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Wavelet representation of voltage ﬂicker
Tongxin Zheng, Elham B. Makram *
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson Uni6ersity, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Received 21 May 1998; accepted 1 June 1998
Abstract
Voltage ﬂicker can be considered as a voltage magnitude modulated signal with a frequency ranging from 0.5 to 30 Hz. Wavelet
transform is a powerful tool to analyze this kind of nonstationary, widerange frequency signal. The wavelet representation of
voltage ﬂicker signal is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is implemented in three steps. Firstly, a lowpass
demodulation ﬁlter is designed to ﬁnd the magnitude of 60 Hz component. Accordingly, a high degree of accuracy may be
achieved and the effect of the transient, harmonics and white noise may be eliminated. Secondly, a multiresolution analysis
(MRA) scheme that is an orthonormal wavelet transform, can then be applied to decompose the demodulated signal into several
components according to the scales. Components at high scale can be considered as white noise, while components at the low scale
represent the voltage ﬂuctuation. The smooth version left by the MRA scheme represents the DC component. Finally, the voltage
ﬂicker level can be estimated by the wavelet coefﬁcients at different scales, which give the time and frequency information.
Numerical examples are also presented in this paper to show the efﬁciency of the proposed scheme. © 1998 Elsevier Science S.A.
All rights reserved.
Keywords: Voltage ﬂicker; Wavelet transform; Multiresolution analysis; Power quality
1. Introduction
Voltage ﬂicker may create problems with the system
equipment. It affects the starting torque, slip, starting
current, and temperature rise. It also causes an over
load in motors and generators. In addition, it reduces
the life of the electronic, incandescent, ﬂuorescent and
CRT devices. Electronic controllers are likely to misop
erate during voltage variations. It also inﬂuences the
visual perception of light [1].
Any sudden change in the rms value of the supplied
voltage can be considered as a voltage ﬂicker phenom
ena. Typically in the arc furnace system, the voltage
magnitude ﬂuctuation can be characterized as a fre
quency change from 0.5 to 30 Hz.
The possible sources of voltage ﬂicker widely exist in
the power system. The most common sources of voltage
ﬂicker are switching loads and motor starting due to
the combination of high inrush current and low power
factor during starting. Included under this category are
fans, pumps, compressors, air conditioners, refrigera
tors, elevators, etc. Intermittent loads such as arc
welders, spot welders, and arc furnaces also produced
sudden changes in voltages and therefore produced
voltage ﬂicker. Another possible source of ﬂicker is the
switching of powerfactor correction capacitors [2].
The ﬂicker phenomena can be divided into two gen
eral categories, cyclic and noncyclic ﬂicker. The cyclic
ﬂicker is that resulting from periodic voltage ﬂuctua
tions. Noncyclic ﬂicker corresponds to occasional
voltage ﬂuctuations [3].
The measurement of voltage ﬂicker involves the
derivation of the system RMS voltage variation and the
frequency at which the variation occurs. The current
techniques related to the ﬂicker measurement and con
trol are classiﬁed into the following categories
1. FFT technique [1]
2. FFT prune technique [4]
3. Kalman ﬁlter technique [5,6]
Most of the proposed techniques have their own advan
tage in identifying the ﬂicker magnitude and frequen
cies. It was well known that FFT and FFT prune
techniques could not be applied for the nonstationary
signals. Although the Kalman ﬁlter is satisﬁed for the
nonstationary process, it can only identify one major
frequency component of the ﬂicker signal that may
contain several ﬂicker frequencies. * Corresponding author.
03787796/98/$  see front matter © 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
PII S03787796(98)000996
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 134
Unlike the Fourier transform, the wavelet transform
is well suited to a wide band signal, which may be a
nonstationary process. The timeshifting and scaling
characteristic give wavelet transform the ability of fo
cusing on short time intervals for high frequency com
ponent and long time intervals for low frequency
components [7,8].
Current research has shown that wavelet transform is
a powerful tool for the study of power quality problem.
[9–14] gave some good examples of wavelet transform
application on power system transient detection, simu
lation, analysis and protection.
In this paper, wavelet transform is applied on the
voltage ﬂicker problem. Generally speaking, voltage
ﬂicker signal contains several ﬂicker frequency compo
nents, which may be cyclic and noncyclic, and white
noise, wavelet transform can be used in this kind of
signal. The proposed scheme can be implemented in
two steps. Firstly, a lowpass ﬁlter is used to demodu
late the sampling data to get the voltage magnitude.
Since the sampling frequency is higher than the funda
mental frequency, the sampling data can be fully used
without losing any information. Then multiresolution
analysis technique is applied to decompose the demodu
lated signal into scales. In this way, a nice representa
tion of ﬂicker signal is achieved on different scales.
Each scale corresponds to a ﬁxed frequency, the magni
tude of shifted coefﬁcients of each scale indicate the
magnitude of ﬂicker at scaled frequency. Finally,
voltage ﬂicker level is calculated based on the wavelet
transform coefﬁcients.
A brief introduction to wavelet transform is dis
cussed in Section 2, and the proposed scheme is pre
sented in Section 3. Numerical results from the
proposed scheme are given in Section 4. [7,8] give a
detailed description of wavelet transform and multires
olution analysis scheme.
2. Wavelet transform
Wavelet transform is a typical application of the
functional analysis theory. Since every sampled signal
in the time domain can be considered as a representa
tion of continuous function at a certain time interval
and every signal has ﬁnite energy in L
2
norm, it is an
element of L
2
space. Fourier transform use the dilated
sine and cosine functional as the basis of L
2
space, as
they are mutually orthogonal and every function in L
2
space has the unique representation with this basis. In
Fourier transform, every function is represented by the
cyclic sine and cosine function with integertimes of
fundamental frequency. However, wavelet transform
has two basic properties, which are timeshifting and
dilation. A brief introduction in wavelet transform will
be summarized in the next section.
2.1. Orthonormal wa6elet transform
The integral wavelet transform of any functional f on
L
2
(R) space is deﬁned as:
(W
f)(b, a) =a
−
1
2
¸
−
+
f(x)
¸x−b
a
¸
dx (1)
where — means the complex conjugate. The linear
transformation W
is called the ‘integral wavelet trans
form’ relative to the ‘mother wavelet’, . Also, the
wavelet function dilated by a and timeshifted by b is
noted by
a,b
(x) =
¸x−b
a
¸
(2)
Any basic wavelet function must necessarily satisfy the
following: (1) it must contain ocsilaration; and (2) it
must have ﬁnite energy, which means
¸
−
+
(x)dx=0 (3)
In practice, we chose the dydic form of timeshifting
and dilation, i.e.
a=2
−j
b=2
−j
k (4)
Thus,
a,b
(x) can be expressed as
j,k
. If the wavelet
family {
j,k
}
j,kz
is an orthonormal basis of L
2
(R), i.e.
¸
j,k
,
l,m
,=(
j,k
· (
l,m
, j, k, l, mZ (5)
where
¸f, g,=
¸
−
+
f(x)g(x) dx
l
j,k
={
0
1
for j "k
for j =k
j,k
(x) =2
j/2
(2
j
x−k), j, kZ

2
=1
then every f L
2
(R) can be written as
f(x) = _
+
j,k=−
d
k
j
j,k
(x) (6)
The series representation of f(x) is called a wavelet
series. Analogous to the Fourier coefﬁcient, the wavelet
coefﬁcients d
k
j
, wavelet coefﬁcient is given by
d
k
l
=¸f,
j,k
, (7)
2.2. Multiresolution analysis
Actually, for any f L
2
(R) , let f
N
be some approxi
mate of f from sampled space V
N
for a ﬁxed NZ. For
any positive integer M, f
N
has a unique decomposition:
f
N
(x) =g
N−1
(x) + ··· +g
N−M
(x) +f
N−M
(x) (8)
Where is scaling function and
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 135
Í
Ã
Ã
Á
Ä
f
j
(x) =_
k
c
k
j
j,k
(x)
c
j
={c
k
j
} kZ
(9)
Í
Ã
Ã
Á
Ä
g
j
(x) =_
k
d
k
j
j,k
(x)
d
j
={d
k
j
} kZ
(10)
Based on Eq. (8), multiresolution analysis (MRA)
scheme gives a better way to calculate the wavelet
transform coefﬁcients. MRA scheme is divided into
decomposition and reconstruction schemes according to
the wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform,
which are implemented by a set of highpass ﬁlter and
lowpass ﬁlter.
2.2.1. Decomposition scheme
The decomposition schemes calculate the wavelet
coefﬁcients from the original signal. The coefﬁcients
c
k
j −1
represent the smooth version of original signal at
the j th resolution level, while coefﬁcients d
k
j −1
represent
the detailed version of the original signal at the j th
resolution. They satisfy the following relationship
Í
Ã
Ã
Á
Ä
c
k
j −1
=_
l
h%
l −2k
c
i
j
d
k
j −1
=_
l
g%
1−2k
c
l
j
(11)
Fig. 1 shows the decomposition scheme between the
two resolutions. The scheme starts from the Nth resolu
tion level, ends in the zero resolution level. The smooth
version at j th resolution pass through the highpass
ﬁlter H’ which has the coefﬁcients h%, after downsam
pling by two (keep every other output data), the
smooth version at j –1th resolution will be achived.
While passing through the lowpass ﬁlter G% with coefﬁ
cients g% and downsampling by two, the detailed version
at j –1th resolution will be obtained.
2.2.2. Reconstruction scheme
Eq. (12) gives the reconstruction relationship between
two resolution levels.
c
k
j
=_
l
[h
k−2l
c
l
j −1
+g
k−2j
d
l
j −1
] (12)
Fig. 2. Reconstruction scheme.
Fig. 2 shows the wavelet reconstruction scheme. It
starts from zero resolution level, and ends at Nth
resolution level. After upsampling by two (insert zeros
between each pair of original coefﬁcients), c
j −1
and d
j −1
pass through ﬁlter G with coefﬁcients g and H with
coefﬁcients h, the smooth version at j th resolution level
being achieved.
3. Voltage ﬂicker analysis scheme
Section 2 shows that the possibility to apply wavelet
transform on voltage ﬂicker problems exists, and that
this will produce a different representation of voltage
ﬂicker phenomena from that of FFT. Voltage ﬂicker
refers to the ﬂuctuation in the magnitude of the funda
mental frequency component, therefore, the ﬁrst thing
to do is to get the rms value of the ﬂicker voltage
waveform. Since voltage ﬂicker can be considered as
the magnitude modulated signal, a demodulation
scheme is used to obtain the magnitude of the voltage
waveform (Fig. 3). In this way, a high degree of accu
racy is also achieved.
3.1. Demodulation scheme
The demodulation scheme is ﬁrstly used to multiply
the sampling signal with a sine or cosine function, then
to let it pass through a lowpass ﬁlter.
Let f(k) represent the kth sampling data, f
s
be the
sampling frequency, and f
c
be the fundamental fre
quency. Thus, the modiﬁed the signal X(k) is
Fig. 3. Demodulated signal ( f
0
–f
4
). Fig. 1. Decomposition scheme.
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 136
X(k) = f(k) cos (2yf
c
k/f
s
) (13)
Let X(z) be the z tranform of X(k) , after passing
through a low pass digital ﬁlter. The demodulated
signal Y(z) can be expressed as:
Y(z) =
b
0
+b
1
z
−1
+ ··· +b
n
z
−n
a
0
+a
1
z
−1
+ ··· +a
n
z
−m
X(z) (14)
where {b
k
}
k=0
n
and {a
k
}
k=0
m
are the ﬁlter coefﬁcients,
and the cutoff frequency is two times of the fundamen
tal frequency. The output signal represents the magni
tude of the voltage waveform based on cosine
demodulated waveform.
Since the actual voltage waveform is not purely
sinusoidal waveform caused by some unknown factors,
and white noise from the measurement devices, the
measured signal may also contains harmonics, tran
sients and white noise. Therefore, several facts must be
considered.
Since the demodulation scheme is a lowpass ﬁlter, all
of the high frequency components will be eliminated, as
well as white noise and transients. Five analytical ex
pressions of the voltage signal are given below. Fig. 3
shows the output of the ﬁve signals, which indicate the
following:
1. For a purely sinusoidal signal ( f
0
), the scheme gives
the magnitude with a very small error.
2. For the signal with harmonics ( f
1
and f
2
), the
harmonic components have no inﬂuence on the
voltage magnitude.
3. For the signal with transient ( f
3
), transient compo
nent will be eliminated.
4. For the signal with white noise ( f
4
), the noise will be
limited by the lowpass ﬁlter.
f
0
(t) = (1+0.1 cos(
f
t)) cos(
t)
f
1
(t) = (1+0.1 cos(
f
t)) cos(
t) +0.3 cos(3
t)
f
2
(t) = (1+0.1 cos(
f
t)) cos(
t) +0.3 cos(3.1
t)
f
3
(t) = (1+0.1 cos(
f
t)) cos(
t) +exp( −at) cos(
t
t)
f
4
(t) = (1+0.1 cos (
f
t)) cos (
t) +w(t)
From above results, it is clear that the demodulation
scheme can give an acurate result of voltage manitude.
3.2. Flicker representation
Using the MRA scheme, the demodulated signal can
be represented in different resolution levels (it is also
called different scales). Each scale corresponds to a
certain frequency band depending upon the sampling
frequency. The wavelet coefﬁcients at different resolu
tion level, are the scalars in this wavelet space with the
basis of dilated and translated wavelet family. That is
each projection of the original signal on the scale has
ﬁxed shifting wavelet components according to this
scale.
In the MRA scheme, the ﬁnal resolution level is
chosen as zero. Then the smooth version of signal f(x)
at zero scale will be the DC component of this sampling
period. Then the DC component can be considered as
the magnitude of voltage waveform. This is the mean
value of voltage ﬂicker magnitude in this period. Thus,
the voltage ﬂicker level can be estimated.
Low scale components represent the ﬂicker level with
low frequency, which include the cyclic and noncyclic
frequency components. High scale components indicate
the white noise or the instantaneous ﬂicker, because
generally the ﬂicker frequency is lower than the funda
mental frequency.
With these wavelet coefﬁcients at different resolution
levels, the voltage ﬂicker level at different scales (fre
quencies) can be simply calculated. Since the ﬁnal reso
lution level is zero, it means the smooth version
representation of signal is c
0
0
. After inverse wavelet
transform, MRA will produce a DC component of the
signal which is the mean value. Assuming the ratio
between the mean value and c
0
0
to be b
0
, the mean value
of the voltage can be expressed as V
m
=b
0
c
0
0
. Therefore,
from the wavelet decomposition scheme, the signal was
expressed as
f(x) = _
N−1
j =0
_
2
j
−1
k=0
d
k
j
j,k
(x) +b
0
c
0
0
(15)
Eq. (15) shows that the wavelet coefﬁcient d
j
k
stands for
the degree of voltage magnitude ﬂunctuation at j th
resolution and kth translation. Note that the maximum
values of the wavelet function
j,k
(x) are the same
independent of the timeshifting, let the maximum value
of the wavelet
j,k
(x) be r
j
, thus,
r
j
=max
x
{
j,0
(x)}=··· =max
x
{
j,2
j
−1
(x)} for j
=0, …, N−1.
The voltage ﬂicker level I
FL
j,k
is calculated as
I
FL
j,k
=
r
j
d
k
j

b
0
c
c
c

×100% (16)
The voltage ﬂicker level I
FL
j,k
gives the timefrequency
information of the voltage ﬂicker, which is useful for
the voltage ﬂicker detection and assessment.
The voltage ﬂicker detection may result in the maxi
mum voltage ﬂicker level I
maxFL
j
and corresponding
timeT
maxFL
j
Í
Ã
Ã
Á
Ä
I
maxFL
j
= max
k
{I
FL
j,k
T
maxFL
j
= k*T/2
j
(17)
In order to assess the voltage ﬂicker in the frequency
domain, the energy of the ﬂicker is considered as the
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 137
Fig. 4. Voltage ﬂicker analysis scheme.
index of the j th scale. The energy of the j th scale
component of the original signal is calculated as
E
j
=
¸
T
g
j
(x)
2
dx (18)
By substituting g
j
(x) with Eq. (10), and by using the
orthonormal property of the wavelet function resulted
in:
E
j
=
¸
T
¸
_
2
j
−1
k=0
d
k
j
j,k
(x)
¸
2
dx = _
2
j
−1
k=0
d
k
j

2
(19)
Let
g
j
EQV
(x) _
2
j
−1
k=0
d
rms
j
j,k
(x) (20)
be the equavalent function of g
j
(x), which has the same
energy E
j
, d
rms
j
is the equivalent wavelet coefﬁcient in
the j th scale. Thus,
d
rms
j
=
¸
2
−j
_
2
j
−1
k=0
d
k
j

2
¸
1/2
(21)
where g
j
EQV
(x) is a function with frequency of 2
j −N
f
s
and maximum magnitude of 2
( j −N)/2
. Thus, the voltage
ﬂicker level at j th scale can be calculated as
I
FL
j
2
(j −N)/2
d
rms
j
b
0
c
0
0
×100% (22)
3.3. Denoise scheme
Generally speaking, the voltage ﬂicker frequency is
lower than the fundamental frequency f
C
. Therefore,
the wavelet components in the high sales can not be
considered as the voltage ﬂicker. Also, the demodula
tion scheme may introduce some errors. Thus, the
wavelet components in high scales can be eliminated as
noise. Therefore, the reconstruction scheme can be used
to reconstruct the denoised signal. This is also useful
for compression of power quality data.
3.4. Implementation scheme
From above discussion, the proposed voltage ﬂicker
analysis scheme is shown in Fig. 4.
As shown in Fig. 4, the measured data is ﬁrstly
multiplied by the cosine waveform, after passing the
losspass ﬁlter, it produces the voltage magnitude. Sec
ondly, MRA decomposition scheme is applied to get
the wavelet coefﬁcients, then denoise scheme and MRA
reconstruction scheme are applied to get the denoised
signal for the purpose of data compression and denoise.
Finally, voltage ﬂicker calculation scheme is applied to
calculate the voltage ﬂicker level at different scales
using Eqs. (16), (17) and (22).
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 138
3.5. Discussion of the choice of mother wa6elet
At present, different kinds of mother wavelets exist.
A different mother wavelet will produce different
wavelet coefﬁcients, which will inﬂuence the ﬂicker level
computation. It is hard to say which kind of wavelet is
better, however, it is clear that each kind of mother
wavelet has its own advantage and disadvantage.
Daubechies wavelet is the most popular one due to
its compactness and continuity, while the Haar wavelet
is famous for its simplicity and is ease of use. However,
in power systems, most signals are sinusoidallike sig
nals, and Daubechies wavelet contains more oscillation
than the Haar wavelet which is a square waveform. The
Daubechies wavelet coefﬁcients contain more zero
terms than the Haar wavelet coefﬁcients. This means
the more complicated the mother wavelet is, the more
simplistic the wavelet coefﬁcients are. Therefore, in
power system analysis, a Daubechies wavelet is
recommended.
4. Numerical result
In order to test the proposed scheme, a tested sample
is ﬁrst analyzed, then the scheme is applied on a
recorded data.
4.1. Assumed signal
The analytic expression of the given signal which
include harmonic components and white noise is given
as follow,
f(t) = (1+0.1 cos(
f
t)) cos(
t) +0.3 cos(3
t) +w(t)
where
f
=2y · 5
Fig. 6. MRA representation in scales.
=2y · 60
The sampling rate is 15.36 kHz.
Fig. 5 shows the original signal, the voltage magni
tude and the reconstructed denoised voltage magnitude
waveforms.
Fig. 6 is the result of the MRA decomposition
scheme. It shows the signal in the continuous form in
the time interval according to different scales. Since the
magnitude of high scale components are much smaller
than that of low scale components, only the low scale
components are given. It shows that the ﬂicker compo
nent at scale 2 is the most serious.
Fig. 7. Voltage ﬂicker level in scales.
Fig. 5. Mathematics numerical examples: (a) original signal wave
form; (b) demodulated signal waveform; and (c) denoised recon
structed signal waveform.
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 139
Table 1
Maximum voltage ﬂicker level
I
maxFL
j
(%) T
maxFL
j
(s) Scale I
FL
j
(%) Frequency (Hz)
0.8079 0 0 0.5643 1.875
0.2666 0.8001 1.3246 3.75 1
6.4596 0 2 7.5 8.3129
4.0762 0.3333 3 15 2.7274
0.4999 1.6545 0.4696 30 4
0.7735 0.5166 5 60 0.1415
0.5249 0.1800 6 120 0.3103
0.1201 0.5166 7 240 0.0901
0.0096 0 0.0064 480 8
0.5322 0.0003 9 960 0.0004
1.45e–5 0.5317 10 1.92 K 9.02e–6
0.5148 4.07e–7 2.87e–7 3.84 K 11
7.68 K 4.41e–7 0 1.15e–8 12
The DC component is 1 p.u.
Fig. 8. The recorded data from the arc furnace system: (a) original
voltage waveform; (b) demodulated voltage waveform; and (c) de
noise reconstructed voltage waveform.
Fig. 7 shows the voltage ﬂicker level in magnitude
with timeshifting. It also shows that the voltage
ﬂicker level is the highest in scale 2.
From the above wavelet representation, it shows
that the signal has much magnitude ﬂuctuation at
scales 1, 2 and 3 which correspond to the frequencies
3.75, 7.5 and 15 Hz, while the actual ﬂicker frequency
is 6 Hz. Using the calculation formula provided
above, the ﬂicker level can be shown in Table 1.
From Table 1, the most ﬂicker ﬂuctuation is at scale
2, which have 8.31% at time 0 s. The total voltage
ﬂicker assessment index is 6.46% with frequency 7.5
Hz.
4.2. Recorded data
The scheme is applied on the recorded data of an
arc furnace system, which contains much voltage
ﬂicker. Fig. 8 shows the actual measurement of the
supplied 110 kV bus system. Fig. 8 (a) shows the
recorded phase A bus voltage. It is difﬁcult in this
case to detect the voltage ﬂicker phenomena from Fig.
8 (a). After using the demodulation scheme proposed
in Section 3, the voltage magnitude waveform is
shown in Fig. 8 (b). Thus, voltage magnitude ﬂuctua
tion can be shown clearly. The reconstructed voltage
waveform shown in Fig. 8 (c), was reconstructed from
the wavelet transform which eliminates the high fre
quency components and the white noise.
Fig. 9 shows the wavelet representation of the de
modulated voltage magnitude waveform. The original
waveform is decomposed into 11 scales, in each scale
the original signal has a unique continuous compo
nent. Since the voltage magnitude of purely sinusoidal
waveform is constant, any nonzero representation in
different scales could be considered as the voltage ﬂuc
tuation in this scale. Fig. 9 shows that the most seri
ous voltage ﬂuctuation exits in scale 5.
The instantaneous voltage ﬂicker level is calculated
by using Eq. (16). Its magnitude and distribution are
shown in Fig. 10, which also shows that the ﬂicker
level at scale 5 is much more than that of other scales.
The voltage ﬂicker level is calculated by using the
proposed formula in Eq. (17) and Eq. (22). The maxi
mum voltage ﬂicker and ﬂicker assessment are summa
rized in Table 2. It shows that the maximum voltage
ﬂicker is 2.47% at frequency 93.75 Hz and the cor
responding ﬂicker assessment index is 1.6%.
Fig. 9. MRA representation in 5 scales.
T. Zheng, E.B. Makram / Electric Power Systems Research 48 (1998) 133–140 140
Fig. 10. Voltage ﬂicker level in scales.
Table 2
Maximum voltage ﬂicker level
I
maxFL
j
(%) T
maxFL
j
(s) Scale I
FL
j
(%) Frequency (Hz)
0.0 1.1778 2.93 0.8227 0
0.1709 0.2593 1 5.86 0.4328
0.9581 0.0 2 11.72 0.5315
0.2991 0.8406 0.4176 23.44 3
1.6280 0.0 4 46.88 0.7819
0.1816 1.6074 5 93.75 2.4693
0.5581 0.1389 6 187.5 0.3177
0.0408 0.2056 0.0206 375 7
0.1549 8.69e–4 8 750 0.0017
2.95e–5 0.2043 9 1.5 K 4.99e–5
3 K 1.86e–6 0.2043 10 9.43e–7
The DC component is 89.81 kV.
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5. Conclusion
This paper introduced the wavelet transform into the
analysis of voltage ﬂicker phenomena, which expands
the wavelet transform applications on power quality
problem. It shows that the wavelet transform not only
can be applied on the power system transient and
harmonic problem, but also can be used on the voltage
ﬂicker which contains the low frequency components.
From the above results of the two samples, it shows
that the proposed voltage ﬂicker analysis scheme pro
vides a new way of voltage ﬂicker representation. The
proposed voltage ﬂicker level calculation method pro
duces a good evaluation of the voltage ﬂicker problem.
Based on the voltage ﬂicker level assessment index, a
voltage ﬂicker control scheme can be designed in the
near future.
References
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