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When trying to figure out Borrow Pit Problems you need to understand a few things. 1. Water can be added or removed from soil 2. The MASS of the SOLIDS CAN NOT be changed 3. Need to know phase relationships in soil….which I will show you next

**Phase relationship in Soil
**

This represents the soil that you take from a borrow pit. It is made up of AIR, WATER, and SOLIDS. So if you separated the soil into its components it would look like this. It is referred to as a Soil Phase Diagram. When looking at a Soil Phase Diagram you think of it two ways, 1. Volume, 2. Mass.

AIR WATER

SOIL

Volume

Va

AIR WATER

Mass

Ma = 0 Mw

Va = Volume Air Vw = Volume Water Vs = Volume Solid

Vw

Ma = Mass Air = 0 Mw = Mass Water Ms = Mass Solid

Vs

SOIL

Ms

Vt = Volume Total = Va + Vw + Vs Mt = Mass Total = Mw + Ms

42 pounds per CF(pcf) SI Units = 1. Higher porosity = higher permeability Density of Water = γwater = Mw/Vw English Units = 62.Basic Terms/Formulas to know – Soil Phase relationship Specific Gravity = the density of the solids divided by the density of Water Moisture Content = Mass of Water divided by the Mass of Solids Void Ratio = Volume of Voids divided by the Volume of Solids Porosity = Volume of Voids divided by the Total Volume.000kg/m3 Moisture Content (w) = Mw/Ms Specific Gravity = Gs = γsolids /γwater =Ms/(Vs * γwater ) Porosity (n) = Vv/Vt Vv = Volume of Voids = Vw + Va Vt = Total Volume = Vs +Vw + Va Degree of Saturation (S) = Vw/Vv Vw = Volume of Water Vv = Total Volume of Voids Total or Wet Density of Soil (γwet) = M/V M = M w + Ms V = Vw + Vs + Va Void Ratio (e) = Vv/Vs Vv = Total Volume of Voids Vs = Volume of Solid Dry Density of Soil (γdry) = Ms /V V = Vw + Vs + Va Density of Solids = Ms/Vs Relationships to know Dry Density of Soil (γdry) = γwet /(1+w) (γdry) = (γwater * Gs)/(1+(w/S)*Gs) (γdry) = (γwater * Gs)/(1+e) Total or Wet Density of Soil (γwet) = γwet = ((γwater * Gs ( 1+w))/(1+e) Specific Gravity = S * e = Gs * w Porosity (n) = e/(1+e) Void Ratio (e) = n/(1-n) .000 g/liter = 1.

Shrinkage A soil’s Loose volume is multiplied by the load factor to obtain bank volume. Bank volume may be multiplied by the shrinkage factor to Obtain compacted volume or compacted volume may be Divided by the shrinkage factor to obtain bank volume. .Load and Shrinkage Factors Load Factor = Weight/Loose Unit Volume Load Factor = Weight/bank Unit Volume Weight/bank Unit Volume Weight/compacted Unit Volume Or Load Factor = 1 1+ Swell % Or Shrinkage Factor = 1.

584 cf 5. 2 ft thick road is being constructed. d.395 cf 12.1 pcf at an optimum moisture content at 10.5% What is the total volume(cf) of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit? a. c. b. 45. The soil density after compaction was found to be 112. The soil from the borrow pit as a total density of 105pcf and a moisture content of 8.856 cf 11.5%.260 cf . 500 ft long.Borrow Pit Problem 1 Problem 1. A 10 ft wide.

285 lbs/V.000 lbs Step 2: Find the Mass of water in compacted soil .Volume of Compacted soil = (500ft)(10ft)(2ft) = 10. .216.121.using Moisture Content (w) = Mw/Ms .using Total or Wet Density of Soil (γwet) = M/V = 105pcf = 1.583.285 lbs .1pcf = Ms /10.216.using Moisture Content (w) = Mw/Ms .7 cf .121.5% = .000cf. so Ms = 1.285lbs = 1.085 = Mw/1.1 pcf .121.705 lbs Step 3: Find total volume of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit: .dry density of the compacted soil is given = 112.using Dry Density of Soil (γdry) = Ms /V = 112.Total Mass at borrow pit = 1. V = 11.000lbs + 95.121.Borrow Pit Solution 1: Step 1: Find the mass of solids (Ms) required for the controlled fill: .Moisture content in compacted soil given at 10.105 = Mw/1.000lbs = Mw = 117.285 lbs . .000 cf .105 .000lbs = Mw = 95.

a. Soil borings at a proposed Borrow Pit indicate that the soil is primarily a sandy clay. d. d.836 cy . b. 1.568 cy 21. b. 1.000 cy. 36. Compute the volume of the hole at the borrow pit after the soil is removed. Based on the average results of a Standard Proctor compaction test the soil will be compacted to a density of 95 pcf at a moisture content of 25%. a.564 cy 19.591 cy 24. Dump trucks with a capacity of 15cy will be used to transport the soil from the borrow pit to the proposed road bed. Cores taken of the soil in the pit indicates an average dry density of 88pcf at a moisture content of 22%.Borrow Pit Problem 2 Problem 2. The volume of the contained soil in the fill when constructed is 20. 2. c. c.836 trucks 2.856 trucks 658 trucks 1. Assuming that the soil in the dump truck has a dry density of 69 pcf at a moisture content of 22% estimate the number of loads that will be necessary. 68 trucks 12.

(γdry) = Ms /V.000 cy * 27cf/cy = 540.591cy .dry density of the compacted soil is given = 88 pcf . 88pcf = 51.300.000 cf . V= 51.300.Borrow Pit Solution 2: Step 1: Find the mass of solids (Ms) required for the controlled fill: . 51.955cf/(27cf/cy) = 21.using Dry Density of Soil (γdry) = Ms /V = 95 pcf = Ms /540.so the number of trucks needed is 27. and the dry density of the soil to be hauled is 69 pcf .000 lbs/V.300.dry density of the compacted soil is given = 95 pcf .000 cf.955cf . 582.300.000lbs/88pcf = 582.convert to cy. .000 lbs/69pcf = 743.478 cf / 27cf/cy = 27.000 lbs Step 2: Find the # of Trucks required to haul Soil.Volume of Compacted soil = 20.Ms = 51.so.300. so Ms = 51.000 lbs.536cy/15cy/truck = 1836 trucks Step 3: Find the Volume at the borrow pit .536 cy .

c.25 and a shrinkage factor of . What is the final volume of the compacted soil? a. b. 120cy of bank soil is excavated and stockpiled before being trucked and then compacted. 68 cy 102 cy 150 cy 128 cy .15. The soil has a swell factor of .Borrow Pit Problem 3 Problem 3. d.

so. Vstockpile =(1+. Vcompacted fill =(1-. .Borrow Pit Solution 3: The shrinkage factor is taken with respect to the bank volume condition.so.25)(120cy) = 150cy . .15)(120cy) = 102cy For your information the swell is taken with respect to the bank volume condition too.

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