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Radio Graphic Interpretation

Radio Graphic Interpretation

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Published by tsitsidmd
This is very helpful to me when i was in dental school. I hope it can help you too with these collection of dental xrays you will be refreshed and be familiarized with it plus a review for us too.
This is very helpful to me when i was in dental school. I hope it can help you too with these collection of dental xrays you will be refreshed and be familiarized with it plus a review for us too.

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: tsitsidmd on Aug 09, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Labial Mounting and Lingual Mounting

Embossed dot

Normal Anatomy

Alveolar Crest

Lamina Dura

Calcular deposits

Cervical Burn-out

Normal Radiographic Landmarks in Intraoral Radiographs
Dr. Generosa V. Toledo

Normal Radiolucent Landmarks of the Maxilla

Incisive Foramen

Superior Foramina of the Incisive Canal

Median Palatine Suture

Canine Fossa

Nasal Cavity

Maxillary Sinus

Maxillary Sinus
Nutrient canal Bony nodule

Radiopaque Landmarks of the Maxilla

Nasal Septum

Floor of the nasal cavity

Anterior Nasal Spine

Inferior Nasal Conchae

Nasolabial Line

Lateral Walls of the Nasopalatine Canal


Inverted Y

Maxillary Tuberosity


Zygomatic Process


Normal Radiolucent Landmarks of the Mandible

Lingual Foramen

Nutrient Canal

Mental Fossa

Mental Foramen

Mandibular Canal

Submandibular Fossa

Mandibular symphysis in neonates

Normal Radiopaque Landmarks of the Mandible

Genial Tubercle

Mental Ridge

Mylohyoid Ridge

Internal Oblique Ridge

External Oblique Ridge

Coronoid Process

Inferior Border of the Mandible


Dr. Generosa V. Toledo

Radiopaque Materials

Silver Amalgam Restorations

Composite Restorations with Barium Glass Particles

Cast Gold Crown

Stainless Steel Pins

Base Material


Silver Points

Stainless Steel Crown

Orthodontic Appliances


Elevator tip

Amalgam fragments

Radiolucent Materials

Composite Restorations

Silicate Restorations

Porcelain Crown

Localization Techniques

Clark’s Technique/Slob/Tubeshift

Right Angle Technique

Dental Anomalies





Dens invaginatus

Dens evaginatus

Talon cusp

Enamel pearl


Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Dentinogenesis imperfecta

Dentin dysplasia

Dentin dysplasia type II

Regional odontodysplasia

Internal resorption

External resorption






Too Dark

Too Light

No Images

Blurring due to Excessive Bending

Blurring due to Movement of Patient

Fixer Spots

Static Electricity

Bent Film

Fingerprint Artifact

Fingernail Artifact



Overlapping of Adjacent Structures

Cone Cutting

Reversed Film Placement

Double Exposure


Absence of apices/Dropped film corner

Panoramic Radiography

Patient Positioning
• Patient should sit or stand “as tall as possible with the back straight and erect • Ask the patient to bite on the biteblock with the upper and lower teeth in an end-to-end position in the groove

Patient Positioning
• Position the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the floor • Position the Frankfort plane parallel to the floor

Patient Positioning
• Instruct the patient to position the tongue on the roof of the mouth • Patient should close the lips around the bite-block • After patient positioning, instruct the patient to remain still during the exposure • Expose the film

Common Errors

Patient Preparation Errors

Ghost image

Lead apron artifact

Tongue not placed on the roof of the mouth

Errors in Positioning of the Frankfort Plane

Chin tipped upward

Reverse smile line, palate and nasal floor obscuring the apices of the maxillary teeth

Chin too low

“Exaggerated smile’, condyles not visible, blurred mandibular incisors

Anterior teeth positioned anterior to the notch of the biteblock

Error in Positioning of the Midsagittal plane

Error in positioning the spine

Normal Radiographic Anatomy

Left lateral Right lateral Posterior anterior

• • • • • Condylar process and tmj Coronoid process Ramus Body and angle Teeth and supporting structures

1-condyle 2-cornoid notch 3-coronoid process 4-mandibular foramen 5-mental foramen 6-genial tubercles 7- styloid process

1- Schwall’s node 2- cervical vertebra 3- earlobe 4- soft palate and uvula 5hard palate 6- orbital rim 7- floor of the nasopharynx 8- posterior surface of the tongue 9-posterior pharyngeal wall 10- hyoid bone

1-condyle 2-neck of condyle 3-coroonoid process 4-ghost image of the posterior aspect of the inferior border of the left side of the mandible 5-mandibular canal 6inferior border of the mandible 7-superimposed shadow of the cervical vertebrae 8mental foramen 9-submandibular fossa 10-mandibular angle 11-external oblique ridge 12-sigmoid notch

1- mandibular canal 2- hyoid 3- internal oblique ridge 4- angle of the mandible

1- inferior border of the mandible 2- submandibular fossa 3- external oblique ridge 4- soft tissue of the ear

• • • • • • • Cortical boundary of the maxilla Pterygomaxillary fissure Maxillary sinuses Zygomatic complex zygomatic arch Nasal cavity and conchae Tmj Maxillary teeth

1-glenoid fossa 2-articular eminence 3-maxillary tuberosity 4-maxillary sinus 5-zygoma

2- pterygomaxillary fissure 3- infraorbital foramen 4- orbit 5- anterior nasal spine 6-nasal septum 7-nasal conchae 8-hard palate 9- zygomatic process of the maxilla

1-articular tubercle 2-zygomatic arch 3-zygomatic process 4-pterygomaxillary fissure 5-orbital rim 6-inferior nasal conchae 7-nasal septum 8-anterior nasal spine 9-floor of the maxilary sinus 10-developing third molar 11-ear lobe 12-cervical vertebra

Air Spaces

1- palatoglossal air space 2- nasopharyngeal air space 3- glossopharyngeal air space

Soft tissues

1- tongue 2- soft palate and the uvula 3- ear

Opacity of the Midline

Mental protuberance, increased trabecular number, attenuation of the beam due to the cervical vertebrae


Superior aspect of the thyroid cartilage

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