the following sections, we first offer a definition of a sensor along with several examples. Next, we outline the application of sensors in simple control systems and discuss some of the important attributes of sensors, followed by reviews of recent developments in sensor systems, including sensor compensation and inferential sensing. We then focus on the sensing capabilities of biological systems and lessons we can hope to draw from them. We conclude by presenting some visions for how control and automation can help realize a safer, more productive, and more prosperous future and the role that sensors will need to play. 2. Sensor Fundamentals and Classifications We can define ‘sensor’ as a device that converts a physical stimulus or input into a readable output, which today would preferably be electronic, but which can also be communicated via other means, such as visual and acoustic. As perhaps the simplest example, consider the sensor on a keyboard switch actuator – which provides a signal when the associated key is pressed. The keyboard switch sensor has several desirable features. It is inexpensive, it has a high signal-to-noise ratio (its on/off impedance ratio),

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CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

it is compact, and it has low power consumption. Its reliability and ability to operate over a wide range of environmental conditions are also exemplary. Unlike most sensors, a keyboard switch sensor lacks an analog input range, and its output is binary. Temperature, pressure, and flow sensors are more typical examples. In these cases, the output is not a binary quantity but a value that is sensitive to a range of those physical conditions. Figure 1 shows an example of a state-of-the-art sensor, in this case, a mass flow sensor. As evidenced by this example, many advanced sensors today are microscopic, microstructure devices that leverage the economies of scale and the fabrication technologies of semiconductor manufacturing.

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Figure 1: A micromachined mass flow sensor die (not packaged)
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A semiconductor sensor that provides a wealth of information is the silicon photodiode. A CCD array of such devices typically generates on the order of 109 bits/second. Yet another example of a near-ideal sensor, it is a very simple device, easily fabricated into arrays with modern solid-state technology, with a very wide dynamic range (the ratio of the maximum to the minimum detectable photon intensity). One characteristic that is almost uniquely ideal is its stability. It has essentially no baseline drift and excellent scale factor stability. The reasons for these ideal characteristics lie in the physics of the device. It is basically an energy converter – changing light energy (photons) into electrical energy (electrons in higher energy states that can generate current or voltage). When there are no incoming photons, there is no photocurrent – hence the baseline cannot drift. The quantum efficiency is close to unity (meaning one electron per photon) – hence the scale factor (photocurrent divided by light intensity) is constant and stable over many orders of magnitude. A well-designed photodiode is linear over eight orders of magnitude in intensity and provides a primary standard for light intensity measurement within defined wavelength limits. It is not surprising that photodiodes are at the heart of CCD cameras and are ubiquitous in video information systems. Still other types of sensors operate on chemical principles and may consist of single molecules. For example, a phenolphthalein molecule (the dye in litmus paper) signals a change in hydrogen ion concentration (i.e., pH value) by changing its color. Similarly, a

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CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

biosensor may be based on a molecule that interacts with a biological analyte to produce a signal we can pick up with our senses. The generic block diagram for a sensor shown in Figure 2 highlights the role of a sensor as an interface between a control system and the physical world. The detector or transducer converts a physical or chemical phenomenon into (typically) an electrical signal. The signal processor performs one or more of various mathematical operations on the sensed value, such as amplification, rectification, demodulation, digitizing, or filtering. The measured and processed value is communicated to other subsystems (e.g., via a compatible electrical signal) or to a human (e.g., via a display). The sophistication of these functions and of the calibration process varies widely. The term smart sensor implies that some degree of signal conditioning is included in the same package as the sensor. On the more sophisticated end of the spectrum, the ‘sensor’ unit can include devices or systems with elaborate signal processing, displays, and diagnostic or self-calibration features. Such devices are often referred to as ‘instruments’, ‘analyzers’, or ‘transmitters’ (this last term is common in the process industries), usage that emphasizes that the transducer is but one part of a sensing system in the context of large-scale automation. In this chapter, we will not, however, be making hard distinctions between sensor categories. There are many ways to list or classify kinds of sensors. Classifications can be found in the literature based on the form of energy being transduced and on whether the transduction mechanism is self-generating (like a thermocouple or a piezoelectric material) or a modulating mechanism (like a thermistor or a piezoresistor). Table 1 shows some sensor examples based on a simple classification criterion: human-made versus biological. Either type may be used in an automation system – human operators can be considered part of the system. Engineered sensors Sensor Sensed quantity Photodiode Light intensity Psychrometer Humidity Barometer Pressure Thermometer Temperature Phenolphthalein Timer Odometer Biological sensors Sensor Sensed quantity Retina Light intensity Cochlea Sound Ear canal Level, rotation Taste bud Chemical composition Skin Temperature Skin and hair Air flow Olfactory cells Gas composition

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pH Time Distance (inferred) Table 1: Examples of engineered and biological sensors
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A classification focusing on the physical effects that sensors can respond to is the basis of Table 2. One may argue about the classification of some examples, in view of their principle of operation being based on mixed effects. For example, the Hall effect depends on an electric current as well as a magnetic field.

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

Figure 2: Sensor block diagram
Sensing Principle Mechanical motion (including mechanical resonance) Thermal (incl. temperature differences) Optical energy (photons) Magnetic field Electric field Examples Pendulum-clock, quartz clock, spring balance, odometer, piezoresistive pressure sensor, accelerometer, gyro Thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, thermal conductivity detector, transistor built-in voltage, air flow sensors Photodiode, CCD camera, Geiger-Mueller tube, color sensor, turbidity sensor, Compass, Hall-effect, magnetoresistance, inductive proximity sensor Electrostatic voltmeter, field-effect transistor

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Table 2: Classification of sensors based on their sensing principle, with examples 3. Sensors in Control Systems
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The role of a sensor in a simple automation system is depicted in Figure 3. The detection and measurement of some physical effect provides information to the control system regarding a related property of the system under control, which we are interested in regulating to within some ‘set point’ range. The controller outputs a command to an actuator (a valve, for example) to correct for measured deviations from the set point, and the control loop is thereby closed. Because of the simplicity of the control system example of Figure 3, it represents a fair number of practical control systems. In especially simple systems, a distinct controller may not be immediately evident. For example, the ‘Honeywell Round’ thermostat contains a bimetal strip as an analog sensing mechanism that responds to temperature, and the switch attached to it serves as the actuator. This integration of sensor and actuator turns a furnace or other space conditioning device on or off, depending on whether the room temperature is within the set-point differential. In general, however, the trend is to incorporate more, not less, information processing with the sensor. The increasing complexity of sensors is in part a consequence of this trend. In many cases, the information processing is being incorporated within the sensor device, blurring the distinction between transducer and processor, and between sensor and instrument.

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

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Figure 3: Example of a simple control system 3.1. Desirable Sensor Attributes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • High signal-to-noise ratio Reliability Safety (including intrinsic safety) Accuracy Fast response Wide dynamic range Low cost Low power Small size, compactness Low cross-sensitivity Ruggedness Compatible output and display EMI immunity Corrosion resistance Cleanliness We discuss several of these features below. •
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All sensors, whether used individually or as part of a larger automatic control system, need to meet a set of specifications, i.e., performance features, whereas design features are typically not specified such as "intensive" vs. "extensive" sensors. The most common and desirable types of specifications include the following:

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High signal-to-noise ratio: The output signal of a sensor is an obvious measure of the information generated by the sensor. However, the quality of the information depends on the ‘unwanted’ output, or noise. ‘Noise’ usually refers to short-term variations in the output signal, which include thermal (or Johnson)

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

noise, shot noise, and sometimes 1/f noise. But the long-term variations may be the most important feature of a sensor. If such drift is not included in the specifications and noise effects are estimated based on short laboratory test periods, the user is likely, in the longer term, to experience surprises, costly recalibrations, and downtimes or even unsafe conditions in the field. An accelerated life test period in the factory and the inclusion of long-term stability in the specifications is therefore recommended. • Safety: Demonstrating the safety of a new sensor to potential users can be time consuming. Certain standards have been established so that a manufacturer can obtain safety certificates (such as from Underwriters’ Laboratory). Safety considerations relate to any of numerous potential hazards: electric shocks, toxic materials, radioactivity (several high-performance sensors rely on subatomic particle emission and detection), acoustic or visual signals, device body temperature, etc. In some applications, assuring safety of human users under normal conditions is not sufficient. Under more stringent conditions of ‘intrinsic safety’, the sensor is confirmed to not trigger an explosion of a flammable gas mixture surrounding the sensor, even under the worst failure mode scenarios.

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• • •
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Low cross-sensitivity: All transducers are sensitive to properties other than those we are interested in measuring with them. The key point is the extent of this cross-sensitivity and its inclusion in the specifications. For example, a carbon monoxide sensor (NDIR- or metal-oxide- based) may also be sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide or even in humidity. Sophisticated sensors and analyzers are able to compensate or eliminate such cross sensitivity, but also demand a higher price. Differential pressure sensor outputs can shift when the absolute pressure changes, unless proper compensation is provided. Ruggedness: An appreciated feature for users is to be able to work with sensors that are immune to shock and extremes in temperature, humidity and pressure, so that the output signal remains unaffected by changes in environmental conditions. For example: with piezoresistors used as strain or pressure sensors, their resistance is a function of the strain the device is exposed to. But resistance does not depend only on strain; it is also a function of temperature. Similarly, a dye whose color changes when exposed to a certain chemical agent will also exhibit color variation with temperature.

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Service life and reliability: Sensors are ultimately physical devices and, as such, have finite service lives and mean times between failures (MTBF). They can go out of calibration, elements in them can fail entirely, etc. Obviously, control actions taken based on faulty sensors can have catastrophic consequences, so that steps to prevent such events need to be considered: scheduled checks and maintenance, redundant sensors, sensor self-checks, or even sensor ‘health monitoring’. Such features add components, cost, software and signal processing, and, yes, complexity, with all its ramifications discussed in this and other chapters. The continuing demand for reduction in operating staff in many industrial and government facilities has led to a recent emphasis on automated diagnostics and prognostics (predictions of system degradation).

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

Compact size: Reductions in the spatial dimensions of sensors permit embedding them within systems that are themselves small-scale. Historically, new application areas for sensors have frequently been opened up through advances in miniaturization. A recent example is automotive engine control systems, which now embed sensors for mass airflow, crank angle, ambient temperature, humidity, pressure, and incipient knock. Another important area where compact size is making an impact is biomedical devices. In the past, implantable devices provided periodic stimulation regardless of the state of the system. With miniaturization in sensors, devices today are more ‘intelligent’: stimulation can now be based on demand, i.e., on accurate measurement of physical parameters. For example, blood sugar of diabetic patients can control insulin release and pressure waves caused by a patient’s muscle movement, or body motion can be sensed and used to adjust pacemaker stimulation rate. Compatible output or display: The output of a sensor has to be communicated to other parts of the automation system – for data logging, operator display, control algorithms, etc. Efficient communication means can greatly simplify sensor integration in a control system. In a process plant, the cost of wiring for communication is often a large component of the cost of sensor installation, especially in large control systems. A possible solution is the use of wireless communication. Low power: Power has to be supplied to the sensor. In many industrial and building applications, the cost of wiring for power can even exceed the cost of the communication channel. Low power consumption opens up other alternatives, such as scavenging power from the communication bus or RF communication using battery power at the sensor. Batteries can be recharged by environmentally powered sources such as solar cells in some installations. Low cost: Most industries that make extensive use of sensors are under perpetual cost-reduction pressures. This issue is not unique to sensors, but it is worth noting here as much as in association with any other aspect of control and automation systems. Informed decisions on cost-benefit tradeoffs need to be made to achieve the desired performance and safety at minimum cost. Automation solutions for large-scale, complex systems will be sensor-rich. The developers and operators of such solutions (as distinct from the sensor suppliers) often tend to view sensors as commodities – selection is based on cost; performance differentiation is typically not viewed as significant. Leapfrog technology can, of course, still demand a premium, but in many cases solution and system providers would only check that minimum performance specifications are met. Cleanliness: does not contaminate the environment it is sensing: In ultra-clean environments (e.g. in the Semiconductor Industry), any new material introduced into the processing chamber needs to be evaluated for its potential of contaminating that process. Similar considerations need to be made to clear new sensors for the food and pharmaceutical industry. One widely adopted solution

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• • •
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CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

is to use very inert materials, at least for the external skin of the sensor such as chemically polished stainless steel. The above issues are examples that have motivated research and development on sensor technology and on sensor applications, as will be discussed below. 3.2. A Tradeoff between Sensor Performance and Power Dissipation Since a sensor is a provider of information, it would seem natural that the quality of a sensor can be evaluated by the quantity of information it can provide to a control system. Thus it seems reasonable that a measure of sensor quality or performance would come from information theory. One of the benefits gained by adopting an informationtheoretic perspective is a better appreciation of the tradeoff between sensor properties and sensor power dissipation. We discuss the topic briefly and in general terms in this section; a full quantitative explication remains to be developed.

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4. Sensor Technology Developments
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Information generated by a sensor can be considered to be a series of messages related to some characteristic of the physical system whose attributes are being measured. The information reduces our uncertainty as to what state the system is in. Information theory provides a measure of the amount of information in any message called the informationtheoretic entropy to distinguish it from the entropy of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. It is simply equal to the minimum number of binary digits (bits) necessary to transmit the message. It takes energy to generate information. Shannon showed that a certain amount of energy per bit is required to distinguish signals in an electromagnetic communication channel from the unavoidable background of thermal noise. The energy per bit is given by kTln2, where k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the absolute temperature. Improving the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (equivalent to dynamic range) or the response time (related to the bandwidth of the sensor output) of a sensor requires increased power dissipation.

The discussion above is in the context of digitally encoded measurements. However, the transducers used for sensing parameters in control and automation systems are not digital devices that generate coded messages as finite strings of bits. Rather they are analog devices that generate a voltage, current, charge, or change in resistance that must be amplified. It is worth noting here that the scale-up properties of analog communication are substantially poorer than for digital communication. Doubling the dynamic range of an analog sensor output signal requires at least a doubling of the power required for communicating that signal. On the other hand, if the output is expressed in digital form, a doubling requires one additional bit.

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The objective of modern sensor developments is to furnish improvements on one or more of the desirable features listed earlier. For example, if the sensor stability or crosssensitivity does not meet the level required for an application, the sensor can drift out of calibration, its output can lose its meaning, and the system can lose its ability to control.

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

The addition of means and designs (electronic compensation, signal processing, selfchecks, etc.) that prevent such occurrences lead to more sophisticated and complex sensors. Contributing to this complexity is the desire to offload central data processing onto local or distributed processing (i.e., to make individual sensors ‘smarter’). Furthermore, to achieve one desired output, a cluster of sensors, a sensor system, analyzer, or instrument may be needed. Similarly, increasing demands on the performance of systems, such as those providing transportation or chemical processing (greater fuel efficiency, fewer emissions, greater safety, reduced labor content) cause the complexity of the involved automatic control systems to also increase, together with their need for better and/or new sensors. We discuss some salient trends toward increasing sensor complexity in this section. 4.1. Compensation through Signal Processing

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⎛T ⎞ y=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 ⎠
0.03

As alluded to above, one of the key problems in developing sensors that are accurate over a range of environmental conditions is cross-sensitivity. Most transducer mechanisms exhibit some influence to variations in properties other than the one they are designed to measure. A flow transducer, for example, may produce a different output as temperature varies, even with the flow remaining invariant. For applications where precision or accuracy is not required, the errors that result from this coupling may be tolerable. In most modern automation systems, however, this is not the case.

Modern sensors correct for cross-sensitivity by incorporating additional transducers for measuring the secondary variables and then employing signal processing and/or statistical techniques to ‘cancel out’ the undesired influence. As an example, we discuss a temperature-compensated flow sensor for which the sensor output, y , is computed as a function of two sensed signals: the temperature, T , and the flow, x . The form of this function is based partly on our knowledge of the physics responsible for the crosssensitivity and partly on a formula whose parameters are determined by regression:

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(a

0

+ a1 x p1 + a2 x p2 + a3 x p3

)

This expression tells us that the temperature effect is fairly small – a ±50°C excursion in T from a nominal temperature T0 of 288 K only changes y by ±0.5%. The ai ’s and pi ’s are parameters that are fit using data collected from controlled tests. An example of a fit is shown in Figure 4, where the horizontal axis shows the flow sensor output (labeled ΔG ) and the vertical axis shows the actual flow rate ( Vs ). The S L quantity also graphed in the figure is the logarithmic sensitivity of the final output to sensor noise, defined by SL =| ( x / y )(∂y / ∂x) | . The figure shows that as flow increases, this sensitivity increases to S L > 1 , a consequence of the output signal saturation. The signal noise (not shown) also varies over the flow range, from 10% at low flows to 1% at high flows. Figure 4 shows that the saturation negates the benefits of

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CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

reduced relative signal noise at high flows. In more complex functions, S L can adopt values of 10, 50, or greater, especially when there are multiple xi (worst case: an array of similar sensors) and interactions between them ( S L in the multivariable case is a summation of the individual sensitivity magnitudes). 4.2. Inferential and Higher-value Sensors The example above illustrated one of the simpler uses of signal processing or statistical techniques in sensors. Over the last few years, the notion of producing a sensor or instrument output that is derived from multiple sensing mechanisms has been extended to a higher level. This concept has reached the point where ‘sensors’ for parameters that have not been feasible to measure cheaply and reliably can now be developed for broadbased use. The terms ‘inferential sensors’ and ‘higher value sensors’ are often used for such systems, but their connection with traditional definitions of sensors is tenuous. In most cases, inferential sensors are not hardware products, unlike most sensors. They are more likely to be software implementations on control system platforms that can access sensor inputs from distributed locations.

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Figure 4: Characterization of 200 L/min flow sensor BF #123 with pure nitrogen. Vs = 2.8836ΔG 0.93 + 2.9743 × 10−7 ΔG 3 + 2.8886 × 10−13 ΔG 4 ± 2.02%
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One example is a ‘comfort sensor’. Devices (other than biological ones!) that directly sense comfort are difficult to even conceive of. However, it seems reasonable to postulate that comfort is correlated with parameters that we can indeed measure. The problem then is a matter of determining the function (or mapping) from measurable parameters to comfort. Formulations of comfort indices have been proposed, with Fanger’s Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) measure having gained some degree of acceptance. PMV is based on six variables: air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level, and clothing thermal resistance. The International Standards Organization has adopted PMV as its thermal comfort index standard and ‘comfort sensor’ products have since been developed. In most cases, however, the relationship between the measured properties and the one that is desired to be inferred is unknown. In these cases, an empirical model can be

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

developed. A popular methodology for such modeling is artificial neural networks. A detailed explanation of neural nets is beyond the scope of this chapter; suffice it to note that they provide a nonlinear statistical regression technique that has some attractive properties for high-dimensional problems relative to classical models such as the (lowdimensional) temperature-compensated-flow example shown above. Developing an inferential model using neural networks (or any other empirical method) requires first the collection of data from the system. The data must also include measurement of the inferred property value as determined through a temporary sensor or through an off-line laboratory analysis – these devices are not needed once the inferential sensor is developed. The development and use of an inferential sensor is outlined in Figure 5 for a process industry scenario. Inferential sensors are now widely used in the process industries, such as for estimating octane number in oil refining, smokestack emissions in power plants, and lignin concentrations in wood pulping.

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Figure 5: Inferential sensor development (top) and operation (bottom) 4.3. Self-checking and Self-compensating Sensors
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Both this subsection and the previous one highlight the increasingly multidisciplinary aspect of sensor technology today: statistics, signal processing, and software are now critical aspects of sensor development.

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From the above discussion on the key need for sensor reliability and stability, it is clear that demand for self-checking and self-compensating sensors is high. Electronic scales today automatically reset their zero settings before objects are placed on them, based on the assumption that most of the time the scales are empty. Even the span or actual weight reading can be easily checked by calibration with a standard weight. Precision pressure transmitters cannot depend on such methods since they are under load most of the time. They must depend on the stability of the piezoresistive elements and of the sensor package to maintain stable baseline and span stability. However, in some cases, auxiliary actuators or valves may be used to enable performing a check on baseline and

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

span for pressure sensors and flow sensors. The following examples illustrate such methods. 4.3.1. Chopper as Auto-zero Device Infrared detectors that respond to very small temperature differences can be viewed as the classic case where a mechanical actuator is used to provide a reference signal. A lens focuses an element of the scene onto the detector and a rotating chopper wheel is placed in the optical path. The detector alternately sees the scene and the chopper blade, which is always at the same (reference) temperature. A timing signal from the chopper is sent to a switch that alternates the polarity of the output from the infrared detector. Thus the reference signal is subtracted from the signal from the scene. The synchronous signal corresponds to the difference in temperature between the scene and the reference, and the nonsynchronous baseline drift is ignored. It is not unusual for temperature differences of 0.01ºC (corresponding to 0.00001ºC at the detector) to be easily seen in a thermal imager.

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4.3.2. Self-checking Flame Sensors 4.3.3. Self-checking Oxygen Sensor
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Chopping a signal and synchronous detection are widely used in optical systems, for example in infrared spectrometers and gas analyzers. The motivation is frequently (but not always) the IR detector drift. In the optoacoustic method for gas concentration, the gas is enclosed in a chamber that acts as a resonator. The chamber is illuminated with IR radiation from a filtered chopped IR source. A microphone is used to pick up pressure changes that occur only if analyte molecules absorbing at that wavelength are present. Chopper-stabilized amplifiers using switches at the input of an amplifier are similarly used to convert a dc voltage to an ac voltage to eliminate the effect of baseline drifts.

Highly reliable optical sensors are needed to monitor the presence of flames in furnaces or boilers so that fuel flow can be interrupted if the flame should go out for any reason. Despite the proven stability of the ultraviolet sensors employed, a further layer of safety can be added to positively check that the sensor’s response still meets the ‘fail-safe’ requirement. A mechanical shutter (chopper) that interrupts the optical path between the sensor and the flame during known intervals is used to perform such checks on flame sensors that are certified to be ‘fail-safe’. Another proven strategy is to use a unique signature or response of the object to be sensed (e.g., the flame-rectified current signal of a flame ionization sensor). In this case, ac interference from faulty wiring appears as a nonrectified ac signal that is readily distinguished from the rectified flame signal.

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The classical Nernstian, ZrO2-based oxygen sensor generates a dc signal that depends on the logarithm of the ratio of unknown/reference oxygen concentrations. One check on the health of such a sensor consists of measuring its impedance: if the value is above a set limit, its health is suspect and it should be replaced. A more sophisticated approach is to force oxygen into and out of a closed ZrO2 cell (by application of a fixed voltage between reversals) so that set outputs are reached. The ‘pumping time’ can thus become

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

a linear measure for the absolute oxygen concentration. In addition to checking the cell’s impedance, any asymmetry in the pumping time or current profile reveals a faulty sensor. 4.3.4. Self-compensated Flow Sensor A different calibration problem arises in the case of a mass air flow sensor based on thin-film thermal anemometry. In practice, the output signal depends (not on pressure, but) on the thermal properties of the gas being sensed, in spite of its mass flow dependence being touted in many textbooks. A theoretically correct compensation can be made if at least the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the fluid are known. Means to measure these on-line have been developed employing one additional thermal microsensor mounted in a recess, away from the flowing fluid. This approach now enables the on-line determination of fully compensated (composition, temperature, and pressure) flow of any thermal flow sensor, although it requires additional calibration of thermal conductivity and specific heat sensors. A much simpler approach for composition correction, which can be applied to thermal, pressure-difference-based and other flow sensing approaches, is based on mechanical actuation: While one sensor measures the main flow, a second one of equal design is exposed to the small dither-flow generated by a small membrane, in a side cavity. Selfcompensation for changes in fluid composition, temperature and/or pressure can be achieved by simply forming the ratio of the two sensor signals. Fig. 6 shows a sketch of this sensor’s operating principle, as realized with thermal flow microsensors.

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4.3.5. Rebalanced Sensors
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Figure 6: Sketch of self-compensated volumetric flow sensor, using two thermal flow microsensors and an earphone-speaker membrane actuator.

Another way an actuator is used to eliminate the effects of zero-drift and nonlinearity is to balance the input variable with an opposite effect to keep the input to the sensor at zero. In a force-rebalanced accelerometer, an electromagnetic force balances the force on the proof mass due to acceleration. The rebalancing force is linearly proportional to

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the actuator current and provides the measure of the acceleration. The proof mass is maintained at its rest (or null) position so that a highly sensitive method such as a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip can be used as the sensing mechanism. Such a sensor can easily detect sub-Angstrom motion and thus is an ideal null detector, even though its output is highly nonlinear. 4.4. Sensor Manufacturing Unlike many other critical automation technologies, sensors are fundamentally ‘hardware’ devices. Manufacturing, in the traditional sense of the term, thus remains an important consideration for complexity management. Manufacturing for sensors covers both the ‘base’ detector (increasingly based on microelectronic fabrication processes) and the assembly of the packaged sensor. The software-intensive nature of most of the technologies discussed in this book may lead to the conclusion that manufacturing has been reduced to irrelevance. This would be a mistaken extrapolation. In fact, manufacturing innovations have been at the center of the development and successful commercialization of new sensors – e.g., pressure sensors with automated testing to customize individual compensation algorithms, mass airflow sensors, laser-based gyroscopes, and proximity sensors. Usually a business plan for a new sensor product is developed in response to either demand from an identified set of customers or a new capability, technology, or sensor design resulting from research and innovation. Potential customers are asked to help define a ‘minimum common denominator’ specification for the new sensor and to help identify the potential market size. Based on laboratory and field test results, there must be confidence that the specifications can be met. Before productization can proceed, alternative technologies or manufacturing processes must be examined, the intellectual property position (proprietary information and patents) must be assessed, and possible manufacturing scenarios dependent on volume, labor cost, and location must be considered. But we have left out one key parameter of the productization and manufacturing process: the human factor. It is the one that significantly increases the complexity of the process, but its discussion falls outside the scope of this text. 4.5. Other Drivers for R&D

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Several additional factors drive research and development in sensor technology, which we briefly note here: Ease of application: For sensor data to be meaningful, not only must the sensors be working as assumed, but they must also be positioned properly and installed correctly (i.e., consistent with the control system model). Because field installations are labor intensive and costly, ease of installation can be a key competitive edge for a sensor. Sensor-configured system: The performance of the control system is limited by what we can measure and the feasibility of obtaining measurements. To achieve optimal system performance, we need to have a thorough understanding of the behavior of the system, its controls, and its sensors. We can no longer afford to design a system, add controls at a later stage in its development, and add its

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• • • 5. Biological Systems, Chemical Sensors, and Biosensors
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sensors at a still later time. A smart designer will therefore keep in mind the capabilities of available sensors as he or she designs and configures the system. Rangeability and adaptability: In line with pressures to reduce the cost of inventory, parts, and installation, sensors have become more flexible and remotely programmable. For example, a more limited range of a lower cost microprocessor may be used if the sensor range can be reprogrammed after installation. In addition, this added flexibility enables a reduction in inventory. Ultimately, one envisions such flexibility and reprogramming to be done automatically, by the ‘smart’ sensor itself, in response to the status of the system. Integration: Further cost savings are achieved by merging the data and signal processing of the sensor and control. Integration of the sensor functions of Figure 2 into one monolithic block of a silicon chip is also being practiced, especially where fabrication volumes are high (perhaps more than 1 million/year) and the fabrication processes are compatible. Examples include Honeywell’s integrated pressure sensor and Analog Devices’ integrated accelerometers, which incorporate both sensing and data processing on a single silicon chip. Further integration will include means for I/O, such as is needed for wireless communication. Additional benefits from such integration are compactness, ruggedness, and low power consumption. Sensor arrays and massive data processing: It is now affordable to manufacture thousands of silicon-based sensors as compact arrays. This capability has enabled the development of such sensors as the CCD camera noted earlier and many other ‘imaging’ sensors. These other examples include scanners and processors for imagery and tomography of signals from infrared, ultrasonic, Xray, and electron- or nuclear-spin resonance signals. Extreme sensitivity: The need to detect parts-per-billion and even parts-pertrillion concentrations of trace pollutants, explosives, nerve gases, and bacteria has given impetus to the development of sensors based on solid-state surface effects, biological sensors, and fluorescent chemosensor techniques. The latter have zero baseline and thus (in principle, at least) allow the detection of single molecules. New developments achieving multi-stage pre-concentration gains of analytes in gas and liquid analyzers (~10,000×) have been reported. Extreme accuracy: Some applications require sensor accuracy in the ≤±0.01% range. Differential pressure sensors with such capabilities are now available and can maintain this accuracy despite changes in temperature and absolute pressure.

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Biological systems provide an existence proof that low-performance sensors can provide the meaningful data needed to perform sophisticated control functions. Consider the flight control system of a fly – taking evasive action from the fly swatter and landing safely on the ceiling or a male moth finding a female several miles upwind. The sensing and control system performance in low-power, compact packages that is seen in the biological world is still a futuristic vision for engineers and technologists; the realization of this vision is not imminent.

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

In Table 1, we presented a list of biological sensors and sensing mechanisms. In the area where we have nearly ideal sensing characteristics (electronics and photonics, with CCD imagers providing a particularly good example), we can outperform biological sensors, even the best eyes that have evolved for night vision. For other sensing modalities, chemical and olfactory sensing in particular, we are far behind the performance of biological systems. 5.1. Chemical and Olfactory Sensing in Biological Systems A long-standing need exists for chemical sensors – for environmental control, for process control, and for testing almost everything from air and water quality to food and medicine. Microminiaturization of NMR, Raman, MS and GC analyzers is progressing at a fast pace, driven by customer's demand for low-power, compactness, speed and low-cost. We will only mention one example for such ongoing developments: that of MEMS micro gas chromatograph. Gas chromatography stands out among the others for its simplicity. By reducing the diameter (~100 μm) and thickness of the adsorber-film phase (≤ 0.2 μm), analysis times below one second have been demonstrated. A related development is the phased heater array structure for enhanced detection (PHASED). This is a Si-chip-based micro gas chromatograph featuring multi-stage preconcentration, separation and thermal conductivity detection. Figure 7 shows a sketch of such a system: the sample gas (serving also as carrier gas) inlet is at left and drawn through ~100 x 100 μm channels etched into silicon.

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Figure 7: Functional block diagram of a PHASED sensor system. The analytes are concentrated, "injected" and separated, before being sensed by the differential thermal conductivity detector.

Composition or chemical micro-analysis is an area in which biological systems may have sensitivity advantages over today’s manufactured sensors, but are still struggling with meeting stability goals. Biological chemical sensors depend on protein sites on the cell surface, which have a selective affinity for certain molecules. During the last decade, specific olfactory receptors have been identified. Coupled with advances in genomics and cellular biochemistry, such identification provides the beginnings of a molecular understanding of olfaction. Adsorption of the odor molecule causes a change in the firing rate of the olfactory neuron. It is believed that moths can detect sex pheromones at sensitivities approaching the level of individual molecules. Humans,

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

although much less sensitive, can discriminate between more than 10,000 odor molecules (odorants) and have about 50 million olfactory neurons that bear about 1000 different types of odorant receptors in four so-called expression zones. Within each zone the odorant receptors are distributed randomly, presumably to provide redundancy in case of damage in a small area. The evolution of odor receptor proteins has not solved the cross-sensitivity problem discussed above, but in fact makes use of it. Individual types of odor molecules activate multiple receptors, with each receptor type having a different affinity (and therefore a different proportionality between concentration and firing rate) for different odorants. Such a sensor array approach is likely to be a necessary feature of manufactured (nonbiological) chemical sensors for organic molecules, since there is little utility to a sensor that will respond to only one type of molecule. The size of the sensor array is an important issue in chemical sensors. Mammals (and even worms) typically have 1000 types of odorant receptors, whereas fruit flies make do with as few as 100. Since odorants interact with multiple receptors rather than individual ones, the possible combinations exceed by orders of magnitude the number of odors an animal can actually distinguish. Presumably, animals only discriminate between odors that are biologically important to their survival. Recently, several research groups have developed ‘artificial noses’ inspired – however loosely – by mammalian olfactory prowess. These devices are based on different types of sensor technologies, including metal oxide semiconductors, conducting polymers, surface acoustic wave, and gas chromatography. This is an exciting topic with considerable application potential: food and pharmaceutical manufacturing, environmental monitoring, security systems, and military applications. Although the best of these systems compare poorly with biological noses – they have at most a few dozen sensors and cost up to $100,000 – this research promises to bring a sensory modality that has hitherto been the exclusive preserve of biology within the domain of engineered systems.

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An important and highly desirable feature of the olfactory mechanism is that it is apparently unresponsive to odorless molecules, whereas manufactured sensors tend to be sensitive to oxygen and water vapor, in particular. They also respond to odorless combustible gases such as hydrogen and methane. An exception to this is the use of chemical sensors based on conjugated polymers. These have demonstrated high specificity together with the high sensitivity characteristic of biological sensors, although they are based on quite different principles. The transduction strategy is to synthesize polymers that are poly-receptor assemblies that act collectively. The electrical conductivity of conjugated polymers is a well-known example of a property determined by low concentrations of defects. Fluorescence is another example, where a single defect can significantly quench the fluorescence of the entire chain. Chemosensors for TNT have been demonstrated that can detect concentrations in the parts per billion, without significant interference from environmental constituents such as water vapor and CO2. Further developments in this area could be very exciting. The biological process has some undesirable features as well. It can have a nonlinear response, which can be misleading. For example, a low concentration of indole has a

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floral scent, while a high concentration has a putrid odor. These features are not unexpected for a system developed by evolution since there is no apparent survival advantage to being able to identify strong odors. The signal processing method (as realized in the olfactory cortex) that evolved along with the chemical receptors did not get trained on high concentrations. 5.2. Audition An example of a nonolfactory biological sensing system that we can learn from is the biological sonar systems used by bats. The fact that bats use the ‘chirp radar’ technique was well known long before it was rediscovered during World War II. Bats emit complex ultrasonic signals and listen to the returning echoes for orientation information and for hunting flying insects. There are nearly 800 species of bat, and probably all of them use echolocation. Range information is conveyed by echo delay, whereas velocity information is carried by Doppler shift. Frequency is detected by the stimulation of hair cells and is coded by the anatomical location of a spiral array of ganglion cells. The rate and pattern of nerve impulses express the amplitude, duration of signals, and time between signals. The signal processing systems use delay lines, multipliers (or AND gates), and frequency tuners that are tolerant of wide variations in signal level. Signal processing in the auditory system is parallel-hierarchical. All of this sophisticated sensing and signal processing takes place in a very small volume with low energy usage. If similar sensing systems could be produced by micro-machining and integrated circuit techniques, they would undoubtedly find application in security and surveillance systems. 5.3. The Role of Sensors in Biological Control Systems

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The role of sensors in biological systems is illustrated in Figure 6 and is similar in many respects to the role of sensors in engineered control systems. The biological senses provide the interface between the organism and its environment. Many biological organisms constantly probe their environment and compare the information from different senses, providing a means of calibrating the sensory mechanisms. The building blocks of living systems are cells, and each cell has evolved its structure and its control systems to improve its survivability. Even the simplest single-cell organism has amazing information processing, sensing, and control system mechanisms with complex feedback networks, all tuned to ensure survivability in its environment. Natural selection provides the mechanism for producing systems that optimally use resources and avoid threats. The billions of generations of evolution have not only produced optimum response to the environment, but because of the history of changing environments, they have produced systems that can adapt and operate effectively (i.e., survive) in the face of changing environments – changing resources, changing threats, etc. The incredible success of living systems suggests that we have a lot to learn from them, despite their complexity. Our knowledge about the information pathways and feedback mechanisms in biological systems is meager. We know that information is stored in the sequences of nucleic acids in RNA and DNA and communication takes place by electrochemical pulses and

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complex biochemical reactions. Biological sensors use the same mechanisms. Since sensing and information processing are both critical to the control system, it is a safe bet that they co-evolved and are closely tied together. An evident aspect of biological evolution is the increase in complexity of the system. Cells became more complex and evolved into multicell organisms. Reproduction mechanisms have evolved, as well as sophisticated mechanisms of communication between organisms. In fact, evolution can be viewed as the accumulation of useful information. As such, we may expect that control systems will continue to evolve as well. Here we are also learning from biological systems. The concepts of neural networks and genetic algorithms were inspired by biological systems.

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Figure 8: Schematic depiction of biological sensing • • • • 6. Sensor-Enabled Visions for the Future
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We can make several inferences from a comparison between biological systems and today’s control systems: Increased reliability and survivability (robustness) are achieved by increased redundancy, which means increased numbers of sensors and interconnections and therefore increased complexity. Adaptability and flexibility go hand-in-hand with increased complexity. In terms of complexity, today’s control and automation systems are in their infancy compared with even the simplest biological systems. As we understand biological systems better, we learn from them. Examples presently in use are neural networks and genetic algorithms.

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We have noted a number of trends in the use of sensors for automation and control. These are driven by the desire to have machines replace humans in performing tasks wherever it is economical and safe to do so. A familiar example is the increased use of sensors and computer controls in automobiles. Computers and sensors not only control the engine, but also the brake system, the airbags, the windows and door locks, and even the radio antenna. Some of these uses are simply for convenience, some are for safety or efficiency, and some are required for environmental protection. In all cases, they add to the cost and complexity of the vehicle, but clearly the benefit is perceived to be worth it

CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND AUTOMATION – Vol.XXI - Sensors in Control Systems - David Zook, Ulrich Bonne and Tariq Samad

– the automotive industry operates in a highly competitive, consumer-driven, and regulation-driven market. In the future, we can envision automobiles that warn us of other cars or of traffic problems ahead, that suggest an alternative route; sensor systems already exist that let us know when we are approaching the next turnoff or when maintenance tasks need to executed. This requires the development of low-cost navigational and collision avoidance sensors. These are all devices that can be expected to become affordable during the next decade, as sensors and microanalyzers continue to improve in smartness, reliability, ruggedness, compactness, low-power consumption, and wireless communication interfaces and networking, . In the aviation enterprise, we can also expect increased use of sophisticated navigation and collision-avoidance sensors. We can envision the total elimination of airplane collisions, and the ability to choose routes that avoid turbulence or severe weather. In this case, hardware developments are needed in the area of radar and laser scattering to detect clear air turbulence and nearby aircraft. The reliability of the aircraft would be improved by using sensors to detect bearing wear and structural fatigue and to predict when parts are about to fail so that they can be scheduled for maintenance before they do so. Sensors can also be used to improve the safety and reliability of our basic infrastructure – the essentials that many of us take for granted, such as electricity, clean water, and clean air. With widespread environmental monitoring, pollution sources can be identified sooner and breakdowns in the distribution systems (for water and electricity) can be detected and bypassed. As resources become scarcer, sensors and controls will be increasingly used to improve efficiency and regulate consumption. Health care is an area where the use of diagnostic tests and instruments is growing rapidly. Improvements in capabilities are becoming possible through the use of DNA sequencing to identify genetic defects and diseases at the very early stages, when they can be cured or prevented. At present, diagnostics are offline, but we can imagine that sensors on the wrist could tell us when we are overstressed or overindulgent. With instant feedback we would be reminded to close the loop and change our actions to optimize our health. Although the cost of diagnosis and testing is increased, the overall cost of health care will be decreased. An area that is not so obvious, but that also has great potential for productivity improvement, is asset management. Significant time and resources are spent in industries, hospitals, and offices looking for equipment or other assets that are not where they are presumed to be. Inexpensive tags and sensors that can remotely detect the tags can locate and track assets. At the extreme end of the spectrum, the homeowner could use his home computer to keep track of items that may get misplaced in the home, such as keys or even eyeglasses. This may seem like overkill, but the technology would not have to be much different from that used to keep track of clothing in a department store. The above examples suggest that the possibilities for increased use of sensors in automation and control systems are endless. Improvements in the performance of existing sensors, improvements in reliability and robustness, and the development of

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new sensors, further integration of sensors within control systems are some of the trends in evidence today. As always, research and innovation is driven by application demands. In the case of performance, critical process control and the control of new processes such as biologically based manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are some of the drivers. However, many of the applications being envisioned do not require highperformance sensors and transmitters that generate high-quality data. The long development times and high costs of sensor development and maintenance lead us to conclude that cost reduction of existing sensors and finding new ways of using them will continue to dominate the field of sensor development. Glossary Artificial nose: Charge Coupled Device (CCD): Crosssensitivity: Detector or transducer: Instrument, analyzer, or transmitter: Inferential or higher-value sensors: Intensive (vs. extensive) sensor: Self-checking: Selfcompensation: Sensor: Smart sensor:
Bibliography

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Sensors that produce an estimate of a property without measuring it directly, instead performing statistical calculations on outputs from multiple sensing systems A category of sensors whose output signal is independent on the amount of material involved in the measurement, such as a thermocouple or U-tube manometer. Examples of extensive sensors are piezoresistive pressure and resistance temperature sensors The ability of a sensor to test its correct functioning automatically The ability of a sensor to automatically compensate for inaccuracies resulting from drift or other device changes A device that converts a physical stimulus into a readable output A sensors with signal conditioning and processing included in the sensor package
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An engineered sensor for detecting or measuring odors An array of capacitors able to transmit their charge profile (e.g. reflecting the light inputs to an associated array of photo-detectors) to a receiving entity at the end of the array The sensitivity of a sensor for a particular property to variations in other properties A device that converts a physical phenomenon into an electrical signal A complete sensor unit, often with elaborate signal processing, displays, and diagnostic features

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Allen, P. (1984) Sensors in silicon. High Technology, September, 43–50. [Description of an integrated pressure sensor which incorporates both sensing and data processing on one integrated circuit chip.]

Ayres, R.U. (1994) Information, Entropy, and Progress – a New Evolutionary Paradigm. American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, NY. [This book presents an information-theoretic perspective on evolution.] Barron, A.R. (1993) Universal approximation bounds for superposition of a sigmoid function. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 39(3), 930–945. [This article identifies the inherent advantage in predictive accuracy of statistical models with adjustable basis functions—such as feedforward neural networks—compared to standard multiple linear regression.]

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Bonne, U. (1990) Flowmeter fluid composition correction. U.S. Patent No. 4,961,348. [An approach to resolving the problem of changes in output due to changes in fluid composition, in a mass flow sensor based on any type of thermal anemometry.] Bonne, U. (1992) Fully compensated flow microsensor for electronic gas metering. Proceedings of the International Gas Research Conference, III, 859, Orlando, FL. [A fluid-property-based approach for compensating for composition, temperature, and pressure sensitivities for thermal flow sensors.] Bonne, U and Kubisiak, D. (2001) "Actuation-Based Microsensors," J. Smart Materials & Structures, vol. 10, p. 1185. [A fluid motion-based approach for compensating for composition, temperature, and pressure sensitivities for any type of flow sensors. See Fig. 6] Bonne, U, Detry, J., Higashi, R.E., Rezacheck, T. and Swanson, S. (2002) New gas composition and trace contaminant sensors. Proceedings of the GTI Gas Technology Conference, Orlando, Forida, 30 Sep. - 2 Oct.. [Describes application of phased heater array structure for enhanced detection (PHASED) sensor technology with application to gas composition as well as other actuation-based sensors.] Bonne, U. (1996) Sensing fuel properties with thermal microsensors. Proc. SPIE Conference on Smart Electronics and MEMS, paper no. 2722-24, San Diego, CA. [Description of a particular temperaturecompensated flow sensor including the nonlinear function used for the compensation.]

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Desvergne, J.P. and Czarnik, A.W. (eds.) (1997) Chemosensors of Ion and Molecule Recognition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [This edited volume contains contributions that include a description of fluorescent chemosensor techniques for single-molecule detection and the use of chemical sensors based on conjugated polymers.] Fanger P.O. (1970) Thermal Comfort. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. [A comprehensive discussion of thermal comfort, including the Predictive Mean Vote (PMV) formula.]

Frank, R. (1996) Understanding Smart Sensors. Artech House, Boston, MA. [Reviews the principles behind and developments in the embedding of “intelligence” in sensor systems. Also presents a classification of different sensor types.] Honeywell Inc. (1998) Shutter-check flame detectors, models C7012E, C7012D, C7024E, C7024F, C7061A, C7076A and C7076D. Tradeline Catalog, Publ. No. 70-6910, Honeywell Home and Building Control, Golden Valley, MN, 753–763. [ “Fail-safe” systems with optomechanical sensors for flame detection.] ISO 7730 (1994) Moderate Thermal Environments – Determination of the PMV and PPD Indices and Specification of the Conditions for Thermal Comfort (2nd ed.). International Standards Organization, Geneva, ref. no. ISO 7730:1994(E). [Adoption of Predicted Mean Vote as an international standard for thermal comfort of human occupants.] Kroot, P. (1996) A new oxygen sensor for cleaner, more efficient combustion. Scientific Honeyweller, 15, 29–33. [A sophisticated self-checking oxygen sensor.] Liu, C.H., Barzilai, A.M., Reynolds, J.K., Partridge, A., Kenny, T.W., Grade, J.D. and Rockstad, H.K. (1998) Characterization of a high-sensitivity micromachined tunneling accelerometer with micro-g resolution, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 7, 235. [A force-rebalanced accelerometer used to eliminate the effects of zero drift and nonlinearity in a sensor.] Margulis, L. and Sagan, D. (1997) Microcosmos. University of California Press. [A view of evolution that emphasizes the interconnectedness of all life on our planet, drawing on insights from microbiology.] Medtronic (1997) Medtronic rapid technological growth. http://www.medtronic.com/corporate/ early.htm. [A brief history of Medtronic, Inc., a company specializing in biomedical devices. Modern devices may be based on sensing of properties such as blood sugar and body motion.] Middelhoek, S. and Audet, S.A. (1989) Silicon Sensors. Academic Press, London. [An excellent review of modern silicon-based sensor technology. A classification scheme for sensors is also detailed.] Nagle, H.T., Schiffman, S.S. and Gutierrez-Osuna, R. (1998) The how and why of electronic noses. IEEE Spectrum, 35, 9, 22–31. [This article reviews different technological approaches to the development of artificial nose sensors and describes several companies who are developing products and solutions in this area.]

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Pierce, J.R. (1980) An Introduction to Information Theory – Symbols, Signals and Noise. (2nd rev ed.). Dover Publications, Inc., New York. [An accessible treatment of information theory.] Shannon, C. (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379– 423, 623–656. [The seminal papers that established information theory. Shannon’s contributions included relating energy and information content.] Soloman, S. (1994) Sensors and Control Systems in Manufacturing. McGraw-Hill, New York. [A review of sensors for manufacturing applications along with their integration into automation and control systems.] Suga, N. (1990) Cortical computational maps for auditory imaging. Neural Networks, 3, 3–21. [The processing in the bat cortex of returned sonar signals.] Swager, T.M. (1997) New approaches to sensory materials: molecular recognition in conjugated polymers, in Chemosensors of Ion and Molecule Recognition (eds. J.P. Desvergne and A.W. Czarnik). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [New chemosensors for TNT with parts-perbillion sensitivity.]

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Biographical Sketches
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Travis, J. (1999) Making sense of scents: scientists begin to decipher the alphabet of odors. Science News, 155, 236–238. [An article that highlights advances in our understanding of olfaction.] Van der Ziel, A. (1976) Noise in Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, U.K. [Discusses sources of and types of noise in measurement and instrumentation systems.] Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (ed.) (1996) Silicon Sensors and Circuits. Chapman and Hall, London. [An edited volume with contributions describing a variety of silicon-based sensor technology.] Yamatake (1999) Integrated environmental comfort control. http://www.yamatake.co.jp/innovat/ iecc.htm. [Products and technology from one manufacturer in the area of comfort control for indoor environments, based on the PMV standard.]

David Zook is currently Chief Technology Officer with Dresden Associates, a small consulting firm in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area (U.S.A.). He received his Ph.D. in Solid State Physics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1962. He spent 38 years with Honeywell developing mechanical, optical and chemical sensors and systems for commercial and military applications and recently retired from Honeywell Laboratories as a Principal Research Fellow. He has authored over 20 patents and 60 refereed papers and twice won the Sweatt Award (Honeywell’s highest technical achievement award). He has experience with working over a wide range of technology areas, including electronic and photonic device physics, optical system design, plasma–surface interactions and microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS). His most recent work involved MEMS-based fiber optic pressure sensors that are self-resonant such that unmodulated light incident on them is reflected as modulated light with the modulation frequency dependent on pressure. He has also been involved with sensors and actuators for chemical and biological sensing. Ulrich Bonne is a Senior Research Fellow at Honeywell Laboratories in Plymouth, Minnesota, U.S.A. He received a B.S. degree in Physics at the University of Freiburg i. Br., Germany, in 1957; and his M.S. (Physics, 1960) and Ph.D. (Chemical Physics, 1964) degrees from the University of Göttingen, where he was a Research Associate in the Physical Chemistry Department at the University until joining Honeywell Laboratories in 1965. His current R&D interests and activities include micro sensors and actuators for monitoring air quality and water quality for DoD, DoE, EPA, aerospace, process industry, combustion engines, and appliance applications; non-intrusive approaches for sensing and controlling micro-flows; low-cost sensing of fuel oxygen demand; and sensor self-calibration and actuation-based sensors. His earlier work was in the areas of flame ionization, PZT transformers, liquid crystal displays, and IR/visible/UV spectroscopy in low-pressure flat flames. Dr. Bonne is the author or co-author of some 130 technical publications and 60 U.S. patents. He is the recipient of several technical Honeywell awards: an H.W. Sweatt Award (1971) for development of combustion instrumentation; a Honeywell “Pioneer” Award (1990) for electronic gas meter development; Product Development Team Awards for a Gasoline Vapor Sensor (1997) and a Breath Flow Sensor (2001); and a Minnesota Society of Professional

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Engineers “One of the Seven Wonders of Engineering” Team Award for the development of an advanced heat pump control in 1979. Tariq Samad is a Corporate Fellow with Honeywell Automation and Control Solutions in Minneapolis, U.S.A.. He has been with various R&D organizations in Honeywell for 17 years, and he has been involved in a number of projects that have explored applications of intelligent systems and intelligent control technologies to domains such as autonomous aircraft, building and facility management, power system security, and process monitoring and control. He was the editor-in-chief of IEEE Control Systems Magazine. He is the author or coauthor of about 100 publications and holds 11 U.S. patents. His recent publications include the edited volumes Automation, Control, and Complexity: An Integrated View (Wiley), Perspectives in Control: Technologies, Applications, New Directions (IEEE Press), and Software-Enabled Control: Information Technology for Dynamical Systems (Wiley, in press). Dr. Samad received his B.S. in Engineering and Applied Science from Yale University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. He is the recipient of an IEEE Third Millennium Medal and corecipient of an “Excellence” award for Control Systems Magazine from the Society for Technical Communications, New York Metro Chapter.

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