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directory instead of a software/
technology catalog. Some contributors
sent a description of their control
software package and then listed
applications. These were not included
because a separate entry is required for
each application.
A major qualification is that each
submission had to have at least one
operating installation; not one in
planning or being implemented, but
completed and operating.
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included unless they have separate
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Control & Information
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Advanced Control and
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Handbook - 2003
Control & Information Systems Index
Acrylonitrile recovery
Adiponitrile
Alkylation
Amine treating
Ammonia
Aromatics (automated plant testing)
Bisphenol A (BPA)
Blend management
Blending
Blending (planning and scheduling)
Catalytic reformer
Catalytic reformer octane
Chemical reactor
Cogeneration plant
Cracking furnace
Crude mix quality identification
Crude unit
Crude unit (model predictive control
productivity)
Cyclohexane
Delayed coker
Energy management
Environmental monitoring
Ethyl benzene/styrene monomer
(EB/SM)
Ethylene oxide
Ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol
FCCU
FCCU (catalyst monitoring)
FCCU (model predictive control
productivity)
FCCU/RCCU
FCCU/ROC/DCC
Fractionator
Fractionator (crude)
Fractionator (FCCU)
Fractionator (heavy oil)
Fractionator (light products)
Fractionator (NGL)
Fractionator (soft analyzer)
Fractionator (vacuum distillation)
Gas plant
Gasoline pool managment
Heavy hydrocarbon stream
identification
Hydrocracker
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
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Hydrogen production
Hydrotreater
Hydrotreating
Hydrotreating (catalyst monitoring)
Laboratory data entry and
management
Linear alkyl benzene
LPG plant
Lube oil plant
Methanol plant
Middle distillate pool management
MTBE
NGL plant
Oil movement management
Oil movements and blending
Oil movements and storage
Oils movements
Olefins
Olefins (inline laboratory)
Phenol
Planning and scheduling
Planning and scheduling (olefins)
Planning and scheduling (planning)
Planning and scheduling (refining)
Planning and scheduling (scheduling)
Plant information (alarm and event
collection and analysis)
Plant information (alarm and quality
management)
Plant information (batch/lot tracking)
Plant information (critical condition
management)
Plant information (data reconciliation)
Plant information (equipment
monitoring)
Plant information (event monitoring
and notification)
Plant information (inbound chemical
management)
Plant information (key performance
indicator management)
Plant information (mass balance)
Plant information (offsite data
management)
Plant information (online downtime
reporting)
Plant information (OPC data
management)
Plant information (outbound
inventory management)
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Plant information (recipe
management)
Plant information (reliability/
operations management system)
Plant information (Solomon
benchmarking)
Plant information (target setting and
nonconformance monitoring)
Plant information (Web-based
decision support)
Plant information (yield accounting)
Plant information analysis
Plant information integration
Plant information integration (ERP)
Plant information management
Plant operations management
Plant optimization
Plant optimization (refining)
Plant optimization and information
(refining)
Plant performance management
Plant production management
Plant scheduling (refining)
Plastics (product grade switch)
Platforming
Polycarbonate monomers
PolyCarbonate plant
Polyethylene
Polymers
Process sequence manager
Product quality management
Product tracking (homeland security)
Steam methane reformer
Styrene
Sulfur complex
Syngas generation plant
Terephthalic acid
Terephthalic acid dehydrator (fuzzy
logic controller)
Urea
Utilities
Value chain management
Vinyl chloride monomer
Waste incinerator load optimization
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Acrylonitrile recovery
Application. IntellOpts acrylonitrile recovery advanced
process control applies the GMAXC multivariable pre-
dictive controller to achieve quality and economic goals
while respecting safety and equipment limitations.
Strategy. A single GMAXC controller handles separa-
tion in both the absorber and recovery column. The pri-
mary control strategies are:
Minimize acrylonitrile loss in the absorber over-
head
Maintain crude acrylonitrile quality in the recovery
column overhead
Minimize acrylonitrile loss in the acetonitrile side
draw from the recovery column
Minimize refrigeration use while maintaining vapor-
ization of process ammonia feed to the reactors.
Seamless integration between the GMAXC multivari-
able predictive control software and Hyprotechs HYSYS
dynamic simulator allows plant testing, dynamic model
identification and controller simulation to be accom-
plished in a virtual plant environment with minimal
impact on the operating plant.
Computer platform. To reduce hardware and inter-
face costs, the GMAXC controller can be implemented
on PC/Windows systems with an OPC, DDE or PI-API
interface.
Economics. Benefits include improved yields, energy
savings and increased throughput. A payback period of
one year was achieved for an implementation that
included a dynamic simulator for controller development.
Commercial installations. This GMAXC multivariable
predictive controller has been implemented on one acry-
lonitrile plant using the dynamic simulator interface.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Absorber off gas
Absorber
column
Lean
water
Rich
water
Solvent water Demin. water
Acrylonitrile/
heads feed
Acrylonitrile/
to recovery
Waste water
Recovery
column
Quench ovhd.
Adiponitrile
Application. An Emerson Real-Time Optimizer has been
applied to a major adiponitrile (ADN) production unit.
The process is the electrochemical reaction of acryloni-
trile (AN) within an electrolytic cell. The reaction occurs by
the electrohydrodimerization of AN to ADN, with yield
driven primarily by current input. Real-Time Optimizer
enables operators to determine and maintain the most
cost-effective operating point of the plant.
In addition, the Real-Time Optimizers process model
provides regular performance monitoring for the reactor
packages and other process equipment. Performance
degradation can be tracked against new or clean condi-
tion, factors influencing equipment life and reliability
can be monitored, and maintenance programs can be
planned to minimize lost production or process disruption.
Real-Time Optimizer is one of the technologies that
powers Emersons PlantWeb digital plant architecture to
optimize plant throughput and improve availability, at the
same time reducing operations and maintenance costs.
Strategy. Major elements of the optimizer are the reac-
tor models, which were adapted for use in a real-time
simulation model, incorporating the essential perfor-
mance parameters to monitor reactor performance over
time and operating conditions. In operation, the set-
points for each reactor are the current fed to that reactor,
and each of these is allowed to vary between operating
ranges.
Since each reactor will be in a different condition as a
result of degradation through fouling, erosion and short
circuiting, the optimizer chooses the appropriate condi-
tions to operate each individual reactor depending on
its condition, and to the natural optimum at which each
cell is producing the ADN at lowest specific power con-
sumptiondepending on the package condition and
plant overall requirements. In addition, there is scope to
control AN concentration, which affects the yield and
selectivity of the reactions in the feed electrolyte for each
system. The salt concentration can also be changed to
affect the conductivity and reduce power consumption.
In establishing optimum operation, the optimizer con-
siders the changing price structure for electricity and
ensures that operating strategy is consistent with power
tariff structures.
Benefits. The direct benefit from the implementation
is improved operating margin, with the optimizer regu-
larly providing directional improvements in margin as
requirements, power costs and equipment performance
changes. Other tangible benefits are much more effective
monitoring of plant constraints and performance. The
real-time model provides a current representation of
the process and its constraints, against which debottle-
necking, cleaning and other projects can be evaluated.
Since the optimizer provides shadow prices for lim-
iting constraints, it is possible to rapidly assess the cost
benefit of investment or maintenance programs as well
as identify the best investment opportunities. Perfor-
mance monitoring provides operations and maintenance
groups with opportunities to identify better operating
and maintenance strategies. Performance monitoring
also offers soft sensor information that can guide oper-
ation between laboratory test cycles, avoid or defer ana-
lyzer investment, or provide information where envi-
ronments are too aggressive for instrumentation. Finally,
the data reconciliation features of Real-Time Optimizer
provide a fast and effective way of screening out bad
data and identifying drifting or failed instruments.
Commercial installations. The technology has been
implemented on a commercial unit.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Alkylation
Application. ABBs alkylation unit advanced control
applications enhance unit profitability and stability by
increasing alkylate yield, improving/maintaining octane,
maximizing unit throughput, and reducing acid con-
sumption and energy.
Strategy. A multivariable model-predictive controller
(MVPC) maintains optimal isobutane/olefin ratio, opti-
mal acid/hydrocarbon ratio, proper operating tempera-
tures, adequate contacting and optimal balancing of
multiple reactors. The MVPC strategy also controls the
recovery section towers to separate a high-purity iC
4
recy-
cle stream, maintain inferred product qualities of alky-
late, propane and butane products, and minimize energy
consumption.
On HF units, performance of the application (and safety
of the operation) can be enhanced significantly by adding
an ABB FTIR analyzer with online measurements of acid
HF, ASO and H
2
O compositions, iC
4
purity, and alkylate
octane and vapor pressure.
Economics. This alkylation advanced control package
can generate typical improvements of 0.5 to 1 RON and
0.5% to 3% yield, translating into benefits of $0.51.0
million/year for a 10,000 BPD unit.
Commercial installations. The alkylation APC pack-
age has been commissioned on one sulfuric acid unit and
is currently being implemented on one HF unit.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
c/w
RX
Typical
manipulated,
disturbance,
controlled and
constraint
variables
Butane
R
e
c
t
.
Acid regen.
Acid
settler
Acid
recycle
Acid
recycle
Propane
Saturates
feed
D
C
3
H
F

s
t
r
i
p
.
Olefin
feed
Make-
up iC
4
iC
4
, C
5s
C
3
,iC
4
,nC
4
HF,
ASO,
H
2
O
P
T
L
T
T
T
T
T
T
FC
FC
FFC
C
3
,
nC
4
,
iC
4
C
3
=,
C
4
=,
C
5
=,
iC
4
I/C
HF/HC
FC
FC
TC->FC
FC
QC
QC
QC
FC
PC
dP dP
dP
Q
2
FC
TC
T
TC
iC
4
recycle
iC
4
iC
4
recycle
iC
4
RON, RVP
Alkylate p/a and p/h
I
s
o
s
t
r
i
p
p
e
r
Alkylation
Application. The dynamics of the alkylation unit con-
tractors and distillation train present a complex control
application. This is due to long delay times in product
and recycle isobutane purities coupled with rapid con-
tactor temperature and refrigeration system response
times. Aspen Technologys DMCplus alkylation control
package is ideally suited for this application, and can be
applied to both sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid alkylation
operations. The DMCplus constrained multivariable appli-
cation significantly improves unit performance by maxi-
mizing unit throughput and propane and isobutane
recovery, while reducing product quality variability and
energy consumption.
Control strategy. A single DMCplus controller is con-
figured for the entire plant including contractors, refrig-
eration, acid/hydrocarbon settlers and fractionator sys-
tems. All significant constraints are handled explicitly.
The controller responds to all significant unit interac-
tions, accounts for unit constraints, handles both fast-
and slow-controlled variable dynamics, maximizes
throughput, improves yields, reduces product quality
variability and minimizes process upsets.
The controller performs a thorough constrained opti-
mization calculation at each controller execution. Oper-
ating simultaneously at the optimal iC
4
/olefin ratio, con-
tactor, refrigeration compressor and fractionation
constraints maximize unit profitability. The DMCplus con-
troller adjusts total unit olefin feed, contactor feed rates,
iC
4
make-up and recycle, fractionation train reflux, tem-
peratures and pressures. Primary controlled variables are
the iC
4
/olefin ratio, propane, isobutane and normal
butane product purities, and alkylate Rvp. In addition,
contactor temperatures and refrigerant constraints are
often important unit limitations.
Product quality models are implemented using the
Aspen IQ inferential sensor package. The flexible
client/server allows the user to plug in a variety of
engines (empirical, rigorous, fuzzy logic, neural net, cus-
tom, etc.) to generate the online models. Analyzer vali-
dation and update, as well as SQC techniques for labo-
ratory validation and update, are seamlessly incorporated
into Aspen IQ.
Economics. Benefits in the range of $0.10 to $0.30/bbl
of total feed (iC
4
+ olefin) are typical.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has commis-
sioned more than 20 alkylation unit applications.
Reference. Dynamic Matrix Control of an Alkylation
Unit, NPRA, November 1992 (Mobil Oil Corporation,
Torrance, California).
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Alkylation
Application. A rigorous model of an HF (or sulfuric acid)
alkylation plant is used with Emersons online Real-Time
Optimizer. Solutions from the optimizer provide targets
for the multivariable predictive constraint control sys-
tem. Graphic displays developed for the plant information
management system allow users to view optimizer results
from virtually anywhere in the plant.
The Real-Time Optimizer has the ability to use exactly
the same model for rigorous process simulation as well as
online optimization. An offline process engineering anal-
ysis tool is produced directly from the implementation
of the optimization system. This offline tool allows users
to examine what-if scenarios, using a rigorous model
that has been auto-tuned with real plant data.
Real-Time Optimizer is one of the advanced control
and modeling technologies that powers PlantWeb digi-
tal plant architecture to deliver quality and throughput
improvements.
Strategy. The online optimization system is designed to
meet multiple objectives. These include maximizing plant
profitability, plant equipment performance monitoring,
plant instrument monitoring and providing information
on intermediate plant streams. Specific functions pro-
vided by the system include:
Real-time data transfer and data conditioning
Data reconciliation with multiple data sets
Model parameter estimation with multiple data sets
Flowsheet modeling including sub-flowsheet defini-
tions
Economic optimization.
The real-time data transfer subsystem extracts timely
information from the plant information system and per-
forms various data conditioning functions such as aver-
aging, absolute and rate of change limit validation, and
a variety of status checks. Optimization outputs are also
transported to the underlying multivariable control sys-
tem through the data transfer subsystem.
Data reconciliation and model parameter estimation
are performed simultaneously using multiple data sets
by performing a least squares minimization. The same
model mentioned above and an appropriate objective
function are employed. This function is performed asyn-
chronously and in parallel with other functionsinclud-
ing economic optimization, thus requiring reasonably
low-cost computer resources. A unique approach such as
this allows for more reliable estimates of model param-
eters and instrument offsets compared to single data
set methods.
Benefit areas for the alkylation optimization system
include:

Better understanding of the existing plant and its


current bottlenecks

Improved operating philosophy for the heat inte-


gration to minimize overall utility costs

Better operating strategies based on overall plant


economics

Optimal process operation through closed-loop exe-


cution

Improved ability to check on equipment performance


parameters.
Economics. Increase in profit of between $0.10 and
$0.20 per barrel alkylate produced over and above APC
benefits. Project payback is typically less than six months.
Commercial installations. The system is operating at a
major North American refinery.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Alkylation
Application. Alkylation units provide significant
advanced control benefits because of the importance of
alkylation octane-barrels to refinery profitability, expen-
sive operating costs, long process dynamics and multi-
variable interactions. Profit Controllers based on Robust
Multivariable Predictive Control Technology (RMPCT) are
used in these applications for control and economic opti-
mization. This advanced algorithm minimizes tuning
requirements and maintains good control under chang-
ing conditions and model error. Model identification is
available in the Windows environment. Multiple Profit
Controllers can be dynamically coordinated by an upper-
level Profit Optimizer, which also uses Profit Controller
algorithms.
Strategy. The Profit Controller is configured to control
and optimize the following variables subject to con-
straints:
iC
4
/olefin ratio (HF unit) or reactor iC
4
concentra-
tion (sulfuric acid unit)
Acid/hydrocarbon ratio control
nC
4
in the iC
4
recycle product
iC
4
in the nC
4
product
Alkylate Rvp
C
3
in the iC
4
recycle stream
Stripper offgas/C
3
product ratio.
The controller typically manipulates and optimizes:
iC
4
circulation rate
Acid circulation rate
Olefin feed
Isostripper pressure
Reboiler duties
iC
4
reflux
nC
4
reflux.
Product qualities are measured using analyzers, or
inferential models for those qualities that can be devel-
oped using first-principles models, or Honeywells Profit
sensor, a state-of-the-art statistical modeling package.
Inventory control adjusts the iC
4
make-up rate to con-
trol the iC
4
inventory in the alkylation unit. Typically, this
control function consists of maintaining the level of an iC
4
surge vessel.
Rigorous online optimization using fundamental kinetic
reaction equations may be applied to determine opti-
mum operating targets for online optimization and
offline studies within the ProfitMax structure.
Benefits from rigorous model optimization include
resolving trade-offs inherent to alkylation unit opera-
tion. ProfitMax studies can be used to generate product
or flowrate values, which can then be used by the Profit
Controllers or by Profit Optimizer.
Economics. Based on numerous process surveys, typical
benefits range from 10/bbl to 25/bbl of fresh feed. Typ-
ical project payback periods are 618 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 17 alkylation units. Rigorous online model
optimization has been implemented on two units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
IC
4
recycle
flow
IC
4
/olefin
ratio
control
NC
4
in
IC
4
/product
control
IC
4
in
NC
4
product
control
C
3
in
IC
4
recycle
control
RMPCT
FC FC FC TC
Rigorous model
online optimization
ProfitMax
Depropanizer
feed rate
Constraints
Constraints
Targets Economics
NCG product
draw rate
Deisobutanizer
top temperature
Alkylation
Application. HF alkylation is a common refinery pro-
cess in which isobutane and olefins are reacted in the
presence of an HF acid catalyst to form high-octane gaso-
line blending stock.
Strategy. Advanced control strategies for the HF alky-
lation unit are designed to maximize alkylate produc-
tion, control key reactor component ratios, avoid the for-
mation of undesirable by-products, and obtain proper
separation in the various alky unit fractionators. The con-
trols also stabilize alkylation unit operation and avoid
upsets which convey corrosive HF acid (the catalyst) into
undesired areas of the process equipment. The advanced
controls include the following strategies which can be
implemented via advanced regulatory techniques or mul-
tivariable control.
Reactor controls:
Acid-to-hydrocarbon ratio control
Isobutane-to-olefin ratio control
Reactor feed balancing control
Total isobutane inventory control
Acid regeneration control
Isostripper, depropanizer & HF stripper stream qual-
ity controls
Economics. Advanced controls can be designed to
achieve the following benefits: increased throughput,
tighter octane control, reduced iC
4
loss, reduced acid con-
sumption, minimization of HF in alkylate, and reduced
fractionation utilities consumption.
Commercial installations. This advanced control tech-
nology has been installed in three refineries.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Reactor
balancing
control
Tower
pressure
control
Acid-to
hydro-
carbon
ratio
Isostripper
composition
controls
Isobutane
inventory
control
Acid
regen.
control
Iso-
butane-
to-olefin
ratio
Through-
put max-
imization
control
Tower
pressure
control
Inerts
purge
control
HA
stripping
control
Overhead
composition
control
Bottoms
composition
control
Olefin
feed
Reactor(s)
Acid settler(s)
IC
4
NC
4
Alkylate
product
Propane
product
Isobutane recycle
R
e
g
e
n
t
.
D
e
p
r
o
p
.
H
A

s
t
r
i
p
p
e
r
I
s
o
s
t
r
i
p
p
e
r
Amine treating
Application. Gas sweetening is a common process in gas
processing plants. Wet gas from the pipeline typically con-
tains levels of contaminants (CO
2
and H
2
S) that must be
reduced to specification levels for gas export. In an amine
sweetening column, reducing one of these contaminants
is typically achieved at the expense of another. Sales gas
specification is achieved by further chemical processing,
e.g., gas polishing to reduce H
2
S levels.
Emersons Real-Time Optimizer can improve opera-
tions while significantly reducing annual energy con-
sumption and chemical usage. Real-Time Optimizer is
one of the advanced control and modeling technologies
that powers Emersons PlantWeb digital plant architecture
to lower production costs.
Control strategy. Operation of a gas plant to achieve gas
specifications is made complex by a number of factors:
The plant is at the end of a delivery system gathering
gas from one or more fields. The fields typically produce
gas of differing quality. The landed wet gas is thus subject
to significant swings in both composition and contami-
nation levels, as well as flowrates due to platform outages
over which the terminal has no control.
The operator has many handles on the process that
can be manipulated to achieve similar end results. It is
common for different shifts to operate the process in con-
trasting fashions, yet achieve the same production goals.
The operating process could be multitrain, and the
operator must blend gas from individual trains to meet
the required quality targets.
The financial penalties for missing targets are pro-
hibitive, and anything other than short-term noncom-
pliance is highly undesirable.
These factors make gas treatment plants suitable can-
didates for applying optimization techniques. The Real-
Time Optimizer has two core elements: the real-time math-
ematical models of the process units and the nonlinear
optimization algorithms. The models simulate operation
of the units on the gas treatment process. The optimiza-
tion algorithms predict, for the current process condi-
tions, the optimal combination of control setpoints that
satisfies both the operational and economic objectives.
A gas treatment train has many available degrees of
freedom, e.g., both liquid injection points and rates,
bypass rates and feed temperature controls. Real-Time
Optimizer considers the cause and effect of all variables
instantaneously, thereby providing a global optimal point
for the process train as opposed to a local optimal solu-
tion. Those variables that have a less significant effect
on process operation are lent equal weight. Thus, bene-
fit can be extracted from optimizing controls that would
not normally be considered by the operators.
A further advantage of Real-Time Optimizer is that by
its very nature it will push the process until it is limited by
constraints, thus extracting maximum benefit. Operators
will typically operate the process to sit comfortably within
the process constraints.
Economics. Applying this technology to the gas sweet-
ening process of a gas plant has the following benefits:
reduced annual chemicals usage and energy consump-
tion, and improved decision-making and forecasting for
upcoming process composition swings.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented at one site.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Gas treatment
Temperature control point
Pressure control point
Flow control point
Sales gas
C
o
n
t
a
c
t
o
r
F
F
F
F
T
T
P
F
F
Ammonia
Application. Ammonia plant profitability is maximized
when the unit is simultaneously pushed to its most prof-
itable operating limits for the primary/secondary reformer,
synthesis loop, converter, and refrigeration and steam
sections. Incorporating these sections into a single mul-
tivariable controller improves robustness, simultaneously
handles all unit interactions and constraints, includes key
economic variables, and improves the control system reli-
ability. Aspen Technologys DMCplus controller is
extremely appropriate for these large applications
because it delivers maximum benefits and high on-stream
time. It simultaneously pushes the unit against multiple
constraints, optimizing key economic conditions of the
unit with a plantwide, rigorous Aspen Plus Optimizer
model.
Control strategy. The principle advanced control objec-
tives are to maximize profit by manipulating unit
throughput, secondary reformer methane slip, specific
fuel gas and steam consumption, synthesis gas conver-
sion, converter inlet total inerts concentration and refrig-
eration capacity, while honoring all operating and safety
constraints.
The DMCplus controller maintains key controlled vari-
ables to either an operator-entered target or within con-
trol limits. Key control variables include H/N ratio,
steam/carbon ratio, flue gas oxygen, secondary methane
slip, synthesis gas loop pressure, converter bed inlet tem-
peratures, converter inlet total inerts concentration and
refrigeration capacity. The controller maintains these
controlled variables and simultaneously manipulates key
unit variables to achieve the specific objectives, subject to
operating constraints. Constraint variables include com-
pressor speeds and discharge pressures, high-tempera-
ture shift inlet pressure, induced and forced draft fan
valve positions, converter bed outlet temperatures and
quench flow valve positions. The key manipulated vari-
ables include plant gas feed, steam/gas ratio, process air,
primary reformer outlet temperature and induced and
forced draft fans, compressor suction pressures, converter
quench flows and synthesis loop purge gas flow. A typi-
cal ammonia plant controller has 20 manipulated, 6 feed-
forward and 45 controlled variables.
The DMCplus controllers linear program (LP) and exter-
nal target features drive the plant to its most profitable
operating conditions subject to constraints. The con-
trollers dynamic calculation handles the constraints on the
future manipulated variable moves and creates a plan
for the manipulated variables to bring the system to this
constrained optimum, assuring system stability.
The open-equation Aspen Plus Optimizer package
determines and sends economically optimal condition
targets to the DMCplus controller for key economic vari-
ables such as gas feed, H/N ratio, steam/carbon ratio, sec-
ondary methane slip, converter bed temperature pro-
file, synthesis loop purge rate and compressor suction
pressures. The optimization package uses a plantwide,
rigorous process model to account for interactions
between all independent and dependent variables.
This model includes the primary reformer, secondary
reformer, water gas shift reactors, CO
2
removal system,
and ammonia synthesis reactors with kinetics, the syn-
gas and refrigeration compressors, all heat exchang-
ers, as well as major utilities. A general-purpose con-
figuration package interfaces the real-time database
and control system to the optimization package. It
automatically handles database access, data verifica-
tion/averaging, steady state detection and constraint
coordination with the controller.
Economics. Typical control and optimization benefits
are 25% increased throughput and 25%fuel gas con-
sumption savings per unit of feed. Optimization bene-
fits typically account for one-third to one-half of the total
benefits.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has completed
five advanced control applications, three online opti-
mization installations and one offline application. Sev-
eral studies are in progress.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Ammonia
Application. Emersons solution for ammonia plant con-
trol is provided by a multilayer approach, containing both
traditional advanced controls and multivariable, opti-
mizing controllers, whose overall performance is coor-
dinated by a real-time optimizer.
Optimizers are advanced control and modeling tech-
nologies that enable PlantWeb digital plant architecture
to increase production yield while reducing cost.
Control strategy. The base level controllers consist of:
H/N ratio. An MVPC controls the synthesis converter
inlet gas by varying the air/gas ratio at the secondary
reformer. The controller can manipulate both air and
feed gas rates, to maximize throughput against the most
active constraint.
Steam to feed. Steam to the primary reformer is
ratioed to the hydrocarbon feed rate, using an adaptive
ratio dependent on the hydrocarbon analysis. This model-
based controller also estimates coking rate and adjusts the
steam ratio to fit in with maintenance cycles.
Methane leakage. The primary reformer exit tem-
perature setpoint is used to control methane leakage
from the secondary reformer, reducing purge loss and
improving conversion stability. The optimizing controller
can be used to balance between purge losses and
reformer firing costs.
Inerts purge. This maximizes loop pressure while
keeping converter inlet composition at its target level.
Online analysis improves the response of this loop and
provides feedback to the primary reformer control.
Reformer coil balancing. Target hydrogen produc-
tion is maintained against changing feed gas composi-
tion. Fuel gas flow is distributed to the individual burners
to minimize the temperature differences between the
tube headers.
Converter control. Multivariable controller maintains
a converter bed temperature profile by manipulating
the quench flows. It maximizes ammonia conversion
against quench flow and catalyst thermal constraints.
Shift converters. CO conversion is controlled by
manipulating inlet temperatures to the high tempera-
tures, low temperatures and guard (if possible) convert-
ers, to account for catalyst decay.
Refrigeration. This monitors and models the cool-
ing system to take advantage of diurnal and seasonal
variations in cooling capacity by altering the operat-
ing pressure.
The complete system includes a rigorous, nonlinear
real-time optimization solution that provides the opti-
mal operating conditions for the whole plant, every 2030
minutes. The interaction between the various controllers
and the optimizer are managed by an overall coordina-
tor with the following duties:
Predicted dynamic trajectories are passed from one
controller to the next
Optimal setpoints are applied at the dynamic con-
troller horizons
Optimizer price structures are passed to the appro-
priate multivariable optimizing controllers, which respond
with real-time updates of the true constraint levels.
Economics. Typically, ammonia yields are increased by
35%, and energy consumption reduced by 1.61.8 MJ/te.
Optimization accounts for about 25% of these overall
benefits. More stable operation reduces process vari-
ability and enables the process to push closer to con-
straints. It also increases catalyst life and allows wider
operating ranges (greater turndown).
Commercial installations. This technology has been
applied on three major ammonia plants, two of which
use the closed-loop optimization facilities.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Ammonia
Application. Ammonia production from natural gas
represents an opportunity for nonlinear multivariable
control that addresses several factors affecting plant
operations. They are: economic effects of feedstock (nat-
ural gas) and product (ammonia) prices from agricultural
products supply/demand and weather; capacity and
throughput limitations; and variability of gas feedstock
quality and composition on yield performance.
Control strategy. MVC Ammonia features the integra-
tion of multivariable control modules with overall eco-
nomic optimization from:
Integrated control. The system monitors and controls,
within given constraints, the maximum or desired flow to
the plant. It manipulates and maintains the following:
inlet gas flow, steam flow to primary reformer (steam/car-
bon ratio), purge gas flow, synthesis loop compressor
inlet suction pressure and medium steam pressure.
Primary reformer module. Hydrogen conversion is
maintained by controlling the exit header temperature
and desired methane leakage by manipulating the fuel
gas flow to arch burners and fuel gas pressure to tunnel
burners.
Primary reformer riser balancing module. The riser bal-
ancing module minimizes the temperature difference
between the tube headers within arch burners to main-
tain higher hydrogen conversion without creating hot
spots by manipulating the arch burner(s) controller out-
put for each individual row.
Secondary reformer control. Hydrogen conversion is
maintained at a desired methane leakage and H/N ratio
by manipulating the air compressor speed and air flow.
Shift converters. Carbon monoxide conversion is main-
tained in the shift converters by manipulating the inlet
feed temperature to the high-temperature shift con-
verter (if possible), inlet feed temperature to the guard
shift converter and inlet feed temperature to the low
temperature shift converter.
Carbon dioxide removal control. Carbon dioxide
removal is controlled by the stripping steam rate and
MDEA circulation rate.
Ammonia converter control. Conversion of ammonia is
maximized by control of the bed temperatures from inlet
feed flow to the converter, cold bypass flow to the con-
verter and quench flows to the converters.
Economics. With MVC Ammonia, the process is oper-
ated more smoothly and safely. Increased profits are
obtained from ammonia production increases of 2% to
4% with energy consumption decreases of up to
1.5MMBtu per ton of ammonia.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
installed at four facilities.
Licensor. GE Drives and Controls, Houston, Texas; Web-
site: gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel: (832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Ammonia
Application. In a market driven by low-cost production
and hampered by high gas prices, ammonia producers
will benefit from control and optimization solutions that
stabilize operation, minimize energy and methane leak-
age, and maximize conversion and capacity. Advanced
process control (APC) and optimization solutions can
drive cost out of the process and provide valuable infor-
mation to operators and engineers to operate the plant
at optimum conditions. Model-based advanced control
and optimization enforces the optimum setpoints while
respecting changing operating constraints. Applications
normally include the following plant sections:
Reformers
CO
2
Removal
Ammonia converter.
Control strategy. Processing units are controlled and
locally optimized using Honeywells multivariable Profit
Controller. Profit Controller is based on the Robust Mul-
tivariable Predictive Control Technology (RMPCT) algo-
rithm. This advanced algorithm minimizes tuning require-
ments and maintains good control under changing
conditions and model error. The following focuses on
particular plant areas:
ReformersThe primary reformer control and local
optimization strategy includes maximizing methane con-
version with minimum fuel usage and coking. Reformer
exit temperature, HC flow and steam/HC ratio are the
primary handles to keep the unit running through dis-
turbances such as fuel gas composition, feed composi-
tion, etc. For the secondary reformer, control and opti-
mization strategies focus on maintaining H
2
/N
2
ratio
(critical to downstream ammonia conversion) and mini-
mizing methane leakage by manipulating air flow. Profit
Controller readily compensates for the long dead-time
and dynamics of the H
2
/N
2
ratio.
CO
2
removalControl strategies focus on minimizing
CO
2
content in the purified syngas and effectively reject-
ing feed and amine disturbances (flow, temperature,
etc.). Multivariable control can effectively handle the bal-
ance between amine flow and stripper reboiler flow to
minimize utility cost.
Ammonia converterControl and optimization objec-
tives include maximizing ammonia production (if desired),
minimizing steam and energy usage, improving refrig-
eration compressor loading and increasing equipment
and catalyst life. Profit Controller provides control of
inerts concentration within specified synthesis loop pres-
sure limits to minimize argon and methane fluctuations.
Optimization. In addition to local optimization per-
formed by individual controllers, global optimization can
be achieved using Honeywells Profit Optimizer, a cost-
effective, dynamic optimization solution. Global opti-
mization would focus on maximizing profits by optimiz-
ing ammonia product and steam/CO
2
export revenues
and minimizing fuel/feed gas consumption while hon-
oring global constraints.
Economics. Typical improvements from advanced con-
trols and optimization are: 36% increased production
and 812% reduced energy usage. Typical paybacks range
from 6 to 18 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented at one ammonia plant with seven other similar
reformer installations. In addition, numerous ammonia
studies have been performed.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Ammonia
Application. The interactive nature of the ammonia pro-
cess is ideal for realizing significant benefits from a multi-
variable control application. Depending on the current
ammonia market and gas prices, the economics justifying
the application of a multivariable controller may favor
maximum production or minimum energy at a given or
optimum production rate. Typical control objectives include:
Maximizing throughput when economic to do so
by pushing constraints such as air and synthesis gas com-
pression capabilities
Minimizing controlling steam-to-carbon ratio sub-
ject to process constraints
Controlling primary reformer exit temperature (an
optimum may be determined for yield versus energy con-
siderations)
Balancing primary reformer pass temperatures to
allow higher overall temperature without creating hot
spots
Controlling hydrogen-to-nitrogen ratio at the
ammonia reactor inlet
Controlling synthesis converter temperature profile
Maximizing conversion in the shift converters and
methanator
Controlling carbon dioxide removal with minimal energy
usage (Often the energy source is excess low-pressure steam
with no economic value. However, the improved operating
stability of the unit will provide production benefits.)
Controlling the inerts while honoring limits of syn-
thesis loop pressure and purge rates
Improving recovery of hydrogen from purge gas
Minimizing low-pressure steam header pressure
while satisfying low-pressure steam users to provide addi-
tional steam turbine horsepower at lower steam con-
sumption
Stabilizing operations in the presence of changing
ambient conditions, feed and fuel gas composition, and
hydrogen recycle rates
The primary reformer, secondary reformer, shift convert-
ers, carbon dioxide removal facilities, methanator, synthesis
gas loop, ammonia reactor, hydrogen recovery facilities,
refrigeration section and steam system can all be consid-
ered in multivariable predictive control of an ammonia plant.
Where feasible, an optimizer can be applied to determine
optimum setpoints for the unit multivariable controller.
Control strategy. The multivariable predictive controller
typically is configured to manipulate natural gas feed,
steam/gas ratio, process air, reformer outlet tempera-
ture, draft fans, synthesis loop and refrigeration com-
pressor suction pressures, converter quench valves, purge
gas, steam balance handles and others. Controlled vari-
ables typically include converter inlet H/N ratio, steam/car-
bon ratio, flue gas oxygen, methane leakage, synthesis
loop pressure, converter bed inlet temperatures, total
inerts, refrigeration loading and other process constraints.
Ammonia plants are subject to large changes in feed
due to ambient conditions affecting air compression capa-
bility and fuel gas composition. The disturbance rejection
capabilities of a multivariable controller can lessen the
affects of these changes while operating the equipment
closer to physical constraints. Invensys is control technol-
ogy independent. The Connoisseur software offering,
however, is typically used. It offers a number of features
all under a single license fee including real-time adaptive
technology, multiple model sets and types, and an inte-
grated real-time macro-programming environment. Non-
linear RBF neural network models and fuzzy logic capa-
bilities are also available. It rejects unmeasured
disturbances common with ambient temperature changes
with its auto-regressive with exogenous input (ARX) type
models. This model type often has superior unmeasured
disturbance rejection capabilities over control schemes
based on nonparametric finite impulse response (FIR)
models.
Economics. Production increases of 1-3% with 1-3%
energy reductions (feed and fuel gas) per ton of ammonia
produced have been experienced with multivariable pre-
dictive control. In addition, plant stability is improved with
less operator intervention and the equipment life, such as
catalyst and reformer tubes, is extended due to fewer pro-
cess excursions. Project payouts are typically a few months.
Commercial installations. Five multivariable control
installations have been applied to the ammonia process.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: john.hernandez@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Ammonia
Application. Ammonia is synthesized from methane
and oxygen (air) by steam reforming followed by cat-
alytic conversion. A multiple-bed reactor is used to
improve conversion and energy efficiency.
Control strategy. Advanced controls and ammonia
plant performance calculations can be implemented on
a distributed control system. The following control mod-
ules are utilized.
H/N ratioThe system controls H/N ratio in synthesis
converter gas by manipulating air/gas ratio at the sec-
ondary reformer. An alternate strategy manipulates feed
gas during air limited operation.
Steam to primary reformerSteam flow is controlled
in proper mass proportion to the measured flow of feed
hydrocarbons.
Reformer firingThe fuel gas required to produce the
desired effluent temperature is calculated from an online
energy balance.
Reformer coil balancingWhile maintaining the
desired combined outlet temperature.
Purge and inertsMaximizes loop pressure without
exceeding an inerts concentration limit.
Methane leakagePrimary reformer temperature is
adjusted in response to methane in the secondary
reformer outlet.
Amine unit controlLean amine flow rate and regen-
erator heat input are adjusted to minimize energy con-
sumption.
Synthesis converter temperature profileThe system
controls reactor bed temperatures by manipulating mul-
tiple quench flows. Multivariable and constraint tech-
niques counteract bed interactions and permit opera-
tion near maximum quench flow limits and catalyst
thermal limits.
Throughput maximizationOperates against high lim-
its on feed rate, gas compressor suction pressure, or other
constraints.
Economics. Benefits include 35% more ammonia pro-
duction from the same quantity of feed gas, more sta-
ble process operation over a larger turndown ratio, and
increased catalyst life.
Commercial installations. This advanced control tech-
nology has been installed in four commercial plants.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Throughput
maximization
control
Secondary
reformer
Hydrogen-
to-nitrogen
control
Steam-to-
hydrocarbon
control
Lean
amine
flowrate
control
Reformer
firing
control
Converter
temperature
control
Purge
and inerts
control
Amine
regen.
control
Feed
Primary
reformer
Air
Shift
converters
Converters
Purge Ammonia product
Compr.
Compr. Methanator
CO
2
absorb./
regen.
K.
O.
K.
O.
Fuel gas
Steam
Reformer
coil temp.
balancing
Methane
leakage
control
Aromatics (automated
plant testing)
Application. The priority of implementing advanced
process control on aromatics processes has risen signifi-
cantly in the past year due to the increased pressure that
the clean air regulations have placed on the industry.
Implementing MPC has followed a methodology involv-
ing: pretest, plant test, model identification and con-
troller simulation, commissioning and documentation.
On large projects involving multiple process units, fol-
lowing this approach can delay benefits. An accelerated
methodology has been developed utilizing a semiauto-
mated plant testing technology. The plant tester tool
automatically moves process independent variables sub-
ject to predicted constraint violations. Using an initial
multivariable model to predict dependent variable tra-
jectories, the technology ensures that unacceptable pro-
cess behavior is avoided.
Strategy.
1. A conventional pretest starts the accelerated pro-
ject methodology where control objectives are set,
instrument and control problems identified, and base-
level controls tuned. During this activity, the control engi-
neer makes two to three steps on key handles to get ini-
tial models. An initial model is obtained using a combi-
nation of the operating data collected during the pretest
and the new steps.
2. With the initial model build a preliminary controller
structure for a subsection of the plant (section 1). Using
this preliminary controller, start the SmartStep tester on
section 1 for 24 hours to obtain more plant data and
then use that data to update the model. Full engineering
coverage is recommended during this step.
3. In parallel with the model update on section 1, begin
SmartStep testing on section 2.
4. With an updated section 1 model, the SmartStep
tester is switched to control mode (DMCplus is embed-
ded) and run for 48 hours with full engineering cover-
age. The preliminary tuning is configured and the control
strategy and behavior validated as desired. Once this is
confirmed, begin automatic plant testing providing only
partial engineering coverage for this plant section.
The significant benefit from running with the prelim-
inary model in control mode is that early assumptions
about process and control system behavior can be tested.
5. Meanwhile, the section 2 initial SmartStep test is
complete and its preliminary model is updated. The sec-
tion 2 tester is switched to control mode and design/tun-
ing assumptions validated. Then the automated test
begins on this section. This continues in turn for each
plant section until all plant sections are in fully automatic
test mode.
6. Periodically extract data from plant sections to deter-
mine where to refine the model identification. Each time
this is done, the model for that plant section is updated.
Once no perceivable model changes are found, cease
testing on that unit section and switch into control mode.
7. Once all testers have completed and all sections have
run in control mode, final integration of the multivariable
controllers takes place and documentation is completed.
Economics. The accelerated methodology shortens pro-
ject duration, bringing operational benefits sooner than
with conventional methods. The ability to leave plant
sections with limited engineering cover also reduces man-
power requirements; this is particularly important on
long-time to steady-state processes.
Commercial installations. This accelerated MPC
methodology has been implemented on a paraxylene
unit where six testers were used.
Implementer. Applied Manufacturing Technologies,
Inc., Houston, Texas, and Neyland, UK; Website:
www.applied-mt.com; e-mail: info@applied-mt.com.
Licensor. DMCplus and Aspen SmartStep licensed by
Aspen Technology, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Bisphenol A
Application. Bisphenol A [2,2bis (p-hydroxy-phenyl)
propane] is a key element in polycarbonate resin pro-
duction. The BPA process is a combination batch/contin-
uous process that converts acetone and phenol to BPA.
Often, the batch reaction process fluctuates, causing
downstream disturbances. Or it is forced to reduce rates
or increase reactor residence time due to mechanical
problems in the downstream separation units. To achieve
successful control, an integrated supervisory multivari-
able controller (MVC) is used to maintain reaction resi-
dence time and stabilize the downstream separation pro-
cesses, while fully optimizing use of buffer vessels to
stabilize the highly discontinuous operation.
Control strategy. The MVC control strategy for the BPA
process involves one integrated module with three con-
trol objectives:
In the reaction section, the MVC control objective is
to stabilize and control total reaction residence time sub-
ject to temperature constraints. MVC manipulates reac-
tant flow and reactor effluent to stabilize residence time.
The controller is tuned to minimize flow variability.
The MVC objective in the separations section is to
provide stable operating and tight pressure compen-
sated temperature (PCT) control at the bottom of the
acid gas stripper as required to meet acid removal spec-
ifications. Process disturbances are considered an inte-
gral part of the controller algorithm. Thus, the PCT is
tightly controlled. Column heat input, feed flowrate and
column pressure are controlled to maintain a steady col-
umn bottom PCT.
Buffer levels throughout the purification train are
modeled and controlled, within their constraint limits,
to absorb process swings and minimize flow excursions on
the reactor feed. This provides process stability and bet-
ter utilization of these buffers during process upsets,
resulting in minimized downward feed adjustments dur-
ing plant upsets caused by mechanical failure or other
process problems.
MVC is a proven nonlinear multivariable control and
economic optimization technology, incorporating pre-
dictive and adaptive algorithms derived from rigorous
simulations and field tests that are calibrated to match
actual plant performance. MVC resides within a Win-
dows 2000 or RISC workstation interfaced to or inte-
grated within the plant control system.
Economics. Benefits of MVC control on the BPA process
include:
Constant reactant residence time
Reduction in undesired isomers and tar
Stabilized plant operation
Maximized production through optimal utiliza-
tion of plant internal buffer capacity.
A production increase of 36.5% has been realized
with this technology.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented at one international and one domestic site.
Licensor. GE Drives & Controls, Inc., Houston, Texas; Web-
site: gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel: (832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Reactant
Batch/continuous
reactors
Selective
crystalizer/
centrifuges
Acid gas
removal
PC
MVC
LC
LC LC
PCT
FC
Weight
Prilling
product
Phenol
recovery
Tar
Blend management
Applications. Business.FLEX PKS software applications
provide Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) that unify
business and production automation. Business objectives
are directly translated into manufacturing targets, and
validated production data are returned to close the
loop on the business planning cycle. Business.FLEX PKS
applications for Blend Management support planning,
scheduling and analysis of blending operations, as well as
providing integration with blend control, optimization
and automation systems including the Honeywell Blend-
ing and Movement Automation solution.
The BLEND module prepares an optimal blend plan
with the most economical blending recipes for interme-
diate component blending to meet the final product
demand on time and without quality giveaway.
The Production Scheduler module takes an optimal
plan and generates a robust schedule for unit rundowns,
blending operations and product shipments. The module
enables a scheduler to rapidly respond to events such as
equipment outages, and supply and distribution changes,
all while maintaining a robust, feasible and profitable
schedule.
The Production Tracker module reviews, monitors and
manages planned and actual material movements
throughout a plant. It can serve as the link between plan-
ning, scheduling and movements control, ensuring that
movement orders are properly communicated, executed
and captured.
The Blend Management module compares what was
planned to what actually happened in blending opera-
tions, identifying systematic sources of product quality
giveaway for corrective action. By tightening the link
between planning and automation, plants are able to
reduce giveaway and inventory, and produce higher value
products.
Strategy. With its data analysis capabilities, Honeywells
Blend Management solution is comprehensive and results-
driven. It allows the refiner to focus on the essential pro-
cess of continuous improvementincluding the task of
building work practices that entrench this disciplined
behavior into daily activities. Blend Management pro-
vides the ability to automate performance monitoring
so that opportunities to improve the process are priori-
tized. Planned performance versus actual results can be
easily compared, pinpointing the reasons for deviation.
Responsible stakeholders can then determine the appro-
priate corrective actions. Blend Management also pro-
vides the capability to dynamically slice the data by var-
ious blend attributes, and then drill down into the
underlying details for effective analysis.
Economics. Benefits are realized from effective unifi-
cation of business and production automation. As a result,
potential savings are in the range of 550 cents per bar-
rel. Major benefit areas are reduced giveaway from bet-
ter inventory utilization, eliminating costly reblending
and the look-ahead capability to anticipate changes in
market demand, prices, product specifications and com-
ponent qualities.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
KPI
manager
LIMS: quality
and product data
BLEND:
blend planning
Blend
management:
analysis
Production
scheduler:
blend scheduling
Production
tracker: move-
ment tracking
Blend control
and
optimization
Movement
control and
automation
Production
planner: plant
planning
Blending
Application. ABBs Advanced Blend Control (ABC) system
bridges the gap between the planners office and the
control room by providing blend and movement order
management; physical line-up; preblend and online opti-
mization; monitoring, trending and reporting in a native-
Windows, client-server application.
ABC is an OPC client that can be integrated with ABB
or other underlying control systems. ABC can be supplied
as a closed-loop system, with DCS base regulatory and
sequential controls and all required online analytical
instrumentation, and integrated with planning, labora-
tory and plant information systems. The package can be
applied to any number of refinery product and crude
blenders and associated tank farm operations.
Control Strategy. ABC accepts electronic blend orders
directly from an optional multi-blend planning system
or allows the user to create them manually. The planner
or operator (with appropriate system log-in privilege)
can modify or reoptimize any order prior to a blend. The
operator executes a blend order by downloading it to
the DCS base regulatory ratio, and sequential blend con-
trol system (RBC).
ABC then continuously validates analyzer feedback,
monitors the cumulative product properties and adjusts
the recipe as required to meet product specifications.
ABC uses online analyzer feedback, available laboratory
data property models, cumulative blend property data,
and inventory constraints to calculate the optimum recipe
at regular intervals for download to the RBC.
ABC has been designed to maximize benefits, mini-
mize engineering costs and accommodate the most chal-
lenging applications. The package:
Uses the identical nonlinear optimization to ensure
consistency between offline multi-blend planning, pre-
blend, and online model-predictive blend optimization
Performs multiperiod, global optimization in mul-
tiple header applications that share components
Supports industry standard blend models, customer-
provided correlations or ABB-proprietary FTIR spectral
blend models
Automates preblend line-up and component and
destination swings
Sequentially links (or, if necessary, automatically
creates) blend orders for continuous execution through
destination tank swings in conventional or rundown
blenders
Accommodates component and destination line
fills in heel correction and tank quality integration
Permits user database maintenance through inher-
ent Windows configuration forms.
Economics. Benefits of 1025/bbl are common with
this application, which reduces giveaway, blended prod-
uct cost, reblending, inventory and demurrage.
Commercial installations. ABC has been commissioned
on 2 existing, and is being installed on 10 additional gaso-
line, diesel, fuel oil and crude blenders.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Blending
Application. The Aspen Blend package combines indus-
try-standard Aspen PIMS optimization and DMCplus
multivariable control technology to keep individual
blends on specification while optimizing component
usage to account for differences between scheduled
recipes and actual results. Services to deliver Aspen
Blend applications that match individual refinery needs
include consulting on blending design and operational
procedures.
The Aspen Blend solution is more robust and flexible
than competing tools. Robustness is measured by appli-
cation service factors. Aspen Blend installations have ser-
vice factors matching the blend header online analyz-
ers. Flexibility is demonstrated by the variety of blending
configurations on which Aspen Blend has been imple-
mented, including component tank-based in-line
blenders, process unit rundown-based in-line blenders,
and hybrid in-line blenders (which combine the compo-
nent tank and process unit rundown configurations).
Strategy. The Aspen Blend packagewhich handles
gasoline, diesel, and fuel oil blendingincludes:
Blend order entry
Check mode optimization for blend feasibility assess-
ment prior to blend initiation
Continuous multivariable control of blend header
qualities to meet specifications with minimum deviations
from optimal recipes
Dynamic gain and bias update to increase control
effectiveness
Tank heel corrections or instantaneous header prop-
erty control to support blending to the tank, ship or
pipeline
Continuous blend monitoring using blend models
and lab data to validate analyzer data and track inte-
grated batch quality, including the product tank heel
Routine online optimization updates of header
quality control and recipe targets.
Aspen Blend has been applied to different blended
refinery products and a variety of blender configurations,
and can be used with client blend models or proprietary
AspenTech models. Industry-standard database tech-
nologies provide easy configuration and integration with
DCS blend ratio controls, lab systems and other infor-
mation systems.
Economics. Aspen Blend economic benefits can be mea-
sured in terms of:
Reduced quality giveaway
Optimum use of additives and more valuable com-
ponents
Reduced reblending
Better use of available tankage.
Commercial installations. Aspen Blend has been
implemented on over 35 blenders at 15 refineries and is
currently being installed at other sites. A number of sys-
tems are used to blend complex reformulated and CARB
gasoline.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Assays and
sub models
Aspen PIMS
Refinery planning
Unit activities
Planned recipes
Aspen Orion
Refinery scheduling
Rundowns and
qualities
Shipments
Aspen MBO
Product blend planning
and scheduling
Optimized blend
recipes
Aspen Blend
Blend control and
online optimization
Instrumentation layer (DCS)
BRC setpoints
Lab
information
system
Yield
accounting
Opening
inventories
Shipment
and receipts
Tank
qualities
ERP
system
Blending
Application. Primary blending operation objectives are
to prepare products that meet their specifications and
to maximize blend profitability by minimizing giveaway
and reblending. Typically, two or three modules are used
for blending:
Blend Ratio Control (BRC)
Blend Property Control (BPC)
Multistage blend planning and scheduling opti-
mization (BLEND).
Strategy. BRC adjusts flow controller setpoints to ensure
that total inline blender flowrate and volume are on tar-
get, and blend header pressure is maintained.
Sequenced operations include automatic pump startup
and shutdown, total blend flow ramping, interlocks and
trips to handle startups, and both normal and emergency
shutdowns. Alarms are provided in many forms.
Special calculations include volume composite prop-
erties, totalized property error and turbine flowmeter
calibration.
BPC optimizes blends for minimum cost, giveaway and
deviation from recipe, or any combination of these while
ensuring that product specifications and other constraints
are maintained. Optimization is performed online in real
time based on analyzer feedback. The BPC module has a
nonlinear optimizer that continuously monitors BRC and
reformulates the recipe using current process data. BPC
and BRC can thus be viewed as a dynamic multivariable
blend controller.
Open BPC is available for non-BRC blend control sys-
tems. In addition to being able to interface to different
DCSs via OPC, OpenBPC also allows use of different opti-
mizers, run-down blending, multiblender optimization
and offline optimization.
BLENDis a multiperiod, multiproduct global optimizer
of blending operations, including blendstocks buying
and selling, to maximize refinery margins.
Economics. Advanced blend controls reduce giveaway
and virtually eliminate need for reblending. Based on
customer experience, potential savings are in the range
of 550 cents per barrel. Examples of typical giveaway
targets include:
Gasoline octane number
0.15 psia Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) or 0.01 kg/cm
2
1.0F (0.5C) distillate cloud point
5 cSt fuel oil viscosity.
Commercial installations. Implemented at more than
140 sites for ratio control and at over 80 sites for opti-
mization.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant
planning
Business Hiway:
ERP integration
LIMS: quality and
production data
Blend
data analysis
Blend
schedulling
Inventory and
movement
tracking
Movement
control and
automation
Blend control
and
optimization
Blend
planning
Blending
Application. Blend Optimization and Supervisory Sys-
tem (BOSS) is an online, real-time, constraint-based opti-
mization application for blending high-value refinery
products such as gasoline and diesel fuel as well as crude
oil blending. BOSS provides optimal blend ratio or flow
setpoints for the blend components, based on real-time
stream quality measurements (utilizing Invensys Process
MRA or other analyzers) or laboratory analyses results.
This enables refiners to realize the greatest profitability
in the blending operations. BOSS is a DCS platform-inde-
pendent application thats pre-engineered using a com-
mercially available relational database. BOSS integrates
with other Invensys applications to provide a complete
offsites management solution.
Description. BOSS addresses the problems associated
with increased blending complexity driven by new refor-
mulation requirements and environmental mandates.
BOSS achieves this by maximum utilization of available
control space and simultaneously optimizing multiple
independent blend headers across the blend pool.
The BOSS advanced control application continuously
synchronizes and validates all analyzer input. The blend
is continually reoptimized within the control space and
new control setpoints are calculated with each control
cycle. The application operates in either an open (advi-
sory) or closed mode. The optimizer objective function
provides flexibility by controlling based on any combi-
nation of the following:
Pure component cost or quality giveaway-based
optimization
Asymmetric penalty for recipe deviation on a com-
ponent-by-component basis
Asymmetric penalty for property deviation on a
quality-by-quality basis.
In the case of an over-constrained operation, the BOSS
Advice system provides the operator with prioritized
alternate solutions. BOSS also provides property control
adhering to EPA Simple Model and EPA Complex Model
Reformulation standards. Features of Invensys BOSS
advanced control blend application include:
True online optimization produces final blended prod-
ucts in a manner that satisfies quality specifications at
the lowest possible cost. Optimum quality targets are
computed throughout the blend based on the selected
objective function that includes component cost, qual-
ity giveaway and absolute inventory control.
The Multivariable Analyzer-Directed Controller pro-
vides feedforward control for component quality varia-
tions and feedback control for actual or predicted prod-
uct quality variations. The MRA online process analyzer
provides near real-time data to BOSS by monitoring inlet
component stream quality and outlet blended product
quality. BOSS handles analyzer synchronization and pro-
vides for extensive analyzer validity checking. A model-
predictive mode is available in the event of an analyzer
failure.
Multiblend offline blend optimizers are provided as
part of the BOSS solution. Integration capabilities exist to
scheduling and planning software, analytical informa-
tion systems and business systems. BOSSs platform inde-
pendence allows it to supervise ratio blenders on a vari-
ety of distributed control systems. BOSS is also designed
to integrate with Invensys Ratio Blending package, Tank
Inventory System (TIS) Order Movement Manager (OOM)
and Material Automation System (MAS) applications.
The Blending Advice guidance system provides the user
a list of specific recommendations for achieving a feasi-
ble solution.
Economics. BOSS offers economic benefits by provid-
ing continuous cost-based optimization of a refiners
blending operation. Benefits of $0.15 to $0.30/bbl and
paybacks of 12 to 18 months are typical based on actual
experience.
Commercial installations. There are 55 BOSS applica-
tions licensed, installed and operating in refineries across
the Americas, Europe, Asia and Australia.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro,
Massachusetts. Contact: cor.swart@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Blending
Application. Technip blending management and control
technology integrates multiblends short-term schedul-
ing; multivariable control of gasoline, distillates and fuels;
and state-of-the-art NIR spectroscopy to maximize profit
from refinery finished products manufacturing.
Strategy. Key components of this technology package
include:
The FORWARD scheduling system to optimize future
blends and generate blend orders
The ANAMEL online multivariable control and opti-
mization system using feedback from online analyzers
(ASTM or FTNIR spectrometer) to minimize quality give-
away and provide opportunities for inline products cer-
tification
For gasoline blending, the proprietary TOPNIR tech-
nology to determine at high frequency RON, MON,
volatility, Rvp, % benzene and distillation properties
along with blending indices of blend components
For gas oil blending, the proprietary TOPNIR tech-
nology to determine cetane number, cetane index, %
polyaromatics, ASTM distillation, CFPP, cloud point, pour
point and flash point, along with blend indices of the
middle distillates pool components.
Economics. The major benefit offered by this technology
package comes from the integrated approach between
planning, scheduling and control functions. Another
major advantage is use of the TOPNIR technology to pro-
vide up-to-date blending indices and a reliable source of
high-frequency accurate quality determinations at the
blend header and on components. The main sources of
benefits are:
Enforcement of planning objectives and optimal
component usage over time by FORWARD
Minimal quality giveaway by ANAMEL
Reduced instrumentation investment and operat-
ing costs with TOPNIR
Increased operations flexibility from inline certifi-
cation by ANAMEL and TOPNIR.
Commercial installations by Technip. This technol-
ogy has been or is being implemented at various levels of
integration in several refineries of Europe, Africa and
the Middle East.
Licensor.
FORWARD: Technip France
ANAMEL: Total
TOPNIR: ABB Automation
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FORWARD
Plant optimization and scheduling
Offsites
automation
Online TOPNIR
system
Online
certification
Orders
management
ANAMEL
Blend optimization
and mutivarible
control
Blend ratio control
Blending orders
Inital blend recipe
Component 1
Finished
product
Component 2
Component n
Flowmeter
AT
FT
FT
FT
Flowmeter
Flowmeter
Blending
indices
Blending (planning and
scheduling)
Application. Aspen MBO is a multiblend optimization
tool for refinery products. Offering seamless integration
with the Aspen Orion scheduling tool, Aspen MBO can be
used standalone or in tandem with Aspen Orion for refin-
ery product blending optimization and scheduling. With
Aspen MBO:
Optimal recipes are generated for individual blends
on an event-driven time basis
Blends are optimized simultaneously across the
scheduling horizon
Linear and nonlinear blending, derived and com-
plex properties, and interaction coefficients are supported
via the Aspen Blend Model Library
Product heels are accounted for in the optimiza-
tion process
Standard automated export of optimized blend
recipes to the blend control system is supported via the
Blend Control Interface.
As a part of AspenTechs production execution solu-
tion, Aspen MBO integrates seamlessly with the Aspen
Orion scheduling tool, receiving information about run-
down, qualities, and shipments from Aspen Orion; and
passing resulting optimized blend recipes to Aspen Blend.
Strategy. Aspen MBO provides multiblend optimization
for refinery products, including full integration with the
Aspen Orion scheduling solution for shared schedule
information. Aspen MBO allows the user to accurately
handle:
Close-in individual blend tuning
Optimized blend recipes
Look-ahead feasibility analysis
Product schedule manipulation and tuning
What-if cost comparisons.
Aspen MBO uses the same Graphical User Interface as
Aspen Orion, giving the scheduling staff the same look
and feel for all of its activities. It also employs the same
background database structure as Aspen Orion to pro-
vide built-in integration with refinery scheduling when
the two tools are used together. The result is inherent
data and model synchronization with the refinery
scheduling tool, requiring minimum model maintenance.
Economics. Aspen MBO can help users achieve benefits
in the following key measurable best practice areas
of:
Reduced blend recipe giveaway
Reduced blend quality giveaway
Lower demurrage and inventory holding costs
Avoidance of component stockouts
Increased upgrade of low-value components.
Commercial installations. Aspen MBO is licensed by
over 30 sites throughout the world at both corporate
and individual levels.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Assays and
sub models
Aspen PIMS
Refinery planning
Unit activities
Planned recipes
Aspen Orion
Refinery scheduling
Rundowns and
qualities
Shipments
Aspen MBO
Product blend planning
and scheduling
Optimized blend
recipes
Aspen Blend
Blend control and
online optimization
Instrumentation layer (DCS)
BRC setpoints
Lab
information
system
Yield
accounting
Opening
inventories
Shipment
and receipts
Tank
qualities
ERP
system
Catalytic reformer
Application. The advanced process control package
combines multivariable model-predictive controls (MVPC)
with basic online process models to improve profitability
of semiregenerative, cyclic and continuous catalytic
reforming (CCR) units for gasoline as well as aromatics
production.
Strategy. Economic objectives in catalytic reformer APC
applications are to maximize octane barrels, minimize
energy cost and maximize catalyst life. The APC strategy
achieves these objectives by enforcing furnace, reactor,
compressor and stabilizer physical operating limits; reduc-
ing variation in reformate octane and Rvp; and driving
feed, H
2
/HC, energy and pressure inputs toward targets
set by the operator or external optimizer.
The MVPC-based APC package optimizes the preheat
exchanger network, heater constraint control and bal-
ancing, and overall energy minimization and feed max-
imization. A single MVPC is generally employed to provide
regenerator, reactor and stabilizer control. Regenerator
controls are designed to minimize the oxygen content,
which lowers temperatures and prolongs catalyst life.
Octane and a weighted average inlet temperature
(WAIT) profile are maintained, subject to reactor, hydro-
gen and compressor limits. A coking control module can
be included to set H
2
/HC ratio to ensure that the coke
on catalyst to the regenerator is within limits. The MVPC
adjusts stabilizer reflux, bottoms temperature and tower
pressure to control overhead C
5+
and bottoms Rvp.
Neural network inferential property models can be
updated using either online analyzers or direct LIMS inter-
face. The package can also be offered with ABB FTIR ana-
lyzers to provide reformate RON, MON, Rvp, ASTM dis-
tillation, benzene, toluene and xylene concentration
measurements. FTIR PIONA and ASTM distillation feed
measurements can also be used as disturbance variables
in the MVPC to significantly improve feed disturbance
rejection and overall, closed-loop performance.
Economics. Typical benefits are $12 million per year
for a 30-Mbpd unit.
Commercial installations. Catalytic reformer APC pack-
ages have been commissioned on several units.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Net gas
Fuel gas
To LER
Stabilizer
dP
dP
F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
Platformate
to blending
Fresh feed from
naphtha splitter
Spent catalyst
to regenerator
Regenerated
catalyst
Typical
manipulated,
disturbance,
controlled and
constraint
variables
RON
Rvp
PIONA
O
2
O
2
C
5s
F
F
P
P
H
2
/HC
W
A
I
T
Catalytic reformer
Application. Applying advanced process control to cat-
alytic reforming units is economically advantageous
because of the large spread between reactant values,
high operating costs, difficult process dynamics and cat-
alyst deactivation. Aspen Technology addresses these
issues by combining the DMCplus multivariable control
technology and the Aspen Reformer Inferred Properties
Package with the Aspen Plus Optimizer real-time opti-
mization technology and the kinetic reformer model,
Aspen Catref. These technologies are applied to semi-
regenerative, cyclic and continuous reforming units.
Strategy. Reformer reactor severity is maintained using
the DMCplus controller with feedback from a measured
or inferred octane, while respecting the critical hydraulic,
mechanical and catalyst deactivation limits. A single DMC-
plus controller addresses the interaction of severity and
coke laydown control, including catalyst deactivation
considerations. The Aspen Reformer Inferred Property
Package calculates severity, coke laydown rate and heater
tubeskin temperatures.
Fractionation controls optimize reflux, bottoms tem-
perature and tower pressure to meet reformate and over-
head product specifications such as reformate Rvp and
component control in the overhead. Regenerator con-
trol is provided on continuous circulation units to reduce
burn zone peak temperatures.
The Aspen Plus Optimizer system utilizes the Aspen
Catref rigorous catalytic reformer kinetic model of the
reactors with catalyst deactivation and the associated
process equipment to calculate the optimum targets for
maximizing unit or complex profitability. Aspen CatRef
rigorously simulates both the reactors and the hydrogen
recycle loop. As part of the Aspen Plus Optimizer unit
operation model family, Aspen CatRef can easily be incor-
porated into an overall flowsheet including fired heaters
and stabilizer and splitter models, creating a fully inte-
grated model of the entire catalytic reformer operating
unit or complex.
Aspen CatRef can be integrated into a model of mul-
tiple reformer operations, such as a model of a full aro-
matics complex or any one of several processing scenar-
ios. Aspen Catref is also instrumental for use in
planning/ LP vector generation (base and shift vectors),
engineering tasks such as feedstock and catalyst selec-
tion, debottlenecking and optimization, and online unit
performance monitoring. Refiners can compare predic-
tions with actual performance, diagnose problems and
identify mechanical efficiency trends and bottlenecks.
Scope of the optimization system can range from a sin-
gle reactor section to an operating complex of multiple
reformers with multiple upstream and downstream oper-
ations. The optimizing module is self-maintaining in
that it automatically updates key model parameters
online, thereby maintaining an accurate process model.
Unit-based optimization also has been found to be par-
ticularly profitable for reformers in BTX operation.
The Aspen Plus Optimizer software features a combi-
nation of an open-equation modeling system and a
robust SQP solver, which solves and optimizes the reactor
and flowsheet simultaneously. The optimization solution
determines the trajectory of optimum operating condi-
tions, which maximize total profit from current time until
catalyst regeneration.
Economics. Benefits include improved yields, energy
savings, increased capacity, reduced variation of unit
severity, improved product quality and optimal catalyst
usage. Typical benefits range from $0.10 to $0.40/bbl. of
feed. Simple payback is usually less than 12 months.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has installed over
28 reformers, five of which utilize the Aspen Reformer
Inferred Property Package. There are six closed-loop, real-
time optimization applications and five commercial instal-
lations of Aspen CatRef (either online or offline).
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Catalytic reformer
Application. Emersons MPC multivariable control of
naphtha catalytic reforming units offers significant ben-
efits for continuous, semiregenerator and fully-regen-
erator type units. Objectives for the controls include:
Maximize feed rate against unit constraints at
required product quality when desired
Maximize reformate yield at the required severity
and quality specifications
Minimize unit energy consumption
Meet required cycle length between regenerations
(semiregen units).
MPC control functions typically implemented for
reformers include:
Naphtha pretreater controls to stabilize feed qual-
ity and control the aromatic precursors in the reformer
feed to the desired target
Heater controls that stabilize outlet temperatures
and minimize excess air
Reforming section controls that control severity by
adjusting reactor inlet temperatures, hydrogen circula-
tion, feed rate and reactor pressure, up to the catalyst
coking limit
Stabilizer controls that control bottoms Rvp or C
4
compositions and overhead C
5
s to target.
Model Predictive Control is one of the technologies
that powers Emersons PlantWeb digital plant architecture
to improve plant throughput while reducing cost.
Strategy. Using Emersons Model Predictive Control, a
standard naphtha reformer control strategy may incor-
porate pretreater controls, reactor controls and multi-
ple column controls. A coordinator manages the com-
plex interaction of constraints and controllers.
Pretreater controls are designed to control the aro-
matic precursor composition of the feed and the boiling
range at the points required to meet final product com-
position limits. These product limits may be on maximum
benzene composition or on maximum end point.
The reactor controls include inferential models of
reformer octane and catalyst coke/activity. These are used
in conjunction with available online analyzers or labo-
ratory updates to provide feedback to the control sys-
tem. The reactor manipulated variables typically include
reformer feed rate, reactor inlet temperatures, recycle
hydrogen flow and separator pressure. Constraints will
usually include reactor bed and heater limits, compressor
limits, catalyst regenerator limits (fully regen units) and
downstream columns. Reactor controls will stabilize the
reformer octane at the desired target and permit maxi-
mizing feed rate or C
5
+
yield, depending on current unit
objectives.
Heater controls will maximize current heater thermal
efficiencies by controlling excess air and other flue gas
components. Compensation is automatically provided
for detected changes in fuel gas composition, feed rate
and inlet temperature target changes.
Column controls will adjust reflux, reboilers and pres-
sure to meet the target product compositions at mini-
mum energy. Inferential composition models provide
feedback for the controls along with available online
analyzers.
Commercial installations: Controls have been installed
on one commercial unit.
Benefits. Reformer advanced controls typically produce
economic savings from the following sources:
Additional capacity
Longer reactor run lengths for semiregen units
More stable reformate octane control
Higher C
5
+
yield
Lower specific energy consumption.
Benefits for these control functions are normally in the
range of $0.100.15 per barrel of feed.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Catalytic reformer
Application. Reforming units provide significant
advanced control benefits because of the high value
attached to reformate octane and hydrogen, expensive
operating costs and difficult multivariable interactions.
Profit Controllers based on Robust Multivariable Predic-
tive Control Technology (RMPCT) are used in these appli-
cations for online control and economic optimization.
This advanced algorithm minimizes tuning requirements
and maintains good control under changing conditions
and model error. Model identification is available in the
Windows environment. Multiple Profit Controllers can
be dynamically coordinated by an upper-level Profit Opti-
mizer, which also uses Profit Controller algorithms. The
reforming unit reactor control and optimization tech-
nologies are applicable to both gasoline and BTX units,
and handle regenerative, semiregenerative and contin-
uous reformers.
Strategy. Proven calculations and modeling technology
provide the following online calculations:
Weighted average bed temperature (WAIT)
Product octane
Product Rvp
Catalyst coking rate.
The Profit Controller provides the following control
functions:
Reactor inlet temperatures are controlled to maintain
the WAIT within a range and, if desired, to enforce a
desired reactor temperature profile.
Octane is controlled when the WAIT and temperature
profile are not constraints. The controller protects heater
constraints such as maximum firebox temperatures and
heater duties.
Feed rate is maximized up to a desired target, subject
to unit constraints. Trade-offs between severity and
throughput are determined automatically with economic
optimization.
Unit pressure is minimized subject to compressor and
coking rate constraints, to maximize reformate and H
2
yields.
H
2
recycle rate is adjusted to maintain a selected tar-
get (H
2
/feed, H
2
partial pressure, or maximum H
2
recy-
cle).
Rigorous kinetic models using fundamental kinetic
reaction equations may be applied to determine opti-
mum operating targets for online optimization and
offline studies within the ProfitMax structure.
Economics. Based on numerous process surveys, typical
benefits range from 2/bbl to 10/bbl of fresh feed. Typ-
ical project payback periods are 618 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 42 reformer units. Rigorous online model
optimization has been implemented on six units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
H
2
recycle
control
Separator
pressure
Feed
flow
Heater outlet
temperatures
Octane
wait
control
Feed
maximiz-
ation
Pressure
minimiz-
ation
H
2
in
recycle
control
RMPCT
FC FC PC TC TC TC
Rigorous model
online optimization
ProfitMax
Constraints
Constraints
Targets Economics
Catalytic reformer
Application. Optimal performance of a catalytic
reformer is achieved with a control system that integrates
the reactor control responses with the much longer time
horizon dynamics of coke accumulation. The features
and flexibility of the Connoisseur multivariable predic-
tive control system easily address this control design. This
application is suitable for both octane and BTX operating
modes. For units with highly varying feedstocks or prod-
uct targets, Process magnetic resonance analyzer (MRA)
technology can be applied to provide continuous feed
PONA analysis and product octane or composition anal-
ysis.
Control strategy. The primary control loop maximizes
feed throughput while honoring the minimum octane
or composition target and maintaining heater, coking
rate and hydraulic constraints. To improve product yields,
the system pressure is minimized, subject to hydrogen
recycle compressor limits, and maximum coking rates.
Octane and coking rate inferentials are used, and updated
with laboratory feed and product analysis when online
analyzers are not available. The reactor WAIT is main-
tained to achieve the octane or composition targets;
however, the individual heater outlet temperatures are
adjusted as needed to relieve heater constraints and
allow increased unit throughput.
A coke laydown controller with long-term dynamics is
used to integrate the effects of coke accumulation on
the catalyst and set a coking rate target that ensures the
maximum capacity of the regeneration system is utilized.
Constraints in the regenerator section are maintained
by the regenerator control which minimizes the regen-
eration gas oxygen content and adjusts the catalyst rate
as required to maintain the desired catalyst burn profile
and honor hydraulic constraints.
Stabilizer and additional distillation column controls
are included to ensure maximum unit throughput. A
combination of inferential calculations and online ana-
lyzers are used to honor column specifications while col-
umn pressures are minimized to increase separation effi-
ciency and reduce energy usage.
All these controllers are configured in the Connoisseur
control system. No additional software or interface efforts
are needed for these cascaded applications, and high
maintenance custom programming is not required. Con-
noisseurs model adaptation tool reduces the re-testing
upon catalyst replacement.
Economics. Typical benefits range between $0.10 and
$0.30/ bbl of feed and payback periods are typically within
several months.
Commercial installations. Multivariable controllers
has been installed on 20 reformers. Process MRA has been
installed on one reformer.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: john.hernandez@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Connoisseur environment
MRA
Octane/WAIT
control
Other
limits
Max
feed
Coke
rate
Octane
model
Coke
model
Feed
Rx 1 Rx 2 Rx 3
To stabilizer
Reactor inlet
temperatures
Recycle
H
2
Feed
rate
Pressure
H
2
Catalytic reformer
Application. Catalytic reforming units may be a key
source of gasoline blend stock or may produce BTX for an
aromatics plant.
Strategy. This package employs advanced control tech-
nology, predictive models and laboratory feedback to
meet specific operating targets and to permit flexible
response to changes in plantwide operating goals. The
package consists of six integrated modules: octane con-
trol, reactor temperature control, pressure control, H
2
/HC
mole ratio control, fractionation control and furnace fir-
ing control.
The first four modules are of special importance
because they interactively affect catalyst life, product
yield and reformate octane. Severity, as measured by
reformate octane, is controlled by manipulation of reac-
tor inlet temperatures. Octane is predicted by an online
model as a function of feed rate, operating tempera-
tures and PONA analysis. The octane model is updated
online based upon periodic lab analyses. Pressure is nor-
mally minimized against operating constraints to increase
reformate yield. Compensation for pressure changes aids
in stabilizing catalyst deactivation rate.
Economics. Reforming reactor controls typically increase
yield, reduce octane number deviation by 40% to 50%
and decrease fuel consumption. Stabilizer controls typi-
cally reduce Rvp standard deviation by 60% and result
in lower tower duty. In addition, the ability to quickly
line-out on new octane targets aids refinery flexibility.
Commercial installations. These controls have been
implemented at one location.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Reformer
feed
RON
model
Reformate
octane
control
Reactor
WAIT
control
Furnace
combustion
efficiency
control
Feedforward
furnace firing
control
Pressure
minimization
control
Catalyst
deactivation
control
H
2
/HC
ratio
control
Fractionator
product quality
controls
RON target
PONA
Reactor temp.
setpoints
TI
TI
TI
TC TC
TC
AI
Feed rate
Reactor temps
Fuel
Fuel
To stabilizer
Fuel
Rx 1
Rx 2
Rx 3
Recycle
compressor
Recycle
Catalytic Reformer Octane
Application. The reformate octane controls use the tem-
perature drops across the reactors to infer feed compo-
sition. Model-based WAIT adjustments are made on a
real-time basis, even during periods of major changes in
feed composition. This strategy represents a significant
improvement over previous approaches for reformers
that are fed virgin naphthas directly from crude distilla-
tion or from tank on running gauge.
Control strategy. A multivariable controller (MVC)
adjusts the fuel gas to control heater outlet tempera-
tures and the WAIT. The individual reactor inlet temper-
atures can be biased by the operator or automatically by
the MVC for heater constraint recognition. The WAIT
control is reset by the model-based octane control.
Economics. A reduction in octane number standard
deviation of 0.5 results typically in a C
5
+ yield improve-
ment of about 0.3%, which is worth about 24/bbl of
fresh feed. Payback is a few months for a 20,000-bpd
reformer.
Commercial installations. These controls were installed
in four semiregen reformers that handle virgin naphtha
from a wide variety of crudes. A project is underway for
a fifth unit. Operating experience has been excellent.
Developer/Licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Chemical reactor
Application. Chemical reactor control is usually limited
to PIDs and sequential commands attached to the pro-
duction phases. Todays demand for greater efficiency
leads to the following requirements:
Increased production through shorter batch
duration
Improved quality by better temperature stability
Higher plant availability by less activated valves
Decreased marginal costs through reduced utilities
consumption.
Difficulty in controlling the temperature is due to sev-
eral factors:
The link between the actuators and temperatures is
integrative with time delays.
The heating and cooling actions affect the jacket
temperature with very different dynamics that limit per-
formance of usual split-range control.
Control strategy.
Dedicated library: Predictive Control for Reactors (PCR)
considers several plant architectures among the most fre-
quent ones. PCR is a library of predictive control mod-
ules designed for chemical reactors, with a CAD toolbox
for the user.
Integration: Once validated on the simulation, the
controller can be transferred onto the control system
(PLCs, DCS or process computer). When the standard
PCR blocks are embedded in equipment at the same
level as the PIDs, then the control parameters can be
simply transmitted to the control system. The controller
can take into account operating conditions (such as
the time-varying reactor volume) while the actuators
are activated only as necessary. The corresponding
know-how may be transferred with the CAD software
through a training session.
Benefits. The issued controller, when applied to the
plant, satisfies the production objectives, quality and sav-
ings with a pay-out time of a few months. The whole
procedure is accessible to the user familiar with PID tun-
ing, in a friendly environment offering all the benefits
of model-based predictive control technology.
Commercial installations. PCR has been implemented
on nine units in Europe and Asia.
Licensor. Adersa, Palaiseau, France; Website:
www.adersa.com; e-mail: jacques.papon@adersa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
PCR
model based
predictive control
Cold
util. T
JOT JIT
RT
Injection
flowrate
Steam
util. T
Cogeneration plant
Application. Closed-loop optimal control continuously
optimizes cogeneration plant operation for maximum
profitability. The MVC multivariable control software
dynamically controls the plant to achieve and maintain
dispatched net generation (at the point of sale) irre-
spective of host steam and load variations. The system
determines the most profitable way to operate the plant
given time-of-day prices, load levels, equipment degra-
dation and operational constraints. The more dynamic
the plant operation and the more complex the process,
the more the MVC real-time Closed-Loop Optimal Control
system will generate increased profits.
Benefits.
Control the plant at optimal conditions to maxi-
mize profitability by improving heat rate performance
by an estimated 0.5% to 1.0%
Achieve smoother operations by better control
within equipment, environmental and operational con-
straints
Reduce operators work load with useful process
and economic knowledge
Maintain control of net generation, per dispatch,
at the point of sale, irrespective of host steam and power
variations and provide real-time costs to marketing
Schedule power contracts and achieve accurate gen-
eration control at the point of sale.
Features.
Closes the gap between steady-state optimization
and dynamic plant operations
Maintains existing distributed control system inter-
locks and safeguards
Predicts and controls plant dynamic behavior using
model-based control software.
Real-timesupervisory mode. GE configures the MVC
software based on facility operating data and require-
ments, equipment-specific data, plant control configu-
ration and power purchase agreements to:
Implement automatically the optimum operating
points calculated by the EfficiencyMaps optimizer soft-
ware
Correct automatically and continuously the steady-
state optimal operating point for real-time process vari-
ations
Monitor and maintain operations within measured
environmental and operating constraints such as NO
X
Predict effects of measured disturbances to the plant
and take corrective action before the plant is affected
Maintain stability and safety by significantly reduc-
ing process variations
Schedule different power contracts
Control power sold/purchased at the tie-line pre-
cisely in either block (MWh) or instantaneous (MW) modes
Ensure that generating schedules are met and imbal-
ances minimized.
Commercial installations. The MVC Closed-Loop Opti-
mal Control system has been installed at several domes-
tic cogeneration facilities.
Licensor. The system is jointly licensed by GE Energy Ser-
vices, Optimization Software, Brentwood, Tennessee;
and GE Drives & Controls, Inc., Houston, Texas; Website:
gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel: (832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Cracking furnace
Application. This advanced control package assists the
operator in starting up and shutting down ethylene
plant cracking furnaces. It stabilizes and automates these
otherwise labor-intensive operations, and reduces the
incidence of heater coil damage due to excursions in
temperature and charge rate during the startup and
shutdown operations.
Control strategy. The startup and shutdown controls
operate in conjunction with conventional pyrolysis fur-
nace advanced controls. Each furnace is provided with a
master startup/shutdown control and an associated table
of targets for hydrocarbon flow, steam flow, furnace out-
let temperature, mercaptan flow and flushing steam flow
for each phase of startup and shutdown. There are typ-
ically three or four phases for startup and three or four
phases for shutdown for each furnace.
To use the control, the operator selects the particular
phase of startup or shutdown that he or she wishes to
initiate for the furnace of interest. The master control
then selects the appropriate default values from the asso-
ciated table for the process targets and the total time
duration for the phase. The operator reviews the selected
targets and can accept the default values or enter alter-
nate values when appropriate. When satisfied with the
targets for this particular phase of operation, the operator
activates the master control. The master control then
enters the operator-verified values as setpoints and acti-
vates these controls. The master control also calculates
the individual ramp rates required to complete this phase
of operation for each variable at the end of the desired
time period and installs these ramp rates in the respective
ramp controls. Of course, this application contains exten-
sive validity checks to ensure that the selected targets
fall within the normal operating limitations of the furnace
and for the particular phase of operation.
Economics. In one ethylene plant with 10 furnaces, these
controls have been singularly effective in reducing oper-
ator requirements by 50% and, at the same time, in
extending cracking furnace run lengths from 90 to 120
days. Payback is a few months.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
installed in three ethylene plants on each of 15 separate
cracking furnaces (of seven distinct types of design). The
oldest set has performed effectively for many years.
Developer/licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Pass
outlet
temp.
balance
Total
charge
ramp
Master
startup
and
shutdown
control
Severity
control
Outlet
temp.
ramp
Outlet
temp.
control Combustion
control
Steam
charge
ramp
Steam
to hydro-
carbon
ratio
control
SP
Hydrocarbon
charge
Dilution steam
Fuel
Pass n
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
FC
AI
TI
FC
Cracking furnace
Application. A multivariable optimizing constraint con-
trol (MPC technology) is applied to simultaneously manip-
ulate control targets to maintain smooth operation and
constant furnace yields within equipment constraints. A
rigorous optimization layer based on Emersons Real-
Time Optimizer product is an option that can also be
applied to determine the best targets based on plantwide
economics and constraints. These are some of the tech-
nologies that power Emersons PlantWeb to improve
plant efficiency.
Strategy. The MPC multivariable constraint control solves
for optimum setpoints for the following manipulated
variables: total charge, steam/feed ratios, coil outlet tem-
perature and air flow.
The multivariable controller uses dynamic models of
the process responses to determine setpoints that simul-
taneously meet the following controlled variable tar-
gets: max. total charge, severity, stack O
2
and draft pres-
sure.
The controller gracefully handles a wide variety of
plant constraints including predicted coke laydown, valve
and damper positions, tube skin temperatures, draft and
others. Furnace severity is predicted based on feedstock
type and other furnace measurements, and the model
is updated from online analyzer results. Advanced regu-
latory controls are implemented in standard DeltaV blocks
to perform charge rate control, pass balancing and
steam/feed ratio controls. An optional optimizer can be
added to capture additional benefits for optimizing feed
rate, severity and steam/hydrocarbon ratio targets for a
set of cracking furnaces. The optimizer is based on first-
principle models that use a combination of kinetic and
mechanistic reaction equations to predict the yield slate.
The cracking furnace optimizer combines the effluent
predictions from all furnaces to operate against overall
plant limits such as cracked gas compressor, refrigeration
or downstream tower constraints.
Installations. The cracking furnace advanced control
and optimization technology has been implemented in
five olefins sites worldwide.
Benefits. Advanced control stabilizes furnace effluent
rate and composition, and operates closer to actual equip-
ment constraints, often yielding benefits over $1 mil-
lion/yr for a typical ethylene plant. Real-time optimization
will typically give an additional benefit of at least $1 mil-
lion/yr.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
BFW
Steam
Fuel
Total charge
control
HP steam
Feed
Steam/HC
ratio Control
Pass balancing
control
Severity
control
AR
Stack O
2
control
PredictProMPC
control
RTO+closed-loop
optimizer
Severity Stm/HC
Charge
rate
TC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
F
C
F
C
F
C
F
C
FC
Cracking furnace
Application. Advanced control pass balancing imple-
ments one of the time-honored process control philosophy
objectives: maximize unit performance while staying
within the constraints of the individual passes. In this
example, the balancing strategy is applied to ethylene
cracking furnaces. Total feed flow to each furnace is set by
outside considerations. Furnace performance (conversion
of saturated hydrocarbon feedstock to olefins) is reduced
if firing to one of the individual coils is limited by an active
high-limit constraint. The balancing strategy improves
unit performance by adjusting feed distribution among
the coils of each furnace to try to honor the conversion set-
point while operating within the constraint boundaries.
Fuzzy logic techniques are used to balance the furnaces
approach to competing constraint objectives.
Strategy. The balancing strategy has two major pur-
poses:
1. If any of the following constraint variables is oper-
ating too close to its maximum setpoint, shift the feed
distribution to bring that variable back away from
setpoint:
Burner fuel pressure
Fuel valve opening
Transfer line exchanger inlet pressure.
2. If all the above constraint variables are far enough
within their maximum setpoints to satisfy criterion 1,
then equalize the following variables:
Burner fuel pressure
Transfer line exchanger inlet pressure.
Economics. Actual experience with this technique shows
improved unit production of about 0.5% of nameplate
rating.
Commercial installations. This pass balancing tech-
nique has been implemented on 12 ethylene cracking
furnaces. The technique could be implemented on a mod-
ern DCS system or in a host computer.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FC FC
PI
PI
PI
PI
TI TI
TI TI
PI PI
PI
PI
PI
FC FC
FC
FC
PI
FC
FC
Fuel
Feed
Steam
Fuzzy logic
ethylene
furnace
coil balancing
Crude mix quality
identification
Application. Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as
an inline laboratory to deliver real-time quality infor-
mation to crude unit multivariable control and opti-
mization systems.
Strategy.
Crude feed analysis at desalter outlet
Sidestream analysis from straight-run gasoline to
atmospheric residue
Crude quality determinations include TBP curve,
specific gravity, estimate of % sulfur and metals content.
Economics.
Improved APC strategies on-stream factor with high-
frequency analysis of crude mixture quality variations
and feed-forward adjustment of cut points
Reduced transient time, typically the desalter hold-
up for crude swings
Higher crude throughput
Reduced online analyzer maintenance costs.
Commercial installations. TOPNIR is used in seven
refineries to control the crude distillation unit.
Licensor. Technip France on behalf of ABB Automation.
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Crude
TBP
Density
Online
Topnir
One stream every minute
Gasloline
RON, MON, ASTM dist.,
Specific gravity
Light naphtha
PIONA, ASTM dist, SG
Heavy naphtha
PIONA, ASTM dist, SG
Kerosene
PIONA, ASTM dist, SG
Freezing pt, flash pt.
Light/heavy gas oil
Cloud pt, ASTM dist.
Specific gravity
Online model
Crude unit
Application. ABB offers advanced process control appli-
cations for crude atmospheric and vacuum, condensate
and other multidraw fractionators. These maximize prof-
itability by maximizing crude charge, stabilizing opera-
tion, upgrading product and conserving energy.
Strategy. Conventional, inferential and multivariable
model-predictive (MVPC) advanced process control (APC)
techniques are combined to provide a robust solution:
Feed rate and product quality controls. Feed
charge, product quality and energy use are simultane-
ously controlled and optimized within constraints by the
MVPC. Product yields are maximized based on their rel-
ative economic values and quality limits. Differential pres-
sures across tower sections are monitored to avoid tray
flooding. Tower pressure minimization is also imple-
mented in the MVPC.
Preheat train control. Parallel crude preheat
exchanger trains can be flow balanced to maximize heat
transfer efficiency. A similar parallel heater control appli-
cation maximizes feed to the most efficient heaters.
Heater controls. Heater pass balancing adjusts
individual pass flows to balance their outlet tempera-
tures. These MVPC heater temperature targets are imple-
mented with feedforward compensation for inlet dis-
turbances and with limit checks for equipment constraints.
Excess oxygen can be controlled in each firebox when
proper instrumentation is available.
Crude switch. Proprietary correlations are avail-
able to estimate product yields based on crude bulk prop-
erties. These correlations (or crude assays) are used to
adjust sidestream drawrates to minimize transient behav-
ior during crude feed change. Alternately, ABB FTIR ana-
lyzers can be incorporated to significantly enhance feed-
forward performance by providing online crude feed
characterization.
Product property control. Neural network, infer-
ential product property calculations can be modeled,
deployed and updated using routine laboratory analy-
sis using ABBs Inferential Modeling Platform. Alternately,
ABB FTIR analyzers and Predict and Control state-space
model-based MVPC can also be incorporated to provide
high-frequency measurement and improved dynamic
control of all draw stream properties.
Economics. The resulting overall economic benefits for
a 100-Mbpd unit are typically in the range of $37 million
per year, with payout periods well under one year.
Commercial installations. Crude and vacuum distilla-
tion APC applications have been commissioned at mul-
tiple sites and are currently being implemented on four
additional units.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
90%, cloud,
freeze, CFPP,
viscosity, color
90%, flash,
freeze
95%
Flood
O
2
T
P FG
Resid
HAGO
LAGO
Kero
Naph.
Can also be used
for optimal inline
crude blending
API, S,
visc.,
P,N,A,
TBP
T
Q
Q
P
F
S F
S F
S F
F
T T
T
T
T
T
L
T
Typical
manipulated,
disturbance,
controlled and
constraint
variables
Crude unit
Application. Closed-loop, real-time optimization using
Aspen Plus Optimizer and predictive multivariable con-
straint control using DMCplus to maximize crude and
vacuum unit profits by enabling operation at optimal
constraints and minimizing the effects of crude changes.
Strategy. Closed-loop, real-time optimization of the
crude and vacuum unit with Aspen Optimizer uses rig-
orous, open-equation engineering models of the com-
plete unit including the preheat system, heaters, light-
ends columns and naphtha splitter column. The model
is calibrated before each optimization run using plant
data to calculate the feed composition, heat transfer
coefficients, furnace efficiencies, etc.
The model is also used offline for engineering studies
for feedstock selection or design studies, and to update
planning and scheduling models. Optimization setpoints
include preheat section flows and temperatures,
pumparound rates, stripping steam, product qualities,
tower pressure and furnace outlet temperatures. The
Aspen Plus Optimizer setpoints automatically download
to the DMCplus controller.
A single controller for the crude and vacuum columns
reduces variability in product qualities, maximizes feed
rate and increases yield of more valuable products by
running against heater, column flooding and hydraulic
constraints. DMCplus stabilizes the crude unit operation
and minimizes transient time during crude switches with
dynamic switch detection.
This provides the feedforward action before the switch
hits the tower. The crude assay information, if available,
is incorporated into DMCplus dynamic models to mini-
mize disturbances in conjunction with other feedforward
variables. Typical size of a DMCplus crude and vacuum
controller is 25 independent and 50 controlled variables,
and can increase to 50 independent and 100 controlled
variables for more complex units. Heater pass-balancing,
light-end columns and naphtha splitter columns are con-
trolled with individual controllers. The local optimiza-
tion performed by the quadratic program (QP), com-
bined with the real-time optimization, ensures that the
unit operates at optimal constraints at all times.
Inferred product qualities are implemented using the
Aspen IQ package. The flexible client/server package sup-
ports FIR models, IQ model files (linear PLS, fuzzy PLS,
hybrid neural net), linearized rigorous models, algebraic
expressions and sensor validation models. Aspen IQ mod-
els deal with correlated data, extrapolation, historical
data distribution and variable selection, effectively min-
imizing the clients risk of poorly performing inferential
models.
Analyzer validation and updates and SQC techniques
for laboratory validation and update are seamlessly incor-
porated into the Aspen IQ package. Sensor validation
technology detects faults in online model inputs and
replaces them, if possible, with representative values.
This allows the inferential to predict a reasonably accurate
value even with a sensor fault.
Economics. Benefits of $0.050.12/bbl achievable from
increased capacity, improved product recoveries and
energy savings. Project paybacks are less than six months.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has installed over
70 advanced control applications for crude units and 10
optimization systems.
Reference. Crude Distillation Unit Control: Minimiz-
ing the Impact of Crude Feedstock Changes, 1999, Euro-
pean Refining Technology Conference; Crude Distilla-
tion Unit Control. Improvement from Experience, Aspen
World 2001 Conference.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Crude unit
Application. Crude distillation units are ideal candidates
for Emersons model predictive control (MPC) applica-
tions, tools that power Emersons PlantWeb to improve
throughput and quality, while reducing costs. The atmo-
spheric tower is the first major process unit in a refinery,
and its operation effectively sets the first pass yields for
the whole facility. Fluctuations in rate or quality often
cause upsets in downstream units. The unit is highly heat
integrated and its heater is often one of the largest
energy consumers in the refinery. With DeltaV Predict-
Pro, the huge benefits from MPC on crude units can be
achieved for a fraction of the traditional cost.
Atmospheric crude units can also benefit from infer-
ential property estimators that calculate and display prod-
uct quality variables like end point, 95% point, pour
point, viscosity, etc. The DeltaV Neural product uses neu-
ral net technology to learn relationships from historical
process and laboratory data. Once the neural net is
trained, a real-time prediction of the quality variable is cal-
culated every minute. The system comes with automatic
lab entry functions that store sample data in the DCS his-
torian and update the online models.
Both PredictPro and Neural are configured in a graph-
ical environment to achieve a number of operating objec-
tives:
Maximize feedrate against unit constraints at
required product quality when desired
Stabilize and control product qualities to specifica-
tions
Maximize yield of more valuable side draws up to
quality limits
Minimize unit energy consumption.
Strategy. A single PredictPro model predictive controller
is configured to manipulate the side draw and pump-
around flows, heater outlet temperature, charge rate
and top reflux. Key controlled variables include inferred
quality variables, cutpoints or pressure-compensated
temperatures for each product. Constraints include valve,
pump, temperature and vapor/liquid traffic limits. The
embedded LP in the PredictPro controller allows costs to
be used to drive the unit to the most profitable region.
The controller can be configured with up to five different
operating strategies that are selectable by the operator.
Total unit charge rate is controlled in a separate mod-
ule that splits the feed between furnace passes. A pass bal-
ancing control block is used to equalize outlet tempera-
tures from each of the heater passes. Combustion controls
can be used to minimize excess air to the heater and pro-
vide the air-fuel cross-limiting functions. Steam ratio con-
trollers are used on side strippers to adjust steam con-
sumption with rates and yield differences.
Commercial installations. Emersons MPC controls
have been operating on many units for many years and
the next-generation DeltaV Predict product is also oper-
ating on a unit.
Benefits. Atmospheric crude unit advanced controls typ-
ically produce economic savings from the following
sources:
Additional capacity from operating closer to actual
process equipment limits
Higher yields of more valuable products
Lower energy cost per barrel of feed
Improved product separation
More stable product quality controls, fewer off-spec
products and improved downstream unit operation.
The nominal value for these benefits is normally in the
range of $0.050.10 per barrel feed, depending on the
refinery incentives for crude capacity, differential product
prices and fuel costs.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Per-
formance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies,
tel: (641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonPro-
cess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Crude unit (model
predictive control
productivity)
Application. Industrial model-predictive control (MPC)
is dominated by applications using linear multivariable
models that map the dynamic and steady-state behav-
ior between process manipulated variables (MVs) and
their related dependent or controlled variables (CVs).
These models include in their structure configuration
and tuning of the base-level PID loops, the models
being obtained from identification of test data gathered
by stepping the MVs (e.g., flow, temperature or pressure
controller setpoints) to obtain dynamic response of the
CVs (e.g., analyzed product qualities, temperatures, flows,
levels, etc.).
A crude unit that has significant heat integration with
saturated gas plant distillation section reboilers can pre-
sent difficult regulatory control stability issues in both
the pump-around (P/A) system and the gas plant heat
balance. Interaction between the gas plant column heat
balance and the crude unit P/A heat removal make tun-
ing these systems very challenging. Universal process
identification UPID is a model identification package that
identifies finite impulse response (FIR) models, with the
unique ability to update the FIR model to compensate
for PID tuning and loop configuration changes.
The ability to remove all PID controller dynamics to
produce a valve-based model from either closed- or open-
loop test data allows detailed investigation of optimal
base-level configuration and tuning strategies for sin-
gle-loop PID controllers in a multivariable environment.
Using this technique the crude unit integrated P/A and gas
plant system was analyzed by developing valve base mod-
els from very brief step tests that represented open-loop
regulatory control structure.
Once these models were available, they were used with
UPID to systematically develop tuning strategies that pro-
vide stable control over a broad range of operation. Using
this approach, it was possible to find the PID scheme
where the interaction between related control loops can
be minimized, and tuning tightened to result in faster
response to setpoint changes and disturbances. This is a
productivity tool for the advanced control engineer dur-
ing an MPC project; correct PID configuration is a criti-
cal success factor for MPC projects.
Strategy. Using UPID in conjunction with correctly gen-
erated plant test data representing simple open-loop
responses, the control engineer can very effectively ana-
lyze difficult PID control structure. On crude units, the P/A
and gas plant reboil systems can be very difficult to obtain
a reliable regulatory strategy for. Employing a method-
ology of taking very brief plant step test data around the
P/A and gas plant section will generate data for analysis in
UPID. UPID is then used interactively to develop, test and
refine PID structures and tuning schemes that provide sta-
ble regulatory control. Once these are available they can
be very quickly put in place on the unit to provide a stable
regulatory control platform for normal operation and
also for developing any MPC system.
Economics. The ability to retune or reconfigure the reg-
ulatory control system without retesting improves the
onstream factor in advanced control applications and
reduces overall application maintenance costs. This is a
long-term benefit of the UPID tool. Using UPID during
MPC projects gives productivity gains because of the ease
in which complex PID schemes can be configured and
tuning evaluated without excessive disruption of nor-
mal operations.
Commercial installations. UPID has been used in this
way on three MPC projects in Europe, most recently on a
crude unit in The Netherlands to stabilize the heat inte-
grated pump-around regulatory control system.
Implementer. Applied Manufacturing Technologies,
Inc., Houston, Texas, and Neyland, UK; Website:
www.applied-mt.com; e-mail: info@applied-mt.com.
Licensor. UPID by Cutler Johnston Corporation, Hous-
ton, Texas.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Cyclohexane
Application. Cyclohexane is a major component in the
manufacture of nylon. It is produced by reacting ben-
zene and hydrogen in a series of catalytic fixed bed reac-
tors. Accounting for all process interactions, hydraulic
limits and equipment constraints is particularly impor-
tant to reduce operating costs. Implementing DMCplus
multivariable constrained control improves performance
monitoring of the process and allows operating the unit
as close as possible to the true process constraints, which
increases high-purity cyclohexane production.
Strategy. When excess hydrogen is available, the DMC-
plus controller increases the benzene feed rate up to the
hydraulic constraints of the unit, the reactor operating
temperature limits, and/or the cyclohexane purity spec-
ifications. The conventional equal distribution of the feed
among the first three reactors is not always the optimum
operating strategy for increasing production.
By correctly accounting for all process interactions, the
controller splits fresh benzene feed among each reactor
in such a way as to maximize production while satisfy-
ing operating constraints and product purity. The DMC-
plus controller is also able to improve unit stability and
respond effectively to the frequent hydrogen flow and
quality disturbances.
Economics. An increase of 5% in cyclohexane production
is achievable with the implementation of DMCplus con-
trollers on cyclohexane units. Payback period is 6 to 12
months.
Commercial installations. The technology has been
installed on one cyclohexane unit.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Delayed coker
Application. ABBs delayed coker advanced control appli-
cations maximize unit throughput, maximize liquid yield
from feed, maintain product quality and conserve energy.
Coker throughput maximization requires constraint con-
trol to operate close to all relevant process constraints
and a coker model that can predict the coke make based
on feedstock characteristics and operating conditions.
Control Strategy. Key to throughput maximization is
to adjust the feed rate so that the coke drums are full at
the end of an operator-entered drum cycle. This strat-
egy is subject to constraints and physical limits, such as
drum volume, heater TMTs, etc. Liquid yields are maxi-
mized by adjusting the cokers operating conditions.
Tighter quality control of the fractionator product streams
allows maximizing the more valuable products.
To achieve these objectives, the APC incorporates a
coker model, inferential control and multivariable model-
predictive control (MVPC).
The coker model correlates coke make to heater
outlet temperature, coke drum pressure, recycle ratio
and the feedstock characteristics. It is used for online
coke yield prediction and coke drum outages. It is a pro-
prietary model developed for process design and adapted
for online control.
The inferential control uses neural network models
to predict product qualities in the fractionator based on
flows, temperatures and pressures.
MVPC handles constraint and decoupling control
of the interacting process variables. The MVPC uses infor-
mation from the inferential control and coker model as
well as process measurements to maximize throughput
and yield. The MVPC rejects the drastic disturbances asso-
ciated with drum warm-ups and switches through incor-
poration of discrete feedforward variables.
Economics. Typical benefits run from $0.51.5 million
per year for a 30-Mbpd unit.
Commercial installations. The delayed coker APC appli-
cation has been installed in three refineries, and one
additional application is in progress.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
T
T
Y
Y
Y
L
P
Q
T
P T
T
T
HCGO
LCGO
Naph.
Resid
Typical
manipulated,
disturbance,
controlled and
constraint
variables
Switch
stm. out
Flood
O
2
F
F
F
Delayed coker
Application. Applying advanced process control on a
delayed coking unit maximizes profitability through effec-
tive product quality control, distillate yields and feed
optimization. By minimizing the effect of the distur-
bances caused by cyclic drum operations and minimiz-
ing recycle, Aspen Technologys DMCplus multivariable
control technology improves overall product quality, dis-
tillate yields, energy consumption and unit stability. This
technology has been implemented on units producing
both fuel grade and premium coke.
Strategy. A single DMCplus full scope controller is applied
to the furnaces and coke drums, main fractionator and
gas plant. This controller minimizes impact on product
qualities by adjusting all significant operating variables
simultaneously in response to drum events. Improved
product quality control enables increased production of
valuable products such as jet fuel and decreases recycle of
product grade material to the coke drums.
The full-scope controller allows unit feed rate maxi-
mization up to drum outage, furnace, main fractionator
and gas plant constraints. The DMCplus controller pushes
against all unit constraints by providing an optimal con-
straint target solution to the entire plant. A typical coker
application consists of 40 manipulated variables, 10 feed-
forward variables and 80 controlled variables.
Product quality models are implemented using the
Aspen IQ inferential sensor package. The flexible
client/server allows the user to plug in a variety of
engines (empirical, rigorous, fuzzy logic, neural net, cus-
tom, etc.) to generate the online models. Analyzer vali-
dation and update, as well as SQC techniques for labo-
ratory validation and update, are seamlessly incorporated
into Aspen IQ.
All significant constraints are handled explicitly. Coke
drum status calculations provide key information for
main fractionator and gas plant feed-forward variables
and outage predictions in the coke drums.
Economics. Benefits of $0.150.30/bbl are typical.
Commercial installations. DMCplus multivariable pre-
dictive controllers have been commissioned on over 30
coker units and two additional applications are currently
under development.
References. Model-Based Control of a Delayed Coker
Unit Improves Profitability, AIChE, November 1992 (Arco
Products Company, Carson, California); Upgrade of Pre-
dictive Multivariable Control for a Delayed Coker,
Petroleum Technology Quarterly, Winter 1997/98.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Delayed coker
Application. The primary objectives of the coker
advanced controls are to stabilize operation of the heaters
and main fractionator, improve sidestream product qual-
ity regulation, especially during drum prewarming and
switching, and maximize charge at constant conversion.
Control strategy. Charge maximization (drum outage
minimization) is almost always an important coker oper-
ating objective. A strategy combining inputs from coke
drum level measurements and a model that predicts coke
make, based on feed properties and real-time operating
variables, is used to maximize the integrated heater
charge over the coking cycle without overfilling the
drums. When the heater is the bottleneck, constraint
controls work with the coking model to maximize feed
rate while protecting the heater from skin temperature
excursions and excessive heat flux.
Conventional fractionator controls, combined with
inferred cutpoint controls, are used to stabilize main frac-
tionator operation. In addition, during periods of drum
pre-warming and switching, these variables are overrid-
den to minimize the undesirable effects of these opera-
tions on product quality and separation. The override
controls are especially effective because they key on
changes and patterns of changes for such variables as
drum temperature and pressure, steam flow and tower
overhead temperature and pressure.
Economics. Coker gas diesel and gas oil end point vari-
ability (typically 50F during drum switches) can be
reduced by half (to 25F or less), allowing improved
recovery of more valuable products of 1% to 2%. Drum
outage minimization controls can increase fresh charge
rate (at constant conversion) by 5%. Payback is a few
months.
Commercial installations. Coker advanced controls
have been implemented on eight cokers and are being
implemented on a ninth. Long-term operating experi-
ence has been excellent at all sites.
Developer/Licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Delayed coker
Application. Delayed coker units provide significant
advanced control benefits due to the difference in value
between coke and distilled products, and because
advanced controls help stabilize unit operation during
drum event disturbances. Honeywells solution for
advanced control and optimization integrates a coke
yield model and special drum event logic with Profit Con-
troller based on Robust Multivariable Predictive Control
Technology (RMPCT). The online coke yield model using
actual process measurements, provides an accurate esti-
mate of coking rate and outage prediction. Special drum
event logic is employed to improve control and stabilize
the main fractionator during drum events. Profit Con-
troller is an advanced algorithm requiring minimum tun-
ing and maintains good control under changing condi-
tions and model error. Model identification is available in
the Windows environment.
Strategy. Objectives are to maximize unit feed rate,
increase heater run lengths, improve product yields and
maintain constant product qualities (inferred or mea-
sured by online analyzers) subject to constraints, and
reject disturbances caused by preheating, switching, and
steaming of the coke drums associated with each coke
drum cycle. A coke yield model using actual drum tem-
peratures and pressures, unit recycle ratio and a charac-
terization of the feed quality, provides an accurate esti-
mate of coking rate and drum outage prediction.
Integrating the coke yield model and drum outage pre-
diction with the Profit Controller greatly improves drum
capacity utilization by allowing operations to fill the coke
drums more consistently to outage targets.
Feed maximization and coke drum outage control
adjusts furnace charge to maximize feed rate, subject to
constraints such as coke drum outage, heater tube metal
temperatures, excess oxygen, fractionator loading or
compressor capacity. If the coke drum outage is limiting
throughput, furnace charge is adjusted to reach the min-
imum outage at the end of the drum cycle.
Product quality calculations are based upon operat-
ing conditions or are optionally measured using analyz-
ers. Product quality models are based upon standard
toolkits, or can be developed using Honeywells soft sen-
sor toolkit, a state-of-the-art neural network technology
for developing inferential models.
Drum switch detection is achieved by determining sev-
eral variables that define the onset of the various drum
operations. These variables are modeled as disturbances
to the Profit Controller.
Economics. Typical benefits range from 10/bbl to
25/bbl of feed. Throughput can be increased by as much
as 15%.
Commercial installations. Profit Controllers have been
implemented on 17 delayed cokers.
Reference. Delayed coker advanced control project, Oil
& Gas Journal, Aug. 20, 2001, Vol 99.34, pp. 5256.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Rigorous
model
online
optimi-
zation
Feed
max.
Pressure
min.
Main
frac.
control
RMPCT
Targets
Eco-
nomics
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
L
L
T
P
T
Gas to
com-
pressor
Naphtha
LCGO
HCGO
Steam
Steam
Steam
Feed
Water
Delayed coker
Application. I-GMAXC, an Intelligent Controller using
Gensym/G2, is used to control the Delayed Coker in its
Normal, Drum Warmup, Drum Switch and Steam Out
operating modes. The controller infers the process mode
and automatically reconfigures online the control tech-
nology mix between Multivariable Predictive Control,
Nonlinear Control, Sequence Control and Heuristic Con-
trol to provide optimal control performance for each of
the operating modes of this multi-mode process.
Strategy. The process of drum switching results in about
five basic mass and thermal disturbances in every cycle.
Conventional Multivariable Predictive Controller (MVPC)
schemes are inadequate during these disturbances and
operating mode changes. For better control, the con-
troller needs to adapt to mode changes with controller
action changing automatically from a fine-tuned MVPC
to an ad hoc nonlinear event-based action.
The intelligent part of the controller monitors coker
drum pressures and temperatures, infers and detects
events, and then reformulates the MVPC portion and
the technology mix of the controller to deliver the best
control action for the specific process condition.
At each execution, information is available for
operators and engineers to understand controller actions,
active constraints and process predictions. More specific
advisory systems can also be customized.
While the controller uses its own dynamic models,
Neural Network-based inferential predictions for Drum
Outage and product properties have also been integrated
seamlessly.
Economics. Typical benefits are about $0.752 million/yr
for a 20-Mbpd unit in improved product yield, increased
capacity, stable product qualities and energy recovery.
Commercial installations. This new generation tech-
nology has been implemented at one refinery site.
Reference. Intelligent Controller, CE Expo & Confer-
ence, June 1998.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Fractionator
Gas
Naphtha
LCGO
HCGO
Feed
Steam
stripper
Steam
Steam
Steam gen.
Condensate
drum
Coke
Heater
Coke
drums
P/A
Accumulator
Delayed coker
Application. The delayed coking unit upgrades heavy
oil by cracking to produce desirable lighter products and
commercial coke.
Strategy. The following controls are utilized:
Furnace controls include combustion control, coil steam
injection control and firing balancing control. These con-
trols improve efficiency and increase furnace run length.
Quench temperature control minimizes quench.
Coke drum cool-down sequence control minimizes
coke drum switch time and achieves greater consistency.
Product quality advanced controls ensure on-specifi-
cation liquid products while maximizing the yield of the
more valuable products. A proprietary boiling point
model calculates the ASTM boiling point of naphtha and
LCGO product without online analyzers.
Recycle ratio minimization controls stabilize HCGO
properties, maximize HCGO, minimize coking, and max-
imize liquid yield.
Drum switch disturbance feed-forward controls coun-
teract the severe thermal disturbance that impacts the
combination tower during and immediately after a coke
drum switch.
Combination tower side stripper and accumulator
inventory controls dampen the effects of the drum switch
thermal disturbances.
Pressure minimization control reduces unit pressure
against shifting operating constraints to approach opti-
mal coking conditions. Operating limits are monitored
and avoided during the pressure minimization process.
Economics. Delayed coker advanced controls can achieve
increased throughput, maximum production and recov-
ery of on-spec products, enhanced energy efficiency,
increased furnace run length and minimized production
of waste water.
Commercial installations. In operation at one refin-
ery.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Water
Overhead
quench
control
Furnace
combustion
control
Coil steam
injection
control
Pressure
minimization
control
Drum switch
feed-forward
controls
Naphtha
end point
control
Stripper and
accumulator
inventory controls
LCGO
90% point
control
Recycle ratio
minimization
Firing
balancing
control
Steam
Feed
Steam
Steam
Steam
LCGO
HCGO
FG
Naphtha
C
3
/C
4
Energy management
Application. Energy management systems address
power monitoring and control, event recording, slow
and fast load shedding, peak shaving for overload avoid-
ance and peak demand cost avoidance. A modular
approach to plantwide power and thermal systems man-
agement, as provided, is needed with the increased
cogeneration emphasis and requirements on power sys-
tems overall from rapidly expanding demand.
Strategy. In the case of a lack of power or thermal energy
supply, load shedding secures the power or thermal
energy to critical loads by switching off or reducing non-
critical loads according to dynamic priority tables. The
action taken is matched to the criticality of the distur-
bance. The event handling routines can be applied to
both electrical and thermal load shed applications.
Advanced control applications are provided for load lev-
eling and power distribution functions. Data integrity
checking, alarm management and event recording are
important applications. Peak power demand avoidance
applications are increasingly important, as is improve-
ment in overall plant power and thermal efficiency. The
project execution will often discover improvement
requirements for applying advanced control for power
and thermal producers and users.
Benefits. Plant operating integrity and preservation of
equipment benefits can have significant benefits, in mil-
lions of dollars annually. The avoidance of unplanned
chemical or other releases and operating difficulties can
also have significant benefits.
Commercial installations. More than 30 installations
for power energy management, including two thermal
shed applications for refineries, and custom applications
from other ABB departments for thermal load shedding
(steam) available for pulp and paper and petrochemi-
cals.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Environmental monitoring
Application. The Real-Time Emission Control System
(RT-ECOS) is a software product based on Continuous
Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and Predictive Emis-
sion Monitoring System (PEMS) that, with a built-in dis-
persion model, provides a high-technology emissions
monitoring system for refineries.
Strategy. RT-ECOS is composed of several software mod-
ules providing functionalities such as monitoring system
configuration, emission and event reporting, and moni-
toring engine software, based on high-performance and
robust system architecture.
Economics. RT-ECOS provides input to the FORWARD
scheduling technology in terms of environmental con-
straints.
Commercial installations. Refinery in Western Europe.
Licensor. Technip Italy, Anonima Petroli Italiana SpA
(API). Contact: Giuseppe Cannizzaro, Manager ASE
RomaAdvanced Systems Engineering, Technip Italy; e-
mail: gcannizzaro@technip.com; Website: www.tech-
nip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
ECOVIEW
Diagnostic
tool
Reporting
tools
SystemManager
ConfigurationEditor DispersionSimuator
BollabyMassFlow
Receptors
network
ReceptorBridgeInterface
ExprotDataSystem
MeteoBridgeInterface
DCSBridgeInterface
RT-ECOS Lab.db Control
authorities
AOIS
(ENAV)
DCS
Data
manage-
ment tools
Ethyl benzene/styrene
monomer (EB/SM)
Application. ABBs EB/SM plant advanced control appli-
cations improve profitability by stabilizing operations,
maximizing production and minimizing utility costs.
An optional rigorous model-based optimizer is also
available.
Strategy. Multivariable, model-predictive control (MVPC)
strategies are applied to the alkylator and transalkyla-
tors, EB recovery, dehydrogenation and SM recovery
areas. An overall plant production controller coordinates
these controllers to maintain or maximize SM produc-
tion. The combined strategy (typically, depending on
base regulatory and analytical instrumentation) pursues
the following objectives according to explicitly ranked
operating priorities and economic trade-offs:
Enforce physical operating limits for reactors,
columns, steam superheater, offgas compressor and crit-
ical base regulatory controllers
Stabilize alkylation and transalkylation reactor
temperatures
Minimize DEB concentration in EB column over-
head
Maximize separation between benzene and EB in
the benzene column
Maintain PEB column tray temperature to mini-
mize PEB loss in the flux oil
Enforce offgas compressor discharge oxygen limit
Enforce maximum dehydrogenator velocity limit
Maintain dehydrogenator inlet temperatures and
conversion
Minimize dehydrogenator pressure
Minimize EB/SM splitter overhead SM concentra-
tion
Minimize EB/SM splitter bed 4 EB concentration
Enforce maximum EB/SM bottoms temperature
(polymerization) limit
Minimize SM column overhead AMS concentration
Maintain thin film evaporator bottom temperature
Maintain EB recovery column tray temperature
Maximize SM production against all constraints.
Economics. ABBs applications have demonstrated SM
production gains of 35%, with additional benefits real-
ized from optimal energy utilization.
Commercial installations. EB/SM APC applications
have been commissioned at two sites.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Production controller
DCS
and logic
Ethyl benzene Styrene monomer
Alkylation
transalkl-
ation
MPC
EB, benzene,
and toluene
recovery
MPC
SM column
and thin film
evaporator
MPC
EB/SM
splitter
MPC
Dehydrog-
enation
reactors
MPC
Benzene
column
MPC
Ethyl
benzene
column
Ethylene oxide
Application. Ethylene oxide (EO) is produced by react-
ing ethylene (in excess) with oxygen (near its flame point),
over the life of the catalyst and in the presence of a mod-
erator. The optimum moderator concentration changes
over the life of the catalyst. Unreacted ethylene is recov-
ered and recycled. The reaction also produces CO
2
as a
byproduct, which must be purged by sending a portion
of the recycle stream through a CO
2
removal section.
This EO APC application optimizes reactor operation
by controlling the concentration of ethylene and CO
2
in
the recycle loop, conversion across the reactor (while
maintaining a safe distance from the flame point), and
the optimum moderator flow to achieve optimum selec-
tivity over the catalyst life.
Control strategy. Reactor conversion and ethylene loop
concentration are controlled by APCs that adjust the oxy-
gen feed rate and the reactor temperature (via the reac-
tor heat removal rate). APCs for CO
2
removal regulate
gas flow into the CO
2
removal section and the concen-
tration of the absorbent to minimize CO
2
concentration
in the loop gas. Data analysis software is used to monitor
and make best use of the online analyzers used to cal-
culate moderator concentration in the loop gas.
Long-term plots of the selectivity and moderator con-
centrations allow the operator to make more informed
decisions about how to optimize the catalyst. Additional
APCs on the EO separation and purification units pre-
vent excessive EO concentrations in the recycle gas,
improve product purity, and reduce steam and utility
usage. All of these applications are built into the DCS,
eliminating need for additional DCS or computer hard-
ware.
Economics. A post-project audit indicated an increased
catalyst life of at least six months (25%), which alone
provides a payback of less than one year.
Commercial installations. Controls installed at one
site.
Developer/Licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
APC
APC
Mixer Steam
EO separation
Recycle
Ethylene
Oxygen
APC
Moderator
Ethylene oxide/ethylene
glycol
Application. Combined ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol
processes benefit from improved data management and
regulatory control, conventional APC residing in the DCS
environment and the application of model-based reactor
control, multivariable predictive controls (MPC) and opti-
mization technology.
Strategy. Conventional APC controls are used for areas
requiring fast response times with minimum interactions.
Model-based reactor control using first-principles kinet-
ics can be cost-effectively calibrated to the process as a
basis for a stand-alone application or combined in MPC
and optimization strategies.
For the ethylene oxide reaction, preserving the fixed
bed catalyst life and maximizing selectivity (chemical effi-
ciency) for a given production target are primary con-
siderations. Ethylene oxide reaction selectivity improve-
ment permits significantly more production for the typical
heat release removal constrained case.
Key constraints that limit production rate and selec-
tivity are targeted for robust and fast constraint control,
an application of abnormal situation control for startups
and process changes.
Glycol reaction hydrolysis ratio is controlled subject to
constraints to determine the optimum distribution of
mono-, di- and tri-glycols produced, and the optimum
split is sensitive to glycol pricing, and especially steam
cost to remove water in the evaporation and dehydrating
systems.
The EO recovery stripping section, EO distillation and
glycols distillation section benefit from advanced con-
trol applications to control concentrations at target val-
ues for both top and bottoms streams, to improve recov-
ery and product margins, and to reduce energy
consumption.
Overall process practical efficiency improvement is tar-
geted to reduce raw materials venting and production
of waste and recycled streams for additional important
efficiency and productivity gains.
Process data accuracy, especially analyzer data, is a very
important consideration for optimizing this process. Data
validity checking is an important application. Multivari-
ate statistical process control (MVSPC) is also available
for asset management.
Objectives of the EO/EG advanced control design
include:
Data accuracy asset management
Improved selectivity to EO
Improved EO catalyst life and optimal life change-
out strategy
Improved production rate
Optimizing glycol products split
Improved practical efficiency
Reduced energy requirements.
Economics. Benefits studies shows a payback of 12
months or less, with typical production gains of 3% and
average selectivity increases for EO of 0.5% over the cat-
alyst life.
Commercial installations. EO/EG APC applications have
been commissioned at two sites.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Production controller
MPC
application
MPC
application
MPC
application
MPC
application
DCS
conventional
controls
DCS
conventional
controls
DCS
conventional
controls
DCS
conventional
controls
EO reaction,
CO
2
removal
scrubbing, and
stripping
Reabsorber,
glycol feed
stripper and
glycol reaction
Evaporation
and
drying column
Recovery
of ethylene
glycols
FCCU
Application. ABBs advanced process control (APC) tech-
nology improves FCC unit control and profitability by
maximizing unit feed rate and reactor severity, reducing
fuel and steam consumption, and maintaining product
quality targets, while enforcing safety and physical oper-
ating limits.
Strategy. The FCC unit APC application provides multi-
variable model-predictive control (MVPC) of the reactor,
regenerator, main fractionator and gas concentration
plant. The reactor, regenerator and main fractionator
are typically controlled by a single MVPC to provide a
comprehensive feed maximization strategy. Multiobjec-
tive MVPC technology is employed to allow straightfor-
ward design and prioritized enforcement of the large
number of process output constraints encountered. Neu-
ral network inferential property models, used for con-
trol of gasoline and gas oil draws and gas plant compo-
sitions, can be updated by online analyzers and/or a direct
LIMS interface.
An optional rigorous, kinetic FCC optimization model
can be provided to calculate a steady-state set of yields,
product properties and dependent operating variables
corresponding to an input set of feed properties, plant
geometry parameters and independent operating mul-
tivariables. The model can be used for closed-loop, real-
time optimization (CLRTO), using the multivariable con-
trollers to safely transition the unit to the most profitable
set of operating conditions; and for offline evaluation
of unit yields from potential gas oil feedstocks.
Economics. FCC projects have shown typical benefits of:
46% increase in fresh feed rate to the unit against
active constraints
3050% reduction in transition time from maxi-
mum naphtha production to maximum LCO production
No off-spec products while changing gas oil feed
types
Increased product yield (via reduced coke make)
3050% reduction in the variation of tower tem-
peratures and compositions
510% reduction of steam usage in the amine
regenerator
15% reduction of steam usage in the amine regen-
erator
15% reduction in amine circulation with no adverse
affects on fuel gas sweetening.
Commercial installations. FCC APC applications have
been completed at four sites and are currently being
implemented for two additional units.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Dry gas
Light
naphtha
Flue gas
Riser
Regen-
erator
Direct coupled
cyclones
Spent
catalyst
stripper
Combustion
air
Oil
feed
Heavy
naphtha
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
s
t
a
b
i
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
Middle
distillate
Heavy cycle
gasoil
Precombustion lift air
C
3
/C
4
0
2
and CO
combustion
control
RX temp
constraints
Compressor
constraints
MF btms
temp.
constraint
Optimize
preheat
Slide valve
dP and position
contsraints
Separate
coordinated
gas plant
MVC
FCCG 95%
and RVP
LCO 95%
RG temp
constraints
Cat/oil
control
Severity
control
Air blower
balance and
energy min.
Feed
max
FCCU
Application. Fluidized catalytic cracking Units (FCCUs)
provide significant advanced control benefits because of
the large product upgrades, expensive operating costs
and difficult multivariable interactions. Profit Controllers
based on Robust Multivariable Predictive Control Tech-
nology (RMPCT) are used in these applications for online
control and economic optimization. This advanced algo-
rithm minimizes tuning requirements and maintains good
control under changing conditions and model error.
Model identification is available in the Windows envi-
ronment. These reactor/regenerator controls can be
dynamically integrated with the FCC main fractionator
and gas concentration unit controls by using an upper-
level Profit Optimizer, which also uses RMPCT algorithms.
These controls also are applicable to resid cracking (RCC)
units.
In addition, Profit Bridge is used in conjunction with
rigorous kinetic models to update reactor yield gains
when significant feed quality or economic changes are
present.
Strategy. The Profit Controller built-in optimizer is con-
figured for reactor product value optimization and/or
feed maximization. Nonlinear control and optimization
are provided when Profit Bridge is used to update the
reactor yield gains.
Regenerator carbon balance, reaction severity and
throughput are controlled by adjusting feed and com-
bustion air rates, regenerator and reactor pressures,
the catalyst cooler and riser temperature to maximize
production of higher-value products within operating
limits. The controls utilize measured or predicted prod-
uct rates and calculated catalyst flow. Controlled vari-
ables may include:
Flue gas %O
2
Regenerator dense phase
Flue gas %CO temperature.
Constraints considered may include:
Regenerator temperatures
Reactor/regenerator delta-pressure
Catalyst-to-oil ratio
Conversion
Slide valve limits
Catalyst cooler duty
Slide valve differential pressures
Main fractionator lower tray temperature
Main fractionator level
Wet gas compressor suction pressure.
Conversion, catalyst flow and product yields calcula-
tions are based on operating conditions, with feedback
from measured values.These calculations are performed
using standard toolkits that provide a standard, user-
friendly collection of configurable programs. The toolkit
calculations may be based on a rigorous kinetic model.
A rigorous kinetic model may also be used to deter-
mine optimum operating targets for online opti-
mization.
Economics. Based on numerous process surveys, typical
benefits range from 4/bbl to 40/bbl of fresh feed and
up to a 5% increase in throughput with typical paybacks
from 6 to 12 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 67 FCC and RCC units. Rigorous online
model optimization has been implemented on more
than 10 units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Speed
limit
Target Reactor/
regen.
multi-
variable
control
RMPCT
Rigorous
model
online
optimi-
zation
Eco-
nomics
Feed
Air
RG
RX
P
F
F
P
P
L
T
T
O
2
FCCU
Application. The interactive nature of the FCCU is ideal
for realizing significant benefits from multivariable con-
trol and optimization applications. Invensys solution
maximizes FCCU profitability and improves operation.
Typical objectives are to maximize unit throughput, bal-
ance regenerator versus reactor pressure, maximize coke
burning capacity, increase severity, control product qual-
ities, increase yields of the more valuable products, and
optimize energy utilization. The multivariable controller
(MPC) and real-time optimizer (RTO) work together to
achieve these benefits. The RTO identifies operating and
quality constraints that represent economically optimal
conditions and sends setpoints to the MPC to enforce
operation at these conditions. The MPC recognizes
dynamic system interaction to allow operation to be
pushed even further to constraints to maximize economic
benefit.
Control strategy. The reactor/regenerator section of
the controller handles the combustion control and reac-
tor severity. Combustion in the regenerator is handled
primarily by manipulating combustion air, but may also
be controlled by manipulating feed quality and/or the
regenerator pressure. The reaction severity is controlled
through manipulation of the riser temperature controller.
Typically, the operating objective for this section of the
controller is to maximize catalyst circulation while max-
imizing throughput or riser temperature. The controller
observes all measured operating constraints.
The FCC main fractionator product control is highly
dependent upon changes in the reactor/regenerator sec-
tion. Product qualities for the MPC can be provided by
online analyzers or inferred property calculations. The
controller reacts to changing conditions in the
reactor/regenerator, increases the yields of more valu-
able components, and provides tighter control of prod-
uct quality specifications. Wet gas compressor constraints
are enforced. The controller ensures the appropriate uti-
lization of the pumparound and slurry circuit for maxi-
mum energy or separation efficiency. A single MPC is rec-
ommended for handing the reactor/regenerator and
main fractionator sections. Gas recovery unit controls,
sometimes handled in a different controller, are also
included to improve separation efficiency and reduce
energy consumption. The MPC utilizes analyzers and/or
inferred properties to control the system to the required
specifications. In addition, heat integration between the
gasoline recovery unit and main fractionator can be opti-
mized to reduce overall unit energy utilization and allow
maximum throughput by efficiently relieving operating
constraints.
Invensys solution is control technology-independent.
However, Connoisseur MPC software is typically used. It
offers a number of features under a single license fee.
These include real-time adaptive technology, multiple
model sets and types, and an integrated real-time macro-
programming environment. Nonlinear RBF neural net-
work models and fuzzy logic capabilities are also avail-
able. It rejects unmeasured disturbances with its Auto-
Regressive with exogenous input (ARX) type models. This
model type often has superior unmeasured disturbance
rejection capabilities over control schemes based on the
nonparametric finite impulse response (FIR) models.
Rigorous On-line Modeling with Equation-based Opti-
mization (ROMeo) ensures that the plant continually
operates at an overall plant wide optimum. ROMeo is
Invensys state-of-the-art modeling and optimization
environment that provides a common user interface for
all aspects of a real-time optimization application. Users
work in this environment to complete flowsheet mod-
eling, configuration of data reconciliation, definition of
economic objective functions and configuration of
scheduling and sequencing tasks for execution in real
time.
Economics. Typical control and optimization benefits
range from $0.1 to $0.30/bbl feed. Project payouts are
typically only a few months.
Commercial Installations. Currently ROMeo is installed
at five FCC units and multivariable control applications at
32 units, with three additional other ROMeo projects
starting model development.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: john.hernandez@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FCCU
Application. Fluid catalytic cracking is a major refinery
process for upgrading heavy oil streams into olefins, gaso-
line and cycle oil. The interacting reactions of cracking
and coke combustion, combined with physical catalyst
circulation, make the FCCU one of the most difficult refin-
ery processes to stabilize.
Strategy. The advanced control package uses multi-
variable predictive control (MVPC) to hold the unit against
changing constraints and at operational targets. Con-
trolled parameters typically include reaction severity,
fresh and recycle feed rates, regenerator temperature(s),
excess oxygen and unit pressure balance. The control
package honors multiple operating constraints, both
within and downstream of the reactor/regenerator area.
Inferred ASTM boiling point calculations are used for
control of main fractionator raw gasoline and LCO prop-
erties. This technology uses an online dynamic model to
calculate product specifications from commonly avail-
able fractionator measurements, thus eliminating the
signal delay, cost and maintenance of online boiling ana-
lyzers. The inferential calculations serve as a virtual ana-
lyzer whose results are passed to the MVPC as controlled
variables. In addition, MVPC may or may not be appro-
priate for the FCCU gas plant, depending on the specific
application.
Economics. Advanced control of a large FCCU can
increase profitability by up to $5 million/yr, and payback
times on the order of 1218 months are common for
small commercial units. These benefits typically derive
from increased throughput and/or improved product
yields.
Commercial installations. Our advanced control tech-
nology has been installed on seven FCC units.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Reactor
Regen.
combustion
control
Temperature
constraint
control
Blower
work
minimi-
zation
Multi-feed
ratio
control
Total
air mass
flow
control
Stripping
steam
control
Nonlinear
level
control
LCO
stripping
strm.
contl.
LCO
90%
point
contl.
Gasoline
end point
contl.
Gas compr.
loading
control
Reaction
severity
control
Slide
valve
diff.
contl.
Main fract.
bottoms temp.
control
Feed rate
maximization
constraint control
Throughput
ratio
control
Preheat
temperature
control
Steam
Steam
Fresh
feed(s)
Main
fract.
Gaso.
LCO
HCO
Decant
Wet gas
Regen-
erator
Air
FCCU (catalyst monitoring)
Application. Key operating parameters from onsite FCC
units are collected and centralized for secure sharing
with the selected FCC catalyst vendor(s) or other external
catalyst expert(s). Advanced catalyst performance calcu-
lations are integrated with the collected data to quantify
yield performance and enable the catalyst vendor to
remotely provide proactive analyses and as-needed trou-
bleshooting support. The application increases the FCC
profit contribution by optimizing catalyst use and effi-
ciency.
Strategy.
No new onsite software: The FCC Catalyst Monitoring
application is implemented as a remotely hosted solu-
tion. It combines real-time process data collection with
secure hosting and integration with proprietary perfor-
mance calculations. The application requires no onsite
installation of new software or local support and is pro-
vided as a fully supported service from Industrial Evolu-
tion and the catalyst vendor.
Secure AnyWhere/AnyTime access: Catalyst experts
can securely view past and current FCC operation in real
time from any Internet-connected PC via data tables and
graphical displays using a standard Web browser. If autho-
rized by the refinery, the data can also be transferred
into another environment (e.g., spreadsheet, SQL
database, PI System, etc.) for further analysis. All user
access is to the Web pages only; no user access is granted
to any site systems.
Real-time collaboration enabled: Remote hosting
facilitates real-time collaboration between plant staff
and offsite catalyst experts. Both parties can view pro-
cess data and performance calculation results simulta-
neously to troubleshoot and optimize FCC operations
together. After-the-fact manual data collection is no
longer required of site personnel, and catalyst experts
no longer have to deal with missing or incomplete data.
User-configurable electronic alerting: The FCC Cata-
lyst Monitoring application comes with the ability to
automatically alert refinery and/or remote catalyst experts
of changes in FCC performance versus specified targets or
limits. Users can personalize their own alerts, which can
be received via e-mail, cell phone, pager, etc.
Catalyst monitoring service: The FCC Catalyst Moni-
toring application is typically delivered as a monthly ser-
vice in conjunction with your catalyst vendor or a trusted
third-party specialist. This service is already available in
conjunction with most major FCC catalyst vendors.
Economics. The FCC Catalyst Monitoring application
provides the following benefits:
Increased FCC yield
Optimum catalyst addition
Reduced catalyst costs
More responsive troubleshooting
Enhanced technical support.
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, the FCC Cat-
alyst Monitor has been installed on five FCCs in North
America. The underlying secure connectivity, data col-
lection and hosting services have been delivered to over
250 sites around the world.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona;
Website: www.industrialevolution.com; e-mail con-
tact@industrialevolution.com; tel. (602) 867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Authorized catalyst vendor(s)
Secure VPN
connection
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
catalyst vendor application(s)
Oil refinery
Onsite
data sources:
DCS, PLC, Lab,
Database, etc.
AnyWhere/AnyTime
FCC catalyst monitor
FCCU (model predictive
control productivity)
Application. Model predictive control (MPC) is well
established, with commercial MPC technology widely
available. Applying MPC to the fluid catalytic cracking
unit (FCCU) brings significant benefits through the abil-
ity to maximize throughput, conversion and recovery of
profitable products.
MPC uses linear models that map the dynamic and
steady-state behavior between process manipulated vari-
ables (MVs) and their related dependent or controlled
variables (CVs). These models are obtained through ana-
lyzing real-time data that has been generated through a
dynamic response test. Embedded in these empirical
dynamic models is the structure and tuning of the base-
level PID loops.
Until recently any significant changes to the under-
lying regulatory control system, such as changing a reg-
ulatory loop from manual to automatic, would require
significant effort to re-engineer the application. This
re-engineering effort would involve a plant test to get
new response data and the subsequent model re-iden-
tification before the MPC scheme could be updated.
This is an expensive option that has caused many pre-
viously successful MPC applications to be taken offline
until there is sufficient budget and/or time available to
retest the unit.
Strategy. A new approach is available where the MPC
controller model can be directly manipulated to account
for changes in PID loop modes and tuning. Universal pro-
cess identification (UPID) is a multivariable model iden-
tification package used to identify finite impulse response
(FIR) models, with the unique ability to update the FIR
model to compensate for PID tuning and loop configu-
ration changes. The ability to retune or reconfigure the
regulatory control system without retesting improves
the onstream factor in advanced control applications and
reduces overall application maintenance costs.
This MPC re-engineering technique has been success-
fully applied to a full-burn FCCU following a mainte-
nance turnaround where significant work was done. Dur-
ing the turnaround, many unit modifications were made
including overhauling the fresh catalyst slide valve so
that it could be run in automatic to control riser tem-
perature. The FCCU application covers the scope of the
reactor regenerator fractionator and gas plant. UPID was
used to convert the model to one with the riser temper-
ature closed rather than open and to convert several
level controls back to control in the regulatory level rather
than in the MPC system. The system was reliably restarted
and was been in operation since.
Economics. An FCCU model-based control system is typ-
ically one of the highest value-generating applications
in a refinery. If the FCCU application cannot operate
because of changes to the underlying regulatory control
structure, significant value is lost. In addition, typical costs
for the conventional retest, remodel and recommission
methodology may approach the original project imple-
mentation cost.
UPID enables the experienced practitioner to reimple-
ment the control system in these types of situations with
much lower effort (or costs) and, more importantly, in a
much shorter time period. Taking this approach rather
than a conventional approach lowers the commitment
required to start an effort such as this, dramatically low-
ers the cost and shortens the schedule required to com-
plete the work. All of these factors improve the business
case for any control system, and especially for a high-
value application such as an FCCU APC system. It typi-
cally generates benefits of about 20 cents per barrel.
Commercial installations. One FCCU in a German refin-
ery. The work was completed in April and the control
system has been running since then.
Implementer. Applied Manufacturing Technologies,
Inc., Houston, Texas, and Neyland, UK; Website:
www.applied-mt.com; e-mail: info@applied-mt.com.
Licensor. UPID by Cutler Johnston Corporation, Hous-
ton, Texas.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FCCU/RCCU
Application. A single-application, large-scale DMCplus
multivariable controller maximizes fluidized catalytic
cracking unit (FCCU) and residuum catalytic cracking
units (RCCU) profitability by manipulating all primary
variables in the reactor, regenerator and main frac-
tionator. A separate controller is installed on the gas
plant to maximize product separation and prevent col-
umn flooding. When gas plant constraints frequently
limit riser feed/conversion, part or all of the gas plant
and FCCU may now be addressed in a single controller.
Nonlinear, real-time optimization creates maximum
economic benefits and is achieved by coupling the con-
troller with a rigorous FCCU model. An Aspen Plus Opti-
mizer model simulates the FCCUs complex mixtures and
chemistry, simultaneously modeling the heat and mate-
rial recycles in the heat-integrated main fractionator and
gas plant. This equation-based system simultaneously
solves rigorous heat and material balance equations while
optimizing an economic profit function.
Aspen FCC, one of AspenTechs new generation of
refinery reactor models, rigorously simulates the kinetics
and hydrodynamics of the reactor, regenerator, risers,
slide valves and transfer lines in the FCCU. These models
accurately predict yields for a wide range of feedstocks
and operating conditions. Aspen FCC is also instrumental
for use in planning/LP vector generation (base and shift
vectors), engineering tasks such as feedstock and cata-
lyst selection, debottlenecking and optimization, and
online unit performance monitoring. Refiners can com-
pare predictions with actual performance, diagnose prob-
lems and identify mechanical efficiency trends and bot-
tlenecks.
Strategy. A DMCplus controller manipulates the feed
flow and preheat temperature, air blower, riser tem-
perature, regenerator pressure, gas compressor suction
pressure, fractionator reflux, product draws and
pumparounds. Controlled variables include slide valve
differential pressures and valve positions, regenerator
temperatures, flue gas excess oxygen (or CO/CO
2
ratio
for partial combustion operation), fractionator differ-
ential pressures, product qualities, and air blower and
gas compressor constraints.
To maximize feed rate or conversion, constraints in
the preheat system, reactor, regenerator, fractionator
and compressor must be included in one dynamic model,
and the controller can include the gas plant. Excluding
any of these constraints from the controller limits prof-
itability.
The DMCplus linear program (LP) is solved at each con-
troller iteration. Based on an offline yield model and unit
economics, the LP uses current manipulated variable val-
ues and predicted steady-state values for each controlled
variable. FCCU yields are nonlinear and typically not
observable from plant test data, and understanding oper-
ating condition/yield tradeoffs are a key concern. Aspen
FCC allows evaluating nonlinear process and LP behavior
and LP costs for a number of feasible different operat-
ing scenarios. DMCplus LP costs can easily be updated
rigorously with Aspen FCC, even when operating condi-
tions and/or feedstocks change.
The rigorous FCCU model executes alongside the con-
troller as an online optimizer, capturing DCS data and
adjusting steady-state model parameters to conform
to current operation. The model validates data with a set
of rules for invalid data. With these parameters, key
variables are adjusted within operating constraints to
maximize an economic profit function. Optimization
targets are then downloaded to the controller for
implementation.
FCC APC best-practice methods and personnel are
employed in AspenTech projects to ensure consistent
implementation quality.
Economics. Benefits from AspenTechs FCCU solution
for a typical unit range from 10 to 35 cents/barrel.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has installed
multivariable controllers on over 100 FCCUs.There are 10
commercial installations of Aspen FCC.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FCCU/ROC/DCC
Applications. Rigorous FCC/ROC riser reactor/regenerator
optimal Operations Simulations Analysis (OSA) knowl-
edge-based expert systems have been developed and
implemented for full range European, US, Arabian and
Asian crude oil composition in integrated FCC/ROC/ DCC
control, optimization, corporate restructuring and reengi-
neering and supply chain TQM cost reduction change
management applications.
This system will provide simulation of global central
banks monetary policy impact on global crude oils,
residue oil, gas oil prices simulation, procurement and
inventory supply chain strategy; refining and olefins prod-
ucts competitive pricing and FCC/ROC/DCC reactor yields;
regenerator catalyst activity carbon content tracking
improvement, debottlenecking for full range feedstock
compositions, operating loads and severity changes; and
corporate manager, technical and operating staff on-
the-job training simulators.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. This sys-
tem has been developed out of the past 12 years daily
US, Asian and European Wall Street Journals, IMF and
NPRA data; daily global crude oil, olefin and refining prod-
uct price (Platt/DeWitt market newsletter) data; corpo-
rate/plant entire operating history (full range feeds and
loads, operating severity); extensive literature and patent
search for FCC/HOC/DCC reactors catalytic; kinetics mech-
anism and design; and operators and technical staffs
operating expertise and market forces psychology as the
knowledge base.
OSA simulation models development. Applying the lat-
est economic, kinetics theory, artificial intelligence, fuzzy
logic, neural net and chaos theory-based expert systems,
these systems simulate global central banks monetary
policy impact on daily global economy, financial markets,
oils, refining products and petrochemicals prices; full range
crude oil compositions, operating load and severity change
impact on refinery reactor yields for various licensors
designs, with average error below 1.5%. Features include:
Investment risk OSA: Real options analysis for global
credit, interest rates, currency exchange rates, profit mar-
gin, stocks, financial derivatives, and investment risk sim-
ulation and control
Supply chain OSA for global crude oil, gas, fuel oil
and feedstock prices, forecasts and procurement, and
inventory strategy
Marketing, CRM OSA for global refining products,
olefin competitive pricing, forecasts, and marketing and
sales strategy
Human resource OSA: Corporate finance market-
ing, and supply chain managers real options analysis on-
the-job training
Full range severity, gas oil, heavy oils, oil fluid cat-
alytic and deep cracking for octane upgrading, riser reac-
tor yields and regenerator catalyst activity and carbon
content maximize product recovery and provide mini-
mum energy and waste improvements.
Operations management implementation. OSA pro-
gram manager, Dr. Warren Huang, will conduct an HDS
system restructuring operations review and goal setting,
and implement cost reduction OSA team programs.
Economics. Up to one billion US dollars saving without
staff reduction or hardware investment in one-year OSA
program.
Commercial installations. Several global refinery
applied and 60 TQM cost reduction workshops offered to
refinery managers.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Improve process by OSA, Improve naphtha crackers
operations, and 12-paper series in Hydrocarbon Processing,
Oil & Gas Journal, 19791983; Goal, Mission Performance
Oriented Design/Operations Simulations Analysis Predictive
Control Maximize Refinery-Olefin Productivity, Flexibility,
AIChE 1983 Diamond Jubilee, 1990 Orlando, 1999 Dallas,
AIChE annual meeting; World Congress II, II, IV, Canada,
Tokyo, Germany, 1983, 1986, 1991, Singapore, Beijing,
Antwerp, 1989, 1991, 1992,1995, 1999; Monetary Policy
Impact on Global Financial Crisis, Commodities, Financial
Derivatives, Stock Prices, Washington D.C., Taipei, Bangkok,
London, Rome, Barcelona , Macao, Chicago, Los Angeles,
19982001; Supply chain strategy maximize oil, gas, chemicals
profits conference workshops, Singapore, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Fractionator
Applications. Integrated rigorous, knowledge-based
fractionation system Design Simulation Analysis (DSA)
and Operation Simulation Analysis (OSA) systems have
been developed and implemented to maximize product
recovery, quality control, process debottlenecking, waste
minimization, energy conservation and on/offline opti-
mal control. These systems are integrated into a rigorous,
kinetic model front-end reactor system simulation applied
for emergency shutdown, startup simulation, safety and
loss prevention, maintenance applications and plantwide
cost reductions.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. OSA and
DSA fractionation systems have been developed and
implemented based on full range operating history
(steady state and process upsets, full operating load, from
60% to 130%), and full range feed compositions, physi-
cal and thermodynamic data, and extensive design and
operating experience as the knowledge base.
Fractionation system OSA models development. Com-
bining rigorous steady-state simulation with OSA fuzzy
logic, neural net and chaos algorithm supported expert sys-
tem knowledge-based multivariate dynamic predictive
simulation and integrated into front-end OSA full range
reactor system OSA to achieve maximum products recov-
ery and operating flexibility that covers the full range:
A. Operating loads (from 50% to 140% of design
capacity)
B. Full range reactor yields in full operating severity
C. Full range product specifications, even product
changes (produce LLDPE in commercial HDPE plant)
D. Feed composition changes (for full range crude oils,
LPG, naphtha, gas oils and feed ratios in crude fraction-
ation, olefin, ethylbenzene, styrene and caprolactam
process plants).
These OSA simulations provide full impact of reactor
yields on fractionation feeds, fractionation top/bottom
products recovery, reboiler and condenser operating con-
ditions, products quality improvement, energy and waste
minimization (cut reboiler bottom polymer fouling),
debottlenecking and optimal control applications.
Operations management implementation. OSA con-
sultant, Dr. Huang, will set up cost, quality as a goal,
mission performance-oriented cross-departmental exe-
cution fractionation OSA teams to conduct design, oper-
ation review and goal definition; develop and imple-
ment current and future OSA, and tie into reactors
simulation for integrated process system operations
simulation, optimal control, debottlenecking and cost
reduction.
Economics. Up to a 3% increase in products recovery
over design can be achieved for most fractionators with
up to 45% increase over design capacity and up to 40%
cut in energy consumption. This is achieved by integrat-
ing into process reactors OSA. Up to $10-million cost cut
annually in feedstock and energy unit costs without
hardware retrofit, with payout in a few weeks is possible.
Commercial installations. Over 150 fractionators have
been improved by refinery, olefin, LLDPE/HDPE/LDPE/PP,
ethylbenzene, cyclohexanone, caprolactam and polyester
plant fractionation OSA teams directed by Dr. Warren
Huang; 25 fractionation cost reduction workshops have
been offered.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Capitalize on LPG Feed Changes, Oil & Gas Journal,
April 1979; Improve Naphtha Cracker Operations,
Improve Process by OSA, Improve Demethanizer Oper-
ation, Hydrocarbon Processing, February, May, Decem-
ber 1980; Control of Cracking Furnace, US Patents 1981,
1982; Improve Deethanizer Operation, OSA Saves
Energy in C
2
Splitter Operations, Oil & Gas Journal, June,
September 1980; Energy and Resource Conservation in
Olefin Plant Design and Operation, World Congress,
Montreal, Tokyo, Karlsruhe,1982, 1986, 1991; Refinery,
Petrochemical Process Improvement, Debottleneck on
PC, ISA Philadelphia,1989; Large chemical plant con-
ference, Antwerp, Belgium, 1992, 1995; INTER PEC CHINA
91, Beijing, 1991, 1995; OSA Decision Supported TQM,
Quality Productivity Conference by Hydrocarbon Pro-
cessing, Houston, 1993; AIChE meeting, Dallas, 1999, Sup-
ply chain strategy maximize oil, chemical profits confer-
ence/ workshops, Singapore, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Fractionator (crude)
Application. The primary objective of crude unit frac-
tionator control is to operate in safe and stable condi-
tions and maximize production of more valuable prod-
ucts. The secondary objective is to minimize energy
consumption. Under some conditions crude charge rate
should be maximized. Profit Controllers based on Robust
Multivariable Predictive Control Technology (RMPCT)
are used in these applications for online control and
economic optimization. This advanced algorithm min-
imizes tuning requirements and maintains good con-
trol under changing conditions and model error. Model
identification is available in the Windows environment.
These reactor controls can be dynamically integrated
with other crude unit controls, such as those for the
light ends towers, and with controls for a vacuum unit
or other refinery units.
Strategy. The Profit Controller built-in optimizer is con-
figured for total product value optimization, heat recov-
ery optimization and feed maximization. The system con-
sists of the following functions:
Preheat optimization. Robust Preheat Maximization
(RPM) is employed in the preheat section to produce the
hottest possible temperature entering the crude heater.
The resulting temperature increase can be used for fuel
gas savings, increased crude charge rates or higher heater
outlet temperatures.
Product quality controls. Product draws and external
pumparounds are adjusted to maximize higher-value on-
specification products, within operating limits during
and between crude quality swings. Controlled variables
may include:
Naphtha 95% pt.
Heavy naphtha IBP
Heavy naphtha 95% pt.
Kerosine flashpoint
Overflash
Gasoil cloud point.
Constraints considered may include:
Tower flooding
Hydraulic limits
Stripper levels
Heat removal
Light vacuum gas oil 95% pt.
Flash zone temperature
Heavy vacuum gas oil 95% pt.
Product qualities calculations are based on operat-
ing conditions, or optionally, are measured using ana-
lyzers. Product quality models are based on standard
toolkits or can be developed using Honeywells Profit
Sensor package.
Economics. Benefits range from 4/bbl to12/bbl of
feed with typical paybacks from 6 to12 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 106 atmospheric and/or vacuum crude unit
fractionators.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Resid.
HGO
LGO
Kero.
Naphtha
To flair/
FCC
CW
Stm.
Stm.
Stm.
Stm.
Fuel gas
Crude
feed
Crude
atm.
heater
FC
FC
FC
FC
LC
LC
LC
LC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
FC
LC
TC PC
TC
Constraints
Nap. 95%
Kero. 95%
LGO 95%
HGO 95%
Level
Nap. P/A
LGO P/A
HGO P/A
Economics
C
r
u
d
e

u
n
i
t
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
R
M
P
C
T
Crude atmospheric
tower
Fractionator (crude)
Application. The crude unit control system utilizes a
combination of advanced process control and other tech-
nologies to maximize profitability and improve opera-
tion of crude fractionators. It is ideally suited to mini-
mize the effects of crude grade transitions. The system
applies process magnetic resonance analysis (MRA) tech-
nology for noninvasive stream composition analyses
tightly integrated with robust multivariable control and
online equation-based optimization.
Control strategy. Process MRA technology monitors
crude/feed and distillate stream compositions. It is a non-
invasive technique requiring only a continuous sample
flow and basic sample conditioning. Only one analyzer
is required to sample multiple streams in minutes, thereby
reducing need for complex lab analyzers. Its crude feed
analysis supplies crude characterization information that
enables a multivariable controller to compensate for feed
transitions. The analysis can be integrated into a multi-
variable controller for crude and vacuum tower predic-
tive control.
The multivariable controller, with its linear program
(LP) optimizer, maximizes unit throughput (when appli-
cable), controls product qualities, increases yields of the
more valuable products and pushes the towers to their
local optimum conditions subject to furnace, flooding
and other throughput constraints. Light end columns,
naphtha splitter and heater pass balancing can also be
controlled in the scope. Product qualities for the multi-
variable controller can be provided by online analyzers or
inferred property calculations that are developed in addi-
tion to or in place of the Process MRA.
While Invensys solution is control technology-inde-
pendent, the Connoisseur MPC software offering is typ-
ically used. It offers a number of features under a single
license fee. These include real-time adaptive technology,
multiple model sets and types, and an integrated real-
time macro-programming environment. Nonlinear RBF
neural network models and fuzzy logic capabilities are
also available. It includes a real-time historical database
with excellent trending capabilities and rejects unmea-
sured disturbances common with crude switches with its
auto-regressive with exogenous input (ARX) type models.
This model type often has superior unmeasured distur-
bance rejection capabilities over control schemes based
on nonparametric finite impulse response (FIR) models.
When Rigorous On-line Modeling with Equation-based
Optimization (ROMeo) is combined with a multivariable
controller, a real-time plantwide optimum operation is
continually maintained even in the presence of crude
switches. ROMeo is a state-of-the-art modeling and opti-
mization environment that provides a common user inter-
face for all aspects of a real-time optimization application.
Users work in this environment to complete flowsheet
modeling, configuring data reconciliation, defining eco-
nomic objective functions and configuring scheduling and
sequencing tasks for execution in real time.
The MRA-enhanced multivariable control and opti-
mization crude unit control system can push the unit
against its optimal constraints, thereby maximizing profit
even through crude transitions. The result can be a dra-
matic savings per crude transition, since the typical 48
hour upset is essentially eliminated.
Economics. Including crude transition compensation
and unit optimization, overall benefit ranges between
$0.1 and $0.2/bbl feed. In addition, plant stability is
improved with less operator intervention. Project pay-
outs are typically only a few months.
Commercial installations. ROMeo is installed at five
crude units, Process MRA at three crude units, and mul-
tivariable control applications at 25, including the worlds
largest crude unit in Saudi Arabia.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: john.hernandez@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Atmospheric
tower
Crude A
Crude B
Crude unit
control and
optimization
Boiling pt.
Flash pt.
Cloud pt.
Viscosity
Pour pt.
Freeze pt.
Distillation
API gravity
PIONA
Octane
Rvp
Typical
measurements
ROMeo
Process
modeling and
optimization
Connoisseur
Process
modeling and
optimization
MRA
Fractionator (FCCU)
Application. Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units pro-
vide significant advanced control benefits because of the
large product upgrades, expensive operating costs and
difficult multivariable interactions. Profit Controllers
based on Robust Multivariable Predictive Control Tech-
nology (RMPCT) are used in these applications for online
control and economic optimization. This advanced algo-
rithm minimizes tuning requirements and maintains good
control under changing conditions and model error.
Model identification is available in the Windows envi-
ronment. These reactor/regenerator controls can be
dynamically integrated with the FCC reactor/regenera-
tor and gas concentration unit controls by using an upper-
level Profit Optimizer, which also uses Profit Controller
algorithms. These controls also are applicable to resid
cracking (RCC) units.
Strategy. The Profit Controller built-in optimizer is con-
figured for reactor product value optimization.
Product qualities are controlled by adjusting product
draws and external pumparounds to maximize higher-
value, on-specification products, within operating lim-
its. The controls may utilize analyzer inputs, inferred
properties or a combination of both. Product quality
models are based upon standard toolkits, or can be devel-
oped using Honeywells Profit Sensor, a state-of-the-art
statistical package for developing inferential models.
Controlled variables may include:
Naphtha 95% pt.
Heavy naphtha IBP
Heavy naphtha 95% pt.
LCO flashpoint
LCO 95% pt.
HCO 95% pt.
Constraints considered may include:
Tower flooding
Bottom temperature
Stripper levels
Pumparound duty removals.
Intermediate regulatory controls are supplied using
standard packages to provide nonlinear level and ratio
controls.
Economics. Typical benefits range from 5/bbl to 10/bbl
of feed with typical paybacks from 6 to 12 months.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 67 FCC main fractionators.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Partial pressure
correction
Fractionator
Slurry
HCO
LCO
HCN
Product
quality
and
heat
balance
control
RMPCT
Reactor
effluent
T
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
Lab
A
F
F
R
L
R
R
P
Fractionator (heavy oil)
Application. The crude unit, vacuum unit, FCCU main
fractionator, HDS fractionator and coker combination
tower are all heavy oil fractionators whose stream prop-
erties can be successfully inferred and controlled with-
out analyzers.
Strategy. This technology uses a proprietary, online model
to predict product boiling points (e.g., IBP, 90%) and
related properties such as flash, cloud, pour, etc. The infer-
ential model directly predicts actual ASTM boiling points.
Unlike cut points the predicted ASTM properties accu-
rately reflect degree of separation in the tower and cor-
respond with the ASTM measurements made by the plant
lab. The desired properties are calculated online from
commonly available real-time process measurements. The
calculated boiling properties are then used to control
products to specification by manipulating draw rates and
pumparound flows. Provisions are included for infrequent
lab feedback, and online analyzers are not required.
The boiling point technology uses a dynamic model;
thus, the calculations remain valid when the tower is not
at steady state, such as during a crude switch or other
disturbance. Since in-tower measurements are utilized,
the model calculates the properties of the products leav-
ing the tower at any instant. The model inherently
accounts for the effects of control loop interaction, elim-
inating the need for complex decoupling networks or
multivariable controllers.
Additional strategies can supplement the online boil-
ing point controls, using either DCS advanced regulatory
techniques or a commercial multivariable control package.
These include furnace combustion control, coil balanc-
ing, outlet temperature or overflash control, pumparound
control, stripping steam control, pressure minimization,
preheat train and/or pumparound energy optimization,
and throughput maximization.
Economics. Typical savings range from $12 million per
year for a 100,000 barrel crude unit. Many successful
installations of this inferential technology have proven the
following benefits:
Maximum yield of most valuable products
Increased throughput, when needed
Reduced product quality variability
Eliminating online boiling point analyzer costs
Decreased crude switch time
Commercial installations. This technology has been
installed on many different types of heavy oil fractiona-
tors in the United States, South America, Europe and
Asia. The inferential calculations and controls can be
implemented in a modern DCS without a host computer.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Crude charge
Fuel gas
Gas
Gasoline
Steam
Steam
LGO
Crude
throughput
maximization
Pressure
minimization
Pump-
around
control
Preheat
train energy
optimization
%O
2
control
Coil
balancing
control
Stripping
steam
control
Pump-
around
energy
optimi-
zation
Inferential
product
property
calculation
and
control
Outlet
temperature
or overflash
control
HGO
Steam
Steam
Topped crude
Kerosine
Fractionator (light products)
Application. The objective of light product fractiona-
tor control is to achieve desired separation, maximum
recovery of most valuable products, minimum energy
consumption and operation in safe and stable condi-
tions. These controls are used for the gas plants of various
refining units, which include crude, FCC, coker, reformer
and hydrocracking processes or may be applied to a com-
mon gas concentration unit. Similar controls are used in
other refining and petrochemical units that involve prod-
uct fractionation and absorption.
Natural gas plants also use controls similar to those
described here. Profit Controllers based on robust mul-
tivariable predictive control technology (RMPCT) are pre-
ferred for these online control and economic optimization
applications. The Profit Controller algorithm minimizes
tuning requirements and maintains good control under
changing conditions and model error. Model identifica-
tion is available in the Windows environment. These frac-
tionator controls can be dynamically integrated with
Profit Controllers in associated process units by using an
upper-level Profit Optimizer, which also uses Profit Con-
troller algorithms.
Strategy. A light product fractionator Profit Controller
usually has three to five manipulated variables. Reflux
flow and reboiler heating medium flow are almost always
manipulated and overhead pressure is usually manipu-
lated. Preheat temperature may be manipulated when a
preheater exists. In many cases, fractionator feed flow
must be treated as a disturbance (feedforward) variable.
In those few instances when additional feed is available
and economics favors maximizing it, the Profit Controller
can manipulate the feed rate up to whatever constraint
is limiting.
Light products usually require online analyzers for com-
position measurement. Some product compositions may
be inferred (e.g., Rvp and ASTM D86 specifications). Prod-
uct quality models are based upon standard toolkits, or
can be developed using Honeywells Profit Sensor, a state-
of-the-art statistical package for developing inferential
models.
There are situations where a Profit Controller is not
required. Fractionators that have only two manipulated
variables, are not difficult to control and do not have
opportunities for optimization may be controlled more
simply by standard advanced control techniques, such as
feedforward or ratio controls.
Economics. Typical benefits range from 5/bbl to 10/bbl
of feed with typical paybacks from 6 to 12 months.
Commercial installations. Profit Controllers have been
implemented on more than 100 light product fractiona-
tors, including 45 FCC gas concentration units and 20 gas
plants and LNG facilities.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Profit
controller
MV
or
DV
MV
MV
MV
MV
Fractionator (light products)
Application. Some plants are totally dedicated to frac-
tionation, such as an NGL separation facility or gas plant.
Other processes, both batch and continuous, utilize frac-
tionation for product separation and quality control.
Despite the general similarity of most light product frac-
tionators, considerable variation occurs in operating
objectives and in auxiliary equipment such as reboilers
and coolers. Advanced control strategies should be tai-
lored accordingly.
Strategy. A number of advanced control modules have
been developed for light fractionator control. However,
it is important that these modules be correctly selected,
combined and tailored to reflect plant-to-plant differ-
ences such as:
Tower physical design
Plant operating objectives
Plant operating environment (constraints and dis-
turbances)
Plant economics.
Light fractionator advanced control strategies use a
combination of the following control modules:
Constraint control
Total heat (Q) control
Internal reflux control
Decoupling
Analyzer control
Feed-forward control
Deadtime compensation
Multivariable control
Floating pressure control
Energy optimization
Inferred properties.
Economics. Payback periods of 618 months are com-
mon, and are derived from the following benefits.
Increased throughput (if needed)
Greater operating stability and turndown ratio
Improved product quality
Reduced environmental impact
Reduced product giveaway
Decreased energy consumption.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
successfully installed at many sites including gas plants,
refinery and chemical processes, and in the finishing area
of batch petrochemical plants.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Tower feed
Constraint
control
Multivariable
control
Feedforward
control
Decoupling
control
Deadtime
compensation
Internal
reflux
control
Analyzer-
based
control
Floating
pressure
control
Total heat
input
control
Inferred
properties
control
Energy
optimization
Bottoms
Distillate
Fractionator (NGL)
Application: The natural gas liquids (NGL) fractionation
process offers significant advanced control opportuni-
ties. Economic drivers for the application of Connoisseur
MPC include throughput maximization, energy mini-
mization and optimum product compositions.
A typical NGL fractionation train consists of a deetha-
nizer, depropanizer, debutanizer and butanes splitter.
The products include ethane, propane, iso-butane, nor-
mal butane and natural gasoline (pentanes plus). A mul-
tivariable controller can be configured; either one for
each tower or one for all towers. A local LP optimizer
will determine optimum setpoints for the manipulated
variables to obtain maximum benefits without violating
any constraints.
Control strategy. By manipulating feed rate, reflux
flows and reboiler head medium flows and monitoring
typical disturbancessuch as feed composition and ambi-
ent temperaturea Connoisseur MPC application can:
Maximize feed rate to the fractionation train with-
out violating operating constraints
Maintain top and bottom product qualities
Minimize tower pressures
Honor operating constraints.
For tighter composition control, inferred properties
based on process variables such as pressure-compensated
temperatures can be used to control product composi-
tions with analyzer updates. This approach utilizes fast
process variable response and accuracy of infrequent
analyzers to achieve tight compositional control.
NGL fractionation plants are subject to large changes
in the feed composition and ambient conditions. The dis-
turbance rejection capabilities of Connoisseur can lessen
the effects of these changes while operating the equip-
ment closer to physical constraints.
Connoisseur runs on industry-standard computing plat-
forms and connects to the process via existing process
control equipment, such as DCS and PLCs. Please contact
Invensys for a full list of available connections.
Economics. Up to 2% production increases and 1%
energy reductions per barrel of NGL produced have been
experienced with multivariable predictive control. Max-
imizing the quantity of lesser-valued components in
higher-valued products and minimizing the quantity of
higher-valued components in lower-valued products can
increase total plant revenue. In addition, plant stability
improves with less operator intervention. Project pay-
outs are typically less than one year.
Commercial installations. There are four Connoisseur
installations in the gas processing industry.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: john.hernandez@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Feed rate
Feed
EP product
Treating
unit
Treating
unit
Treating
unit
Merox
C
5
+
product
nC
4
product
iC
4
product
C
3
product
Controling variables:
Product composition
Pressure compensated temperature
Tower differential pressures
Other constraints
Refluxes Reboiler flow
Feed composition
Reboiler heating
medium
Temperature
Other disturbances
Fractionator (soft analyzer)
Application. Soft analyzers are most useful for control
of overhead and sidestream product properties in com-
plex fractionators (main fractionators for crude atmo-
spheric and vacuum distillation, FCCU, cokers, hydro-
crackers, and visbreakers). Soft analyzers run in real
time using pressure, temperature and flow measure-
ments, and rely on first principles for calculating column
internal vapor and liquid rates at key locations, mole
fractions, partial pressures, bubble points and dew points.
Distillation properties (e.g., 90% or end point) are cor-
related directly with the bubble point or dew point, but
as influenced by separation parameters (e.g., the L/Vratio
at the draw point). Periodic laboratory data feedback
helps correct for model inaccuracies. Secondary proper-
ties (e.g., cloud or freeze) are correlated with a combi-
nation of the primary distillation properties. The Ls and
Vs can also be used for flooding calculations.
Strategy. Soft analyzers provide reliable, convenient
inputs for APC controllers. The Soft analyzer variable
responds more or less identically to a hard analyzer
input, but is actually more useful because it is a continu-
ous signal, as opposed to a typical discontinuous gas chro-
matograph input.
Economics. Soft analyzers contribute directly to
improving yields of the more valuable distillate prod-
ucts. Yield shifts of 12% are regularly achieved. On a
100-Kbpd crude distillation unit, a yield shift of 1% on
feed to a product with a relative upgrade value of $1/bbl
represents an improvement in gross operating margin
of $0.35 million/year. Payback would then be a couple
of months.
Commercial Installations. Soft analyzers have been
installed on nine fractionators, six crude and/or vacuum
distillation units, two cokers and one hydrocracker.
Developer/licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Fractionator (vacuum
distillation)
Application. Vacuum distillation units in refineries often
have many opportunities for increasing capacity, improv-
ing product separation, increasing distillate yields and low-
ering energy consumption using modern advanced pro-
cess control techniques. Emersons model predictive control
(MPC) applications are tools that power Emersons
PlantWeb to improve throughput and quality, while reduc-
ing costs. MPC helps stabilize unit operation and main-
tain product quality targets at the lowest possible cost.
For fuels refineries where the individual side draws are
almost equal in value, the key benefit comes from recov-
ering more distillates from the vacuum resid. In a lube
refinery, each sidedraw has a different value and the
price differentials can change depending on market con-
ditions, making the DeltaV PredictPro MPC application
with its embedded LP even more valuable. Often vac-
uum units are highly heat integrated, large fuel con-
sumers, so applications that maximize heat recovery and
improve heater efficiency are easily justified.
Inferential property sensors that predict distillation
properties, density or viscosity of the side draw products
can also be valuable tools. With DeltaV Neural, predic-
tive models are easily built from plant historical process
and laboratory data using graphical configuration wiz-
ards. The product quality predictions run in real time in a
DeltaV controller as frequently as 1/sec for use in control
strategies and display to the operators.
The embedded nature of the DeltaV APC tools, Pre-
dictPro and Neural, combined with next-generation ease-
of-use features now puts these tools in the hands of every
process control engineer. Both PredictPro and Neural are
configured in the same graphical environment used to
configure PID loops. They are seamlessly integrated with
the DCS database, historian and operator displays with-
out any effort.
Advanced control strategies are designed to achieve
a number of operating objectives:
Maximize feed rate against unit constraints while
maintaining product quality (when desired)
Stabilize and control product qualities to specifica-
tions
Maximize yield of more valuable side draws up to
quality limits
Minimize unit energy consumption per barrel feed.
Strategy. A single PredictPro model predictive controller
is configured to manipulate the side draw and
pumparound flows, heater outlet temperature, atmo-
spheric resid rate and top reflux. Key controlled variables
include inferred quality variables, cutpoints or pressure-
compensated temperatures for each product draw. Con-
straints include valve, pump, temperature and vapor/liq-
uid traffic limits. The embedded LP in the PredictPro
controller allows costs to be used to drive the unit to the
most profitable region. The controller can be configured
with up to five different operating strategies that are
selectable by the operator.
Total unit charge rate is controlled in a separate mod-
ule that splits the feed between furnace passes. A pass
balancing control block is used to equalize outlet tem-
peratures from each of the heater passes. Combustion
controls can be used to minimize excess air to the heater
and provide the air-fuel cross-limiting functions. Steam
ratio controllers are used on side strippers to adjust steam
consumption with rates and yield differences.
Commercial installations. Emersons MPC controls
have been operating on many units for many years and
the next-generation DeltaV Predict product is also oper-
ating on a unit.
Benefits. Vacuum distillation unit advanced controls
typically produce economic savings from the following
sources:
Additional capacity from operating closer to actual
process equipment limits
Higher yields of more valuable products
Lower energy cost per barrel of feed
Improved product separation
More stable product quality controls, fewer off-spec
products and improved downstream unit operation.
The nominal value for these benefits is normally in the
range of $0.030.08 per barrel feed, depending on the
refinery incentives for vacuum capacity, differential prod-
uct prices and fuel costs.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Per-
formance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies,
tel: (641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonPro-
cess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Gas plant
Application. ABBs gas plant advanced process control
applications are designed to maximize recovery of valu-
able C
3
, C
4
and C
5
+ products from the feed gas streams
generated by upstream units and produce fuel gas con-
sisting mostly of methane, ethane and H
2
.
Strategy. Multivariable model-predictive (MVPC) and
conventional advanced control techniques are combined
to provide:
Tower/drum nonlinear level control. A nonlin-
ear algorithm is used to control tower bottoms/drum
level to minimize flow disturbances and stabilize opera-
tions of the downstream towers.
Tower controls. An integrated MVPC controls all
setpoint targets, enforces all physical operating and sales
quality constraints and rejects recognized process dis-
turbances by simultaneously manipulating tower base
regulatory control loops. The MVPC maximizes more
valuable product yields, minimizes energy consumption
and/or maximizes production as dictated by current pro-
cess economics.
Lean oil circulation control. For absorbers, an
MVPC maximizes recovery of hydrocarbons (C
3
+) from
the offgas and minimizes unnecessary lean oil circu-
lation.
Composition control. All tower compositions are
maintained subject to physical operating constraints.
Multiobjective MVPC technology allows straightforward
design and operational changes of hard and soft
quality constraints.
Energy minimization controls. Energy con-
sumption is minimized in light end towers by minimiz-
ing tower pressures subject to operating constraints.
Economics. Applying advanced process control typically
results in $0.5 million of benefits per year for a 10-Mbpd
plant, with a payback period of about one year.
Commercial installations. The controls have been
implemented at three sites.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Gasoline pool management
Application. Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as an
inline laboratory to deliver real-time quality information
to the planning/scheduling/control and optimization sys-
tems of the gasoline pool in complex refineries.
Strategy.
Analysis of intermediate streams, blend components
and commercial gasolines
High-frequency quality determinations: RON, MON,
Rvp, VLI, % distillate at 70C, 100C, 125C, 150C, 180C,
210C, % benzene, % MTBE, % aromatics, % oxygenates,
% olefins, % potential gums and specific gravity
Computation of blend indices for nonlinear proper-
ties of blend components.
Economics.
Inline certification by high-frequency analysis of
blend components for feed-forward control of the
blenders
Minimal quality giveaway on commercial gasoline
Real-time optimization of gasoline pools.
Commercial installations. TOPNIR is used to moni-
tor/control gasoline blending in 20 refineries worldwide.
Licensor. Technip France on behalf of ABB Automation.
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Heavy hydrocarbon
stream identification
Application. Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)
atline or offline to provide quality information for mon-
itoring and advanced control of process units. This appli-
cation combines the mathematical modeling technique
of Topnir and a patented high-temperature cell (up to
200C).
Strategy.
Atline analysis of FCC feed qualities: specific grav-
ity, % sulfur, viscosity, CCR, refractive index, aniline point,
KUOP, total nitrogen content, metals content (Ni, V),
crackability and cokability index
Atline analysis of visbreaker/thermal cracking unit
residue: stability, MCRT/Conradson Carbon, viscosity, den-
sity, asphaltenes, estimated sulfur
Atline analysis of long and short residues: MCRT/Con-
radson carbon, viscosity, asphaltenes, wax, sulfur
Atline or online analysis of bitumens/asphalt: pene-
tration, softening point, density and viscosity
Online analysis of lube oils: polycyclic aromatics, sul-
fur, CCR, pour point, viscosity, viscosity index, wax/oil con-
tent.
Economics.
Improved onstream factor of real-time optimiza-
tion for residue processing units, e.g., FCC
Improved bitumen quality control (vacuum unit,
blowing unit, blender)
Improved on-stream factor of APC strategies on
residue processing units.
Commercial installations. Several refineries in Western
Europe and East Asia.
Licensors:
High temperature cell: Shell Global Solutions
(Residir technology)
Topnir: ABB Automation
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
NIR
High vacuum flashed residue
1st CH combination bands
Bitumen
Crude
HV gas oil
8,000
0.0
0.5
1.0
7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000
Absorbance/wave number (cm-1)
Visible
Hydrocracker
Application. The primary objective of hydrocracker reac-
tor control is to provide safe, stable operation within
unit constraints. Secondary objectives include conver-
sion/inventory control, bed profile control and feed max-
imization. Profit Controllers based on Robust Multivari-
able Predictive Control Technology (RMPCT) are used in
these applications for online control and economic opti-
mization. This advanced algorithm minimizes tuning
requirements and maintains good control under chang-
ing conditions and model error. Model identification is
available in the Windows environment. These reactor
controls can be dynamically integrated with other hydro-
cracker section controls, including parallel reactor trains
and the product fractionator, by using an upper-level
Profit Optimizer, which also uses Profit Controller algo-
rithms.
Strategy. The Profit Controller built-in optimizer is con-
figured for reactor product value optimization and/or
feed maximization. Furnace fuel gas, hydrogen quench
flows and feed flow are adjusted to maintain conversion
and throughput, while maintaining safe operating con-
ditions. Disturbance rejection is applied for bed temper-
ature control stability to account for the exothermic and
highly interactive nature of hydrocracker operation.
Controlled variables may include:
Weighted average bed temperature (WABT)
Reactor profiles (or bed temperatures)
Reactor conversion.
Constraints considered include:
Reactor bed temperatures
Reactor delta temperatures
Hydrogen quench valves
Hydrogen make-up
Hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratios
Effluent cooler velocities
Calculated coking rate.
Product yield and coking rate calculations using
operating condition inputs are based upon rigorous
kinetic models, which may also be used to determine
optimum operating targets for online optimization. Opti-
mum feed rates are calculated based on catalyst deacti-
vation and desired run lengths. Conversion and bed pro-
files can be calculated for maximum product yields and
extended catalyst life. The rigorous model may be used
offline for process studies and may be integrated within
the ProfitMax optimization system for unit wide and
multiunit optimization.
Economics. Typical benefits range from 8/bbl to 28/bbl
of fresh feed. These benefits include improvements in
product separation due to stable reactor operation. Addi-
tional benefits include extended run length and safer
operation.
Commercial installations. Controls have been imple-
mented on 18 hydrocracker units. Rigorous online model
optimization has been applied to five units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Application. ABBs advanced process control applica-
tions for hydrocrackers and hydrotreaters provide refiner-
ies with the ability to maximize their profits during sea-
sonal market variations by easily adjusting the
gasoline/distillate production to the optimum ratio, and
then maximizing throughput with minimum energy con-
sumption. The flexibility of the control package allows
its implementation on one- or two-stage units, in mild- or
high-severity applications.
Strategy. The APC packages combine multivariable
model-predictive control (MVPC) technology with con-
ventional advanced process control (APC) for:
Heater controls: Heater pass balancing, tight out-
let temperature control, constraint control and excess
oxygen control are all included in the APC package.
Charge and conversion controls: Charge, con-
version and energy use can all be simultaneously con-
trolled and optimized with the MVPC by adjusting
weighted average bed temperatures (WABT) and hydro-
gen streams within constraints.
Fractionator controls: Product distillate yields in
the fractionator are maximized based on their relative
economic values, subject to their specification range lim-
its and the physical operating limits of the tower.
H
2
, purity and H
2
/oil ratio controls: Hydrogen
purity and hydrogen/oil ratio are maintained within opti-
mum range by adjusting the recycle gas and the purge
and/or hydrogen makeup flowrates.
Economics. Overall benefits typically generate 520/bbl
of feed.
Commercial installations. Hydrocracker and
hydrotreater APC packages have been commissioned at
six sites, and one additional application is in progress.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
H
2
recycle
H
2
make-up
Purge
Gas
Naphtha
Kero.
Diesel
HGO Recycle
Reactor
Stripper
Feed
Fractionator
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Application. Advanced process control and real-time
optimization can be applied to hydrocracking and
hydrotreating operations for significant improvement
of unit performance. The rigorous models developed for
optimization can be used for kinetic modeling and accu-
rate prediction of yields, hydrogen consumption and
product properties.
Aspen Technologys DMCplus advanced control tech-
nology and Aspen Plus Optimizer real-time optimization
technology are ideally suited for hydrocracker/hydro-
treater applications. Aspen Hydrocracker and Aspen
Hydrotreater rigorously model reactor kinetics for HDN,
HDS, saturation and cracking for widely different feed-
stocks and operating conditions.
Strategy. A single DMCplus controller is configured for
the reaction, recycle hydrogen and fractionator systems
of a hydrocracking or hydrotreating unit. In some cases,
the hydrogen plant is included. DMCplus performs a thor-
ough constrained optimization calculation at each con-
troller execution. Unit profitability is maximized by oper-
ating simultaneously at the optimal hydrogen, conver-
sion, reactor and fractionator constraints.
The controller adjusts unit fresh feed, reactor inlet
hydrogen flow and temperature, recycle oil feed to the
second stage, reactor bed inlet temperatures and hydro-
gen makeup and purge flows. The primary controlled
variables are the overall or per pass conversion, recycle
hydrogen purity, hydrotreater severity, reactor temper-
ature profiles and fractionator product qualities.
The rigorous model for the hydrocracking or hydro-
treating unit executes in coordination with the DMCplus
controller. The optimizer executes in two phases. First, it
captures data from the plant DCS and adjusts model
parameters to conform to current plant operation. The
data are validated and reconciled. The model then adjusts
key plant variables, within plant operating constraints, to
maximize an economic profit function. The results are
transmitted to the controller as new targets for the con-
trolled variables of the DMCplus controller.
An Aspen Hydrocracker flowsheet simulates all hydro-
cracking unit sections. It can include simplified or fully
rigorous fractionation models. Aspen Hydrocracker opti-
mizes tradeoffs between feed rate, conversion, catalyst
cycle life, feedstock severity, operating conditions and
costs. For recycle hydrocracking units, Aspen Hydroc-
racker optimizes tradeoffs between fresh feed rates and
conversion-per-pass in single-stage units, or between 1st
stage and 2nd stage conversion in two-stage units.
Economics. Benefits of $0.30/bbl have been achieved
from advanced control and online optimization. Addi-
tional benefits are achieved in offline Aspen Hydro-
cracker or Aspen Hydrotreater applications through
improved selection of operating conditions and feed-
stocks and a better understanding of catalyst deac-
tivation.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has commis-
sioned 30 hydrocracker and 13 hydrotreater advanced
control applications, and has applied real-time opti-
mization to 3 hydrocrackers. Additional applications are
underway. There are three commercial installations of
Aspen Hydrocracker.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Applications. Rigorous hydrocracking/hydrotreating reac-
tor optimal operations knowledge model-based expert
systems have been developed and implemented for full
range European, US, Arabian and Asian crude oil compo-
sitions in integrated refinery hydrocracking model-based
predictive control, optimization, corporate restructuring,
reengineering and supply chain TQM cost reductions.
This system will provide simulation of global central
banks monetary policy impact on global crude oils, residue
oil and gas oil prices; procurement and inventory supply
chain strategy; refining and olefins products competitive
pricing and hydrocracking reactor yields; regenerator cat-
alyst activity tracking improvement; debottlenecking for
full range feedstock compositions, operating load and
severity changes; and corporate manager, technical and
operating staff on-the-job training simulators.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. This sys-
tem has been developed out of the past 20 years daily
US, Asian and European Wall Street Journals, IMF and
NPRA data, daily Internet data on global crude oils, gas
oils, olefin and refining products price data,
corporate/plant entire operating history (full range feeds
and loads, operating severity); extensive literature and
patent search for hydrocracking reactor catalytic and
kinetics mechanism and design, operators and technical
staffs operating expertise, and market forces psychology
as the knowledge base.
OSA models development. Applying the latest eco-
nomic, kinetics theory, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic,
neural net and chaos theory-based expert systems, these
systems simulate global central banks monetary policy
impact on daily global economy, financial markets, oils,
refining products, olefin prices, full range crude oil and
heavy oil compositions; and operating load and severity
change impact on reactor yields for various licensors
designs with average error below 1.5%. Features include:
Investment risk OSA for global credit, interest rates,
currency exchange rates, profit margin, stocks, and finan-
cial derivatives risks simulation and control.
Supply chain OSA for global crude oil, gas, fuel oils
and feedstock price forecasts, procurement and inven-
tory strategy
Marketing/sales CRM OSA for global refining prod-
ucts and olefin competitive pricing, forecasts, marketing
and sales strategy
Human resources OSA for corporate finance, mar-
keting, procurement and process managers analysis on-
the-job training
Improve process OSA for full range severity, gas oil,
heavy oils, hydrocracking and hydrotreating HDS reac-
tor yield improvement
Integrated procurement-inventory, production-mar-
keting and sales supply chain e-commerce cost reduction
system.
Operations management implementation. The author
will conduct an HDS system restructuring operations
review and goal setting, and implement a supply chain e-
business cost reduction OSA teams program.
Economics. Up to $100-million saving without staff
reduction or hardware investment in one-year OSA pro-
gram.
Commercial installations. Several global refinery
applied and 50 TQM cost reduction workshops offered to
refinery managers.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Improve Process by OSA, Improve Naphtha Crackers
Operations, and 12-paper series in Hydrocarbon Pro-
cessing, Oil & Gas Journal, 19791983; Goal, Mission Per-
formance Oriented Design/Operations Simulations Anal-
ysis Predictive Control Maximized Refinery-Olefin
Productivity, Flexibility, AIChE 1983 Diamond Jubilee;
1990, 1999 AIChE annual meeting Dallas; World Congress
II, II, IV, Canada, Tokyo, Germany, 1983, 1986, 1991; OSA
Supported Refinery-Olefin CIM Maximize Productivity,
Flexibility, Singapore, Beijing, Antwerp, Shanghai, Dal-
las,1989, 1992, 1995, 1997, 1999; Monetary Policy Impact
on Global Financial Crisis, Commodities, Financial Deriva-
tive, Stock Prices, Washington D.C., Louisiana, Rome,
Barcelona, Taipei, Bangkok, 19992001; Supply chain strat-
egy maximize oil, chemical profits conference/workshops,
Singapore, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Hydrogen production
Application. The primary objective of a hydrogen pro-
duction facility is to balance hydrogen production with
demand using the optimum feed mixture, while main-
taining the reformer in safe operating conditions. A sec-
ondary objective is to minimize energy consumption.
Profit Controllers based on Robust Multivariable Predic-
tive Control Technology (RMPCT) are used in these appli-
cations for online control and economic optimization.
This advanced algorithm minimizes tuning requirements
and maintains good control under changing conditions
and model error. Model identification is available in the
Windows environment. These reformer controls can be
dynamically integrated with the scrubber/purification
system and with refinery hydrogen consuming and pro-
ducing unit Profit Controllers by using an upper-level
Profit Optimizer, which also uses Profit Controller algo-
rithms.
Strategy. The Profit Controller built-in optimizer is con-
figured for feed cost minimization and hydrogen prod-
uct maximization. Feed flows, steam rates and cell outlet
temperatures are adjusted to maintain hydrogen pro-
duction, steam-to-hydrocarbon ratios and throughput,
while maintaining safe operating conditions. Coil outlet
temperature (COT), combustion and draft controls and
feed composition change feedforward are incorporated
into the controller. Hydrogen consumers are monitored
as disturbances that require more or less hydrogen pro-
duction. Optimum steam flow to the reforming coil
depends on feed composition and furnace operating
conditions. The steam ratio control module calculates
the stoichiometric steam demand and multiplies by the
optimum ratio that has been determined offline.
Economics. Feed optimization and steam ratio control
have a major effect on hydrogen production costs, par-
ticularly when there are large differences in feed prices
and qualities and when feed availabilities vary with time.
As a rough estimate, the package would achieve an
increase of 510% of the cheapest feed and a corre-
sponding reduction in the most expensive feed. The steam
ratio and furnace combustion controllers combine to
reduce furnace energy consumption by 510%. The
smooth operation increases equipment life and furnace
safety. Long periods of hydrogen over-production are
virtually eliminated.
Commercial installations. These controls have been
implemented on seven units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
To
methanizer
and
compressor
CO converter
RMPCT feed/
furnace controls
CO
2
absorber
H
2
demand
F
F
F
F
F
F
T
P O
2
Water
Air
Fuel
Stm.
Steam
reformer
Steam ratio
control
F
e
e
d
CO
2
Hydrotreater
Application. Naphtha hydrotreater operation can be
improved through the use of Emersons multivariable
predictive control, one of the advanced control and
modeling technologies that power PlantWeb digital
plant architecture to deliver throughput and cost
improvements. The applications are particularly valu-
able when hydrotreating capacity or hydrogen avail-
ability is a potential refinery constraint. As the world
moves to even lower sulfur specs, requirements for opti-
mally managing hydrotreater operation become increas-
ingly important.
Strategy. Multivariable predictive control is used to
stabilize the process and control smoothly and safely
through typical process disturbances such as changes
in feed rate, fuel gas composition and recycle gas con-
centration. MPC includes hydrogen-to-hydrocarbon
ratio control, reactor inlet temperature control and
recycle H
2
purity control modules that manipulate H
2
flow, fuel gas flow and H
2
vents. Stack O
2
control and
pass balancing can improve efficiency and stabilize fur-
nace operation. Pass balancing adjusts pass flows to
match outlet temperatures and prevent hot-spots for
multipass furnaces. A multivariable predictive controller
is implemented to push multiple operating constraints,
meet product specs and set unit throughput when max-
imum charge is desired.
Benefits. Benefits from applying this technology are pri-
marily derived from higher production capacity and lower
hydrogen consumption per barrel of feed. Typically,
improvements in the 25% range can be expected. Fur-
nace efficiency can usually be improved through better
stack O
2
control, depending on the starting condition
relative to safe operating limits.
Commercial installations. The technology has been
implemented on over two commercial units.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Hydrotreating
Application. Hydrotreating is a process wherein a hydro-
carbon product is processed in the presence of excess
quantities of hydrogen, converting embedded sulfur and
nitrogen into hydrogen sulfide and ammonia for removal.
The hydrotreater can be used for feedstock preparation
(e.g., for a hydrocracker) or for upgrading the quality of
finished products (such as diesel).
Strategy. Appropriate hydrotreater advanced control
strategies depend somewhat upon the severity of oper-
ation. More severe hydrotreating operations consume
more hydrogen and release more heat. They are good
candidates for multivariable controls such as those com-
monly employed on hydrocracking units. Less severe
hydrotreating units may not justify the added complex-
ity of multivariable control, and their controls are com-
monly implemented using DCS advanced regulatory tech-
niques such as constraint and override control.
Advanced control strategies include the following:
Hydrogen-to-oil feed rate ratio control (with recycle
Hydrogen analysis)
Reactor severity control (calculated online from pro-
cess measurements)
Reactor bed outlet temperature control
Reactor bed inlet temperature profile control
Reactor constraint controls
Feed maximization control.
Economics. Advanced control of the hydrotreating pro-
cess provides the following benefits.
Improved reaction severity control (removal of
desired levels of S and N)
Maintains desired reaction bed temperature pro-
file
Longer catalyst life (no temperature excursions)
Enforcement of physical operating constraints
Increased throughput (if desired).
Commercial installations. This hydrotreating unit con-
trol technology has been installed in two refineries.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Feed
FT
FC AX
SP
TC
TC
TC
Severity SP
Desired bed
temp. profile
Multivariable model-
based controller
Constraints
Quench valve positions,
bed temperatures,
furnace firing, etc.
TT
TT
TT
Feed
maximi-
zation
control
H
2
to
oil ratio
control
Hydrogen-
to-oil
control
Bed outlet
temp.
control
Bed 1 outlet
temp. control
Bed 2 outlet
temp. control
Bed 3 outlet
temp. control
Reator
consraint
control
Bed temp.
profile
control
Reactor
severity
control
Hydrotreated
product
Fuel
Recycle H
2
Hydrotreating (catalyst
monitoring)
Application. Key operating parameters from onsite
hydrotreating units are collected and centralized for
secure sharing with the selected catalyst vendor(s) or
other external catalyst expert(s). Advanced catalyst per-
formance calculations are integrated with the collected
data to quantify yield performance and to enable the
catalyst vendor to remotely provide proactive analyses
and as-needed troubleshooting support. The application
increases the hydrotreating profit contribution by opti-
mizing catalyst use and efficiency.
Strategy.
No new onsite software: The Hydrotreating Catalyst
Monitoring application is implemented as a remotely
hosted solution. It combines real-time process data col-
lection with secure hosting and integration with propri-
etary performance calculations. The application requires
no onsite installation of new software or local support
and is provided as a fully supported service from Industrial
Evolution and the catalyst vendor.
Secure AnyWhere/AnyTime access: Catalyst experts
can securely view past and current hydrotreating opera-
tion in real time from any Internet-connected PC via data
tables and graphical displays using a standard Web
browser. If authorized by the refinery, the data can also
be transferred into another environment (e.g., spread-
sheet, SQL database, PI System, etc.) for further analysis.
All user access is to the Web pages only; no user access is
granted to any site systems.
Real-time collaboration enabled: Remote hosting facil-
itates real-time collaboration between plant staff and
offsite catalyst experts. Both parties can view process
data and performance calculation results simultaneously
to troubleshoot and optimize hydrotreating operations
together. After-the-fact manual data collection is no
longer required of site personnel, and catalyst experts
no longer have to deal with missing or incomplete data.
User-configurable electronic alerting: The Hydrotreat-
ing Catalyst Monitoring application comes with the abil-
ity to automatically alert refinery and/or remote catalyst
experts of changes in hydrotreating performance versus
specified targets or limits. Users can personalize their
own alerts, which can be received via e-mail, cell phone,
pager, etc.
Catalyst monitoring service: The Hydrotreating Cata-
lyst Monitoring application is typically delivered as a
monthly service in conjunction with your catalyst vendor
or a trusted third-party specialist. This service is already
available in conjunction with most major hydrotreating
catalyst vendors.
Economics. The Hydrotreating Catalyst Monitoring appli-
cation provides the following benefits:
Increased hydrotreating yield
Optimum catalyst addition
Reduced catalyst costs
More responsive troubleshooting
Enhanced technical support.
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, the
Hydrotreating Catalyst Monitor has been installed on
one hydrotreater in North America. The underlying secure
connectivity, data collection and hosting services have
been delivered to over 250 sites around the world.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona;
Website: www.industrialevolution.com; e-mail con-
tact@industrialevolution.com; tel. (602) 867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
AnyWhere/AnyTime
hydrotreating
catalyst monitor
Authorized catalyst vendor(s)
Secure VPN
connection
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
catalyst vendor application(s)
Oil refinery
Onsite
data sources:
DCS, PLC, Lab,
Database, etc.
Laboratory data entry
and management
Application. A solution that provides laboratory sam-
ple entry, scheduling, results capture and distribution of
laboratory results directly to the real-time data historian
or DCS. Within the laboratory solution, samples are
tracked through a typical cycle of events that will lead
from the sample scheduling to recorded results viewing.
Strategy. The Laboratory Data Entry and Management
Resolution provides the following functions:
Manage laboratory data configuration
Manage sample plans
Sample work queue processing
Product release and approval.
Since this solution is built from the standard compo-
nents of RESOLUTION, it can be adapted to suit any par-
ticular business requirements.
Manage Sample Plans: Managing Sample Plans allows
the user to create, modify and schedule sample plans.
These functions are:
Create sample plan
Schedule sample
Plan/adjust sample
Plan/create ad hoc samples.
Sample Work Queue Processing: The functions and
tasks of drawing samples and processing them through
the laboratory are all managed via Relayers messaging
and workflow. As each action is taken, Relayer auto-
matically schedules the next task that must be performed.
Since this is an adaptable workflow, it can be modified to
suit any requirements. Typically, it consists of the fol-
lowing tasks:
Collect sample, to which the operator can respond
with accept, modify or cancel
Delivered waiting receipt, indicating that the sam-
ple is waiting in the laboratory for analysis
Received now testing, to which a technician may
enter results, redirect to . . ., retain, cancel, publish results
or close out the sample.
Product Release and Approval: To issue a certificate of
analysis, the results need to be validated. This step is
called the Product Release Builder. Once enough of the
results are entered and validated, a user can begin to
compile a selected group of results that have been
approved for the product release.
Benefits. The RESOLUTION Laboratory Data Entry and
Management System focuses on one of the key laboratory
requirements, which is efficient delivery of timely analy-
sis results to the operations staff. The workflow can be
adapted to any required process. Results integrate directly
with measurement, specification and product quality
data.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Laboratory
Data Management modules have been installed on 15
sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Linear alkyl benzene
Application. Applying Aspen Technologys DMCplus
multivariable constrained control and rigorous Aspen
Plus Optimizer real-time optimization to linear alkyl ben-
zene (LAB) units results in higher yield and throughput,
optimal catalyst usage, reduced feedstock losses and
improved separation. The controllers obtain these benefits
by continuously pushing the unit and operating the unit
simultaneously at equipment and process constraints.
Optimization system benefits are obtained by deter-
mining the most profitable set of process constraints for
the unit and DMCplus controllers. The Aspen Plus Opti-
mizer system accurately accounts for the effects of current
operation on future plant operation (catalyst deactivation
effects) and optimizes the plant to maximize the plant
profitability over a time horizon to get the best use of
the reactor catalyst.
Strategy. Separate DMCplus controllers are configured
for the dehydrogenation reactor section and the back-end
separation section. The dehydrogenation reactor con-
troller controls the reactor conversion and hydrogen recy-
cle rate, maximizing throughput while honoring all unit
constraints, such as furnace limits. The back-end separa-
tion controller is designed to maximize throughput, min-
imize LAB in the paraffin recycle stream and LAB loss in
purge streams while maintaining product specifications
and honoring all unit constraints.
The Aspen Plus Optimizer system usually encompasses
the overall unit. The optimization model utilizes rigor-
ous kinetic models of the reactors, dehydrogenation cat-
alyst deactivation and associated process equipment to
calculate optimum targets for maximizing profitability.
Deactivation of the dehydrogenation reactor catalyst
provides many optimization opportunities for Aspen Plus
Optimizer system to exploit. Catalyst deactivation rate
is determined by the reactor operation (i.e., reactor com-
position, severity). As reactor activity drops, reactor selec-
tivity also changes.
The optimization system models the entire catalyst life
(from the beginning to the end of the catalyst cycle),
accounting for changes in reactor activity and selectiv-
ity based on the process units operation changes. Aspen
Plus Optimizer maximizes the profitability of the unit
over the entire life of the catalyst. The system determines
the best current operation today and projects the best
profile to run the unit in the future. The system can opti-
mize catalyst run length within limits set by operations,
or run length can be set. The optimizing module is self
maintaining in that it automatically updates key model
parameters online, thereby maintaining an accurate pro-
cess model.
Economics. Benefits include improved yields, energy
savings, increased capacity and optimal catalyst usage.
Payback times of six months for both the DMCplus con-
trollers and the Aspen Plus Optimizer optimization system
have been obtained.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has implemented
two LAB control and optimization systems, and another
control application is underway.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
LPG plant
Application. IntellOpts Advanced Process control of the
LPG plant is based on the GMAXC, Multivariable Pre-
dictive Controller to maximize the quality and economic
goals while honoring the safety/equipment limits.
Strategy. The primary control strategies are:
Product Qualities: Maintain LPG product quality in
terms of C
3
/C
4
ratio, C
2
impurity, C
5
impurity and RVP.
Yield Maximization: Maximize Butane recovery
from the feed gas.
Feed Throughput: Maximize feed rate subject to
equipment limits, quality specifications and inlet feed.
In addition to analyzer measurements, other variables
like tower temperatures, intermediate temperatures and
reflux flows are added to the list of controlled variables
so as to detect product quality deviations faster and to
provide a secondary envelope for containing the process
in case the analyzer indicators are not accurate or timely.
For equipment constraints, the compressor speed, the
expander valve position, and the debutanizer delta pres-
sure are also added to the list of the controlled variables.
These constraints are used for feed rate maximization.
To account for feed composition changes, the heavy
components in the inlet feed stream C
4
% and C
5
+% are
included as feed forward variables.
Computer platform. To justify APC/MVPC for even small
gas plants, the GMAXC software has been implemented
on Rack-Mounted Industrial Computers (RIC) with Win-
dows operating systems, and communicating via DDE
with the plant DCS.
Economics. Typical benefits range from 3% to 5%
improvement in capacity, and a 5% to 10% reduction in
energy consumption. The benefits also depend on the
process unit size, inlet feed composition and compres-
sion capacity.
Commercial installations. This GMAXC, Multivariable
Predictive Controller has been implemented on two gas
plants.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Inlet gas
comp.
Expander
sep.
Expander
comp.
AI
Reflux
drum
Cold
sep.
HE
Recyle
PI, TI
AI
Feed and
residue
gases
Fuel gas
heater
LPG storage AI Rvp
Hot oil
To heater fuel gas
Gasoline storage
Hot oil return to heater
FIC
LC
TC AIC
FC
LC
FIC
TIC
PC
TICV
TI
LC
LC
LC
FC
PIC
PC
F
I
C
D
C
2
D
C
4
To and
from
regen.
gas
heater
FI
TI
PI
AI
Lube oil plant
Application. Efficient lube plant operation is a complex
and demanding business task because its success depends
upon informed decision making at all levels of the plant
hierarchy. Fortunately, control and information systems
and software are available and can be properly assembled
to make the lube plant operators job much easier. A
practical and successful application of this technology is
shown in the figure and includes the following:
Process-connected DCS regulatory control, safety
interlock systems, sequenced filter wash automation and
special modules for compressor anti-surge control and
vibration monitoring
Automated laboratory system (analyses and speci-
fications)
Tank gauging system (tank data and MOV opera-
tion)
A single, totally integrated interface for operators
Mid-hierarchy advanced regulatory control, stock
switch supervision/control and filter wash supervision/ini-
tiation
Centralized plantwide database
Integration with the plant yield accounting system
Integration with parent company database com-
puter
User-friendly data retrieval, reporting and display.
Strategy. Special attention during project planning and
system development phases should be given to: analysis
and specification of rational user needs, qualification
and specification of the decision-making process and
related information requirements at all levels of the hier-
archy, a bottom-to-top system and project orientation,
special attention to the needs of operators and supervi-
sors and a realistic long-range plan with phased, modu-
lar project goals.
Economics. The benefits associated with successful imple-
mentation of this integrated control and information
system justified a $20-million plantwide modernization
project (28% IRR) in a large Gulf Coast lube plant. Fin-
ished lubes and wax production have been significantly
increased (>10%) while staffing was substantially reduced
(by more than 10 shift positions).
Commercial installations. Besides the location
described, related software integration has been suc-
cessfully applied to other US and South American
refineries.
Developer. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affiliate of GE
Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, (225) 293-
3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Yield
accounting
system
Production
planning
Database
Oil movements
system
Tank
gauging
system
Tank
farm
remote
I/O
Lab
system
PLC
Filter
wash
ESD
Operator console
M
M
Analyses
Specifications
Compressors Lubes production
Process units Tank farm
L, T
Process
data
Lab data
Tank data
Production
target
Regulatory
controls
Stock
switch
controls
Filter wash
initiation
Advanced
control
module
Process
information
system
Information network
Control network
Anti-
surge S
DCS
PID
control
Special
control
module
Vibration
module
Methanol plant
Application. MVC technology is applicable in a methanol
plant in several process areas: steam reforming, autother-
mal reforming, methanol conversion, purge/recycle loop
control and methanol purification. The objective for mul-
tivariable control is to minimize variation in outlet tem-
perature of primary reformers, optimize methane slip-
page and achieve better ratio control of steam and
oxygen to feed in the autothermal reformer, thereby
maximizing conversion to methanol and optimizing recy-
cle rate at lowered firing rates.
Control strategy. MVC provides optimal control of the
primary reformer outlet temperature, the feed gas to
oxygen and steam ratios in the autothermal reformer
and conversion to methanol in the converter. This opti-
mization will increase methanol production, reduce
stream reformer firing rates and extend catalyst life.
The primary outlet temperature variation is minimized
by manipulating the mixed fuel gas pressure to the pri-
mary reformer, while considering fluctuations in the
mixed fuel gas heating value. This prevents the primary
reformer from overheating and extends tube life.
In the autothermal reformer, the main goal is to main-
tain high methane conversion at high exit temperature.
Higher methanol conversion can be achieved in the
methanol converters by maintaining the reaction tem-
perature at an optimally high value since lower reaction
temperature reduces the reaction rate disproportionately.
GE Drives & Controls MVC will predict future conver-
sion behavior, S-ratio (mole ratio of hydrogen less car-
bon dioxide to carbon monoxide plus carbon dioxide) at
the converter inlet and bed temperatures in the autother-
mal reformer, making it possible to operate closer to
maximum design bed temperatures. In quenched
methanol converters, the temperature profile is opti-
mized by manipulating the quench rates to produce the
maximum conversion to methanol.
An MVC model-based advanced control scheme allows
the converters to operate closer to equilibrium. MVC con-
trol applied to the methanol purification section improves
product quality and recovery while minimizing steam
demand. Online economic optimization offered by GE
maximizes plant revenue by producing optimal quality
methanol at reduced energy cost.
MVC is a nonlinear multivariable control and economic
optimization technology that incorporates predictive
and adaptive algorithms derived from rigorous simula-
tions and field tests calibrated to match actual plant per-
formance. MVC operates in the optimization mode where
the optimal controlled variables are determined, fol-
lowed by the optimal manipulated variable moves, or
alternatively, in the controller-only mode to push the
plant to its constraints given predetermined, optimal-
controlled variable targets. MVC resides within a Win-
dows 2000 or RISC workstation interfaced to or inte-
grated within the plant control system.
Economics. MVC has reduced primary reformer outlet
temperature variation from 8F to 2F and has
decreased temperature difference in the riser tubes from
24F to 5F. MVC installation has lowered net energy
consumption by 1.8% and increased methanol production
by 0.7%. MVC technology extends lives of the primary
reformer tubes and the catalyst.
Commercial installation. This technology has been
installed and proven in a domestic methanol plant and
has been implemented on two ammonia and one syn-
gas facilities.
Licensor. GE Drives & Controls, Inc., Houston, Texas; Web-
site: gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel: (832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Proposed MVC modules
Economic optimizer
Maximum profit=MeOH production revenue fuel cost others
Integrated
control module
Gas to primary
reformer
Syngas suct. press.
Inlet gas pressure
Recirculator speed
Purge to feed gas
Synloop pressure
Inlet gas to 2nd
reformer
Oxygen flow
Steam injection
Fuel pressure
Fuel to north side
Fuel to south side
Purge to fuelgas
Steam pressure
in steam drum
Steam to primary
reformer
300# steam press.
85# steam press.
Primary reformer MeOH converter
Secondary
reformer
Middle distillate pool
management
Application. Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as
an inline laboratory to deliver real-time quality infor-
mation to the multivariable control and optimization
systems of middle distillate blenders.
Strategy.
Analysis of middle distillate pool blend components
and of commercial gas oil and heating oil
High-frequency quality determinations: cetane num-
ber, cetane index, % distillate at 300C, 350C, 370C,
flash point, pour point, cloud point, CFPP, specific gravity,
viscosity at 40C, % polyaromatics
Blend indices for nonlinear properties of blend com-
ponents
Additives response for cetane booster and flow
improver.
Economics.
High-frequency analysis for inline certification of
commercial products
Minimal quality giveaway on commercial motor gas
oil and heating oil
Minimization of cetane booster and CFPP additives
Real-time middle distillate pool optimization.
Commercial installations. TOPNIR is used to moni-
tor/control gasoline blending in 20 refineries worldwide.
Licensor. Technip France on behalf of ABB Automation.
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
MTBE
Application. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is pro-
duced by reacting methanol and isobutylene. Due to its
oxygen content and other desirable properties, MTBE is
an important component in many refiners strategies to
produce reformulated gasoline.
Strategy. Several commercial MTBE unit designs differ
quite significantly in both reactor and fractionation train
design. Thus, the advanced control strategies should be
tailored to each specific installation. The following are
representative of the advanced control modules utilized:
Reactor controls
Mixed butenes feedrate maximization against con-
straints
Methanol-to-isobutylene ratio control
Reactor residence time control (multiple reactor
plant)
Reaction temperature control
Overall conversion rate control.
Fractionator controls
MTBE product composition control (methanol in
MTBE)
Methanol extractor water control
Methanol fractionator feedforward control (recy-
cle methanol).
Economics. Advanced control of the MTBE process pro-
vides the following benefits:
Increased MTBE unit capacity against operating con-
straints
More consistent MTBE quality
Improved operating stability
Reduced by-product formation
More flexible response to changing market condi-
tions.
Commercial installations. These advanced controls
have been implemented on one MTBE unit.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
MTBE
composition
control
MTBE
reactor(s)
Feedrate
maximization
control
Methanol-to-
isobutylene
ratio control
Methanol
feed
Mixed
butenes
feed
Methanol
recycle
Methanol
fractionator
control
Reactor
temperature
control
Residence
time
control
Conversion
rate
control
MTBE product
Recycle
methanol Butenes
Extractor
water
control
NGL plant
Application. MVC economically optimizes natural gas
liquids (NGL) recovery from field gas. The control strategy
is designed to optimize NGL component recovery through
plant load adjustment, manipulating key operating
parameters and constraint pushing while considering
energy consumption. Various process constraint and prod-
uct specification limitations are honored at the optimum
solution.
Control strategy. The objective of the MVC control
strategy for NGL plant optimization is maximizing unit
incremental profit and maintaining product specifica-
tionsincluding maximum methane, carbon dioxide
and/or ethane in the NGL, and condensate Rvp. This objec-
tive is realized through multiple control strategies:
Economically optimize the ethane and propane dis-
tribution between NGL and fuel gas.
Distribute the feed gas to take advantage of oper-
ational differences between parallel trains while main-
taining the ethane, carbon dioxide or propane content of
the mixed demethanizer bottoms product at target.
Optimize condensate production.
These individual strategies combine to produce the
economically optimum NGL flowrate and composition
while honoring various process constraints, as well as the
condensate Rvp and NGL specifications.
MVC often uses plant composition analyses. When
these are not available, MVC can use inferential calcula-
tions to estimate stream compositions or properties. These
are indicated in the typical NGL plant diagram shown
with the I next to the analyzer point. Online analyses
are indicated with the A next to the analyzer point.
MVC is a nonlinear multivariable control and economic
optimization technology that incorporates predictive
and adaptive algorithms derived from rigorous simula-
tions and field tests calibrated to match actual plant per-
formance. MVC resides within a Windows 2000 or RISC
workstation interfaced to or integrated with the plant
control system.
Economics. Benefits associated with successful imple-
mentation of this integrated control and optimization
system are both tangible and intangible. Some of the
intangible benefits include:
More stable operation
Less operator interaction
Improved process safety
Better process equipment utilization.
Tangible benefits include:
Increased revenues
Decreased operating costs
Reduced occurrences of off-specification penalties.
Experience indicates that annual benefits of $1 mil-
lion/yr is achievable for a typical-sized NGL unit.
Installations. The MVC NGL process control system has
been implemented on 13 domestic and 24 international
processing units.
Licensor. This technology is available from GE Drives &
Controls, Inc., Houston, Texas (formerly known as GE Con-
tinental Controls); Website: gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel:
(832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Field gas
separator
Sweet gas
Water
Water
Glycol unit
Gas
treating
Glycol unit
Sulfur
Fuel
gas
Cond.
stabilizer
Demethanizer
train 1
Condensate
drum
Demethanizer
train 2
Debutanizer
NGL
product
Stabilized condensate product
Fuel
gas
MVC
MVC
MVC
Feed
gas
A Analyzer
I Inferential
A
C
5
+
C
2
C
2
C
2
Rvp
Rvp
S
t
e
a
m
S
t
e
a
m
S
t
e
a
m
A
A
A
A
I
I
Oil movement management
Application. Order Movement Management (OMM)
and Movement Automation System (MAS) are designed
for supervising tank farms and terminals at single or mul-
tiple facilities. They provide the capability to generate
and manage orders, and then monitor and control actual
product movements.
Unlike oil accounting systems, OMM tracks actual move-
ments. OMM provides users the ability to record move-
ment data in a standard relational database, provide
automatic or manual reporting of movements, enable
operators to stop or start movements, and accept orders
and movements from schedulers. It creates the data ware-
house for product inventory.
MAS is designed to automate operation of product
transfers by providing equipment resource management,
automated path selection, movement automation and
transfer monitoring. MAS integrates with OMM.
Description. The OMM system consists of a Central Order
Database, Movement Control Area and OMM clients.
Planners and operators create and execute orders and
movements using the client application. OMM application
functionality includes:
Accepting orders and movements from external
planning packages
Creating manual orders and movements
Operator entry, checking and collecting historical
oil movement data
Movement preparation and coordination
Order monitoring and registration
Movement monitoring and registration
Automated and manual reporting to other refin-
ery systems
Operator warnings and messages regarding move-
ment activities.
Once created, OMM manages the orders/movements
and registers start-stop data and signals the status of
these orders/movements. Registered order and move-
ment data are used to generate reports, and is made
available to refinery information systems for use by yield
accounting and others.
MAS uses an expert system engine to configure the
plant offsites topology and control logic. The graphical
object-oriented approach is used to configure tank
farm logistics for automatic path selection, movement
models, state transition configuration and movement
calculations.
Operationally, MAS executes movement execution, pro-
vides extensive equipment management, checks transfer
material balance and contamination. It also provides auto-
matic source/destination switching and automatic recov-
ery upon equipment failure.
Object technology allows the system to be brought
online quickly and provides a high degree of software
flexibility that enables the movement automation sys-
tem to remain current with the actual field equipment
configuration. It replaces outdated techniques of path
library storage, traditional sequence programming and
report coding.
Economics. Economic benefits for an OMM / MAS infras-
tructure include: preventing product contamination,
optimal use of physical assets, reductions in demurrage
and spillage, accurate accounting of inventories, identi-
fying areas requiring automation, consistency in opera-
tions and lower IT maintenance costs.
Commercial installations. There are over 35 licensed
copies of OMM/MAS in service around the world.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro,
Massachusetts. Contact: cor.swart@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Offsite product suite
Yield
accounting
LIMS
BOSS
TIS
OMM
MAS
Movement
management
DBS
Blend
optimization
Inline blend
control
Analyzer
Pump and
valve control
Pump and
valve control
Movement
automation
Order data
management
Tank
instrumentation
Tank gauging
and monitoring
NMR
Plant
historian
Planning and
scheduling
Blend
planning
Oil movement management
Application. S-TMS is used in refineries and petro-
chemical facilities to manage inventory and product
movement information in real time. Implemented
together with standard data reconciliation packages,
such as the Sigmafine module from OSISoft Inc., S-TMS
provides a solution for yield accounting and oil loss detec-
tion in complex industrial environments.
S-TMS accomplishes several goals: It serves as a pro-
ductivity tool for the pumpers to log their activities and
do early error detection when reporting movements and
inventories; it serves as a data preparation tool for the
data reconciliation software; and it is also a central data
repository where inventories and movements are calcu-
lated, distributed, traced, stored and checked using a rig-
orous model of the entire plant or business unit.
S-TMS uses thin client technology (Web browser
interface), thus only a standard Web browser needs
to be installed in the client PC, minimizing software
maintenance.
Economics. As part of industrial production account-
ing systems, S-TMS has helped discover erroneous data
such as strapping tables, meter calibrations, lab mea-
surements, etc., all of which resulted in better data
that helped material loss detection initiatives. Both
operation and planning decisions benefited from the
revised data.
Commercial installations. S-TMS is installed in the fol-
lowing refineries: PetroIndustrial Esmeraldas Refinery,
Petroindustrial La Libertad Refinery, PetroIndustrial
Shushufindi Complex, ANCAP La Teja Refinery, Refinor
Refinery, Petrobras Eg3 Refinery and Petroperu
Talara Refinery.
Licensor. S-TMS is licensed by Soteica Ideas & Technology
L.L.C. (www.soteica.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Tank info Flow meters
Real-time
historian
S-TMS
Lab data
ERP
Planning
Data rec Reports
Reports
Weighbridge
Manual
data entry
Oil movements and
blending
Application. Oil movements include a wide variety of
transfer operations such as tanker loading/unloading,
process unit feed and rundown, tank-to-tank transfers,
pipeline sending, etc. Blending is a subset of oil move-
ments wherein multiple streams are mixed to produce a
product with specified physical and chemical properties.
Strategy. A wide spectrum of refinery oil movement
and blending requirements, up to and including fully
automatic oil transfers, can be accomplished by imple-
menting the following modular yet integrated packages:
ExatimTank inventory monitoring and tank database
ExablendBatch inline blending with automated
lineup
ExabpcMultivariable blend property control and
optimization
ExatransTransfer job monitoring for jobs other than
blending
ExaomcSupervisory job control for job definition and
interface to refinery scheduling system
ExapathOil transfer path library generation.
The EXA-OMS packages include a consistent, single-
window operator interface for all oil movements and
blending operations.
Economics. Oil movement and blending benefits have
been calculated at $1 million/yr for MOGAS blending and
as high as $2 million/yr for automated movements result-
ing in reduced tanker demurrage. The following are typ-
ical benefits sources:
More efficient equipment utilization (faster job
turnaround)
Decreased blender product quality giveaway and
blending costs
Reduced oil losses and reduction in reblending
Reduced cross-product contamination, slop and rerun
Reduced demurrage and elimination of loading
errors
Automated record keeping and plantwide data inte-
gration.
Commercial installations. These OMS packages are
installed in 33 refineries worldwide. The Exa packages
are based on technology and experience from 40 oil
movements and blending projects on earlier hardware
platforms.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Movement and
tank inventory
data to
integrated plant
information
system
Movement and
blending
orders from
plant scheduling
system
Tank quality
data from
laboratory
information
system
Exapath
Oil movement
path list
generation
Exaomc
OMS
Job supervisory control
Exatrans
Oil transfer
control
Exatim
Tank inventory
management
Exablend
Inline blend
control
Exabpc
Blend property
control
MOVs and
HOVs
Tank gauging
system
MOVs and
CVs
Online
blending analyzers
Oil movements and storage
Application. ABBs iOM&S is an expert system that opti-
mizes planning and execution of receipts, transfers, blends
and shipments in refinery offsites and terminals. The
package improves storage and equipment utilization,
eliminates material contamination and automates
enforcement of safety, environmental and operational
procedures. iOM&S is completely integrated with an
optional Crude Planning and Scheduling (CP&S) package
to provide optimal planning (30 days) and automatic
download of (3-day) scheduled tasks. The package is an
OPC client that can be integrated with ABB or other
underlying control systems.
Control strategy. i OM&S supports path selection,
lineup, startup, control, shutdown, monitoring and
reporting for:
Tank-to-tank transfer
Tank water drainage and circulation
Batch receipts and shipments, via pipeline or ship
Perpetual pipeline receipts and shipments
Perpetual unit feeds and rundowns
Sequential and simultaneous blending.
Optimal paths can be selected for each task by mini-
mizing the number of required manual field elements,
displacement volume or other site-specific criteria. Tank,
pump and valve equipment rules are designed to pre-
vent damage, errors in use, and violations of environ-
mental regulations. Rules are also applied to enforce
SOPs for job and task execution.
The system can effectively eliminate cross-contamina-
tion, minimize product degradation, manage inventory,
verify material balances and set up float paths to pre-
vent thermal expansion that could cause equipment dam-
age. Additional tasks and site-specific operational rules
can be configured easily in the system.
iOM&S object-oriented, expert system technology pro-
vides a configuration methodology that permits rapid
modifications and changes following initial project com-
pletion. A single model topology of the tank farm is con-
figured in the system in much the same form as a pro-
cess flow diagram or plot plan. Equipment and tasks are
intelligent objects, generated from an extensive library
of objects for the process industries. Each tank object
incorporates knowledge of all existing piping to which it
is connected, the piping capacities, associated valves,
pumps, instrumentation and all possible destination tanks.
Economics. Benefits result from increased shipping and
receiving efficiency (higher tankage, pipeline and berth
utilization), reduced tankage and pipelines, reduced
inventory, reduced quality giveaway, improved compo-
nent upgrading, reduced stock losses, and reduced field
manpower. Total refinery benefits can range from 10
cents per barrel to 20 cents per barrel of crude processed.
Commercial installations. i OM&S has been commis-
sioned in two existing crude terminal facilities and is cur-
rently being installed in a 120-tank refinery tank farm.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Oils movements
Application. Automation of refinery oil movements and
storage operations from crude receipts to product ship-
ments including monitoring, alarming, control, archiv-
ing and reporting of inventory and movement data.
Strategy. Movement Automation is an integrated suite
of modules that encompasses all aspects of material
movement operations:
Production Tracker is an enhanced electronic opera-
tors logbook used to simplify the task of logging all types
of material movements and inventory positions, and pro-
vide inventory management functions for the refinery
tank farm. The application typically takes levels and tem-
peratures from any of the commercial tank gauging sys-
tems and, using tank strapping tables, calculates net vol-
ume, mass, flowrate, available capacity and pumpable
volume.
Production Tracker monitors movement start, stop and
swing conditions, compares expected versus actual tank
state, calculates movement flowrate and volume, esti-
mates time to completion and collects movement his-
tory. Extensive movement alarming functionality alerts
the operator to abnormal situations in the tank farm.
Production Tracker supports articulation and execu-
tion of the production scheduling solution downloaded
to operations, and interfaces with Honeywells production
scheduling applications.
Task Control Module (TCM) provides automated
sequencing capability for movements and controls task
execution by operating field elements. TCM uses the Path
Finder Module (PFM) for selecting equipment and flow
paths. When a movement is activated, the system oper-
ates the required valves and pumps in a sequence of
phases that typically includes isolation, lineup, and start
and stop flow. TCM takes advantage of remotely oper-
ated field equipment and interacts with the operator to
ensure safe and consistent operation of manually con-
trolled elements.
Path Finder Module (PFM) determines the best available
path for routing material from a source tank or process
stream to a destination tank or process stream. Process
schematics are used to graphically select the source, des-
tination, and included and excluded equipment. PFM
automatically determines the sequence usage type for
each pump and valve selected. PFM also provides warn-
ings for manual operations and flotation analysis to
reduce risk of contamination and equipment damage.
Economics. Movement Automation modules help
reduce tankage and inventory, improve operator effi-
ciencies, minimize incidents and increase safety. Offsite
scheduling and reporting are improved, providing more
timely and accurate information.
Commercial installations. Honeywells Movement
Automation solutions are installed at over 100 sites world-
wide.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Business Hiway:
ERP integration
Plant planning
Blend planning
Blend
scheduling
Blend data
analysis
Blend control
and
optimization
Movement
control and
automation
Inventory and
movement
tracking
Olefins
Application. The integrated system for olefins plant
optimization and advanced process control establishes
optimal feed slate and operating conditions.
The Olefins Plant Simulator Optimizer (OPSO) system
allows for both online and offline optimization. It con-
siders various user-specified objective functions, such as
maximum profit at fixed or unlimited production. Rig-
orous models for all major equipment are included,
including ABBs proprietary furnace model.
The advanced process control system includes produc-
tion controller, model-based furnace severity control,
constraint control and model predictive control. It imple-
ments the objectives from the optimization system and
dynamically maintains plant operation within constraints.
Strategy. The OPSO programs fundamental kinetic,
heat and mass transfer models evaluate optimal plant
operation subject to physical and economic constraints.
The online OPSO environment includes data verification,
steady-state checking, rectified mass balance and set-
point downloads.
The advanced control system implements the opti-
mized or user-entered controller setpoints. The furnace
control strategy uses the same furnace model as the OPSO
system to control severity. The model is automatically
calibrated online. The strategy also handles throughput,
coil balancing and localized furnace constraints.
The system uses various advanced control techniques,
including conventional advanced control, constraint con-
trol, inferential and multivariable model-predictive con-
trol (MVPC).
A production controller increases feed to the furnaces
up to the set point determined by the optimizer or oper-
ator. Individual furnace constraints are relieved by redis-
tributing feed to other furnaces while maintaining the
total plant production target.
In the recovery section, the advanced control system
maintains product specification targets within the unit
operation constraints.
Economics. Typical payback periods are less than six
months.
Commercial installations. APC and optimization sys-
tems have been implemented at 40 olefins plants world-
wide, cracking a complete range of feeds.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Production controller
Plant
Optimizer
MPC
2
MPC
1
MPC
n
Block-based advanced control
Severity
control
Property
estimation
Regulatory control
Olefins
Application. Olefins optimization can be accomplished
through a solution offered by Aspen Technology, Inc. On
monthly and weekly bases, feedstock selection and pro-
duction planning are performed by Aspen PIMS. The
scope typically includes the entire site to ensure all down-
stream requirements and constraints are met. Typical
decision variables include feed rank and rate, preferred
cracking severities and daily production amounts. Unit
optimization is accomplished hourly using Aspen Plus
Optimizer models based on fundamental chemical engi-
neering principles.
Integrated prices from Aspen PIMS ensure that the unit
and site optimizers have the same objective. Typical deci-
sion variables include furnace parameters (feed, steam-
to-hydrocarbon ratios and cracking severities), compres-
sor suction pressure, and distillation column pressures
and product specifications.
Constraint variables are typically designed to include
furnace run-lengths, process and equipment performance
limitations, plant safety criteria and environmental lim-
its on emissions. Cost of ethylene manufacture is mini-
mized for demand-limited economics, and plant pro-
duction is maximized for production-limited economics in
real time.
On a minute-by-minute basis, optimization decision
variables are implemented through DMCplus multivari-
able controllers, typically applied to cracking furnaces,
primary fractionator and quench columns, the charge
gas compressor, and ethylene and propylene recovery
sections.
DMCplus Composite Controller links the multiple con-
trollers for coordination by a single optimizer. Subcon-
troller technology allows for simpler operator interfaces
to large olefins control problems. The Composite Con-
troller maximizes feed throughput, subject to down-
stream constraints.
Furnace modeling is key to success of these solutions.
Technips rigorous furnace yield model, SPYRO, is tightly
integrated with the entire solution, providing minute-
by-minute furnace effluent estimates for the DMCplus
cracking furnace controllers. This allows effective sever-
ity control even when furnace effluent analysis data are
not available. In addition, Technips FIREBOX, TES and
CONVEC rigorous furnace models for the firebox, trans-
fer line exchanger and convection section respectively,
are also integrated with the Aspen Plus Optimizer olefins
model. These models are best in class and provide excel-
lent results.
Finally, performance monitoring is essential to ensure
that planning and actual operations are truly in sync.
Actual production calculations, overall unit efficiency cal-
culations, planning model accuracy determination and
daily plan versus actual reporting, are all accomplished in
this solution.
Economics. The complete solution can produce bene-
fits between $7 and $30/ton of ethylene produced.
Commercial installations. The feedstock selection and
production planning components have been imple-
mented in over 40 sites; closed-loop optimization and
multivariable control has been implemented in over 35
plants. Composite Control technology has been imple-
mented in over 30 plants.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Olefins
Application. Olefin plants are one of the most impor-
tant applications for Emersons Advanced Process Con-
trol (APC) and Real-Time Optimizer, key technologies
that power PlantWeb to improve plant performance.
They possess all the characteristics that make the tech-
nologies beneficial.
From the APC perspective, olefin plants:
Are highly interactive, particularly the back-end dis-
tillation section
Have complex time delays and process dynamics
Often make maximum profit at constraints.
In terms of Real-Time Optimizer, the following apply:

The process is complex, and it is impossible for the


operator to deduce the optimum without modeling
tools

The process is subject to constant change

There are many degrees of freedom.


The overall system must, therefore, address the two
fundamental requirements: 1) to regularly and quickly
identify the optimum setpoints and constraints; 2) to
control these constraints.
Strategy/technology. Emersons proven Real-Time
Optimizer and multivariable control products provide all
the functionality required for any particular olefins
application:
A modeling environment for rigorous unit opera-
tion modeling
Advanced mixed integer nonlinear programming
optimizer for setpoint optimization and furnace feed
selection
Sophisticated statistical model fitting and data vali-
dation
Advanced process control in the form of embedded
APC tools
Real-time executive, which is a platform indepen-
dent layer dealing with all data and task management.
Benefits. Benefits of between $2.5 to $6 million per year
have been achieved through:

Increased throughput

Better feedstock selection and utilization

Increased yields of desirable olefins

Reduced energy consumption per ton of olefin pro-


duced

Closer operation to constraints

Improved forecasting.
Commercial installations. Installed in 16 olefins sites
worldwide.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Real-Time Optimizer
RTE
DeltaV
OPC
interface
MINLP
Rigorous models
Data validation
Heater APC
Severity
Compression
Constraints
Column APC
Separation
Quality
Constraints
Compressor APC
Suction pressure
Constraints
Olefins
Applications. Olefins plants are generally well suited
for advanced process control and real-time optimization
applications. These plants are ideal candidates to bene-
fit from: energy reduction, increased capacity, optimiza-
tion of yields and feedstock selection, and for providing
valuable information to operators and engineers to run
the plant at optimum conditions. Model-based advanced
control enforces the optimum setpoints while respect-
ing changing operating constraints.
Control strategies. Furnaces, quench area, distillation
columns and acetylene and MAPD converters are con-
trolled with Honeywells multivariable Profit Controllers.
Furnace controls. Each controller is responsible for
achieving optimization targets for the furnace while pre-
venting constraint violations. The optimizer calculates a
severity, feed rate and steam-to-hydrocarbon ratio target
for each furnace that will then be implemented by the
individual furnace Profit Controller.
Separation area. Where possible the column controls
are implemented as independent controllers. However, in
many applications, controls for the cold fractionation
columns (e.g., demethanizer, deethanizer and ethylene
fractionator) are coupled with the refrigeration controls
due to the energy link between these columns.
Converters. The acetylene and MAPD converters are
controlled with Profit Controllers. The outlet acetylene or
MAPD is controlled by adjusting the hydrogen-to-diolefin
ratio. The Profit Controller sets the inlet bed tempera-
ture and first bed outlet conversion while maintaining
the converters within constraints.
Optimization. Honeywells plant optimizer uses fur-
nace yield models, material and energy balances and
constraint models to calculate the optimum targets. The
optimization hierarchy has four layers. The first layer con-
tains the Profit Controller, which holds the process at
specified setpoints with minimum energy input. Each
controller has a dynamic process model. Typically, a unit
operation is the basis for the controller.
The next layer in the hierarchy is Profit Optimizer, which
uses the controller models to coordinate furnace opera-
tion with constraints in the plant separation area. Plant
constraint information, along with feed and product
prices, are the input to the distributed quadratic opti-
mization function. Profit Optimizer resets the furnace
feedrates, severity, charge gas compressor suction pressure
and soft targets compositions for some cold-side columns.
The third layer utilizes Profit Bridge to interface with
rigorous furnace kinetic models used to update the fur-
nace yield gains in Profit Controller and Profit Optimizer.
These nonlinear gains properly account for changing
feed compositions and coke profiles.
The top layer may be ProfitMax optimization, a rigor-
ous, first-principles mathematical model for the entire
plant that realistically represents the complex relationships
that exist between plant operating conditions, plant prof-
itability and plant constraints. ProfitMax is a self-tuning,
steady-state process model. The solution determines the
optimum steady-state operating conditions passed down
to Profit Optimizer. The table below summarizes the sim-
ilarities and differences between Profit Controller, Profit
Optimizer, Profit Bridge and ProfitMax.
Name Model Scope Run-time Function
type interval
Profit Dynamic Single 12 min Local control
Controller linear unit and
optimization
Profit Dynamic Multiunit 12 min Multiunit
Optimizer linear control and
optimization
Profit Dynamic Single or 25 min Nonlinear
Bridge nonlinear multiunit gain updating
for nonlinear
control and
optimization
ProfitMax Steady Single or 12 hour Global
-state, multiunit steady-state
nonlinear optimization
Economics. Typical improvements from advanced con-
trols and optimization in an ethylene plant are: 38%
increased ethylene production, 812% reduced energy
usage, 2030% increased furnace run lengths. Typical
paybacks range from 10 to 20 months.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented in 16 olefin plants around the world. Nine
Profit Optimizers have been installed, and two more are
in progress.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Olefins
Applications. Integrated olefin process plant Design
Simulation Analysis (DSA) and Operation Simulation Anal-
ysis (OSA) includes rigorous, kinetic models, knowledge-
based cracking furnace and acetylene removal reactor
models, and rigorous model-based downstream com-
pressor and fractionation recovery system OSA for CIM
and DCS applications to maximize daily ethylene and
propylene reactor yields and recovery while minimizing
energy and off-spec wastes for process improvements in
debottlenecking.
This system can also be used for preventive mainte-
nance and accident, emergency shutdown and startup
simulation for safety and loss prevention, and supply
chain and TQM cost reductions.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. Olefin fur-
nace, acetylene reactors and downstream recovery unit
DSA and OSA have been developed and implemented
based on the past 10 years global fuel oils, LPG, naphtha,
gas oil, feedstock procurement, inventory and supply
chain costs; olefin products spot and contract prices
(DeWitt, market newsletter), corporate/plant full oper-
ating history (including normal emergency operations
and upsets); process unit design data, latest literature
and patent search; and management and plant opera-
tors expertise as the information knowledge base.
Design and operations simulation models develop-
ment. Rigorous kinetic theories, fuzzy logic, neural net-
work and chaos theory supported by reactor and down-
stream compression and fractionation train recovery
expert systems cover full range operating loads and sever-
ity for the latest licensors designs.
The furnace reactors track full range coking run length
to accurately predict full range gas feeds (ethane,
propane, butane and LPG), naphtha, gas oil, feed com-
positions, operating severity, operating load (from 60%
to 120%), steam to HC ratio, outlet pressure changes
impact on olefin yield improvements, minimize energy
consumption and olefin loss, and maximize products
recovery.
Operations management implementation. The OSA
consultant, Dr. Huang, will set up cost, quality, market
shares as goal, mission performance-oriented cross-
departmental strategic execution OSA teams to conduct
design, operation review, goal and objective definition;
develop and implement reactors simulation and tie into
downstream recovery units for integrated olefin process
systems operations simulation, optimal control and debot-
tlenecking cost reduction.
Economics. Up to a 3% of olefin yield increase over
design can be achieved with up to 20% over design capac-
ity and 15% reduction of unit energy consumption. This
is achieved by integrating olefin and acetylene removal
reactors into downstream recovery units OSA without
any equipment retrofit. Up to a $30 million cost reduction
in feedstock and energy unit costs with improved quality
and market shares without staff reduction is possible.
Commercial installations. Four integrated olefin plant
operation improvements have been implemented by
olefin plant OSA teams, and Dr. Warren Huang. Twenty
cost reduction workshops have been offered.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Capitalize on LPG Feed Changes, April 1979, Oil &
Gas Journal; Improve process by OSA, Hydrocarbon
Processing, May 1980, Improve naphtha cracker opera-
tions, Hydrocarbon Processing, February 1980; a 12-
paper series in Oil & Gas Journal and Hydrocarbon Pro-
cessing, 19801983; Control of Cracking Furnace, US
patents, 1981,1982; Energy and Resource Conservation
in Olefin Plant Design and Operation, presented to
World Congress, Montreal, Tokyo, 1982, 1986; Refinery,
Petrochemical Process Improvement, Debottleneck on
PC, ISA, 1989, Philadelphia; Large chemical plant con-
ference, Antwerp, Belgium, 1992, 1995; INTER PEC CHINA
91, Beijing, 1991, 1995; OSA Decision Supported TQM,
Quality Productivity Conference by Hydrocarbon Pro-
cessing, Houston, 1993; Goal, Mission Performance Ori-
ented Design/Operations Simulations Analysis Predictive
Control Maximize Refinery/Petrochemicals Productivity,
Flexibility, Dallas, 1999; Supply chain strategy maximize
oil, chemical profits conference/workshops, Singapore,
April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Olefins
Application. Economic optimization of olefins plant
operations is based on a combination of the NOVA opti-
mizer and STAR multivariable predictive controllers. Both
NOVA and STAR are part of the DOT Products advanced
process modeling and control suite.
Optimization strategy. NOVA consists of a solution
engine for nonlinear optimization and equation solving,
a library of equation-based unit operations models and
a pure component physical property system.
A fully rigorous equation-based plant model is typi-
cally solved first in parameter estimation mode to match
the model to current plant operation. This parameter
estimation problem is posed so as to attain 100% solution
robustness.
After the model is matched to the actual plant, it is
then run in economic optimization mode. The modeling
approach and fidelity are selected to ensure accurate
prediction of dependent variables to reflect plant con-
straints. Independent variables for online optimization
typically include furnace feed rates and severities; con-
trolled pressures for main compressors (cracked gas, ethy-
lene, propylene); soft specifications, controlled pressures
and feed distribution, preheat and side reboil for sepa-
ration columns.
Online optimization is scheduled by a real-time exec-
utive that deals with data and task management.
Control strategy. Results from the optimization act as
setpoints and limits for STAR multivariable predictive
controllers that run every 13 minutes to ensure that
equipment constraints are honored as the optimization
results are implemented in the plant.
STAR multivariable predictive controllers are imple-
mented on the cracking furnaces, quench towers,
demethanizer and deep chilling, C2 and C3 separation,
and compressors in the separation train. The multivariable
applications are designed respecting the significant inter-
actions and complex dynamics of the separation area.
STAR is an adaptive multivariable predictive controller
designed to make large applications easier to implement
and maintain. STAR implementation only requires steady-
state gain relationships. Calculations to synthesize pro-
cess dynamics are then performed by the controller at
each control cycle. STAR thus captures the benefits of
multivariable predictive control technology while mini-
mizing the difficulties and disadvantages.
Benefits. Gross margin improvements range from 310%
dependent on economics, feedstock type and flexibility,
and market or production constrained scenario.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented 14 olefins units around the world.
Licensor. PAS, Inc., Houston, Texas. Contact: e-mail:
sales@pas.com; Website: www.pas.com; tel: (281) 286-
6565.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Olefins
Application. Ethylene is a very competitive business and
advanced control/optimization strategies can give the
user a competitive edge over. Ethylene is produced by a
pyrolysis reaction in multitube cracking furnaces. Model-
based control strategies and real-time optimization can
have significant impacts on yields and economics.
Control strategy. The control philosophy applied to
modern ethylene plants addresses both the hot and cold
sides of the plant and involves four distinct levels:
Distributed control. The first control level is imple-
mented on the DCS level. Both regulatory and advanced
regulatory control strategies are implemented at this
level.
Advanced constraint controls. This level involves
application of multivariable model-based constraint con-
trollers. These multivariable controllers maintain stable
operation during upsets and keep areas within the plant
operating against their local constraints.
Plantwide constraint control. Plantwide LPs provide
shifting constraints for the multivariable controllers.
These LPs operate in real time and serve to coordinate
the operation of the multivariable controllers. This appli-
cation layer keeps the plant operating against several
constraints in multiple plant areas.
Plantwide rigorous optimization. A plantwide rig-
orous model of the ethylene plant is employed to pro-
vide optimal targets to the plantwide constraint control
LPs. The model combines rigorous kinetic models with
thermodynamic property models and equipment models.
This model is also periodically parameterized or updated
using data from the plant. This top level optimization
allows changing operation based on different objectives
such as maximizing plant profit or olefin production or
minimizing costs at a fixed olefin production.
Economics. Typical benefits have been reported from
$1 million to $3 million per year.
Commercial installations. The control and optimization
philosophies have been implemented at six different
sites. Some of these installations involve multiple ethylene
units.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
HPS
LPS
WHB
WHB
DS
Fuel Boiler
house
Water
treatment
GT1
GT2
Stack
MPS
LD
T2
T1
Air
Air
Process Process
Process
Export elec.
Import elec.
Process
Olefins (inline laboratory)
Application. Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as
an inline, real-time laboratory to provide control and
decision support systems with timely and accurate qual-
ity information.
Strategy.
High-frequency analysis of naphtha feeds to the
cracking furnaces: specific gravity, molecular weight,
PIONA per carbon atom to be used by the Technip SPYRO
technology, distillation curve and coking index
Feed analysis to hydrogenation units: PIONA, dienes,
BTX
Pyrolysis gasoline analysis: RON, MON, Rvp, PIONA.
Economics.
Real-time assessment of feed qualities variations
for feed-forward adjustment of furnace severity control
and plant optimization using SPYRO as yield predictor
Dienes hydrogenation optimization
Safe naphtha quality swings
Optimal evaluation of pyrolysis gasoline selling price.
Commercial installations. Several steam crackers in
Europe and South America.
Licensor: Technip France on behalf of ABB Automation.
Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE ParisAdvanced
Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax:
(33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail: mvalleur@technip.com; Web-
site: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Online controller
maintenance
Application. Long-term economic benefit of an APC
system strongly depends on the success of the controller
maintenance activities. Without adequate maintenance,
controller performance can slowly deteriorateresult-
ing in an erosion of APC benefits and loss of operator
confidence. Controller maintenance activities, however,
can sustain APC system value, and provide substantial
benefits:
Optimal economic performance of the controller
over its full life cycle
More effective leverage of control system support
resources
Improved economic benefit due to higher onstream
factor.
Strategy. Advanced model-predictive control systems
are now deployed in thousands of applications world-
wide, delivering substantial financial benefits. The process,
however, is subject to multiple and frequent changes.
Seasonal variations, changes in operational mandates
and process degradation as well as process improvements
can all adversely impact controller performance.
For this reason, the long-term economic benefit of an
APC system depends on the success of controller main-
tenance activities. Aspen Sustained Value consists of two
primary software toolsAspen Watch and Aspen Smart-
Stepcombined with practical training and input from
AspenTechs process control domain experts. The solu-
tion can dramatically improve controller performance,
while providing a significant reduction in the number of
people required to support the application.
Aspen Watch is AspenTechs premier technology for
control system performance monitoring and diagnosis. A
layered product for DMCplus, it tightly integrates
advanced control and database technology into a revo-
lutionary new tool. Aspen Watch provides full uncom-
pressed historization and visualization of all controller-cal-
culated data on a cycle-to-cycle basis.
This allows support engineersusing accumulated his-
toryto identify trends, problems and potential areas
for improvement. Aspen Watch also features an expand-
ing range of performance monitoring and diagnostic
application modules, including PID controller perfor-
mance monitoring and tuning technology. This technol-
ogy leverages limited engineering resources, providing
prioritization of engineering effort and reducing sup-
port requirements.
Aspen SmartStep is used to audit and optimize DMC-
plus performance. Based on a patent-pending constrained
step-testing algorithm, Aspen SmartStep automatically
generates high-quality closed-loop step test data with
reduced engineering supervision, while observing all pro-
cess unit operability constraints. Support engineers use it
to conduct focused retests whenever performance
degrades due to changes in the process unit.
Economics. Aspen Sustained Value can help a typical
refinery increase APC benefits by as much as 15% to 20%.
Commercial installations. Aspen Watch and Aspen
SmartStep are licensed at over 70 commercial sites world-
wide.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Online controller
maintenance:
Regulatory and MPC
Application. ProcessDoctor Online provides a complete
solution for constant monitoring and diagnosing health
of regulatory control technology, identifying and prior-
itizing problem loops, and monitoring advanced con-
trollers to ensure that return on investment for regulatory
and advanced control technology is sustained over time.
Strategy. ProcessDoctor Online is a server-based appli-
cation that uses standard process data (in normal closed-
loop mode) to constantly monitor plant control asset
performance. Scheduled and on-demand reports are
Web-delivered, and provide information to all plant per-
sonnel levelsfrom supervisory, to engineering, to tech-
niciansto allow for effective deployment of technical
personnel, and to provide the appropriate information
and recommendations to address maintenance issues
(provides tuning, valve and model information). Top 10
lists of worst performing loops are provided, and helpful
key performance indicators (KPIs) are generated such as:
benchmarks to best past performance Relative Perfor-
mance Index, Six Sigma information, valve stiction and
many other indicators of control loop health.
The model predictive controller (MPC) module helps sus-
tain performance of multivendor MPC technologies,
including Honeywells Profit Controller and Aspens DMC-
plus, identifying problems such as large model errors and
more. Additional add-on functionality is available for
process modeling.
ProcessDoctor Online has universal connectivity to all
plant control systems and process historians. Standard
templates for all major systems and configurations allow
for fast installation and instant value.
Economics. ROI often seen in 36 months. Example ben-
efits: increased throughput, closer operation to plant
constraints, reduced equipment wear, improved quality
control, more stable plant operation due to reduced vari-
ability, increased effectiveness of technical personnel and
better in-service factor for model-based multivariable
predictive controllers.
Commercial installations. ProcessDoctor was one of
the first control loop assessment products available,
and has been installed at over 50 sites worldwide, includ-
ing North America, the Middle East, Asia, Europe and
Australia.
Licensor. Matrikon Inc., Houston, Texas, and Edmonton,
Alberta, and 15 offices worldwide. Contact: e-mail: pro-
cessdoctor@matrikon.com; Website: www.matrikon.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Operational excellence
solutions
Application. The Value-added Information Sourced
Applications (VISA) suite from Yokogawa are software
applications designed to optimize operations, deliver-
ing timely and accurate information to operational and
management staff. VISA is a core product delivered as
part of the Yokogawa Enterprise Technology Solutions
concept. VISA integrates information from many soft-
ware packages in readily accessed, user-contextual, self-
configuring management level reports. These applica-
tions include, but are not limited to:
Mass balancing providing hourly, shift and daily
mass or energy balances based on volume, mass or mole
at the plant or unit level.
Production accounting expands on the validated
balance data to provide a suite of production reports
relating to inventories, utilizations, consumptions,
receipts, sales and similar.
Performance monitoring combining mass balance
data with additional operational data to calculate key
performance indicators such as yields and efficiencies,
which are then presented in actual versus plan reports.
Environmental monitoring provides real-time mon-
itoring, calculation, alarms and reports for all emis-
sions, reducing risk of legislative noncompliance, and
demonstrating due diligence in emissions management
strategies.
Operations Activity Management (OAM) provides
a log-book to ensure improved workflow, and track key
operator instructions and actions through the initial auto-
matic notification to completion.
Data reconciliation provides process data validation
and measurement inference to guarantee data accuracy
and quality.
Laboratory information management system (LIMS).
VISA provides a structured solution to integrate LIMS
data into the business environment, providing analysis
of quality giveaway, costs, etc.
Plant information management system (PIMS). VISA
is PIMS impartial, accepting data from a wide range of
PIMS systems. The VISA engine provides business intelli-
gent preprocessing of PIMS data, long-term data stor-
age of low-granularity data and presentation of infor-
mation from process control systems.
Strategy. VISA is based on data gathered from the his-
tory modules of the contributing systems lower in the
industrial software pyramid. Once in VISAthis data may
be freely combined to create new values of direct rele-
vance to operational optimization.
VISAis the essential link between plant-level data and
the demand for derived and reconciled plant manage-
ment data at the ERP and business optimization levels.
Economics. Business benefits achieved with the suc-
cessful implementation of Visa include:
Reduced unplanned downtime
Improved decision making
Optimized performance
Improved yield
Empowerment of operators
Improved operator response
Improved plant utilisation
Effective emissions management
Optimized planning and scheduling cycles
Better stock control
Integrated planning cycles
Commercial installations. Yokogawa has over 200 sites
where information management systems have been
implemented. In excess of 150 of these are in the hydro-
carbons arena
Licensor. Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo,
Japan, e-mail: info@ymx.yokogawa.com, Website:
www.ymx.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
POP
SOP
Finance
Data
recouncil-
iation
Value-added information sourced applications
Plant information
management system
Mass
balancing
PCS
PCS interface
OLE for
process
control
Maintanace
management
Environment
monitoring
Performance
monitoring
Laboratory
management
Operations
activity
management
Whouse mgt
EDMS
Production
accounting
Phenol
Application. Phenol is produced by acid cleaving cumene
hydrogen peroxide (CHP) derived from catalytic oxida-
tion of cumene through several reactors in series. The
byproduct of this reaction is acetone. The catalytic oxi-
dation process is a slow reaction and can result in uneven
compositions of CHP in the reactor product, which sig-
nificantly affect the phenol and acetone product distri-
bution.
The distillation side of the phenol plant separates and
purifies a crude mixture of phenol, acetone, cumene and
other materials. Phenol and acetone leave this area as
purified products. Aspen Technologys DMCplus multi-
variable control technology can significantly reduce prod-
uct variability and, thus, increase phenol plant profitability
by controlling the unit at the optimum level, subject to
constraints.
Control strategy. A DMCplus controller on the front
end of the plant can control the CHP concentration in
the reactor product by manipulating reactor feeds, oxy-
gen flows and reactor outlet temperatures. This ensures
consistent CHP in the feed for the acid cleavage tower.
The crude acetone tower is usually the first tower that
separates the crude unreacted cumene, phenol stream
and the acetone stream. The crude acetone tower oper-
ation involves azeotropic separations and it is critical to
maintain a constant temperature profile in the tower.
To recover most of the acetone into the overhead stream,
it is required to shift the water azeotrope from the ace-
tone stream into the cumene stream. The DMCplus con-
troller for the phenol tower can adjust bottoms temper-
ature, feed and reflux to maintain a stable temperature
profile. The acetone tower and AMS towers can also be
included.
A typical DMCplus controller for this unit can have as
many as 1015 manipulated variables, 56 disturbance
variables and 2530 controlled variables.
Economics. A typical increase in the phenol production
rate is 57% with a payback period of 34 months.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has completed
four phenol projects.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Phenol
Application. The multistage reactors in a phenol plant
make excellent opportunities to lower costs while improv-
ing product quality control of the final phenol product.
Phenol plants can have as many as four reactors in series
with the final product purity being affected by all of the
upstream reactors. This highly interactive process with
its extremely long time constants makes Emersons model
predictive control (MPC) a valuable advanced control
application. MPC technology is one of the tools that
power Emersons PlantWeb digital plant architecture to
improve throughput and quality, while reducing costs.
Inferential property sensors can predict concentrations
of reactor effluent for operator guidance or feedback
measurements to the MPC block. The inferential prop-
erty estimates are updated by laboratory results or online
analyzers. These predictive models must be generated
from plant historical process and laboratory data. The
product quality predictions run in real time for operator
display, trending and alarms.
MPC controls can also be implemented on the frac-
tionation section of the plant for additional benefits.
These controls help reduce process variability and lower
energy costs in the distillation columns.
Advanced control strategies are designed to achieve
a number of operating objectives:
Maximize feed rate against unit constraints while
maintaining product quality (when desired)
Stabilize and control reactor effluent concentrations
to desired targets
Minimize excess air
Minimize unit energy consumption per barrel feed.
Strategy. A single MPC application is used to manip-
ulate reactor temperatures and air flow to each of the
reactors to control reactor effluent concentrations at
offgas O
2
concentrations. Constraints include valve,
pump, temperature and reaction rate limits. The
embedded optimization in the MPC controller algo-
rithm allows costs to be used to drive the unit to the
most profitable region, which is normally at minimum
air and energy consumption.
Commercial installations. MPC control on a phenol
unit implemented by Emerson has been operating on
one site for over five years.
Benefits. Phenol plant advanced controls typically pro-
duce economic savings from the following sources:
Additional capacity from operating closer to actual
process equipment limits (when desired)
Better average conversion across the reactor sys-
tem
More stable product quality
Reduced quality giveaway
Lower energy cost per barrel of feed.
The nominal value for these benefits is normally in the
range of $0.010.05/barrel feed, depending on the plants
incentives for phenol capacity, product prices and fuel
costs.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Phenol reactor section
Fresh feed
(flow DV)
R-1
Product
Air (MV)
Air (MV)
Air (MV)
R-2
Excess oxygen (CV)
Excess oxygen (CV)
Excess oxygen (CV)
Excess oxygen (CV)
Recycle feed
(conc. DV)
R-3
R-4
Air (MV)
Concen-
tration
(CV)
Concen-
tration
(CV)
Concentration
(CV)
Concen-
tration
(CV)
Temp.
(MV)
Temp.
(MV)
Temp.
(MV)
Temp.
(MV)
Planning and scheduling
Applications. Business.FLEX PKS software applications
provide Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) that unify
business and production automation. Business objectives
are directly translated into manufacturing targets, and
validated production data are returned to close the
loop on the business planning cycle. Business.FLEX PKS
applications for planning and scheduling enable opti-
mal, robust production plans to be created and dis-
tributed to automation systems for execution.
The SAND module is a supply chain optimization tool
that determines the optimal method of producing prod-
ucts and satisfying customer demand with multiple man-
ufacturing facilities. A multiperiod modeling capabil-
ity is most valuable when product demands or
manufacturing capabilities are significantly different
between periods.
The ASSAY2 module is an integrated crude selection
and evaluation application to support rapid, effective
decision making about which crudes to buy, sell or trade.
ASSAY2 generates yield and quality data that are essen-
tial for evaluating crude oils selected for processing and
for preparing production plans.
The Production Planner (RPMS) module is a planning
tool that supports evaluating and selecting raw materi-
als, formulating optimal production plans evaluating
capital investments, and evaluating processing and
exchange agreements.
The Production Scheduler module prepares a detailed
schedule for operations such as crude scheduling and
blending scheduling. It enables a scheduler to rapidly
respond to events such as equipment outages, and sup-
ply and distribution changes, all while maintaining a
robust, feasible and profitable schedule. It prepares an
optimal blend plan with the most economical blending
recipes for intermediate component blending to meet
the final product demand on time and without quality
giveaway.
The Production Analyst module enables comparing
planned performance to actual results to continuously
improve overall performance.
Strategy. The Advanced Planning and Scheduling solu-
tion suite aligns production planning with corporate
objectives, prepares an optimal plan, transforms the plan
into a production schedule and establishes operational
targets for meeting that schedule. Multi-site planning is
supported. The solution acts as the interface between
planning and control and provides better feedstock selec-
tion, yields and margins, and feasible schedules that max-
imize throughput. Focusing on economics, the Advanced
Planning and Scheduling solution addresses crude
scheduling, operations planning, supply and distribution
optimization operations scheduling, blending optimiza-
tion, and performance monitoring, as well as other
requirements.
Economics. Benefits are realized from effective unifi-
cation of business and production automation. As a result,
companies can typically increase production by 25%
and decrease costs by 0.51%. Major benefit areas are
improved operational effectiveness, market responsive-
ness, quality control, personnel productivity, customer
satisfaction, conformance to environmental controls and
reduced working capital requirements, operating costs,
raw material utilization, utility consumption, product
returns and inventory levels.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
BLEND:
blend planning
Production
balance
Operating
instructions
Advanced
process control
and optimization
SAND: supply
and distribution
Production
analyst
Production
planner (RPMS)
ASSAY2:
feedstock
evaluation
Production
scheduler
Planning and scheduling
(olefins)
Applications. The Invensys nonlinear planning system,
NL Planner, can be applied to provide economic decision
support, such as feedstock evaluation and planning, as
well as day-to-day guidance for olefins plant operations.
The system, therefore, closes the traditional gap
between planning and operations. In the past, planning
systems were not accurate enough to provide daily guid-
ance to plant operations. In olefins plants, as well as in a
number of other important HPI facilities, this level of
accuracy can only be achieved by a nonlinear system such
as NL Planner.
Strategy. Although linear programming (LP)-based plan-
ning tools are widely used in the oil refining industry,
they have found limited acceptance in ethylene plants
and other process applications. NL Planner provides a
unique ability to accurately model these highly nonlinear
processes. Key system features are:
First-principles, equation-based modeling
Graphical user interface (GUI) for model building
Microsoft Excel interface for planners and
schedulers.
These features, combined with fast system execution
and sophisticated case management, enable a broad
range of process facilities to improve their profitability. NL
Planner is based on elements of Invensys SimSci process
simulation and nonlinear optimization technology. For
ethylene plants, the full capability of the Spyro furnace
yield program from Technip-Coflexip is included.
The systems proven technology, modern software
architecture and intuitive GUI result in improved return
on investment and reduced cost of ownership. These
benefits are achieved through a shortened learning curve,
faster application implementation, easier long-term main-
tenance, broader use of the applications and increased
application life span.
Because of its unique open equation-based optimiza-
tion, petrochemical plant operators can develop very
accurate, credible models of their facilities for economic
decision support. Key advantages of the nonlinear
approach to planning and scheduling are:
Accurate over a broad operating range
Rigorous treatment of constraints
Full kinetic reactor models
Accurate utility calculations based on heat and
material balances.
NL Planner can be used in the office for feedstock eval-
uation and production planning. It can also be used in
the plant for daily optimization and to provide accurate
yield projections for production scheduling.
Economics. Economics vary depending on the specific
circumstances of each installation; however, benefits
from these systems are typically found in the following
areas:
Improved feedstock selection
Improved yield slate
Reduced utility consumption.
For many olefins plants, feedstock and utility costs can
be in the range of 7080% of variable operating costs. By
reducing these costs, NL Planner can provide potential
benefits in the range of $515/ton of ethylene product,
which can add up to millions of dollars per year in savings.
These systems often pay for themselves in a few months.
Commercial installations. The Invensys NL Planner
technology has been applied at four olefins sites.
Licensor. Invensys Performance Solutions, Foxboro, Mas-
sachusetts. Contact: david.geddes@invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Feedstock
avails and cost
Plant
constraints
Product price
and constraints
Feedrates
Product slate
Operating
conditions
Fractionation
Furnaces
First-principles,
Equation-based model
Planning and scheduling
(planning)
Application. Aspen Process Industry Modeling System
(PIMS)the foundation of AspenTechs powerful, easy-
to-use family of supply chain solutionsis a state-of-the-
art production planning and optimization system that
enables refiners and petrochemical producers to achieve
dramatic productivity increases, while simultaneously
improving overall supply chain agility and profitability.
Aspen PIMS is a key component of AspenTechs solution
for production execution, seamlessly providing unit activ-
ities information and planned recipes to the Aspen Orion
scheduling system.
Aspen PIMS employs linear programming (LP) tech-
niques to solve both simple and complex models, and
offers capabilities for recursion and interfacing with both
crude assay and process unit databases. The system gives
users the ability to construct optimal planning models
that balance the complexities of todays environment
with maximum fidelity, and provides benefits that include:
Increased profits through accurate and flexible
models that reflect true modeling of key planning pro-
cesses, including model analysis, crude and feedstock
selection, production planning, operations planning
and blending
Reduced operating costs through a streamlined
planning process that enables improved asset utilization,
utility right-sizing, utilities reduction and loss reduction
Sustained value through common process models,
consistent model validation and calibration methods,
and custom reporting.
Additional capabilities. The capabilities of Aspen PIMS
can be extended with a set of layered products that allow
users to link together a number of single-plant Aspen PIMS
models to form a complex multisource, multiplant, multi-
market supply/demand/distribution network; solve com-
plex multitime period problems and model production
planning applications where inventory considerations are
important; and solve multiple plant and multiple time
period models with interplant transfer and distribution to
meet marketing demands and feed distribution to plants.
Economics. Conservative estimates for a simple 100 Mbpd
refinery indicate that Aspen PIMS can generate potential
annual benefits in excess of $10 million from improved
crude selection, improved unit performance, and improved
blending. PIMS-SX has demonstrated tangible and con-
sistent savings in the range of $0.100.15 per barrel.
Commercial installations. The industry standard for
petroleum industry planning, Aspen PIMS is licensed at
over 400 sites, and is used by more than 75% of the
refineries and more than 60% of all petrochemical plants
in the world.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Assays and
sub models
Aspen PIMS
Refinery planning
Unit activities
Planned recipes
Aspen Orion
Refinery scheduling
Rundowns and
qualities
Shipments
Aspen MBO
Product blend planning
and scheduling
Optimized blend
recipes
Aspen Blend
Blend control and
online optimization
Instrumentation layer (DCS)
BRC setpoints
Lab
information
system
Yield
accounting
Opening
inventories
Shipment
and receipts
Tank
qualities
ERP
system
Planning and scheduling
(refining)
Applications. PETRO is state-of-the-art software
designed to enhance productivity of refinery planners.
The system is unparalleled in terms of ease-of-use, speed
and accuracy.
PETRO can be used for the full range of refinery plan-
ning applications. This includes feedstock evaluation,
production planning and strategic planning. The robust
solution algorithm not only allows more accuracy through
use of very detailed process representations, but also
facilitates uncertainty planning to account for a range
of real world uncertainties from crude oil variations, mar-
ket pricing/demand and reliability issues.
Strategy. The PETRO user interface enables planners to
easily define, run and analyze cases without having to
learn the details of the PETRO model. The interface facil-
itates both data input and output results.
Model building in PETRO is done in a Microsoft Excel
environment. Model builders use Excel spreadsheets to
provide information about process units and blending
operations in a series of spreadsheets. PETROs unique
design enables model builders to work at the matrix level
for maximum flexibility. This greatly simplifies the learn-
ing process.
Once model building is complete, the PETRO system
can be used to read the spreadsheets, perform diagnos-
tics and then generate the matrix for the model. The sys-
tem includes a comprehensive diagnostic procedure to
ensure model building integrity. If a problem is found,
diagnostics messages are created to enable the model
builder to quickly resolve potential problems.
Facilities are included in PETRO to easily tune the pro-
cess models. Tuning may be required, for example, to
update crude oil assay data or change process yields as a
result of catalyst replacement.
One of the key advantages of PETRO is the modeling
expertise developed over many years of real world refin-
ery applications. This expertise enables PETRO models
with the following features:
Highly accurate
Simulation quality to apply over a broad operating
range
Long lasting
Easily tuned to account for new catalysts, etc.
Rapid convergence
Avoids local optimums.
PETROs modern system design, combined with mod-
eling expertise, produces a competitive edge.
Economics. Refinery planning, particularly feedstock
evaluation, is a key business process in the refining indus-
try. Proper crude oil purchase decisions are vital to remain
competitive in todays global economy. In addition to
providing a significant increase in planning department
productivity, PETROs increased modeling accuracy can
yield potential benefits in the range of 510 cents/barrel.
Additional economic benefits are also often realized
through improved shutdown planning. In one shutdown
planning example, PETROs multiperiod system resulted
in an estimated savings of approximately $2 million.
Commercial installations. The PETRO LP system is cur-
rently licensed at 10 locations. The system is currently
used in North America, Asia and the Middle East.
Licensing agent. Invensys Performance Solutions,
Foxboro, Massachusetts. Contact: david.geddes@inven-
sys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Feedstock
avails and cost
Plant
constraints
Product price
and constraints
Feedrates
Product slate
Operating
conditions
Fractionation
Furnaces
First-principles,
Equation-based model
Planning and scheduling
(scheduling)
Application. Aspen Orion is a petroleum refinery and
petrochemicals scheduling application that supports com-
prehensive scheduling of all plant activities. A single sys-
tem that integrates crude and feedstock scheduling, unit
operations, product blending, and product shipping,
Aspen Orion helps operating companies achieve greater
profitability through more accurate scheduling. With
Aspen Orion, the entire scheduling process can be stream-
lined and automated, making it possible to generate a
more detailed and accurate schedule in less time.
Aspen Orion helps refining and petrochemicals com-
panies to:
Coordinate scheduling among a comprehensive
range of plant activities
Improve supply chain efficiency
Develop more accurate business and operations
planning for critical factors such as target inventories
and production throughput
Close the gap between plant planning and schedul-
ing functions
Improve overall supply chain agility
Develop more accurate economic plans
Identify and solve scheduling issues before they
occur.
As a part of AspenTechs solution for production execu-
tion, Aspen Orion is the critical link between a plants monthly
plan (provided by a modeling system such as Aspen PIMS)
and plant operations. Aspen Orion receives information
about unit activities and planned recipes from Aspen PIMS,
and provides information about rundown, qualities and
shipments to the Aspen MBO multiblend optimization tool.
Strategy. Aspen Orion enables users to meet their specific
needs by providing event-based scheduling, ease of imple-
mentation, interactive graphics for increased productivity,
embedded LP optimization and schedule automation,
and also graphical model building. Its built-in function-
ality includes crude distillation based on assay data, prod-
uct blending optimization and pipeline batch tracking.
The client-server and database architecture provides mul-
tiuser capability, enables intranet publishing, and facili-
tates integration with applications such as planning, yield
accounting and multiperiod blending and oil movements.
Reporting capabilities. Aspen Orion reporting capa-
bilities include built-in reports, MS Access-based stan-
dard reports and queries, customized reports and MS
Excel-based reports.
Scheduling approaches. Aspen Orion incorporates the
three typical approaches to refinery and petrochemical
scheduling: simulation, linear programming and expert
systems.
Flow simulation. The Aspen Orion flowsheet simula-
tor predicts plant performance based on crude runs, pro-
cess operations, and other refinery and petrochemical
plant decision variables. It also ensures accurate repre-
sentation and prediction of plant performance.
Economics. Real client experiences include capture of
economic benefits from improved scheduling with Aspen
Orion in the following areas:
Increased throughput
Improved block switching
Reduced quality giveaway
Eliminating crisis decision-making
Reduced inventory
Ability to evaluate and capture special opportunities.
Commercial installations. Aspen Orion is licensed by
over 100 sites throughout the world at both corporate
and individual levels.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Assays and
sub models
Aspen PIMS
Refinery planning
Unit activities
Planned recipes
Aspen Orion
Refinery scheduling
Rundowns and
qualities
Shipments
Aspen MBO
Product blend planning
and scheduling
Optimized blend
recipes
Aspen Blend
Blend control and
online optimization
Instrumentation layer (DCS)
BRC setpoints
Lab
information
system
Yield
accounting
Opening
inventories
Shipment
and receipts
Tank
qualities
ERP
system
Plant information (alarm
and event collection and
analysis)
Application. ProcessGuard provides a complete solu-
tion for critical condition and situation management.
Many operators have become desensitized to critical
alarms due to the sheer numbers of alarms that are now
so easy to implement on most control systems (DCSs).
Both safety and profitability can be affected by improper
critical situation management, and the industry has seen
losses of millions of dollars from: damage to equipment,
lost production or reduced safety. ProcessGuard is an
alarm historian and strategizer, collecting all alarms and
events from all major control systems, and analyzing this
information to identify alarm strategy issues, as well as
quickly perform incident reviewsimproving plant oper-
ations and safety.
Strategy. ProcessGuard is an online server-based appli-
cation that collects alarm and event information from
any DCS via a network or serial printer port connection.
ProcessGuard analysis reports are viewable by any autho-
rized PC on the sites network, allowing engineers or
technicians to access information on any current or past
crises from their officeenabling them to enter the con-
trol room prepared with recommendations, instead of
questions.
The many analysis functions include: top 10 lists of
most frequent occurring alarms, helpful key performance
indicators (KPIs) and sequence of events, to name a few.
ProcessGuard was developed following EEUMA guide-
lines and industry feedback.
ProcessGuard has universal connectivity to all plant
control systems and is integrated with process historians,
allowing simultaneous alarm and process data viewing
clearly showing the sequence of events. Standard tem-
plates for all major systems and configurations allow for
fast installation and instant value.
Economics. Example benefits include: 5070% reduc-
tion in alarms, identifying costly operation (such as incor-
rectly opened valves), increased throughput, closer oper-
ation to plant constraints, more stable plant operation
due to identifying variability or poor control (shown with
frequent alarming and/or frequent controller mode
changes), increased effectiveness of technical personnel,
better in-service factor for regulatory and model-based
multivariable predictive controllers.
Commercial installations. ProcessGuard is installed
and licensed at over 100 sites worldwide, including facil-
ities in North America, the Middle East, Asia, Europe and
Australia.
Licensor. Matrikon Inc., Houston, Texas, and Edmonton,
Alberta, and 15 offices worldwide. Contact: e-mail: pro-
cessguard@matrikon.com; Website: www.matrikon.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (alarm
and quality management)
Applications. Geometric Process Control (GPC) uses mul-
tidimensional geometry to provide the first mathemati-
cal unification of process control, product quality con-
trol and process alarm management. It includes a
completely new operator display, shown above with an
alarm rectification example, that is intuitive, easily under-
standable and provides operators with information not
previously available. It uses a multivariable Best Operat-
ing Zone (BOZ) identified by Curvaceous Visual Explorer
(CVE) as its basis for distinguishing between normal and
abnormal operation. The BOZ is converted by Curvaceous
Process Modeller (CPM) into an equation-less multivari-
able and nonlinear model that can contain knowledge
derived from both process and laboratory quality histo-
ries. It can be built and updated in minutes without math-
ematical knowledge, making it practical and affordable
even for small plants.
Capabilities. Curvaceous Process Camera (CPC) includes
a BOZ for your process and an operator display. It allows
replay of freshly gathered process data and is intended for
user familiarization and desktop checkout of a new BOZ
before it is put into operation, although in practice much
new knowledge of multivariable process behavior is
revealed as well. CPC visually shows alarms and quality vio-
lations as they occur and generates logs, including a tra-
ditional alarm log for ease of comparison between the
present and BOZ-possible modes of plant operation.
CPM contains additional facilities to build new BOZ-
models from the data extracted in CVE and has differ-
ent license conditions to CPC.
Economics. The ASM Consortium has estimated losses
due to incidents at 38% of capacity per year. The new
multivariable methods GPC employs for process alarm
management are expected to reduce the number of
minor incidents that would have previously escalated
into major incidents. Integration of quality control pro-
vides new economic benefits and additional incentive.
Integrating MPC will increase benefits already provided
by MPC applications. Utilizing GPC won Curvaceous the
European Process Safety Centre (EPSC) Award for the
Biggest Contribution to Improved Process Safety 2003.
Commercial installations. After the success of field
trials supported by a smart grant in 2001 GPC is currently
operational in six process plants. Many more systems are
being commissioned or under investigation covering a
wide range of industries from oil refineries down to bak-
eries.
Licensor. Curvaceous Software Limited, Gerrards Cross,
UK; Website: www.curvaceous.com; e-mail: enquiries@
curvaceous.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(batch/lot tracking)
Application. The Batch/Lot Tracking solution provides
complete support for tracking batches of material
through a continuous or discrete production environ-
ment. It is capable of full forward and backward lot
genealogy, meeting the most stringent industry lot trace-
ability requirements. RISnet forms enable site-specific lot
tracking work processes to be modeled, making for effec-
tive data capture with minimum user input.
Strategy. The Batch/Lot Tracking solution is built on the
RESOLUTIONdatabase and makes use of the production,
commodity, inventory and movement management mod-
ules. Adding the document management module pro-
vides coordinated access to associated documentation
stored locally or in external systems. The key performance
indicator module enables nonconformance alerting and
reporting to be done when batch characteristics are not
within specifications.
As with all RESOLUTIONmodules, data can be obtained
through external interfaces to coordinate information
such as real-time measurements, lab analyses and other
plant operational conditions with the batch tracking
records. The result is the most complete batch/lot track-
ing system in the business.
Specific capabilities:
Individual identification of all batches
Batches can be in many locations over time, and
can be in multiple locations at the same time
Multiple batches can be in the same location at the
same time
Batches can be tracked through processing equip-
ment and silos/tanks
Batches can be split, combined and renamed
Quality data can be attached to a batch or a batch
transfer, or lab measurements attributed to the batch
can be obtained by collecting data at batch locations
Complete forward and backward genealogy main-
tained between batches/locations
Specific actions on batches tracked as events, e.g.,
classification and reclassification
Supports batch activity planning
ISA SP88 capable.
Benefits. Complete forward and backward lot trace-
ability is immediately available, along with all associated
plant conditions and documentation. Can meet trace-
ability requirements of US Bioterrorism Act. Forms can
be generated to support plant work operations, enabling
effective data capture with minimum user input. RESO-
LUTIONs integration capabilities can make maximum
use of legacy applications.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Lot Tracking
modules have been installed on five sites, covering refin-
ing, petrochemicals, dairy and food industries.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (critical
condition management)
Application. Critical conditions result from process dis-
turbances with potential outcomes extending from minor
upsets through catastrophic incidents. Industry data con-
tinue to show that most of these can be minimized in
impact or completely avoided with timely and accurate
operator actions. AMO Suite, AMO Plus and PlantState
Suite provide a complete operator-centric solution to
critical condition management (CCM) addressing the key
areas of:
Alarm management
Control loop performance
Early fault detection & diagnostics
Transition management
Procedural automation.
Strategy. Benchmark your plant performance in critical
condition management against the PAS body of knowl-
edge and industry best practices. Then, take a prescriptive
approach to improvement with a detailed customized
improvement plan employing six sigma concepts.
Economics. The economic incentive is large considering
the impact of lost production, equipment and facility
damage, environmental excursions and endangerment to
human life. Industry-focused research groups estimate
losses due to incidents at 38% of overall production
capacity annually or over $20 billion/year in the US.
Commercial installations. There are currently over 100
CCM installations with a variety of software components
from AMO Suite, AMO Plus and PlantState Suite.
Licensor. PAS, Inc., Houston, Texas. Contact: e-mail:
sales@pas.com; Website: www.pas.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(data reconciliation)
Application. Reconciler is RESOLUTIONs reconciliation
engine. It is accurate, fast, robust and handles complex
reconciliation problems involving linear and nonlinear
balance equations and constraints.
It can be used as a DLL procedure and incorporated
into the clients existing applications or as a Web-based
application totally integrated into the RESOLUTION
database. Results can be stored back to the database for
automatic generation of material balance and compari-
son reconciliation reports.
Strategy. The Reconciliation Solution is composed of
two distinct components: the Reconciliation Engine and
the Web-based User Interface. The Reconciliation Engine
can be run separate from the user interface.
Reconciliation Engine:
Memory-economic solution procedure
Ability to express complex constraints (linear, non-
linear, equality and inequality)
Inequality constraints eliminate the meaningless
negative-flows that may be in the reconciled results
Can create complex mass, volume and energy con-
straints
Fast, robust and accurate
Quickly see the reconciled results
Can be fully integrated into client applications, e.g.,
run from within Microsoft Excel
Use in real-time mode from within a real-time
database application.
Web-based User Interface:
Uses existing plant flow-sheet configuration defined
in the RESOLUTION database, so any configuration
changes are automatically reflected in the equations
Has direct access to plant measurements, either
stored within the Repository or in any interfaced real-
time database
Measurement quality information such as toler-
ances and maximum/minimum values are also obtained
from the database
Solving procedure enables adjusting measurement
values or tolerances directly on the grid that displays the
solution results
Results can be directly stored back into the database
with automatic material balance report generation
Comes with a Reconciler Explorer, which enables a
user to navigate through the entire plant configuration,
showing actual and reconciled values.
Benefits. Fast and robust reconciliation of complex mod-
els. Configuration is driven directly from the plant oper-
ational database, so there is no need to maintain a sep-
arate reconciliation model. Operational database provides
all measurements, movements, inventories and instru-
ment configuration informationeliminating the com-
plex data collection task.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Reconciler has
been installed on three sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(data reconciliation)
Application. The real-time data reconciliation software
technology, DATREC, is used to improve accuracy of mea-
surements and/or generate missing values in case of insuf-
ficient or faulty field instruments.
This software is designed for fully automatic opera-
tion on process units and utility networks. It improves
availability of process control strategies by online detec-
tion of instrumentation errors and provides consistent
data for applications such as: process optimization,
scheduling, equipment diagnosis, plantwide mass bal-
ance reconciliation, unit performance monitoring and
instrumentation maintenance.
Strategy. With advanced statistical techniques, DATREC
reconciles raw measurement values using redundancy
relations linking these measurements and taking into
account instruments accuracy.
The latest release of DATREC provides the following
features:
Automatic processing of gross errors on measure-
ments
Generation of an instrumentation guide for instru-
ment maintenance
Linear and nonlinear mass, enthalpy and composition
balances
Dynamic accounting of nonmonitored or out-of-
scale instruments
Automatic system reconfiguration to match changes
of process unit operating modes.
The DATREC software has two modes of operation:
An automatic online mode to provide data to other
computer systems
An offline mode to build reconciliation applications,
as well as for instrumentation studies.
Economics. DATREC is used to improve process moni-
toring and enhance performance of downstream opti-
mization applications. It simplifies instrumentation main-
tenance, contributes to increased sensor accuracy, provides
reliable information to real-time optimization and opti-
mizes sensor implementation through instrumentation
studies.
Commercial installations by Technip. DATREC online
has been installed in more than 120 refineries process
units, ethylene plants or utility networks at various sites
in Europe, the Middle East and in the USA.
Licensor. Total. Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE
ParisAdvanced Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33)
1 47 78 21 83; fax: (33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail:
mvalleur@technip.com; Website: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Around 10-D01
Mass balance (x1)
Component balance (x2)
Sum of component fractions=100% (x2)
Liquid/vapor equilibrium (x2)
Outlet temperature equality (x1)
Heat balance (x1)
Around 10-E-01
Heat balance (x1)
Saturated steam P/T relationship (x1)
FI 3
TI 13
X 3A Component A fraction
X 3B Component B fraction
H_LIQ_FL Enthalpy/mass unit
FC 1
TI 10
X 1A Component
A fraction
X 1B Component
B fraction
FC 17 Saturation steam
H_Steam Enthalpy/mass unit
TI 18
PC 21
FC 2
TI 12
X 2A Component A fraction
X 2B Component B fraction
H_VAP_FL Enthalpy/mass unit
10-E-01 TC 11
1
0
-
D
-
0
1
H_water
Plant information
(equipment monitoring)
Application. Knowing the welfare of your critical plant
equipment, in the field, is crucial to meet contractual
and business targets. Emerson has developed Equipment
Performance Monitor, a PlantWeb technology that helps
maximize profits by minimizing unscheduled equipment
downtime.
Used to monitor critical pieces of equipment such as
compressors, gas and steam turbines, boilers, pumps, heat
exchangers and furnaces, Equipment Performance Mon-
itor:
Enables operators to troubleshoot equipment prob-
lems remotely and determine when to plan maintenance
or cleaning schedules to extend run times and maximize
throughput.
Tracks operating performance against targets and
highlights potential causes of downtime and production
inefficiencies.
Pinpoints any performance degradation, enabling
preventive action, thus assisting in optimizing the plants
planned production.
The technology helps meet the needs of customers
switching from routine to targeted maintenance pro-
grams, thereby maximizing utilization of process assets.
Strategy. Web-based Equipment Performance Monitor
collects, models, processes and presents performance
information about critical equipment to operators around
the world.
Process data is collated and uploaded periodically from
the data historian and applied to mathematical and sta-
tistical calculations including data reconciliation and
parameter estimation to eliminate adverse data. A cal-
culation engine (the model) generates the monitoring
results. Performance indicators, customized reports and
graphical representations are presented within a secure
Website providing a fast and easy mechanism for main-
tenance technicians, engineers, service support and man-
ufacturers to access performance data from the field.
Equipment Performance Monitor enables engineers
to:
Exchange data/intelligence between local, out-
sourced and corporate divisions
Respond faster to changing conditions
Benchmark operational performance vs. sister units
or plant sites
Analyze the operational history to determine the
root causes of equipment problems.
Economics. Equipment Performance Monitor:
Increases throughput, availability and reliability
Prevents unnecessary downtime and costly shut-
downs
Increases operating performance
Reduces operating / unplanned maintenance expen-
ditures
Optimizes cleaning and maintenance cycles
Detects faulty / poorly calibrated instrumentation.
Commercial installations. Equipment Performance
Monitor has been successfully implemented on over 100
process units.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.assetweb.com. Contact: Emerson Process Manage-
ment, Darren Greener, Asset Optimization, tel: +44 (1642)
773000, e-mail: greenerd.mdctech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Generate
mathematical
model
Calculation
engine
Process plant
Maintenance
headquarters
Maintenance
office
Process data
Data historian
DCS
LAN
Logging
devices
End user
(various
degrees
of access)
LAN
End user
(various
degrees
of access)
OEM
design
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Internet
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Email
Plant information (event
monitoring and notification)
Application. Alarm and event management systems can
be used in the manufacturing process to determine the
earliest point of problems that increase product vari-
ability. Aspen Technology has developed an alarm and
event management system to record alarms and events
related to product quality as well as the actions taken to
deal with these events.
Based on the InfoPlus.21 basic statistical process control
software, the application includes the capability to ana-
lyze the events and their causes to make process improve-
ments. The system addresses only product quality alarms;
process safety alarms are handled by DCS alarm man-
agement functions and other systems.
Strategy. InfoPlus.21 is the foundation system for infor-
mation management that enables deployment of other,
layered applications for advanced information manage-
ment activities such as alarm and event management for
product quality purposes. This application provides man-
ufacturers with a comprehensive system that:
Alerts operators to alarms and events in the pro-
cess, including both traditional alarms (something bad
has already happened) and statistical alarms (if noth-
ing changes, something bad is likely to happen soon)
Records the operators understanding of the cause
of each alarm
Records the operators choice of corrective action
to deal with the alarm.
Alarm and event data enters the system from various
sources: AspenTech software, including Aspen Multi-
variate, Q or Aspen IQ, third-party software, or manual
entry by operators or process engineers. The data can be
analyzed to determine what kinds of alarms occur most
frequently and what actions the operators usually take to
deal with each kind of alarm. Armed with this informa-
tion, plant engineers can make improvements to the pro-
cess machinery, the operating procedures and the oper-
ators training.
InfoPlus.21, Aspen Multivariate, Q and Aspen IQ are
components of Aspen Plantelligence, the Production
Optimization module of the Aspen ProfitAdvantage solu-
tion, that enables process manufacturers to identify and
maximize profit opportunities throughout the entire
process industry value chain.
Economics. Benefits from applying an alarm and event
management system are achieved through eliminating
many of the causes of alarms at their root, and mitigat-
ing the consequences of those alarms that still occur.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has completed
one alarm and event management system, and a func-
tional design for a second. Several more applications are
under consideration.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (inbound
chemical management)
Application. Purchased chemical inventory levels are
collected and displayed for secure viewing by chemical
vendors. This information is used by vendors to manage
chemical deliveries to the site and supports a just-in-
time purchasing model in which the vendor retains
chemical ownership until the time of consumption by
the site. This reduces working capital at the plantsite,
while also minimizing supply risks and purchase costs.
Strategy.
Remote-hosted solution: The chemical inventory data
are collected from existing onsite systems and transferred
to a central database where individual vendors can access
their inventory information as authorized by the plant.
Data collection into the central database is from exist-
ing PLCs, control networks, real-time databases, etc., with
secure, encrypted communications across available chan-
nels (Internet, telephone, paging network, satellite, etc.).
Secure AnyWhere/AnyTime access: Vendor access is
by secure password-protected web pages only, from any
internet-connected PC or wireless device. All user access
is to the Web pages only; no user access is granted to any
site systems.
User-configurable electronic alerting: Each applica-
tion comes with the ability to automatically alert plant
and/or vendor personnel of changes in inventory lev-
els versus specified targets or limits. Alerts are set on a
per-user basis and can be received via e-mail, cellphone,
pager, etc.
Works with existing business systems: The applica-
tion interfaces to most enterprise systems, allowing
automated reorder information to drive product ship-
ments. The application can also transfer inventory data
to business systems for product optimization, logistics
scheduling, etc.
Inventory management services from any vendor: The
Inbound Chemical Management application is delivered
as a monthly service, suitable for use by 1 or 100 vendors.
Each vendor is able to take on complete inventory man-
agement responsibility, eliminating the working capital
and plant personnel otherwise required for procuring
and storing chemicals onsite.
Economics. The Inbound Inventory Management appli-
cation provides the following benefits:
Reduced working capital
Guaranteed inventory supplies
Avoids rush shipments
Reduced inventory reconciliation and transaction
effort
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, the Inven-
tory Management application is being delivered to over
250 sites around the world.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona,
and ChemLogix LLC, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania; Websites:
www.industrialevolution.com or www.chemlogix.com;
e-mail: contact@industrialevolution.com; tel. (602)
867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Inbound
chemical
management
Authorized chemical and
additive suppliers
Secure VPN
connection
or
Telephone
dial-up
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
catalyst vendor application(s)
Oil refinery
Onsite
data sources:
DCS, PLC, Lab,
Database, etc.
Plant information
(key performance
indicator management)
Application. KPI is a solution for managing key perfor-
mance indicators (KPIs). It provides comprehensive dis-
plays and charting options for KPI performance review,
and a drill down capability to facilitate identifying
problems. Included in the KPI solution is full nonconfor-
mance reporting and alerting capability. This enables
mail messages to be sent to responsible parties when
KPIs violate limits, or when escalation is required.
Strategy. A KPI is linked to a business goal. In general,
every KPI will have a target value that may change over
time. The actual value of the KPI is compared to the tar-
get value to determine how much progress has been
made toward achieving the business goal. RISnets KPI
Web-based forms (or interface) including a KPI explorer
and Resolving navigation provide a very flexible envi-
ronment for managing and analyzing KPIs.
KPI data can be entered manually, extracted directly
from the attached real-time databases, or the result of
complex calculations implemented using the Recalculator
module.
Web forms are available specifically for monitoring the
progress of KPIs: The user is able to browse the KPI hier-
archy and drill down to reveal values for dependent KPIs.
Charting tools are available to plot the KPI versus its limits.
Benefits. KPI allows users to see the wood for the
trees. Instead of being swamped by vast quantities of
information, KPI distills the information down into a few
indicators that are easy to watch. As soon as one indica-
tor is out of alignment, the drill down capability allows
focus to be brought on the problem area. Since KPI is
built on the RESOLUTION database, KPIs have access to all
plant data: safety, engineering, operational, economic
and more.
In combination with RESOLUTIONs Target-Setting solu-
tion, one installation reported breaking 18 operating
records the month after installation. Benefits were esti-
mated at between $8 million and $20 million/yr.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION KPI modules
have been installed on 13 sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(mass balance)
Application. The GERA mass balance reconciliation sys-
tem is used to interactively generate daily plantwide
mass balances, providing coherent data to decision sup-
port systems.
Strategy. Plant facilities are described as a simplified
process flow sheetthe GERA networkincluding nodes
(process units, tanks, blenders, receipt/shipment facili-
ties) and flows between nodes. The GERA network is rep-
resented graphically and provides facilities to manage
temporary flows.
GERA reconciles cumulated flow measurements, tank
inventories and estimated losses together with their asso-
ciated uncertainty.
The latest release of GERA includes :
Full graphical generation of the mass balance equa-
tions
Direct visualization of the balance reconciliation
results on the plant graph
Full compliance with Windows NT standards and
ORACLE
Multiuser access for consulting validated results.
Economics. Benefits generated by GERA are essentially
derived from a better day-by-day knowledge of the plant
operations from feed receipts to finished products ship-
ments. In particular, the benefits are associated with a
coherent and timely set of data being used by various
plant departments, improved instrumentation monitor-
ing and consequent savings in maintenance and mass
balancing computation workload. GERA also provides
coherent tank farm inventory and product movements
reporting, reliable process unit yield analysis as well as
timely and better knowledge of magnitude and location
of the losses. Typically, benefits amount to $0.51.5 mil-
lion/yr in complex refineries or ethylene plants with high
capacity.
Commercial installations by Technip. GERA has been
and is being implemented at several sites in Europe, Asia
and the Middle East.
Licensor. Total. Contact: Marc Valleur, Manager ASE
ParisAdvanced Systems Engineering, Technip; tel: (33)
1 47 78 21 83; fax: (33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail:
mvalleur@technip.com; Website: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (offsite
data management)
Application. RESOLUTIONs Offsite Data Management
solution provides tools for reviewing and changing tank
compositions, consolidated inventory reporting by area
and stock category, movement data entry and report-
ing, and inventory/material movement balancing.
Strategy. This solution provides all of the tools required
to define material line-ups, plan and execute material
movements, plan and record storage tank contents, and
produce a variety of reports.
RESOLUTION enables management of movements
throughout their entire life cycle from within a single
solution. Allowable routes can be defined using the Line-
up Editor. The Movement Editor, Movement Manager
and Movement Entry allow a user to define movements
that will later be scheduled via line-ups. Alternatively,
planned movements can be imported from a planning
and scheduling tool using the Relayer XML interface.
Movement times can be manually recorded using the
Movement Start/Stop application. Alternatively, Auto-
matic Movement Detector infers this information from a
combination of the tanks state and planned movements.
The Unit Line-up Viewer (white board) shows all cur-
rent and planned movement routes to and from a unit.
This provides the look ahead required by the control
room of potential line-up switches.
The Movement Viewer allows a user to view the sched-
ule of movements on a Gantt-like time scale.
Contents of a tank (planned or actual) over time can be
viewed and managed via the Item-Commodity Editor.
Benefits. Offsite Data Management provides the com-
plete solution for offsite data management throughout
the entire life cycle of a material transactionfrom plan-
ning, scheduling, execution, reporting and reconcilia-
tion.
RESOLUTION also provides complete management of
stocks: planned stocks by category and location, actual
stocks, different stock ownership, composition of the
stocks and reconciled quantities.
Offsite Data Management enables both unit material
balance reports to be generated regularly, as well as a
planned-versus-actual production report. By tracking
these figures, confidence can be improved on the pro-
jected stock figures and, hence, the projected stocks at
each of the depots. This allows for better inventory man-
agement.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Offsite Data
Management modules have been installed on 10 sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (online
downtime reporting)
Application. ProcessMORe for Automated Missed
Opportunity Reporting tracks the cause of production
downtime, delays or reduced ratesin summary,
missed opportunities to make targeted production. Thus,
any time decisions need to be made on where to focus
money or resources for the best ROI, at hand is the infor-
mation, telling engineers and management where their
issues liewhether in maintenance, equipment restric-
tions or other areas.
Strategy. ProcessMORe is an online thin client-based
application integrated with a sites existing plant control
and information systems to provide complete information
on causes and costs of missed opportunity to achieve tar-
geted production. Production, financial and event infor-
mation are taken from all DCS and plant information
systems, providing Web-based ProcessMORe analysis
reports viewable by any authorized user IDs on the com-
panys intranet. These reports are used by plant opera-
tions, maintenance and control departmentsto mea-
sure, understand and address the top items that are lim-
iting the sites profitability. In the past, these reports took
maintenance and production departments weeks to
assimilatewhich now automated are available contin-
uously and immediately.
The many analysis functions include: top 10 lists of the
most costly and frequently occurring production limita-
tions; mechanical availability key performance indicators
(KPIs); and sequence of events, to name a few.
Economics. Example benefits include improving mechan-
ical availability by 7%.
Commercial installations. ProcessMORe is installed
and licensed at over 10 facilities.
Licensor. Matrikon Inc., Houston, Texas, and Edmonton,
Alberta, and 15 offices worldwide. Contact: e-mail: pro-
cessmore@matrikon.com; Website: www.matrikon.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (OPC data
management)
Application. Matrikons OPC Data Manager (ODM) is a
software application that transfers data from one OPC
server to another. Use ODM when you need to share data
between two or more control systems (e.g., PLC and a
DCS). With ODM, this connectivity can be accomplished
with standard off-the-shelf software.
Strategy. Traditional OPC-enabled systems share data
by implementing one application as an OPC client and
another as an OPC server. But sometimes neither appli-
cation is an OPC client; instead, both are servers. Two
OPC servers cannot exchange data since they are designed
to respond to a clients requests and are unable to gen-
erate requests. Matrikons ODM solves this problem by
acting as a double-headed or thin OPC client to both
servers. It requests data from one server and immedi-
ately sends it to the other OPC server.
Benefits include:
No programming (use drag-and-drop operation
instead)
Bidirectional read/write
Support for OPC 1.0a and 2.0
Runs as a Windows service.
Economics. ODM is an off-the-shelf software application
that connects control systems that have OPC servers.
With ODM, users avoid the need to use proprietary hard-
ware solutions to bridge their control systems. Since no
programming is required, users can get the connectivity
quickly.
Commercial installations. The OPC Data Manager has
been used in over 100 applications.
Licensor. Matrikon Inc., Houston, Texas, and Edmonton,
Alberta, and 15 offices worldwide. Contact: e-mail:
OPCInfo@matrikon.com; Website: www.matrikon.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(outbound inventory
management)
Application. Manufactured product inventory levels are
collected from storage vessels at customer sites and dis-
played for secure viewing by product management per-
sonnel. Centralized field inventory data viewing allows
product personnel to optimize production schedules,
product shipments and enhance customer service. Cus-
tomers benefit from a just-in-time purchasing model
that reduces their working capital and product restock-
ing efforts.
Strategy.
Remote-hosted solution: Product inventory data are
collected from new or existing inventory measurement
devices and transferred to a central database where they
are accessible to customer service representatives and
other product management personnel. Data are securely
collected across available channels (Internet, telephone,
paging network, satellite, etc.).
Secure AnyWhere/AnyTime access: Inventory data
access is typically via a set of user-specific password-pro-
tected Web pages, allowing anywhere/anytime access
from any Internet-connected device. Alternatively, col-
lected data can be forwarded back to plant or corporate
systems for integrating with local production planning
or optimization tools. All user access is to the Web pages
only; no user access is granted to any site systems.
User-configurable electronic alerting: Each application
comes with the ability to automatically alert product
and/or operations personnel of changes in inventory lev-
els versus specified targets or limits. Alerts are set on a
per-user basis and can be received via e-mail, cellphone,
pager, etc.
Works with existing business systems: The applica-
tion interfaces to most enterprise systems, allowing
automated reorder information to drive product ship-
ments. The application can also transfer inventory data
to business systems for product optimization, logistics
scheduling, etc.
Multi-customer inventory management: The Outbound
Product Management application is delivered as a
monthly service, suitable for use by any number of prod-
ucts at multiple customer sites. Automated data collection
takes place for each site, allowing product personnel to
take on complete inventory management responsibility
for their customers. This reduces working capital and
product restocking costs for the customer, and often leads
to exclusive multiyear supply arrangements.
Economics. The Outbound Inventory Management appli-
cation provides the following benefits:
Increased customer loyalty
Improved product management, eliminating cus-
tomer rush shipment requests
Improved product and operations planning
Increased visibility into customer consumption and
projected product demand
Reduced inventory reconciliation and transaction
effort.
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, the Inven-
tory Management application is being delivered to over
250 sites around the world.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona,
and ChemLogix LLC, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania; Websites:
www.industrialevolution.com or www.chemlogix.com;
e-mail: contact@industrialevolution.com; tel. (602)
867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Outbound
chemical
management
Secure internet access
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
catalyst vendor application(s)
Refinery or chemcal plant
Product
deliveries
Optional
VPN
connection
Customer sites, terminals, etc.
Onsite control and
information systems
Plant information
(recipe management)
Application. The Recipe Management solution provides
for a structured library of plant recipes, covering material
components and operational procedures. It can support
a complete ISA SP88 configuration and more.
Strategy. Recipe Management supports multistep, mul-
tifeed and multiproduct recipes. All data are stored as
values able to be manipulated or downloaded indepen-
dently. All values can have associated instructions and
complete audit trail associated with them. All recipes can
have associated documentation.
Recipe templates facilitate new recipe construction.
Recipes can be synchronized with ERP planning systems.
Recipe management is integrated with the Batch
Scheduling so that operations can be given specific rele-
vant instructions related to their schedule.
Benefits. Comprehensive recipe management is able to
provide operations with current instructions coordinated
with the schedule.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Recipe Man-
agement modules have been installed on two sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(reliability/operations
management system)
Applications. Reliability and Operations Management
(R/OM) Solutions provides clients with real-time process
and equipment diagnostics through their existing opera-
tors console. Nexus builds its integrated Nexus Oz solu-
tion framework into its solutions to significantly improve
plant operations performance, reliability and safety.
The role of Nexus Oz is not to provide solutions which
react to Abnormal Situations, but to help clients avoid
them. Nexus Oz informs the operator of process prob-
lems and enables the operator to correct the problems
before they become critical. Nexus Oz enables clients to
capture and deploy the best operations practices. This
function is extremely important since the experiences of
the most experienced operators and engineers are trans-
ferred to new operators as well as building a consoli-
dated global portfolio of best practices.
One of the benefits of Nexus Oz software is providing
the framework for a range of applications. The initial
project scope would include sensor validation and diag-
nostics for the equipment such as the instrumentation,
pumps, vessels, furnaces, etc. The application would also
include the event response procedure documents for the
critical failures for these pieces of equipment. Docu-
mentation of this information is generally available as a
result of the OSHA mandated HAZOP process. This con-
figuration of Nexus Oz enables the operator to call up
the corresponding response procedure for a detected
process upset or failure scenario. This scope of application
would enable the client to have the system quickly
installed and operational.
Reliability and operations management. Nexus Oz
enables integrating configuration information from the
control system database to quickly and efficiently pro-
vide the sensor validation and process operations advisory
functions for the process units. As a potential failure is
diagnosed, a message is propagated through a message
board on the operators DCS console, specific to the oper-
ating area. Selecting the message calls up the appropri-
ate DCS schematic, highlights the effected piece of
equipment and displays the appropriate operations
response for the situation.
The reliability management aspects of Nexus Oz inte-
grates the dynamic sensor information defined above
with specialty data from systems like vibration analyzers
to include equipment health logic at the process unit
level. Each of the specific unit models, like cat crackers,
batch digesters or steam generators, are then integrated
within the Nexus Oz equipment object models to yield a
plant topology data model for the plant. The results of
these models are integrated with the clients mainte-
nance management and predictive maintenance appli-
cations for improved asset management benefits.
The rules and procedural-based reasoning and infer-
ential logic features of Nexus Oz facilitates information
management between the offline planning and opti-
mization models, and the online unit operations. The
production management applications include the sys-
tems addressing shared resources such as fuel gas, steam,
hydrogen and amine systems for the complex. Additional
operations management applications are process unit
specific such as operator advisories for diagnostics on
furnaces, distillation columns, and other process opera-
tions. The operations management applications are
scoped with clear economic benefits based on their direct
impact on the process operations.
The combined knowledge of the organization about
the process, its normal and abnormal operations (includ-
ing startup and shutdown) and all documentation is
embedded in Nexus Oz and made available in real time
for operator assistance. It is also transferred to all unit
operators and other sites as best practices.
Benefits. Benefits of integrated Reliability and Opera-
tions Management applications can be very significant
including the reduction of process upsets associated with
the abnormal situation applications, the improved process
performance during normal operations plus the estab-
lishment and implementation of best operating prac-
tices driving lower operating costs. Typical paybacks for
the systems are less than six months.
Commercial installations. Nexus Oz has been installed
at a number of refinery, petrochemical and chemical plants.
Licensor. Nexus Engineering, Kingwood, Texas,
www.nexusengineering.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(Solomon benchmarking)
Application. The IndustryBest Performance Bench-
marking application automates key aspects of the bench-
marking process established by Solomon Associates to
deliver real-time feedback on plant operations versus
established performance goals, sister operating sites or
peer group competitors. Operating data are validated
against Solomon-defined norms to provide competitive
insight and a basis for measurable and sustainable
increases in operational efficiency and productivity, lead-
ing to strengthened profitability and market share.
Strategy.
Solomon benchmarks: Real-time operating data from
individual plants are collected from existing onsite sys-
tems and transferred to a secure, central database at
Industrial Evolution for integration with the Solomon
benchmarking application. Application results are vali-
dated versus past Solomon Studies and experience and
sent back to the plant site for display to management
and operations personnel.
Rigorous Data Security: Data security is key to this
applicationin accordance with Solomon Associates
years of benchmarking experience, no data are made
available to any individual or company outside of those
authorized by the operating company. All data commu-
nication is via Virtual Private Network only, with data
encryption and compression used to further secure indi-
vidual data transfers or application results.
User-configurable electronic alerting: Each IndustryBest
application comes with the ability to automatically alert
plant and/or vendor personnel of changes in performance
benchmarking results versus specified targets or limits.
Alerts are set on a per-user basis and can be received via
e-mail, cellphone, pager, etc.
Interfaces to existing systems: The IndustryBest appli-
cation is able to collect data from over 350 types of plant
systems and devices for secure data transfer. Collected
data can be optionally reviewed by plant personnel prior
to application execution. Application results can be stored
back in the onsite control system, real-time database,
etc., for access and use by plant personnel, per their estab-
lished access privileges.
Service delivery model: The IndustryBest Performance
Benchmarking application is available as a monthly ser-
vice from Solomon Associates and Industrial Evolution.
Customers can select from a range of calculated perfor-
mance indicators to be benchmarked versus appropriate
peer group(s) in their market or geography.
Economics. IndustryBest brings the high-value com-
ponents of the well-established Solomon Associates
biennial performance benchmarking studies to the plant
as real-time performance and competitive indicators.
This increases awareness of operating costs, plant effi-
ciencies and overall plant performance, resulting in
heightened competitive awareness and sustainable
plant profitability.
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, various com-
ponents of the IndustryBest solution have been installed
in seven hydrocarbon processing sites in North America.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona,
and Solomon Associates, Dallas, Texas; Websites:
www.industrialevolution.com or www.solomonon-
line.com; e-mail: contact@industrialevolution.com; tel.
(602) 867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
IndustryBest
performance
benchmarking
Secure VPN
connection(s)
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
catalyst vendor application(s)
Solomon Associates experts
Oil refinery
Corporate
data sources
Onsite
data sources
Plant information
(target setting and non-
conformance monitoring)
Application. The RESOLUTION Target Setting solution
includes entry of the unit operating targets, both oper-
ating characteristics and material movements, plan or
target review, and adopting these targets as settings for
the control systems. The nonconformance monitoring
application automatically detects deviations to targets
and captures the reasons for the nonconformance.
Strategy. The target setting application area is con-
cerned with transfer of target values to the operators
first for information and then for transfer into the control
system so that deviations from this target can be tracked.
Target setting starts with the units and their plans.
There are several areas of detail:
What operating conditions are expected for dura-
tion of the plan: a target coil outlet temperature on the
furnace, a maximum recycle ratio on the tower overhead,
etc.
What material consumption and production are
expected during execution of this plan
Associated ad-hoc details about this particular plan.
Operations will want to review the plan, and if con-
sidered acceptable, download this plan as targets into
the control system.
A feature of the target setting solution is the ability
to detect nonconformance. RESOLUTION is constantly
examining the key performance indicators and deter-
mining which ones are out of specification. If one is
detected, a message is sent. The message must be
acknowledged and an application will require that users
identify why they were not conforming to the plan for
that period.
Benefits. Accurately communicating the plan or opera-
tional instructions allows performance against this plan
to be accurately measured. Improved planning or
improved business processes can then remedy any devi-
ations from the plan.
Capturing nonconformance events is an essential part of
the feedback to the scheduling and planning process. Are
the feedstock assays incorrect? Are the simulation mod-
els inaccurate? Are there plant equipment limitations?
In combination with RESOLUTIONs Key Performance
Indicator Management solution, one installation reported
breaking 18 operating records the month after installa-
tion. Benefits were estimated at between $8 million and
$20 million/yr.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Target Setting
modules have been installed on six sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (Web-
based decision support)
Application. ProcessNet is a leading Web-based indus-
trial decision-support system, integrating all data sources
(vendor-independent relational and time-series data)
into a common and responsive view of your plant oper-
ations. Plant key performance indicators (KPIs), along
with modern graphical and visual elements and connec-
tivity to legacy information sources, are only some of the
many pieces that ProcessNet brings together to provide
a total USER-focused industrial decision-support envi-
ronmentnot vendor focused. ProcessNet provides value
to all process enterprise levels.
Strategy. ProcessNet is often used as an enterprise por-
tal to production-based data, but is also scalable down to
a point solutionas a thin-client bi-directional front end
for existing or new applications. This, coupled with
advanced ProcessNet functionality such as event notifi-
cation and automated reporting, enables ProcessNet to
lever existing IT infrastructure and applications to pro-
vide users the ability to get more value out of their exist-
ing software investments.
ProcessNet acts as a virtual data warehouseaccess-
ing and leaving data at its source, without duplication
into any additional database. This means no manage-
ment of change issues as well as always providing cur-
rent and accurate information. Data exporting functions
into standard file formats allow for data consolidation
from multiple sourcesuseful for further analytical appli-
cations or integrated reporting.
ProcessNet is central server-based, providing thin-client
tools to enable a nontechnical user to both use and
administrate the system. Users access ProcessNet through
their standard Web browser, a tool that they are already
familiar with. Therefore, ProcessNet training require-
ments are low, and acceptance high.
Economics. Return on investment is measured in less
than one year. Typical benefits seen are: cost reductions
in client software licenses and vendor maintenance and
support agreements, reduced administration costs,
increased workforce efficiency, and the ability for pro-
cess enterprises to make timely decisions based on real-
time and accurate information from any source or loca-
tion in the enterprise.
Commercial installations. Over 150 installations across
12 countries worldwide.
Licensor. Matrikon Inc., Houston, Texas, and Edmonton,
Alberta, and 15 offices worldwide. Contact: e-mail: pro-
cessnet@matrikon.com; Website: www.matrikon.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information (yield
accounting)
Application. The RESOLUTION Yield Accounting solu-
tion unifies unit material balance reporting with the
expected yields and the yields reported by offsites.
Strategy. Frequently, yield and unit reporting tasks are
largely unrelated: unit reports are created directly from
real-time database meter readings without reference to
actual charge and production movements; conversely,
yield reports rely heavily on tank gauges for charges and
productions. Unit reports are then used as the basis for
technological audits, simulation runs, LP vector genera-
tion, etc., despite the fact that there might be a discrep-
ancy between the yield reports and them. Additionally,
the yield reports provide useful information regarding
actual feedstock and product analysis.
Plant data reconciliation is identifying anomalous move-
ments or meters. If unit personnel can be involved in this
comparison as soon as possible, any anomalies will likely
be immediately recognized. These two business processes
are unified within RESOLUTION Yield Accounting. The
next step would be to feed back the site-reconciled data
to the units and technical department so that they can
then use the same data.
The objective of this unification is to define a more
comprehensive unit-performance report that presents
the two versions of the data.
Benefits. Accurate yield information is key to success-
ful plant planning. Without accurate yield data, there is
always some doubt as to the source of deviations from
plan. Discrepancies invariably arise due to failure to accu-
rately report material movements. Most of these dis-
crepancies are easily resolved by the control staff when
presented with a clear comparison of the two versions
of the data.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION Yield Account-
ing modules have been installed on 15 sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
(yield accounting)
Application. Aspen Advisor is AspenTechs client-server
application for yield accounting and data reconciliation.
It combines an easy-to-use GUI for modeling, reconcil-
ing and reporting with a robust object-oriented expert
system for guidance during the reconciliation process.
Its goal is to significantly improve the productivity of
ongoing performance control, scheduling and planning
activities.
Aspen Advisor boosts profitability by identifying prod-
uct loss and providing decisionmakers throughout the
plant with critical production data. In addition, it pro-
vides an important link between ERP and manufactur-
ing systems, generating transactional information from
continuous processes.
Strategy. Aspen Advisor prepares accurate, reconciled
material and utility balances that are passed both to the
ERP system and the planning and scheduling system. For
ERP connectivity, Aspen Advisor conditions and trans-
forms the raw plant data into transactional information.
Production and yield values are posted to the ERP sys-
tem through an interface that is automatically associ-
ated with the appropriate production order. This infor-
mation is also sent to the planning model for immediate
analysis of actual plant performance, while optimizing
the manufacturing operations by enabling faster, more
accurate decisionmaking.
As a stand-alone production accounting tool, Aspen
Advisor provides significantly more capability than tra-
ditional in-house custom spreadsheets. Data transfer
from the information management component is auto-
matic and preconfigured; nonroutine product move-
ments and permanent plant modifications are easily
entered and tracked via the GUI.
Aspen Advisor analyzes data and provides key results
with minimal user intervention. It first identifies and
aids the user in correcting any gross anomalies, and
then distributes any remaining random errors based on
flow values, instruments and tolerance. Its flexibility in
modifying reconciliation decisions, viewing interactive
reports and assisting users in error resolutions is unique
in the industry.
Its simultaneous, least-squares reconciliation engine
performs adjustments of measured movements to min-
imize unit imbalances and/or minimize adjusted devi-
ations of measured movements. The data reconciliation
engine is an integral component of the application;
its data reconciliation algorithm includes an object-
oriented paradigm for resolving gross errors, as well as
a mathematical error distribution algorithm for dis-
tributing random errors. Multiple strategies are avail-
able for reconciling discrepancies among inventory,
receipts/shipments, oil movements and process unit
readings, and data reconciliation strategies can be cus-
tomized to produce optimal results for a specific man-
ufacturing facility.
For loss monitoring and early warning of operational
problems, Aspen Advisor provides reporting of adjust-
ments on a frequency basis, allowing problems to be
rapidly identified so corrective action can be taken.
Data in Aspen Advisor are stored in industry-standard
relational databases. The system is 100% ODBC-compli-
ant, and all major RDBMS solutions (including Oracle,
Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2) are supported.
Economics. Conservative estimates for a simple 100
Mbpd refinery indicate that Aspen PIMS can realize $10
million in annual benefits from improved crude selec-
tion, unit performance and blending.
Commercial installations. The industry standard for
petroleum industry planning, Aspen PIMS is licensed at
over 400 sites, and is used by more than 75% of the
refineries, and more than 60% of all petrochemical plants
in the world.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information analysis
Application. To remain competitive, hydrocarbon pro-
cessing plants require the ability to analyze current pro-
cess data in real time. To this end, Aspen Technologys
Aspen Multivariate can be deployed to enable quicker
assessment and understanding of complex processes, ear-
lier and more reliable detection of faults and increased
processing throughput / capacity.
Strategy. Aspen Multivariate is both an offline tool used
to analyze process data and build a model that captures
the data correlations and an online tool for monitoring
the process. Used online, an Aspen Multivariate model
can detect faults based on the reference model built
offline. The system uses current and historical process
data from AspenTechs InfoPlus.21 information man-
agement technology and generates information as graph-
ical plots that visually depict process conditions and fault
indications.
The latest version of Aspen Multivariate adds the capa-
bility to deploy models online with model results and
alarm conditions being written to an underlying Info-
Plus.21 database. The model results can be used for pro-
cess analysis and the alarms can be used to alert opera-
tions and engineering of process abnormalities.
Aspen Multivariate uses Principal Component Analy-
sis, a powerful statistical technique for transforming a
large number of process variables into a small number
of principal components, which can be used to analyze
the process. Models can be built in as little as a few hours
and can be the basis for significant operational improve-
ments. Examples of Aspen Multivariate models used for
process data analysis and resulting in process improve-
ments include:
Equipment fault diagnosis in a vinyl chloride
monomer stripper column based on a model constructed
from data gathered from InfoPlus.21. Data from three
days of operation was used and included 17 variables/tags
as well as inlet and outlet feed flow for the inlet surge
tank. The data described the column and its associated
equipment. The model identified a problem with the
propellers on the surge tank agitator, thus explaining
some extremely erratic behavior in the downstream col-
umn and allowing the column to be controlled more effi-
ciently. Correcting the problem increased column
throughput.
Instrument fault diagnosis in an olefins coproducts
furnace, based on a model constructed from data gath-
ered from the InfoPlus.21 system over 10 days of operation
for 21 furnace variables/tags, including propane feed
flow. Analysis of the Aspen Multivariate Dual-Principal
Component plot indicated that the propane feed con-
troller valve had malfunctioned. It was subsequently deter-
mined to be out of calibration. Correcting the calibration
allowed the furnace to be operated more stably, thus
putting far less stress on the downstream process units.
Economics. Aspen Multivariate applications can quickly
provide a payback of many times the installation costs
through process troubleshooting and upset avoidance.
Commercial installations. Aspen Multivariate is
installed and running in multiple process plants in the
refining, chemical and petrochemical industries. More
installations are in progress.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information analysis
Applications. A root problem of engineering and sci-
ence has been the limit of 23 variables in a graph. Sup-
pose you could easily display 1,000 sets of observations
of 50 variables in one interactive graph. This would be
the equivalent of 435 conventional x-y graphs of two
variables! This bigger, better picture would help the
engineer gain new insight and understanding with which
to improve the process and/or its operation and/or con-
trol. Interactions between parameters and difficult
product qualities such as polymer color, melt index and
particle size would become apparent. Identical pro-
cess units could be compared (one is always better
than the other). Give-away and the conditions under
which it occurs could be seen!
Such a graph exists in an engineer-focused implemen-
tation by Curvaceous Visual Explorer (CVE). An example
of a food process operating with several different vari-
ables in different modes with five queries is shown above.
CVE is also a base component of Geometric Process
Control (GPC) where it is used to define a best operat-
ing zone (BOZ).
Capabilities. CVE allows the display and interaction
with a graph containing several hundred variables which
brings a whole new power to finding cause-and-effect
relationships in large-scale process plants. Many thou-
sands of points (rows of a spreadsheet) can be displayed
and multiple focus levels allow refinement to smaller
sets of points for more effective visual analysis. CVE pro-
vides one- and two-dimensional graphic queries allow-
ing a user to quickly and nonmathematically focus on
interesting areas of plant behavior. Automatically gen-
erated algebraic and Boolean representation of queries
can be exported as rules for use in a rule-based system.
Rules generated by other means can be examined for a
true multivariate view of their consequences. Algo-
rithms for multivariable cluster analysis and paramet-
ric analysis are also included.
Economics. All improvements ultimately stem from bet-
ter understanding of how a process really works. CVE
gives the user a much larger view than ever before of
the process and does not require any specialist knowl-
edge of mathematics. This at least doubles user pro-
ductivity compared to previous methods and means that
more engineers are willing to use it. Both factors com-
bined increase the amount of effective analysis being
performed by several times so increasing by at least sev-
eral times the number of economically viable improve-
ment discoveries that will be made. Curvaceous Process
Camera used in conjunction adds even more improve-
ment, especially in the understanding of how variables
really interact.
Commercial installations. CVE is operational on over
60 sites in the UK and North America. Applications
include process analysis and improvement in batch and
continuous processes ranging from oil refining to plas-
tic injection moulding, and from manufacture of solid
rocket fuel through drilling of oil wells to visualization
and decomposition of neural networks, commodities
trading and emissions reduction in CHP plants.
Licensor. Curvaceous Software Limited, Gerrards Cross,
UK; Website: www.curvaceous.com; e-mail: enquiries@
curvaceous.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
integration
Application. The Integrated Control and Information
System (ICIMS) streamlines operations and enhances deci-
sion support by providing integration between control
system, safety system, plant information management
systems, technical information systems and business infor-
mation systems. The computerized dataflows between
these applications minimizes customized integration and
enables businesses such as petrochemical producers to
monitor product costs on an activity basis across facility
and national boundaries. The system includes a complete
TCP/IP information network architecture, office automa-
tion, plant historian, laboratory information system,
CADD/electronic document and plant maintenance, plus
human resources, financials and business reporting based
on an ERP (SAP, BAAN, or JD Edwards) implementation.
Capabilities. This information technology solution pro-
vides a complete integration of real-time petrochemical
plant information with business/transactional systems to
coordinate all operations personnel, technical groups,
plant management and business management. The plant
information system portion combines all production sys-
tems, laboratory, security, safety and building systems
into a unified database. The ICIMS solution enforces the
best practices of petrochemical plant business pro-
cesses via automated workflow, document management
and business system integration. Furthermore, it ensures
that plant documentation is consistently current, training
records and authorized procedures are met and all other
ISO practices are followed.
Real-time information integration to maintenance
asset management minimizes unnecessary maintenance
procedures and inventories, while ensuring plant equip-
ment and personnel availability. Automated business
reporting driven from production systems allows up-
to-the-minute production reporting that contains all
flow-through costs and profitability (labor, materials
and overheads). The real-time linkage between product
demand and inventory and distribution systems dra-
matically speeds product changeover and minimizes
on-hand inventories.
Economics. Field results indicate the following economic
benefits:
Reduction of tank farm safety-stock inventory from
two weeks to three days
150% increase in product changeover speed
30% reduction in maintenance-related expendi-
tures
5% increase in petrochemical plant uptime due to
real-time maintenance condition monitoring
50% reduction in manual paperwork
30% reduction in information network costs due
to streamlined computer architecture
40% reduction in ICIMS system maintenance costs
due to reduced suppliers and customer software inter-
faces.
Commercial installations. ICIMS for petrochemical
plants are installed at five plants in the US, Europe, Mid-
dle East and Asia.
Licensor. Invensys Hydrocarbons Solutions, Foxboro,
Massachusetts. Contact: pamela.williams.invensys.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
integration
Application. RESOLUTION provides a comprehensive
plant information system that has:
Specific business solutions for the chemical, petro-
chemical, gas processing, refining, food and process man-
ufacturing industries, e.g., production reporting, mass
balancing, key performance indicators, batch tracking,
data reconciliation and more.
Configurable work flow components to match your
business.
Strategy. RISs RESOLUTION product line is a compre-
hensive plant information system that integrates your
plants isolated systems and software, providing effec-
tive solutions that adapt to your business needs. RESO-
LUTIONs configurable components include RELAYER,
REPOSITORY and RISNet.
RELAYER is an XML messaging system that utilizes intel-
ligent listeners to break down integration barriers, allow-
ing third-party applications to communicate via an
enhanced intelligent workflow. Interfaces to industry
standard products already exist: OSI PI, Honeywell PHD,
Baytek BLISS, PSDI Maximo, Aspen ADVISOR, OSI Sig-
mafine and more. RELAYER includes message-driven mod-
ules for scheduling activities, collecting operating data,
deriving and summarizing data, and producing complex
analyses.
REPOSITORY, the plant data bank, provides an inte-
grated view of all plant data, facilitating knowledge
management and, in turn, enhanced financial insight.
RISnet is a Web-based user interface development envi-
ronment, with the ability to rapidly generate full trans-
action-capable Web forms matching client business pro-
cesses.
RIS also provides a set of standard application solutions
or RESOLUTIONS covering key plant business processes.
Adapting these components to meet specific business
requirements can be achieved by entering configuration
data and not programming. RESOLUTIONS include:
Comparative performance monitoring (Solomon)
Operator logbook
Laboratory management
Project management and tracking
Product specification management
Quality assurance
Production management
Equipment inspection and testing
Shipping
Planning and scheduling
Documentation management
Offsite data management
Equipment specification
Batch tracking
Key performance indicator (KPI)
Yield accounting.
Benefits. RESOLUTION provides for integrating ALL plant
data: operational, economic, engineering, planning, main-
tenance, documentation and more. This provides for one-
stop shopping for information, and eliminates data ambi-
guity and duplication. Its benefit is that it allows efficient use
of information. This improves analysis of any aspect of the
business, in particular, comparison of plan versus actual.
Typical plants might have more than 100 different
applications. RESOLUTION allows the number of appli-
cations to be drastically reduced, hence, greatly reduc-
ing costs.
RESOLUTION is designed with integration in mind: its
RELAYER tools for third-party system integration greatly
reduces the cost of a systems integration project.
Commercial installations. RESOLUTION modules have
been installed on 20 sites.
Licensor. Resolution Integration Solutions, Inc., Solon,
Ohio. Contact: PeterLawrence@ris-resolution.com, Web-
site: www.ris-resolution.com, tel: (440) 519-1256.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
integration (ERP)
Applications. Corporate ERP/plant knowledge-based
integrated management information systems have been
developed and implemented for global refinery, olefin,
polyolefins, ethylbenzene, styrene/PS, EG/PTA/polyester
fibers, caprolactam and nylon fibers companies sup-
porting restructuring, reengineering, TQM cost reduc-
tion strategic decision analysis and expert system model-
based e-business strategy and APC/DCS applications to
maximize supply chain productivity.
They integrate the information, Internet and intranet
technology into finance, cost accounting, human
resources, feedstock and fuels procurement, inventory
supply chain and plant daily operating information,
equipment and instrumentation/DCS maintenance, emer-
gency shutdown, startup, explosion accident informa-
tion systems support, and operating and information
technology staff on-the-job training.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. These infor-
mation knowledge systems have been developed from
the past 20 years daily US Asian and European Wall Street
Journals, Business Week, Economist, IMF economic and
NPRA data, DeWitt and Platt market newsletter data;
global central banks monetary policy and economics and
business information, extensive literature and patent
search, daily Internet information on US, European, Tai-
wan, China and Asia-Pacific crude oils, fuel oils, ethylene,
EG, PTA, polyesters fibers and PET spot and contract prices
data, entire corporate/plant operating history (including
normal, crisis and emergency operations); management
and plant operators expertise and market psychology as
the knowledge base supporting expert systems-based
decision simulators. Features include:
Global central banks monetary policy, financial mar-
kets interest rates, currency, commodities and deriva-
tives prices information
Global crude oil, fuel oils, gas oils, ethylene, EG, PTA
and benzene feedstock prices, inventory and procure-
ment information systems
Global refining products, olefin, styrene, polyester
and nylon fibers competitive spot, and contract pricing,
and marketing and sales information
Corporate/plant cost accounting (unit consumption)
information
Corporate/plant manpower, function and perfor-
mance information
Process plant operating DCS management process
startup, emergency shutdown, troubleshooting, waste
minimization, energy conservation, equipment design,
instrumentation and maintenance information.
Operations management implementation. OSA con-
sultant, Dr. Warren Huang, will conduct the corporate/plant
operations, restructuring, reengineering and cost reduc-
tions review and set up goal mission performance-ori-
ented OSA teams to develop and implement the plant
strategic information knowledge management systems
supporting daily corporate/plant decision simulation anal-
ysis in supply chain e-commerce cost reductions.
Economics. Up to $1 billion saved without staff cut
by these information knowledge-based OSA decision
simulators.
Commercial installations. Twelve refinery/petro-
chemicals ERP/plant information integration and 100 cor-
porate/plant integrated information management appli-
cations workshops offered.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Improve process by OSA, in 12-paper series in Hydro-
carbon Processing and Oil & Gas Journal, 1980, 1983, HP,
OGJ, 19791983, Goal, Mission Performance Oriented
Design/Operations Simulations Analysis Predictive Control
Maximize Refinery-Olefin, Styrene, Polyester, Nylon Fiber
Mills Productivity, Flexibility, AIChE 1983 Diamond
Jubilee, 1990, 1999 annual meeting Dallas; World
Congress II, II, IV, Canada, Tokyo, Germany,1983, 1986,
1991, Singapore, Beijing, Antwerp, Shanghai, Dallas,1989,
1992, 1995, 1997, 1999; Intl. central banks governors
conference, Macau, May 15, Taipei, May 29, Barcelona,
June 3, 1999, Washington D.C., June 30, 1999; Supply
chain strategy maximize oil, gas, chemical profits con-
ference/workshop, Singapore, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
management
Application. Information management systems play a
key role in supporting entire enterprises, from the infor-
mation pumping out of the plant to the communication
among suppliers in the extended supply chain. These sys-
tems are used in the hydrocarbon processing industries to
improve operational reliability, enhance plant and envi-
ronmental performance, reduce costs and provide the
data platform for integrating plant systems to other plant
and business applications.
Strategy. In todays networked environment, its not
enough to focus attention on the plant and the produc-
tion of a particular product. Processes must be optimized
across all critical value chains: engineering, manufactur-
ing, the extended supply chain and beyond into the realm
of digital marketplaces. To do this, information is required
from all levelsquickly. AspenTechs InfoPlus.21 infor-
mation management system provides the infrastructure
to capture, integrate, manage and display plant data,
just as ERP systems integrate business data. InfoPlus.21
also provides the infrastructure for integrated plant sys-
tem applications, such as production control, production
management and quality management systems.
InfoPlus.21 captures and integrates plant transaction
and real-time data from:
On-plant systems, such as control systems, instru-
ments and analyzers
Execution systems, such as those performing real-
time optimization, advanced process control, laboratory
systems and online quality management systems
Operators interactions with the plant.
InfoPlus.21 also integrates plant data with the ERP sys-
tem to improve supply chain visibility, enhance plant deci-
sion support and provide better quality data across the
enterprise.
Economics. InfoPlus.21 information management solu-
tions enable users to make intelligent business decisions
quickly and accurately. The benefits arising from an inte-
grated information management system include:
Operational reliability through a holistic view of
how the plant is operating, which enables plant operators
and managers to identify and preempt situations that
might otherwise lead to costly plant shutdowns.
Enabling a real-time supply chain with real-time
production information. Plan managers can get updated
production schedules for the next few hours. This short-
term planning can be shared with suppliers who work
in just-in-time mode to optimize their production.
Capacity, yield and quality improvements. These
benefits arise from better decision-making and main-
taining stable operation closer to operating limits. Exam-
ples include reduced variability in product quality, faster
changeover and reduced rework.
Inventory cost reductions from improved operating
decisions.
Capital cost reductions through the use of histori-
cal operating data to investigate operating scenarios
when designing plant expansions/revamps. This, com-
bined with process modeling, can lead to avoiding sub-
stantial capital expenditures.
Improved personnel productivity through the use
of sound decision-support tools, reports and process anal-
ysis tools.
Regulatory compliance through automatically gen-
erated reports, tracking and early notifications to mini-
mize or prevent outages. Savings are achieved through
reduced efforts to prepare reports, avoiding penalties
from regulatory authorities and improved relations with
local residents.
Commercial installations. AspenTechs InfoPlus.21 has
been implemented in over 2,500 operating sites.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant information
management
Application. Exaquantum from Yokogawa is a plant
information management mystem (PIMS). It provides
business benefits to users in a wide range of industries
including hydrocarbons, power and chemicals. It is one of
the most comprehensive PIMS available for the process
industries. Exaquantum is suitable for continuous and
batch processes.
Exaquantum acquires process data and transforms it
into easily usable, high-value, widely distributed infor-
mation. This becomes an integral part of the tools used
in decision-making.
Strategy. To provide data capture, integration and
reporting, Exaquantum comprises the following features:
Process Control Systems interface. Exaquantum pro-
vides PCS data access using the OPC standard.
Data processing and storage. The Exaquantum real-
time database (RTDB) is tag-based. Quality codes, statis-
tical capabilities, data aggregations, data assembly into
function blocks and user-scripting of logic pathways are
integral to the informational tags.
Role-based view of resources. Exaquantum can be con-
figured so user groups have their own view of informa-
tion. This avoids lengthy searches through large volumes
of data. Tags are stored in folders, grouped with their
associated information. Data access and security is pro-
vided at this level.
Multiple servers support. Multiple Exaquantum servers
can be configured so that information is available as a
single resource.
Data visualization. Exaquantum supports varied visu-
alization needs through Exaquantum Explorer and
Exaquantum/Web.
Exaquantum Explorer offers detailed graphics con-
figuration, including runtime support, trending, alarms
and events, data entry and write-back. Further advanced
features are available in addition to a comprehensive
Excel add-in.
Exaquantum/Web allows a wider variety of users to
access plant information using only their Web-browser.
Data availability through OLE DB/ODBC and a pub-
lished API, if required.
Exaquantum/Batch. Exaquantum/Batch is an intelli-
gent, scaleable S88-based Batch PIMS product. It pro-
vides analysis and reporting and collects, stores and dis-
plays current and historical data from batch production,
equipment and recipe formulation.
Exaquantum/SER. Exaquantum/SER is an event-driven
integrated reporting system that acquires alarm and
event messages and point data from plant monitoring
and control systems and then stores them in a single
database. For trip reports, a configuration tool is pro-
vided to set conditions and report content. Sequence of
events reports are generated on request, displaying mes-
sages from all available
Commercial installations. Exaquantum PIMS have
been installed in over 200 plants worldwide. Exaquan-
tum is the PIMS of choice for the hydrocarbon industry
with over 150 installations in this sector alone.
Licensor. Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo,
Japan, e-mail: info@ymx.yokogawa.com, Website:
www.ymx.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Exaquantum/web clients Exaquantum/explorer clients
Local area
network
Intranet
Role-based
view
Administration
tools
PCS
interface
Real-time
database
Exaquantum/PIMS server
Exaquantum/PIMS server
Exaquantum/PIMS server
OPC servers
DCSs, PLCs, etc.
System overview
External data:
ERP, LIMS, etc.
Long-term
archive
Historian
Plant operations
management
Application. The Business.FLEX PKS software applica-
tions provide Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) that
unify business and production automation. Business objec-
tives are directly translated into manufacturing targets,
and validated production data are returned to close the
loop on the business planning cycle.
Business.FLEX PKS applications for operations man-
agement supports monitoring and analysis of process
operations, as well as providing integration with control
systems including Honeywells advanced control and opti-
mization solutions. When integrated with Honeywells
alarm management applications, these applications help
to overcome abnormal situations, such as upsets, and
ensure safe and profitable production.
The Operating Instructions module manages oper-
ating targets and instructions for production steps.
Operating Instructions can serve as the link between
planning, scheduling and advanced control, ensuring
that business objectives are accurately translated into
production targets and properly communicated. The
Business.FLEX PKS planning and scheduling tools, and
Honeywells advanced control system can be integrated
to streamline the process of translating plans into pro-
duction.
Operations Monitoring compares operating targets to
actual results, and provides tools for explaining and ana-
lyzing the differences. Operations Monitoring helps
reduce production variability and cost, and improves
throughput and yields by showing where and why plans
were not achieved.
Event Monitoring detects, records and communicates
operating events. It is useful for detecting and record-
ing things such as operating modes, unit and equipment
outages, and other occurrences that are interesting to
analyze.
Operations Logbook provides better access and man-
agement of operations information. Information from
different sources is consolidated in a common view to
give operators, supervisors and engineers a consistent,
up-to-date window into key operating data, including
shift reports, operator comments, daily shift orders and
daily shift task management.
Strategy. Business.FLEX PKS Operations Management
applications form an integrated solution suite that
enables improved operational performance. The solu-
tion systematically sets and communicates operating
plans, monitors process data against limits, and high-
lights priorities on deviations. It provides a better under-
standing of performance versus industry norms, and
knowledge of true operating limits for better reliability
and agility. The solution helps reduce energy use while
improving yield, product consistency and run lengths.
When combined with Honeywells alarm management
solutions, these applications help to overcome abnormal
situations, and ensure safe and profitable production.
Economics. Benefits are realized from effective unifi-
cation of business and production automation. As a result,
companies can typically increase production by 25%
and decrease costs by 0.51%. Major benefit areas are
improved operational effectiveness, market responsive-
ness, quality control, personnel productivity, customer
satisfaction, conformance to environment controls and
reduced working capital requirements, operating costs,
raw material utilization, utility consumption, product
returns and inventory levels.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
RPMS:
plant planning
Scheduling
LIMS: quality
and product data
Operating
instructions
Operations
monitoring
Event
monitoring
Operations
logbook
Advanced
process control
and optimization
ASSAY:
feedstock selection
Plant operations
management
Applications. Rigorous, kinetic, information knowl-
edge, expert system model-based refinery, olefin, poly-
olefins, styrene, caprolactam, polyester and nylon fiber
mills process reactors and downstream recovery units
design and operations simulation improve daily plant
operating decisions and predictive control for advanced
process control (APC) applications.
The results are feedstock optimal allocation, blending
for full range feed compositions, operating loads in reac-
tor yield improvements, process debottlenecking, energy
conservation, waste minimization, preventive mainte-
nance and safety management, downstream customer
processing quality assurance, DCS/CIM system design and
integration, and economic impact on supply chain cost.
Technical and operating staff on-the-job training for full
range feed variations, operating loads and severity
changes in plantwide supply chain cost reduction, products
innovation and quality improvements is also provided.
Strategy.
Information knowledge base development. These sys-
tems have been developed from the past plant hourly oper-
ating history (including normal, crisis and emergency oper-
ations) and management and plant operators expertise.
Process plant units OSA models development. The lat-
est statistical, thermodynamic and kinetic theories, artifi-
cial intelligence in fuzzy logic, neural network and chaos
theory have been applied to develop expert system-based
decision simulators covering the entire operating history
and technical and operating staff expertise. Features
include:
Feedstock and fuel prices simulation forecasts, pro-
curement, inventory scheduling, blending and supply
chain strategic analysis
Reactor yield improvements and debottlenecking
and polymer processing quality improvement for full
range feeds, loads and severity changes
Process troubleshooting and debottlenecking over
design
Process energy conservation, cut fuel and steam unit
consumption
Process waste management, tracking and simulate
pollution source and minimization
Maximize products recovery while minimizing off-
spec loss
Process plant quality assurance and equipment pre-
ventive safety and maintenance management
Process plant technical, operating and DCS Internet
e-business strategy staff on-the-job training.
Operations management implementation. OSA con-
sultant, Dr. Warren Huang, will conduct the corpo-
rate/plant operation cost reductions review and set up
goal mission, performance oriented cross-functional OSA
strategic execution teams to achieve a $20-million cost
reduction with improved quality and market shares with-
out a staff cut or hardware investment.
Economics. Over $20 million saved without staff cut.
Commercial installations. Over 30 refinery, olefin,
polyolefin, ethylbenzene, styrene, caprolactam plants,
nylon and polyester fibers mills applied and 140 TQM
cost reduction workshops offered to corporate, plant
managers, technical, operating and DCS staff.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Improve process by OSA, Improve naphtha cracker
operations, February, May 1980, Optimize styrene
units, April 1983, Hydrocarbon Processing; OSA maxi-
mize ethylbenzene, styrene unit productivity, flexibility,
January, March 1983 Oil & Gas Journal and 12-paper series
in Hydrocarbon Processing, OGJ 19791983; Control of
Cracking Furnace, US patents, 1981, 1982; Goal, Mission
Performance Oriented Design/Operations Simulations
Analysis Predictive Control Maximized Refinery-Olefin,
Fiber Mills Productivity, Flexibility, AIChE 1983 Diamond
Jubilee, 1990, 1999 annual meeting, Dallas; World
Congress II, II, IV, Canada, Tokyo, Germany, 1983, 1986,
1991; Refinery Optimal Control, Singapore, Beijing,
Antwerp, 1992,1995, 1999; OSA Integrated Supply Chain
Strategy Maximize Oil, Gas, Chemical Profit, Singapore
Supply Chain Conference/Workshop, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant optimization
Application. Geometric Process Control (GPC) provides
the first mathematical unification of process control,
product quality control and process alarm management.
It includes a completely new operator display that is intu-
itive, easily understandable and provides operators with
information on the currently usable ranges of all vari-
ables that has never before been available. It uses a mul-
tivariable Best Operating Zone (BOZ) that is a business
objective such as efficient operation or in-spec product
used to extract a subset of actual process capability from
existing process and LIMS historian data.
This step is performed by visual analysis using the Cur-
vaceous Visual Explorer. The BOZ is defined by a set of
representative points as its basis for distinguishing
between normal and abnormal operation. The BOZ is
converted by Curvaceous Process Modeller (CPM) in min-
utes into an equation-less multivariable and nonlinear
model containing knowledge derived from both process
history and laboratory quality history. Alarm correction
advice is given to the operator or to an advanced con-
trol system when the process or the predicted qualities are
outside the BOZ; optimizing advice is given when inside
the BOZ. Advice is generated by a same-for-everyone
algorithm entirely avoiding any need for a rule base and
its associated costs. Process safety is greatly improved as
a consequence of much better alarm definitions, fewer
false alarms and reduced annunciation rates.
This method won the European Process Safety Centre
(EPSC) Award for the biggest single contribution to
improving plant safety in 2003. The equivalent of EPSC in
the US is the CPSC.
Economics. Real-time optimizing models can be built
and updated without mathematical knowledge, mak-
ing RTO practical and affordable even for very small
plants with few engineers. In use in the chlorinated hydro-
carbons application, it produced a 2% improvement in
process efficiency in the first three weeks of use, reduced
false alarms from 49% to less than 10% at the first
attempt and cut plant startup time by a factor of six.
Commercial installations. Six full GPC systems are oper-
ational or in commission and several others are under
investigation covering industries from refining, chemi-
cals and glass through to semi-conductors. Particular
appliations include para-amino phenol, catalytic crack-
ing, monoethanolamine, propane-propylene separation,
para-xylene and benzene recovery. Over 60 large plants
are now using CVE to identify their BOZs as the neces-
sary first step in the real-time implementation of CPM.
Licensor. Curvaceous Software Limited, Gerrards Cross,
UK; Website: www.curvaceous.com; e-mail: enquiries@
curvaceous.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant optimization (refining)
Application. The PetroPlan refinery modeling system is
appropriate for precise nonlinear simulation of the whole
refinery for various applications involving:
Evaluating revamp/expansion options
Planning grassroots facilities
Valuating alternative feedstocks
Changed product specifications
Optimizing plant operations
Quick screening of processing options.
Description: The PetroPlan model is a block-by-block
simulation of the entire refinery encompassing crude
fractionation and product blending in one single model.
Each process/utility block calculates product yields and
properties as well as utility consumption based on feed
properties and parameters such as conversion, severity,
etc. Submodel correlations may be nonlinear and are
very visible and easy to modify.
The crude unit is a block integral to the main simulation
so its cut points can be varied on the fly. A blender block
using linear programming (LP) techniques blends all
intermediate products into up to 16 optimum blends of
desired property specifications.
The user builds the flowsheet by connecting feeds
to desired blocks using a mouse. Products from a block
are inserted into the flowsheet by PetroPlan based on
the block type. A product may be recycled to an
upstream block. Block operation/design parameters
are entered on a simple form. If the user chooses, Petro-
Plan will vary the selected parameters (e.g., reformer
severity) to maximize global profit. In general, blocks
and streams in the simulation mimic their counterparts
in the real refinery, unlike LP-based simulators. The
easy-to-browse output clearly shows all the results of
each block on a single page including product yields
and properties.
Interaction with the other elements of the refinerys
planning and optimization system can be automated by
exchanging PetroPlan input/output in a Microsoft-Excel
compatible format.
Installations: 30 sites.
Licensor: AMI Consultants, Sugar Land, Texas; e-mail:
info@AmiConsultants.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant optimization and
information (refining)
Application. Operating and controlling a modern oil
refinery is now an extremely complex and demanding
business. As well as being highly interactive, processes
contain many operating variables and constraints often
subject to daily change. The range of feedstocks avail-
able and required product slates are usually wide, with
costs and values frequently updating as economic con-
ditions change. For this reason, the information flow
between plant and personnel and, more importantly,
how the data are used to improve unit profitability, is
now a key element within the refinery operating strategy.
Many sites have generated substantial benefits by invest-
ing to improve plant information, unit optimization and
process control. Emersons PlantWeb digital plant archi-
tecture is a leading platform for improving refinery per-
formance through process and asset optimization, and
delivering secure information to those running the facil-
ity from onsite or remote access.
Strategy. A number of important functions can be
accomplished by implementing modern control systems
and technologies to improve process unit operation per-
formance and availability.
Sitewide networks for plant data acquisition and
distribution
Sitewide LP modeling
Unit simulation and optimization
Equipment performance monitoring
Advanced process control, including model-based
techniques
Process alarm management.
Implementation. Computer systems will generally be
constructed in a hierarchical manner, with information
and data transmitted in both upward and downward
directions. At the highest level, systems will consider data
on a sitewide basis, often including links to remote loca-
tions such as company headquarters or other sites. Such
systems allow multiple users to access and manipulate
data from different lower-level platforms and to return,
for example, operating targets back to these individual
platforms. At the next level, individual plant monitoring
and optimization systems are applied to ensure the plant
continuously operates in the most efficient and prof-
itable manner, within the operational and economic lim-
its of the unit. Finally, advanced control is utilized to
ensure the processes continue to operate at their required
optimum conditions when subject to internal and exter-
nal disturbances.
Benefits. Installation of an individual system can real-
ize substantial benefits very quickly, with payback periods
normally in the range of 6 to 12 months. Quantities
involved depend on the size and complexity of the system,
but can be up to $2 million/yr.
Commercial installations. Emersons Real-Time Opti-
mizer, Equipment Performance Monitor and Model Pre-
dictive Control (MPC) have been successfully applied in
many refineries and other plants worldwide.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant performance
management
Application. Performance management provides a
means for closing the gap between expected and actual
performance. Aspen Technologys performance man-
agement solution comprises technology and workflows
for measuring and quantifying operating performance
and detecting, quantifying and correcting any deviation
in planned performance that may affect profitability.
Strategy. The automated performance management
solution combines software with common workflows to
develop plant performance information for utilization
by planning, scheduling and operations. Using predic-
tive software tools, users can establish a multifunctional
continuous improvement program across multiple busi-
ness processes. Components of an integrated perfor-
mance management program are:
Plan vs. actual reports that compare the operating
plan to the actual operation on a site-wide and unit-spe-
cific process and economic basis, for mass/volume bal-
ance, market vs. production variance, predicted versus
actual stream qualities, and plan/predictive/actual vs.
actual reconciled unit comparisons
Margin curves
Added value
Product quality giveaway analysis
Planning model accuracy
Unit performance analysis.
Performance Management can be customized to meet
individual plant requirements, and provides significantly
more capability than traditional in-house custom spread-
sheets. Extensive data manipulation capabilities include
mapping among predictive models, data scaling and
aggregation and report distribution. AspenTechs Per-
formance Management solution supports comparisons
over different time periods (daily, weekly, month to date,
last 30 days, etc.).
Economics. The performance management technology
allows evaluating current plant performance to plan and
modify future plant targets, thus moving a plant closer to
its optimum. Benefits from closing the gap between
expected and actual performance depend on how well
existing business processes are executed, but a conser-
vative estimate is $0.02/bbl to $.03/bbl, resulting from:
Consistent methodology to measure performance
Standardization across multiple installations
and sites
Reduced costs to determine performance
Reduced time for problem identification
Improved ability to monitor and identify LP and
simulator predictions
Standardization of the predictive model calibra-
tion process.
Commercial installations. AspenTechs performance
management solution has been implemented in three
refinery and four petrochemical sites.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant performance
management
Application. Business.FLEX PKS software applications
provide Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) for innova-
tive performance management. The solution includes
a number of integrated applications that track and ana-
lyze performance results on a timely basis. It helps busi-
nesses better align employee actions with overall cor-
porate objectives, creating a performance-driven
enterprise.
KPI Manager is a Web-based application that auto-
matically tracks and analyzes Key Performance Indica-
tors (KPIs) at a production site, or across multiple sites.
It provides plant managers, supervisors and employees
with an interactive, real-time metrics environment in
which they can assess and improve performance of their
business on a timely basis (e.g., per shift). KPI Manager can
access multiple (third-party) data sources and related
Business.FLEX PKS applications to deliver a comprehensive
performance management solution. It utilizes Six Sigma
workflow methodology for monitoring and minimizing
deviations as much as possible.
Strategy. KPI Manager is part of a comprehensive solu-
tion for performance management, which includes Hon-
eywells advanced historian (Uniformance PHD), ERP
integration link (Business Hiway) and related Busi-
ness.FLEX PKS applicationsall sources of KPI data. For
example, KPI Manager is complementary to the Busi-
ness.FLEX PKS Operations Monitoring applicationfor
real-time unit monitoring. KPI Manager can retrieve
prenormalized calculations directly from related appli-
cations such as Operations Monitoring, Production Ana-
lyst and Blend Managementvastly simplifying the KPI
configuration overhead. Industry (or corporate) bench-
marks can also be configured into the KPI system for
accurate comparisons.
Economics. Benefits are realized from consistent, timely
performance analysis. KPI Manager lets you calculate and
publish KPI results while there is still time to do some-
thing about them. Access to up-to-date KPI results enables
faster, more effective decision making. The easy-to-use
Web-based application provides improved visibility of
your organizations performance. Financial returns have
been estimated to provide a 23 month payback, based
on recent customer experience.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Production
balance
Business Hiway:
ERP Integration
Uniformance
PHD
Batch tracking
lot tracing
KPI Manager
Operations
Monitoring
Production
analyst
Blend
management
Blend
management
Third party data
Plant production
management
Application. Emersons PlantWeb digital plant archi-
tecture comprises an intelligent, information-rich plant
operations environment that delivers predictive process
and equipment performance information to higher level
management systems, enabling access via business sys-
tems, browsers and PDAs. Emersons modular software
applications are used at the process operations level and
at the business systems level of the plant.
At the process operations level, process automation
software monitors and optimizes performance of intel-
ligent instrumentation and the process itself; asset opti-
mization software monitors, manages and optimizes
machinery health. At the business systems level, software
provides links to production planning, economics, pur-
chasing and supply. Accurate up-to-date information on
actual production, inventories and plant performance is
provided. Web-enabled components permit the infor-
mation to be disseminated worldwide within the corpo-
ration and externally with suppliers and customers if
desired.
Strategy. The business systems level of software includes
the following modules:
Data ManagementIncludes links to multiple DCSs,
PLCs, real-time historians and databases, relational
databases and ERP systems. Enhanced data validation
and reconciliation are supported. The system provides
consistent unit and sitewide mass balances and produc-
tion data in a form that can easily be integrated with
modern higher-level business systems.
Cost ManagementProvides calculation of produc-
tion costs by major equipment, major unit and mode of
operation. Actual results are calculated against a plan.
Performance indices and benchmarks are automatically
calculated, allowing corporations to compare perfor-
mance of different plants continuously.
Intelligent Performance MonitoringSupports rigor-
ous performance monitoring of individual units and major
equipment. Both long-term trends and sudden changes
in performance can be detected. This helps identify likely
candidate equipment for preventive maintenance.
Quality ManagementLaboratory data are associated
with the batch or lot produced and the process operating
conditions at the time of production. This facilitates prob-
lem solving and data retrieval for reporting purposes.
Process AnalysisProvides tools for advanced statisti-
cal analysis and trending of process and laboratory data.
This provides operations, technical and management
staff with the means to assess, improve and optimize
plant operation.
Historical Data ManagementEfficient data archiving
and retrieval are provided. Very large databases, typical
of refining and chemical operations, are supported.
View ManagementA variety of user interfaces are
supported with selectable data security settings. Perfor-
mance data can be published on the corporate WAN and
viewed with easy-to-use web browsers.
Economics. Project paybacks of less than one year are
common. Savings occur through reduced operating,
inventory and maintenance costs and improved opera-
tional performance.
Commercial installations. More than 10 installations
of this technology have been completed worldwide.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plant production
management
Application. Business.FLEX PKS applications provide
Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) that unify business
and production automation. Business.FLEX PKS for pro-
duction management supports plant-level yield account-
ing, costing, material tracking, plan vs. actual analysis
and comprehensive performance monitoring.
KPI Manager improves performance monitoring by
automating the generation and collection of a rigorous
set of KPIs for a manufacturing site. It ensures that KPIs are
accurate, synchronized and visible across an organiza-
tion to enable consistent, timely analysis of business per-
formance.
Production Balance provides a consistent, accurate view
of production, resulting in improved inventory control,
planning and process condition monitoring. It efficiently
identifies and eliminates gross measurement errors. Users
can then rapidly identify unmeasured material move-
ments.
Batch/Lot Tracking tracks process conditions, production
metrics and qualities, which helps reduce product vari-
ability and costs, and improves customer satisfaction by
quickly pinpointing problems.
Production Tracker reviews, monitors and manages
planned and actual material movements throughout a
plant, allowing planning, scheduling and movements
control to be linked ensuring that movement orders
are properly communicated, executed and captured for
use by Production Balance.
Tank Composition Tracking tracks product components
anywhere products are mixed helping to correlate oper-
ating performance to actual feedstock mixtures and to
track the origin of inventory.
Production Costing calculates production costs at each
processing step, including direct, variable and utility
costshelping to reduce operating costs by under-
standing true production costs.
Business Hiway integrates Business.FLEX PKS with ERP
systems, facilitating, for example, communication of pro-
duction plans to plants, while returning production and
consumption quantitiesfor closed-loop production.
Strategy. Production Management is a complete solution
to manage production output and quality. It provides a
detailed picture of what was madeincluding how,
when, and where it is located. It measures performance,
helps improve product quality, and increases customer
satisfaction. It improves collaboration within the pro-
duction site, as well as with the overall supply chain, by
responding to customer and market demands more effi-
ciently and by providing timely closure of the planning
cycle and available product inventories. Business Hiway
provides the essential link between plant and supply
chain systems.
Economics. Effective unification of business and pro-
duction automation can typically increase production
by 2% to 5%, and decrease costs by 0.5% to 1%. Major
benefits are improved operational effectiveness, market
responsiveness, quality control, personnel productivity,
customer satisfaction, environmental compliance and
reduced working capital, operating costs, raw material
utilization, utility consumption, product returns and
inventories.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including in refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix, Ari-
zona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
KPI
manager
Production
costing
Business Hiway:
ERP integration
Production
balance
Batch tracking
lot tracing
Tank composition
tracking
Production
tracker
Scheduling
LIMS:
quality and
product data
Planning
Movement control
and automation
Inventory
monitoring
Plant scheduling (refining)
Application. FORWARD is an interactive system dedi-
cated to optimal scheduling of refinery operations. It
provides a single tool to solve refinery scheduling prob-
lems from crude receipts to finished products liftings.
Strategy. FORWARD combines the experience of the
scheduling team and the power of object-oriented pro-
gramming, constraint propagation, linear and mixed-
integer programming, simulation and efficient user inter-
face techniques.
FORWARD contains provisions to easily configure and
maintain the refinery model :
Flow-sheet information can be easily entered to pro-
vide the suitable detail of plant topology.
Process unit models can be configured or selected
from a library of process unit models.
The FORWARD interface is built around two main dis-
plays :
The Gantt Chart is used to build and visualize the
production scenario with a resolution of a few minutes.
The Refinery Graph view provides a snapshot of
refinery operations at any time.
A scenario is built by placing events either manually
or automatically on the Gantt chart and entering the
event attributes.
During the scenario simulation, FORWARD warns the
user of any unfeasibility, takes action using pre-defined
rules and provides guidance for proper action.
The latest release of FORWARD includes provisions to
optimize crude unloading operations, mixing in tanks,
crude sequences to atmospheric distillation units and
sequence of finished product blending operations.
Economics. FORWARD bridges the gap between the
production plans and daily operations. It enables the user
to define the operating instructions for a short-term hori-
zon without losing track of the optimum monthly or
weekly plans. Its computational power enables the user
to identify potential problems and dynamically modify
the scenario to react quickly to new events. Benefits are
obtained from :
Increased throughput
Better adherence to the monthly plan
Better utilization of feedstocks and intermediate
streams
Better utilization of blending components
Reduced demurrage.
Commercial installations by Technip. FORWARD has
been implemented in several refineries in Europe and
East Asia.
Licensor. Technip France. Contact: Marc Valleur, Man-
ager ASE ParisAdvanced Systems Engineering, Tech-
nip; tel: (33) 1 47 78 21 83; fax: (33) 1 47 78 28 16; e-mail:
mvalleur@technip.com; Website: www.technip.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Plastics (product grade
switch)
Application. Engineering plastics (e.g., SAN, styrene-
acrylonitrile, or ABS, acrylonitrile-butyl rubber-styrene)
are typically produced in a wide variety of grades, that
is, similar products with differing product quality speci-
fications, such as viscosity. Depending on inventories and
ever-changing customer requirements, switches from
manufacturing one grade to another occur quite fre-
quently (every few days) in the same production line.
The product made during the switch is off-spec, and must
be sold as wavered material or as scrap. There are large
incentives, then, to minimize time required to make the
switch.
Control strategy. The control hierarchy normally
includes lower-level advanced controls for the key oper-
ating parameters, including primary feed charge rate,
secondary feed charge rate or charge ratio, chain initia-
tor or terminator rate or ratio, and reactor, and recov-
ery temperatures. The Product Grade Switch Control
ramps the targets of the key parameters to new values
needed to change the line from producing one product
grade to another. The parameters are ramped to new
targets according to a timing pattern established by oper-
ating experience. The ramps RATES are set to make the
switch as quickly as possible, while maintaining stable
operation. The operator is provided with a table of
default target values and timing patterns for each grade
switch.
Economics. This set of controls installed in 2000 on two
SAN lines increased on-spec material yield by 0.5% (con-
firmed by six-sigma audit), providing a payback of less
than one year. Operator acceptance and controls uti-
lization are extremely high.
Commercial installations. Two SAN lines and two ABS
lines at one site.
Developer/licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Platforming
Application. The main target is satisfying the weighted
average inlet temperature (WAIT) of the three reactors,
which is the way to reach the specified octane number
(RON). The operating conditions meet more and more
constraints as the catalyst gets older. The specifications are
the result of a trade-off between handling catalyst aging,
heater constraints and capabilities, and reactor constraints
(high limit on temperature deviation between pairs of
reactors).
The main objective is satisfying the WAIT setpoint with
a defined closed-loop time response. Balancing reactor
inlet temperatures is considered as a secondary objec-
tive less important than satisfying the WAIT setpoint.
Nevertheless, the imbalance is limited by high limits.
Secondary objectives are minimizing the difference
between inlet temperature of pairs of reactors (guaranty
of homogeneous catalyst aging) and satisfying the plant
nominal feed rate as long as the constraints do not make
it necessary to decrease it.
Control strategy. The control actions (manipulated vari-
ables) available are four setpoint values: heater outlet
temperature of each of the three heaters and the unit
feed rate.
Conflicts are managed by a hierarchy of the objectives.
They are sorted hierarchically corresponding to the con-
trol strategy defined by the producer:
Keep the process in a safe situation (heater con-
straints)
Limit unbalanced catalyst aging (constraints on the
inlet temperatures)
Satisfy the WAIT setpoint (to respect the RON target)
Keep the feed rate at its nominal value
Balance the inlet temperatures.
The principle of hierarchical objectives, specified to the
multivariable predictive controller, made possible taking
into account the control strategy defined by the pro-
ducer: obtain the RON target while always respecting
the whole set of constraints and secondary objectives.
Commercial installations. Two applications.
Benefits. Stabilizing RON, especially in case of a feed
change. Its standard deviation decreased by a factor of
two. The catalyst life cycle is now 8% longer.
Licensor. Adersa, Palaiseau, France; Website:
www.adersa.com; e-mail: jacques.papon@adersa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Actions
on feedrate
and heaters
HIECON multivariable
model based
predictive control
Feed
rate
Heater
constraints
Heater
outlet T
Reacter
inlet T
Polycarbonate monomers
Application. The principal route to polycarbonate pro-
duction uses carbonyl dichloride (CDC or phosgene) as
the carbonate monomer. CDC polymerization with
bisphenol-a (BPA) produces this important engineering
plastic. An alternate route to polycarbonate production
is BPA polymerization with another carbonate-donating
molecule, diphenyl carbonate (or DPC). Newer plants uti-
lize this technology because they avoid use of phosgene.
Multivariable control (MVC) is especially suitable and
effective for these plants because of the highly interactive
nature of the specific processes and the relatively long
time constants. This application uses MVC, along with
inferred properties, to improve productivity of the CO
unit (the syngas unit), the dimethyl carbonate (DMC)
unit (reactor and distillation) and the DPC unit.
Control strategy. An important design decision for MVC
implementation across several related process units is
the number of controllers to be employed. Results of
preliminary step testing suggested three controllers cov-
ering: the CO unit, the DMC reactor and distillation, and
the DPC unit. Important manipulated variables (MVs)
include feeds to each unit, recycle streams, important
reactor and column temperatures, purge streams and
reboiler steam flows. Important controlled variables (CVs)
are reactor temperatures and compositions, column tem-
peratures and compositions, vent valve positions and key
inventories. Important inferred properties are the DMC
recycle acid organics composition, MDC azeotrope col-
umn overhead DMC composition, and bottom methanol
composition.
Economics. The project was justified by a combination
of increased production, reduced reboiler steam con-
sumption and reduced raw material costs. Payback was
less than six months.
Commercial installations. Controllers recently installed
at one site in Europe, with excellent results and accep-
tance by operations.
Developer/Licensor. C. F. Picou Associates, Inc., an affil-
iate of GE Automation Services, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
(225) 293-3382.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Syngas
unit
DMC
reactor
DMC
distillation
DPC
product
DPC unit
CO
Natural gas
Recyle H
2
O
2
Methanol/DMC
Recycle
O
2
H
2
O
HCL Phenol
MVC controller
no. 1
MVC controller
no. 2
MVC controller no. 3
PolyCarbonate plant
Application. IntellOpts Polycarbonate advanced pro-
cess control applies advanced regulatory control to
achieve quality and economic goals while respecting
safety and equipment limitations.
Strategy. Advanced regulatory control applications are
implemented for the bisphenol A (BPA) melter, reactor
effluent (granulizer feed) handling, methylene chloride
(MC) strippers and carbon monoxide (CO) reformer. The
primary control strategies are:
Maintain free caustic and BPA concentration in
melter effluent
Maintain polycarbonate concentration in granulizer
feed
Minimize energy consumption by MC strippers
Maintain CO reformer tube temperature and excess
oxygen.
Melter effluent composition and granulizer feed com-
position are controlled using inferential models that are
updated with laboratory data. The MC strippers use feed-
forward control action to stabilize operation and ensure
that MC is recovered from wastewater. The CO reformer
controls include feedforward and feedback control action
for tube temperature, as well as analyzer feedback adjust-
ment of air/fuel ratio to control excess oxygen.
Economics. Benefits include improved yields, energy
savings and increased throughput. Payback periods are
typically less than six months for these advanced regu-
latory control applications.
Commercial installations. This advance process con-
trol application has been implemented on two polycar-
bonate units.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
BPA
melter
CO
reformer
CO CDC
reactor
CDC
PC
reactors
MC
flusher
MC
strippers
PC
granulizer
MC
MC
PC product
Water
MC
Water
Demin. water Methylene chloride
BPA
feed
Caustic
BPA
powder
Flue gas
LPG
Steam
Naphtha
Comb. air
Polyethylene
Application. Nonlinear multivariable control and opti-
mization of polyethylene plants using a first-principles
engineering model. The integrated solution makes use
of both the equipment geometry and reaction kinetic
mechanisms to provide a dynamic model that can opti-
mize the process during grade runs and through grade
transitions.
Strategy. For most processes, the primary objective of
Profit NLC is direct control of key properties including
polymer melt flow index, density and production rate by
manipulating catalyst flow, hydrogen concentration and
comonomer/ethylene concentration ratio. Ethylene con-
centration in gas phase reactors is controlled by adjusting
reactor pressure through vent flows. The first-principles
engineering model combines a simultaneous heat and
material balance with polymer property estimation tech-
niques to provide a number of fundamental properties
including:
Polymer production rate
Instantaneous and bed-average melt index
Instantaneous and bed-average density
Number and weight average molecular weight
Reactor dew point calculations
Reactor monomer conversion
Reactor superficial gas velocities
Reactor space time yield
Catalyst productivity
Recycle gas compositions.
A desired response for the key calculations used as con-
trolled variables is combined with an economic objec-
tive function and solved using a large-scale open-equation
optimization system.
The same model is used for parameter estimation
when defining and calibrating the model, dynamic sim-
ulation for open-loop prediction and for online control
and optimization.
The controller can be used with a clients proprietary
model, either engineering or empirically based, and is
readily integrated with recipe management systems and
other production and quality management applications.
Usually, no step testing is required.
Profit NLC includes models for different reaction kinetic
mechanisms including Ziegler-Natta, chromium-based
and metallocene catalysts or free-radical kinetics used
for LDPE production.
Profit NLC is suitable for most bulk polymer processes
including Phillips Loop Reactors, Unipol, BP Innovene,
Spheripol, Mitsui Hypol, Novolen and LDPE autoclaves.
Economics. Typically Profit NLC will increase prime pro-
duction by as much as 5% by pushing the unit to capac-
ity limits. Grade switch transition times can be reduced by
as much as 30% and product quality variation reduced by
50%. The ability to simulate and control over a broad
range of operation allows for new product grades to be
rapidly moved into full production.
Commercial installations. These controls have been
implemented on over 19 polyethylene and polypropy-
lene reactors.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Polyethylene
Application. Polyethylene is a plastic used to manufac-
ture a wide variety of consumer products.
Strategy. A dynamic information system forms the basis
of the polyethylene technology package. It calculates
the following vital reactor parameters in real time:
Dynamic concentration of ethylene
Dynamic polymer solids concentration
Dynamic concentration of comonomer
Reactor settling leg efficiency
Dynamic concentration of hydrogen
Cooling surface heat transfer coefficient
Dynamic polymer production rate
Catalyst productivity
Comonomer incorporation into polymer
Catalyst mud pot inventory
The dynamic variables are calculated using real-time
process measurements, and the values are displayed to
the process operator on the process operators console
and logged.
Many key operating variables calculated by the dynamic
information system are used in real-time, closed-loop
advanced control strategies to control polymer produc-
tion rate and product quality. Reactant concentrations,
solids concentration and production rate are thus con-
trollable even though their direct measurement within
the reactor is impractical. The closed-loop control strate-
gies may employ multivariable predictive control soft-
ware if a host computer is available, or they may be con-
figured in a modern DCS without a host.
Economics. Dynamic reactor calculations and controls
smooth the plants operation by minimizing upsets and
maintaining reactor stability. Production rate of on-spec-
ification product is increased by operating closer to con-
straints. Other benefits include improved polymer density
and ash control, improved operability from reduction in
solids and ethylene variability, and 2040% reduction in
melt index off-specification polymer at the reactor. The
dynamically calculated reactor parameters can be related
to product specifications and are valuable for produc-
tion of various polymer grades.
Commercial installations. Our technology has been
implemented on about 30 polyethylene reactors in the
United States, Europe and the Far East.
Licensor. Yokogawa Corporation of America, Systems
Division, Stafford, Texas, info@us.yokogawa.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
FC
FC
FC
FC
Co-monomer
Recycle
diluent
Hydrogen
Ethylene
To product
separation
Polyethylene
reactor
M
Operating reports
CRT displays
Regulatory loops
Dynamic
information
system
Product
quality
correlations
Advanced
reactor
controls
(MVC or DCS)
Polymers
Application. Aspen Apollo is the polymer industrys only
truly universal nonlinear controller. Although general in
nature, Aspen Apollo has been specifically designed with
polymer control applications in mind. This is reflected in
the type of models that it supports and the types of con-
straints that can be imposed on the models, based on
process knowledge.
Strategy. Aspen Apollo is based on dynamic models that
have guaranteed steady-state and dynamic gain response
qualities.
Aspen Apollo is able to safely extrapolate into oper-
ating regions that have little or no historical data. This
extrapolation capability is analytical and, therefore, ele-
gant; the extrapolation gradient is based on the known
gradient at the extrapolation point, and robust since the
gains are globally bounded within the specified limits.
This capability of moving the process beyond that which
has been observed historically is essential if any true
benefit is to be achieved through advanced control.
Aspen Apollo is nonlinear in both steady state and
dynamics. It can model directional, positional and step-size
dynamic nonlinearities, and solves a nonlinear opti-
mization problem. A single-model philosophy is employed
where the steady-state and dynamic optimizations all
utilize the same universal model. In addition to this, the
inferential predictions can also utilize the same model if
required. This substantially reduces implementation and
maintenance costs, and produces superior optimization
performance when compared with alternative gain-sched-
uled approaches.
Features include the following:
Data management: A rich suite of data prescreen-
ing and analysis tools for data cleaning, filtering and
cause/effect analysis.
Deadtime and dynamics: Independent deadtime
alignment for each pair of relationships.
Guaranteed gain and extrapolation: State-space
bounded derivative networks guarantee gains will be
within specified bounds, ensuring that the models can
be inverted safely and reliably.
Consistent models: Steady-state optimization and
move plan optimization use consistent models, so the
controller can optimally move the process to targets it
knows it can achieve.
Multivariate nonlinear models: All models are mul-
tivariable, i.e., they are MISO not SISO transformations.
Unmeasured disturbance rejection: Configurable
extended Kalman filter update mechanism is used for
superior unmeasured disturbance rejection.
No complex tuning recipes: Powerful approxima-
tors and true nonlinear path optimization eliminate need
for gain adaptation, transforms or multiple tuning recipes.
Flexible tuning: Flexible tuning allows individual
manipulated and controlled variables to be tuned with
different aggressiveness levels, and supports widely dif-
fering dynamics within the same controller.
Constraint ranking: Constraint ranking capability
is included so that more important constraints get pri-
ority.
Process control web viewer: Online Web viewer
accessible by any PC with access to the process control
web server using Internet Explorer.
Economics. Applying Aspen Apollo in combination with
Aspen Transition Manager typically increases production
rate by 36% and reduces polymer grade transition time
by 30% or more. This leads to a significant reduction in
the amount of off-specification product being produced
during the transition.
Experience to-date is showing that the payback time is
rapid: with 56 months as a typical average expected
range. In more than 10 cases evaluated, the payback
period has been less than one year. This rapid payback
is driven by substantial decreases in transition time, reduc-
tions in first-pass off-spec product and increased plant
capacity.
Commercial installations. The underlying bounded
derivative network technology has now been imple-
mented on over 27 polymer production lines worldwide,
making it one of the most widely-applied nonlinear con-
trol paradigms in the polymer industry. Aspen Apollo has
been successfully implemented for in-grade control and
product grade transitions on plants in the US, Germany,
China and South Korea.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Polymers
Application. Nonlinear optimizing multivariable con-
trol of polymer processes using rigorous, first-principles
models is achieved using NLC with excellent control
including during product grade transitions or new prod-
uct introduction campaigns. NLC is part of the DOT Prod-
ucts advanced process modeling and control suite.
Description. The NOVA NLC combines a description of
the desired closed-loop behavior of the process, an eco-
nomic objective function and a nonlinear dynamic process
model into a single optimization problem. Dot Products
large-scale optimization engine, NOVA, is then used to
solve for the appropriate control action. The control that
can be achieved with this unique technology combination
is superior to controllers that use linear models or other
approximations of process behavior.
The NLC allows tuning to be implemented in terms
of specified controlled variable response rates. This pro-
vides tuning that is independent of process nonlinear-
ities, a key requirement for nonlinear control applica-
tions. As a result, one set of tuning parameters is suffi-
cient for all operations, so it is not necessary to define
sets of tuning parameters corresponding to different
operating conditions.
The controller also provides simultaneous economic
optimization. An economic objective function is opti-
mized at every control cycle, so that multivariable control
and nonlinear optimization can be performed by the
same application.
In a typical application, controlled variables include
polymer product properties and process constraints.
Manipulated variables include setpoints for monomer
feed and composition controllers, and catalyst feed
controllers, which are typically implemented in the DCS
system.
The controller may be implemented using the clients
proprietary dynamic model, if available. Alternatively,
the NOVA Polymer Dynamic Modeling System may be
used to configure a model. The modeling toolkit includes
different reactor types, complete fundamental poly-
merization kinetics, interface to client-specific propri-
etary property methods and multiple monomer/active
site capability.
The NOVA NLC provides an environment for analyz-
ing process data, including the capability to use the NOVA
optimizer to fit model parameters using multiple sets of
process data over the desired operating range.
Economics. The controllers implemented thus far have
been very successful, controlling through product grade
transitions in which the process gains change by as much
as a factor of 100. Significant benefits are achieved by
reducing transition times, increasing capacity and reduc-
ing production of off-spec material.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented in 23 polymer units (polyethylene,
polypropylene, others around the world.
Licensor. PAS, Inc., Houston, Texas. Contact: e-mail:
sales@pas.com; Website: www.pas.com; tel: (281) 286-
6565.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Process sequence manager
Application. Aspen Sequence Manager offers manu-
facturers the opportunity to focus on continuous pro-
cess improvement to enhance process efficiency, increase
profitability, reduce costs by significantly reducing their
transition times and off-spec material losses, and auto-
mate complex process sequences.
Also, risk management requires that best practices for
standard operating procedures be maintained in the
plant. Maintaining the hundreds of parameters required
to execute a process transition becomes a challenge. Prior
to an operating state change, production specifications,
alarm limits, compliance limits and other operating
parameters must be loaded into a DCS or PLC for con-
trolling the process. Improving ease, speed and consis-
tency of these transitions reduces process variability and
increases operating performance, providing the manu-
facturer with a significant business advantage.
Strategy. Aspen Sequence Manager integrates with a
real-time database to deliver process information to pro-
cess control systems and operators, thereby helping plant
personnel implement complex transition strategies. The
solution provides automated best practices for operat-
ing procedures, while reducing operating times. Aspen
Sequence Manager also includes an OPC client, allowing
it to integrate with other devices with an OPC server.
Aspen Sequence Manager has both design and run-
time modes. Design mode allows the user to develop
strategies and attach process sequences and equipment
information. Run-time mode allows the user to execute
and interact with recipes as they are being implemented.
Key features of the system include:
Easy configuration of transition strategies. Strat-
egy configuration is defined by a combination of a pro-
cess flow diagram and corresponding property dialog.
The flow diagram is utilized to illustrate logic in a
flowchart fashion using nodes and links between nodes.
The interface allows the user to graphically draw the
flow of procedural logic, which defines the execution
strategy.
Flexible units of measure. Users have the freedom
to define their own units of measure. When adding new
units of measure, Aspen Sequence Manager will auto-
matically save the new information to the database.
Failure recovery. Aspen Sequence Manager has the
capability to recover at the point of failure as soon as
communication is re-established. In addition, Aspen
Sequence Manager notifies the user when communica-
tion with the SQL Server or the DCS is interrupted and
when communication is regained. Error propagation
from the tag or script level up through the node to a
procedure and out to the execution strategy has been
made configurable so that the user can determine the
effect an error has on other simultaneous activities.
Operator guidance. For more complex sequences,
Aspen Sequence Manager guides the process operator
through the sequence using a preconfigured strategy.
This event-driven structure helps the operator more effec-
tively manage the sequence.
Common terminology. Aspen Sequence Manager
takes full advantage of reusable templates to create and
store recipe targets and sequence-based strategies uti-
lizing familiar S88 and SP95 terminology.
Greater analysis capabilities. Additional analysis
capabilities include tracking and comparing similar pro-
cess sequences. Examples of items used for comparison are
sequence execution times, process conditions, raw mate-
rial usage and second-quality material produced.
Economics. Typically startup/shutdown/risk manage-
ment are in excess of a $1 million a year for a site imple-
mentation. Economics are highly dependent on the type
of process and risk management program undertaken.
Commercial installations. Aspen Sequence Manager is
installed at over 30 sites.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Product quality
management
Application. The Business.FLEX PKS software applica-
tions provide Process Knowledge Solutions (PKS) that
unify business and production automation. Business objec-
tives are directly translated into manufacturing targets,
and validated production data are returned to close the
loop on the business planning cycle. Business.FLEX PKS
applications for quality management make quality data
management integral to the overall automation solution.
The Lab Information Management System (LIMS) mod-
ule is a LIMS package designed for process plants. Most
third-party LIMS packages support the lab. Honeywells
LIMS product makes the lab part of the overall plant
automation solution by ensuring that quality data from
the laboratory are fully integrated with other plant data
and are available throughout the enterprise.
The Product Specification Management module tracks
development of new products and specifications over
the life of a product. Product Specification Management
records formulation, composition and specification details,
along with distribution and use of specifications, pro-
viding control over how specifications are used in a plant.
The Recipe Management module compares actual
operation to expected performance defined by a recipe
and isolates information around grade transitions.
Selected recipe information can be downloaded to pro-
cess control applications. Recipe Management helps
ensure products are made to the correct specification
and lowest cost. The Business Hiway module integrates
Business.FLEX PKS data with ERP systems such as SAP R/3,
thereby enabling quality information such as product
certification, specifications and recipes to be exchanged
between plants and corporate business systems.
Strategy. Honeywells LIMS is a modern laboratory infor-
mation management system designed especially for lab-
oratories in the process industries. LIMS is ideally suited for
process plants when industrial-strength lab management
is needed and integrating lab data with other business
systems is desired. LIMS is optimized with features impor-
tant to process plants, but without a lot of overhead.
LIMS is fully integrated with other Honeywell software
products, which greatly reduces initial configuration and
support requirements and eliminates need for custom
integration work. The robust Uniformance Plant Refer-
ence Model provides the foundation to share equipment,
products, specifications and related information with
other applications.
Economics. Benefits are realized from effective unifi-
cation of business and production automation. As a result,
companies can typically increase production by 25%
and decrease costs by 0.51%. Major benefit areas are
improved operational effectiveness, market responsive-
ness, quality control, personnel productivity, customer
satisfaction, conformance to environmental controls and
reduced working capital requirements, operating costs,
raw material utilization, utility consumption, product
returns and inventory levels.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Product tracking
(homeland security)
Application. This application meets the requirements
of the USDOTs proposed amendments to HM232 Security
Requirements for Offerers and Transporters of Hazardous
Materials. The application tracks product movement from
lifting to delivery and maintains information on all par-
ties involved in each product transaction. Fixed and in-
transit inventories are tracked in real time to help opti-
mize operational and logistics planning while meeting
relevant security regulations.
Strategy.
Centrally hosted solution: The AnyWhere/AnyTime
Product Tracking application collects product inventory
and shipping data in real time from both fixed-location
storage/loading facilities, as well as tanker transport vehi-
cles. Data collected from transport vehicles includes
engine ignition status, GPS location and driver status. All
fixed-location and mobile data are stored in a central
database that allows product owners, transporters and
others involved in the transaction to track all informa-
tion specific to their business interests.
AnyWhere/AnyTime access: Owner/transporter access
is by secure password-protected Web pages only from
any office PC or truck-mounted wireless device. All data
access is via the central data repository at Industrial Evo-
lution onlyseparate access to each of the individual
source data locations is not required.
User-configurable electronic alerting: Each application
comes with the ability to automatically alert product
management, loading or trucking personnel of changes
in storage inventory levels versus specified targets or lim-
its. Alerts are set on a per-user basis and can be received
via e-mail, cellphone, pager, etc.
Interfaces to existing business systems: The applica-
tion interfaces to most enterprise systems, allowing col-
lected inventory and shipping data to also be integrated
with existing corporate and product management sys-
tems, in accordance with the data access rights for that
transaction partner.
Comprehensive inventory and shipping management:
The AnyWhere/AnyTime Product Tracking application
can be configured for use with one or more products,
and any number of shipping agents or transaction part-
ners. Partners are able to view live, real-time data as nec-
essary to optimize their portion of the transaction, min-
imizing transport delays and increasing efficienciesall
while meeting the latest homeland security requirements.
Economics. The AnyWhere/AnyTime Product Tracking
application provides the following benefits:
Homeland security regulatory compliance
Reduced shipment wait times
Increased logistics efficiency
Reduced shipment transaction effort.
Commercial installations. As of mid-2003, the Prod-
uct Tracking application has been deployed to approxi-
mately 50 shipping agents.
Licensor. Industrial Evolution, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona,
and BeversHughes, Houston, Texas; Website: www.indus-
trialevolution.com; e-mail: contact@industrialevolu-
tion.com; tel. (602) 867-0416.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Product tracking for homeland security
Delivery network participants
Secure web access
Industrial Evolution
data center
Real-time database,
maping software
tracking softwaare
Product delivery network
Steam methane reformer
Application. Steam reforming of natural gas (primar-
ily methane) and, less commonly, naphtha and other
hydrocarbons, is an essential step for many processing
units since hydrogen is required for most refining units,
as well as many chemical and petrochemical plants. The
steam methane reforming process is also widely used in
methanol production.
Because the process is multivariable, interactions can be
very significant. Advanced process control improves pro-
cess performance and stability and leads to more effi-
cient operations. Optimizing steam reformers is possible
with rigorous models, since appropriate trade-offs among
throughput, conversion (methane slip), steam-to-carbon
ratio, coil outlet temperature, pressure and fuel con-
sumption are not intuitive. Optimization is best done on
a plant-wide basis to take into account the true value of
the hydrogen.
Strategy. Applying Aspen Technologys DMCplus online
multivariable constrained controller on steam methane
(and other hydrocarbons) reformers ensures superior unit
stability, reduced fuel consumption, improved reformer
furnace excess oxygen control, and locally optimum selec-
tion of steam-to-carbon ratio and coil outlet tempera-
ture. The controller responds to the major process dis-
turbances and variations in fuel and feed gas composition,
operating as closely as possible to the true process con-
straints and maintaining desired hydrogen purity.
Hydrogen production targets can be incorporated in
the controller and, with proper tuning, the controller
will adjust plant capacity via timed coordination of the
manipulated variables to meet hydrogen demand. The
controllers variable gain feature allows online adjust-
ments of the dynamic model gains as a function of pro-
duction rates. Also, variable transformation will extend
the range over which the controller model can predict
process response, thereby improving closed-loop per-
formance and constraint-handling capabilities.
The Aspen Plus Optimizer rigorous modeling and opti-
mization system provides a superior tool for real-time
process simulation. Aspen Plus Optimizer determines in
real time the optimum operating conditions for increas-
ing profitability by trading off increased hydrogen pro-
duction and purity, and reducing energy consumption.
The models can also be used to develop the appropriate
functional form for transforming nonlinear variables to
be used in linear controllers, and to develop strategies
for plant testing and controller tuning. Additionally, the
models can be used to explore and optimize design
changes.
Optimization models include the catalyst-filled tube,
radiant firebox and convection section. The catalyst
tube model includes heterogeneous kinetics for each
feed component, from methane through light naph-
tha. Prereformers (adiabatic) can also be modeled. The
models have been validated over a very wide range of
conditions, including low pressure (3.5 bar) to high
pressure (over 40 bar), and feeds including natural gas,
naphtha, butane, recycled purge gas and CO
2
-rich feeds
(for 2-ethyl-hexanol plants). The effluent is typically
over 65 dry mole percent hydrogen, but in the case of
2-ethyl-hexanol plants is a 1:1 H
2
:CO product for the
downstream Fisher-Tropsch reactors.
Economics. Typical benefits of implementing DMCplus
controllers on steam methane reformers are in the range
of 2% to 4% efficiency improvement or reduced hydro-
gen production cost. The improved efficiency is a result
of reduced fuel gas consumption, optimum steam usage,
and higher furnace efficiency. Optimization benefits
can be significantly more, and are highly dependent on
the downstream products and constraints. Often, the
steam reformer, at optimal overall plant conditions, is at
very different conditions than if optimization is only
applied to the reformer.
Commercial installations. The control technology has
been installed on more than a dozen steam methane
reformers (stand-alone and integrated in refineries and
chemical plants), and the optimization model has been
applied to four steam reformers.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Styrene
Application. The styrene plant comprises two compo-
nents: an ethylbenzene section and a styrene section.
Each component consists of a reactor section and a sep-
aration section. In the ethylbenzene reactor section, ethy-
lene and benzene react to make ethylbenzene, while in
the separation section the reactor effluent is split into
unreacted benzene and polyethylbenzene, both recy-
cled, and ethylbenzene. The produced ethylbenzene is
sent to the downstream styrene section in which styrene
is made by ethylbenzene dehydrogenation. In the distil-
lation section, the ethylbenzene is separated from the
styrene and recycled; the styrene is further purified.
The highly integrated design of a styrene plant, cata-
lyst degeneration and the recycle streams make it very
difficult to determine the true optimum, and to operate
at this optimum. Implementing the Aspen Plus Optimizer
in conjunction with DMCplus multivariable constrained
control improves process performance monitoring and
allows operating the unit as close as possible at the true
process constraints, increasing high-purity styrene pro-
duction.
Strategy. Operating a styrene plant is a balancing act
between a number of independent variables: reactor
temperature and pressure, steam-to-hydrocarbon ratio
and throughput all affect catalyst life, conversion and
selectivity. Determining optimum targets for these inde-
pendent variables is either done by an offline or online
optimizer. The targets are then sent to the DMCplus
advanced process control application, which will move
the unit to the optimum without violating process con-
straints. To obtain full benefits from the control system,
all key manipulated variables in the feed, distillation
columns and reaction system must be included. This allows
the DMCplus controller to maintain the plant at the true
optimum.
Economics. A capacity increase of 3% can be achieved by
implementing an advanced control system that includes
the reactors.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has completed an
application on one styrene unit, and several more appli-
cations are under consideration.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Sulfur complex
Application. The sulfur complexwhich typically con-
sists of several amine recovery units (ARUs), sour water
strippers (SWSs), and sulfur recovery units (SRUs), and tail
gas treating units (TGTUs)is one of the most important
and integral parts of refining and gas processing. How-
ever, it is often overlooked for potential APC improve-
ments to relieve operational bottlenecks and help meet
stringent environmental regulations. Interactions
between sulfur complex units, changes in sour gas pro-
cessing demand, feedstock changes and the need to
balance multiple sulfur processing trains present a com-
plex control application.
Aspen Technologys sulfur complex control package
based on using DMCplus, is ideally suited for this appli-
cation, and can be applied and integrated to the entire
sulfur complex operations including ARU, SWS, SRU and
TGTU. The DMCplus constrained multivariable applica-
tion significantly improves sulfur complex operations by
maximizing capacity to each SRU, improving H
2
S and SO
2
ratio control, minimizing TGTU recycle, and balancing
the acid gas demand between parallel ARU/SRU/TGTU.
Control strategy. Individual DMCplus controllers are
configured for the entire sulfur complex plant, includ-
ing ARUs, SWSs and SRUs/TGTUs. All significant con-
straints are handled explicitly. The controller responds
to all significant unit interactions, accounts for unit con-
straints, handles both fast- and slow-controlled vari-
able dynamics, compensates for changes in sour gas/acid
gas production load changes, maximizes available
throughput, improves sulfur recoveries, improves con-
trol of rich and lean amine loadings, improves operat-
ing stability, reduces upsets and improves environment
regulatory compliance.
The controller performs a thorough constrained opti-
mization calculation at each controller execution. Oper-
ating simultaneously at the optimal lean amine loading,
SWS bottoms pH, thermal reactor pressure, reactor dew
point approach, H
2
S/SO
2
ratio, TGTU hydrogen concen-
tration, incinerator O
2
and SO
2
concentration and
hydraulic constraints maximize sulfur complex capacity
and profitability. The DMCplus controller adjusts SRU
acid gas flow, SRU O
2
flow, SRU acid gas air ratio, SRU
reactor reheater temperatures, TGTU H
2
flow, TGTU incin-
erator air flow, ARU reflux flow, ARU rich amine flow
and ARU reboiler duty.
SRU dewpoint approaches, lean amine H
2
S loadings,
and product quality models are implemented using the
Aspen IQ inferential sensor package. The flexible
client/server allows the user to plug in a variety of
engines (empirical, rigorous, fuzzy logic, neural net, cus-
tom, etc.) to generate the online models. Analyzer vali-
dation and update, as well as SQC techniques for labo-
ratory validation and update, are seamlessly incorporated
into Aspen IQ. Amine H
2
S loading is calculated using
AspenPlus and HYSYS modeling technology to account
for the nonideal solution behavior.
Economics. Benefits in the range of 24% sulfur capac-
ity increase, with project payouts less than one year, are
typical.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has commis-
sioned more than 3 sulfur complex applications, total-
ing over 14 individual SRU\TGTU trains.
Reference. Performance Improvements of a Sulfur
Complex Using Model Predictive Control, NPRA, Novem-
ber 2001 (Motiva Enterprises LLC, Convent, Louisiana).
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Syngas generation plant
Application. MVC-based advanced process control has
been applied to optimize steam and gas flows to the
steam/methane reformer, resulting in increased car-
bon monoxide production. Three process areas, the
steam/methane reformer, carbon dioxide removal and
cold box areas have MVC modules installed.
Control strategy. The first control objective is to maxi-
mize steam and feed gas flow to the steam/methane
reformer while optimizing operation of the cold box and
other process units. The second control objective is to
remove the carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide and
optimize the methane and carbon dioxide while meeting
the carbon monoxide product specifications.
MVC is a nonlinear multivariable control and economic
optimization technology that incorporates predictive
and adaptive algorithms derived from rigorous simula-
tions and field tests calibrated to match actual plant per-
formance. MVC resides within a Windows 2000 or RISC
workstation interfaced to or integrated within the plant
control system.
Economics. MVC has achieved a net increase in car-
bon monoxide production by increasing yield and max-
imizing plant throughput. Unscheduled plant shut-downs
have been reduced while improving carbon monoxide
product quality through better cold box performance.
Commercial installation. This technology has been
implemented at one domestic plant.
Licensor. GE Drives & Controls, Inc., Houston, Texas; Web-
site: gecci@indsys.ge.com; tel: (832) 296-7699.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
MVC
FIC
TIC
PIC
Fuel
gas
Bank of heat
exchangers
Regenerator
gas heater
Hydrotreater/
desulferizer
BFW
Feed preheater
Natural
gas fuel
Recycle
gas
Natural
gas feed
BFW Steam
generator
CO concept
C
O
-
C
H
4

t
o
w
e
r
H
2

s
t
r
i
p

t
o
w
e
r
C
O
2

s
t
r
i
p
p
e
r C
O
2
s
a
b
s
o
r
b
e
r
K
O

d
r
u
m
K
O

d
r
u
m
S
e
p
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
CO
2
compress
Coldbox
heat
exchanger
Expander
Amine
SO ln.
CH
4
CH
2
to fuel
Steam
Steam
FIC
FIC
SC
AI
Calc
FIC
FIC
TI
MVC
MVC
MVC
MVC
MVC
CO
product
CH
4
Steam
Reboiler
Terephthalic acid
Application. ABBs advanced process control (APC) pack-
age combines the use of DCS block-based advanced con-
trol applications and multivariable model predictive con-
trols (MVPC) for improving terephthalic acid plants
productivity and profitability.
Strategy. By applying advanced controls to the feed
blending and reaction process, TPA plant productivity
and profitability are improved. Applications applied to the
feed blending are designed to maintain proper reactant
to solvent ratios, minimize fresh catalyst consumption
and maximize recycle stream utilization. Control of the
reaction process requires fast reaction time, thus a com-
bination of conventional DCS-based APC and MVPC is
applied, with the MVPC handling the constraint controls
and feed maximization. Advanced control logic is applied
to the resluification process to ensure that the proper
weight percent solids in the slurry are maintained and
requires intelligent controls capable of making proper
adjustments depending on purification unit load require-
ments. In addition, the package includes advanced appli-
cations for:
Solids concentration handling in the crystallization
area
Moisture control in the drying area
Reactant and solvent recovery
Temperature control and steam minimization in
the purification unit preheat section
Hydrogen to terephthalic acid feed ratio in the
hydrogenation reactors.
Economics. Benefits studies show a payback of 612
months, depending on product pricing and raw mate-
rial costs.
Commercial installations. This APC application has
been installed on one TPA unit.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Terephthalic acid
Application. Advanced control applications are applied
to both the crude terephthalic acid (CTA) and purified
terephthalic acid (PTA) sections, including the CTA reac-
tors and crystallizers, the CTA dehydration tower, the
PTA hydrogenation reactors, PTA crystallizers and hot oil
furnace. Profit Controllers based on Robust Multivari-
able Predictive Control Technology (RMPCT) are used in
these applications for online control and optimization.
This advanced control algorithm minimizes tuning
requirements and maintains good control under chang-
ing conditions and model error. Model identification,
controller building, testing and simulation are available
in the Windows environment. These individual Profit
Controllers can be dynamically integrated by using an
upper-level Profit Optimizer to coordinate control strate-
gies across the complex.
Strategy. Profit Controllers are applied to each of the
major areas of the CTA and PTA plant sections.
CTA reactors and crystallizers. The controller will
maximize CTA production subject to unit constraints
and control key quality specs including 4-CBA and opti-
cal density. The controller adjusts reactor and crystallizer
air to feed ratios, catalyst/feed and solvent/ feed ratios,
and water withdrawal to maintain reactor tempera-
ture, pressure, excess O
2
, CO/CO
2
concentration and
water content.
CTA dehydrator tower. The controller will maximize
acetic acid recovery subject to tower constraints. The
controller adjusts tower reflux and steam to maintain
stable water content in the tower bottoms and mini-
mize loss of acetic acid overhead.
PTA hydrogenation reactors and crystallizers.
The controller will control the PTA 4-CBA content by
control of the hydrogen to CTA feed, and reactor level
and pressure.
PTA crystallizer pressure controls are adjusted to main-
tain the desired delta-P across adjacent crystallizers and
minimize loss of demineralized water.
Hot oil furnace. The controller will control furnace out-
let temperature and furnace excess O
2
and minimize fuel
gas usage.
Economics. Benefits from implementing advanced con-
trols come from increased production rate across the
complex, and reduced consumption of raw materials, p-
xylene, acetic acid and utilities. Paybacks from projects
are typically between 5 and12 months.
Commercial installations. These controls have been
implemented on over eight units.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Terephthalic acid
Application. IntellOpts Advanced Process Control (APC)
technology comprehensively covers the process areas of
feed mix, oxidation reactors, dehydrator, hot oil heater,
slurry feed mix and PTA hydrogenation reactor, to
improve profitability while honoring safety limits.
Strategy. The TA/PTA unit APC applications are com-
posed of DCS-based advanced regulatory controls, cou-
pled with GMAXC-based Multivariable Predictive Con-
trol (MVPC) of the TA oxidation reactors. Typical control
strategies include:
TA Feed Preparation Control: Maintain the catalyst
concentration in the feed, and the feed drum level.
TA Oxidation Reactors MVPC: Maintain the prod-
uct qualities (4CBA and Transparency), excess oxygen,
burn rate and reactor temperatures by simultaneously
adjusting the feed rate, air rate, reactor level, reactor
pressure and water withdrawal rate.
Dehydrator APC: Fuzzy Logic Control to minimize
acid loss in the overhead and maintain water concen-
tration in the bottoms acid stream.
Hot Oil Heater Control: Maintain the heater out-
let temperature and excess oxygen.
PTA Slurry Feed Control: Maintain slurry drum level
and percent solids in slurry feed.
PTA Feed Preheat Energy Minimization: Maximize
energy recovery from process streams while maintain-
ing reactor feed temperature.
Crystallizer Level Control: Valve flushing logic with
user selectable frequency and severity to avoid line plug-
gage.
PTA Hydrogenation Reactor Control: Maintain
desired conversion of 4CBA by proper control of reactor
level, pressure and hydrogen concentrations.
Economics. Payback period is about 69 months, with
improvements in feed rate capacity, lower acetic acid
consumption (burn rate), stable product qualities and
lower energy consumption.
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented on four units.
Reference. APC Improves TA/PTA Plant Profits, Hydro-
carbon Processing, October 1997.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Reactants
Crude
reaction
Crystallization
section
Product
separation
section
Crude
TA
recovery
section
TA
catalysts
recovery
section
TA
solvent
recovery
section
PTA
product
storage
PTA
recovery
section
PTA
preheat
section
PTA
purification
reaction
section
PTA
feed mix
section
Solvent
Catalysts
Water
Terephthalic acid
dehydrator (fuzzy
logic controller)
Application. IntellOpts Fuzzy Logic Controller ( Z-Way)
models uncertainty by converting operating heuristics
and experience into a quantifiable model for top tem-
perature control.
Strategy. The TA azeotropic dehydrator requires tight
control of not only top tray temperatures, but also of
the temperature difference between two specific and
sensitive trays. The Z-Way:
Allows (online) selection of tray pairs for tempera-
ture control
Models the qualitative tray temperature deviations
from their targets (such as high, high-high, low, low-low)
into mathematical possibilities (membership functions)
Models the qualitative rate of change of tray tem-
peratures (such as up or down) into mathematical possi-
bilities (membership functions)
Fuzzifies the tray temperatures and their slopes
into quantitative confidence values for rule inferencing
Evaluates/computes all rules (e.g., If top tray tem-
perature is high and rate of the top tray temperature is
up then, increase reflux by a medium amount.)
Combines the conclusion of all rules (different rules
can have different conclusions for the same observations)
Defuzzifies the conclusion into a quantitative num-
ber for change in the reflux flow setpoint.
Other enhancements, such as maximum cumulative
change of reflux flow in a specified time period (to take
care of process delays), and wait-and-hold features were
added in the Z-Way algorithm to minimize adjustments
while allowing the dehydrator to settle down.
Economics. Improvements in process stabilization and
reduction of acetic acid carryover in the overhead. Also,
reduced engineering costs as plant testing for dynamic
models (typically used in MVPC technology) are not
required. Z-Way technology appears to fill the technol-
ogy gap between typical advanced regulatory control
(not sufficient for this process) and MVPC (too costly).
Commercial installations. This technology has been
implemented on three terephthalic acid azeotropic
dehydrators
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas,
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
To NBA decanter
To HAc tank
To high pr. abs
Caustic
H
2
O, %
LC
LC
AI
TC
PI
PC
FC
Reflux from MA and NBA/PX strippers
Water draw from reactors
5 Kg
steam
Spray from HP abs.
Spray from atm. abs.
Vent
Urea
Application. Emersons solution for urea plant control is
one of several applications targeting the nitrogen-based
fertilizer manufacturing industry. It combines both tra-
ditional advanced regulatory control solutions with mul-
tivariable predictive constraint controls. These tech-
nologies power Emersons PlantWeb digital plant
architecture to improve plant throughput and reduce
operating costs.
Control strategy. Primary control functions consist of:
Ammonia/CO
2
ratio control. Controller ratios ammo-
nia to the sum of all CO
2
flows. The ammonia provides
heat to the reactor and the reactor temperature control
is coupled with the NH
3
/CO
2
control.
Carbamate strength control. Controller varies con-
densate to the wash column to keep recycled carbamate
strength at target.
CO
2
feed rate pusher. Controller will drive production
rate against constraints including compressor, feed avail-
ability, heating and cooling, condensate availability, pres-
sure and valve position limits.
Evaporator controls. Controller stabilizes urea con-
centration controls and ultimately minimizes steam con-
sumption in the evaporators.
Economics. Typically urea production can be increased
by 24% and steam usage can be reduced by 0.5Mlb/ton
of urea. More stable operation also allows a wider oper-
ating range (greater turndown).
Commercial installation. This technology has been
applied in at least one urea plant.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Utilities
Application. To manage a utility system at lowest cost,
many decisions need to be made under many constraints.
The challenge is the ability to consider all the constraints
and aspects of the problem simultaneously in an ever-
changing economic environment. Aspen Utilities is a
modeling and flowsheeting applicationcombined with
an optimization capabilityspecially developed for util-
ity system design, operation and management within or
linked to process plants. It addresses the key issues in the
purchase, supply and use of fuel, steam and power within
environmental constraints; and provides a single tool to
optimize energy business processes and substantially
improve financial performance.
Aspen Utilities provides a model-centric approach,
whereby a single rigorous utilities system model is used
to address all the important business processes associ-
ated with the purchase, generation, use and distribution
of utilities at industrial sites. This ensures that all deci-
sions are made on the same basis and are, therefore,
mutually consistent and compatible. Business processes
include demand forecasting, utilities production plan-
ning, purchasing, trading, optimal plant operation, con-
tract management, performance monitoring, emissions
monitoring/constraints, cost accounting and investment
planning.
Strategy. Aspen Utilities incorporates a library of mod-
els specifically developed for utility systems, which can
be tuned to reflect unit actual performance on an oper-
ating site; and allows graphical flowsheet construction
from these models and a powerful set of solution tech-
niques to solve applications in steady-state simulation,
parameter estimation and data reconciliation.
Incorporating a mixed-integer linear optimizer that
enables any utility system flowsheet to be optimized to
define the minimum system cost and operation, Aspen
Utilities also allows the cost objective to be customized to
accurately reflect complex gas or electricity supply con-
tracts featuring multitier structures. Constraints such as
equipment availability and maximum emissions limits
are easily incorporated, together with issues such as dif-
ferent tariffs; alternative fuels; optimum boiler and tur-
bine loading, equipment choice, electricity import, self-
sufficiency or export, and drive choice (motor or turbine).
Aspen Utilities can be used to identify optimum util-
ity plant setup to take advantage of available flexibility
in purchase, generation, use and distribution of utilities
at an industrial site. This can be used both offline (for
planning) and online (to provide guidance to operators).
Aspen Utilities helps users identify the most cost-effec-
tive utility suppliers and contract parameters for a site,
applicable for daily, monthly or annual contract nomi-
nation, from a fixed supplier or for contract evaluation
studies to determine the long-term gas or electricity sup-
pliers. It can also be used to determine marginal gas
and/or electricity price at the site, and to guide decisions
relating to the sale or purchase of electricity and/or gas on
the spot market.
Economics. Typical benefits are a 3% to 8% reduction in
sitewide energy bills. These benefits are obtained from
better purchasing (lower contract price), better adher-
ence to contract/tariff terms, maximized use of the most
efficient equipment, correct choice and use of fuels,
reduced equipment on standby and steam venting, and
faster response to (and better targeting of) problems.
Return on investment is less than one year, and typically
as little as six months.
Commercial installations. AspenTech has installed
Aspen Utilities at nearly 30 sites worldwide.
Licensor. Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Mas-
sachusetts, US; Houston, Texas, US; and approximately
50 offices worldwide. Internet: www.aspentech.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Utilities
Application. In many refineries and chemical plants,
power and utilities are the second largest operating cost
component (after feedstocks). Proper management of
modern cogeneration/utilities plants can provide signif-
icant cost savings for any site with a requirement for
efficient heat and electrical power.
Factors such as ambient air conditions, electricity prices,
process demands and equipment degradation can greatly
affect the optimal operating points.
Tightening environmental limits on NO
x
and CO emis-
sions further complicates the picture for most plants.
Strategy. Emersons PlantWeb digital plant architecture
provides real-time performance monitoring and opti-
mization technologies, including a complete suite of rig-
orous unit models complemented by a proven online
optimization layer. Emersons robust online environment
enables close to 100% uptime.
PlantWeb integrates the digital automation system
with the data acquisition and historian system. The real-
time executive layer of system software manages data
acquisition, filtering, validity checking and data substi-
tution. Rigorous data reconciliation is performed to iden-
tify bad inputs that can be replaced with estimated val-
ues, default values or last good values by the parameter
estimation package. Predicting NO
x
, CO and other com-
ponents in the exhaust gases is a standard feature of the
models using kinetic reaction equations.
The system has the capability to run multiple opti-
mization cases simultaneously and present various
results to the operatorfor example, a step-limited
solution, or a global optimum case or a case with day
zero or clean parameters to evaluate the cost of equip-
ment degradation.
The plant optimization application uses Emersons
advanced optimization system, incorporating a variety
of solution algorithms including LP, SLP, SQP and mixed
integer options that can be selected with a click of the
mouse. Results can be implemented within the digital
system automatically, or passed back as supervisory targets
for the operator. Total plant optimization is achieved by
employing a tiered system:
Continuous optimization allows current equipment to
operate at minimum cost for a given demand and within
the emissions and equipment constraints.
Configuration optimization performs the optimal
equipment selection with current equipment perfor-
mance and penalties to prevent excessive equipment
starting and stopping.
Look-ahead optimization predicts future plant oper-
ation based on profiled demands/prices.
Benefits. This system can typically save 310% of the
energy costs, depending on the size and age of the plant.
Systems generally pay for themselves in less than eight
months.
Commercial installations. This system has been
installed in over 15 sites around the world.
Licensor. Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas;
www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/aat. Contact: Emer-
son Process Management, Tim Olsen, Process and Perfor-
mance Consultant, Advanced Applied Technologies, tel:
(641) 754-3459, e-mail: Tim.Olsen@EmersonProcess.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
HPS
LPS
WHB
WHB
DS
Fuel Boiler
house
Water
treatment
GT1
GT2
Stack
MPS
LD
T2
T1
Air
Air
Process Process
Process
Export elec.
Import elec.
Process
Utilities
Application. Steam systems represent a large but nec-
essary portion of the operating expense of most oil
refineries, chemical plants and other large industrial
plants. Steam systems have been notoriously difficult to
manage. They are large, with many miles of piping spread
over many utility, process plants and offplot areas. Steam
system upsets can cause shutdowns of individual process
plants and even whole facilities. Steam system design
changes for new or modified process plants are frequently
not built at the least capital cost and best energy effi-
ciency. Accounting for steam production and use has
been difficult because of system complexity and poor
metering, and has led to large amounts of wasted steam.
This wasted steam is not only a large energy cost, it is
also wasted capacity that could supply all or part of the
new demand for new process plants.
Strategy. Visual MESA is an online, graphical steam sys-
tem management tool that can solve the problems
described above.
Visual MESA protects your steam system by moni-
toring all variables and providing alerts on important
changes.
It tracks key operating parameters including eco-
nomics. It helps in emergencies with directed load shed
advice.
Visual MESA finds how to run the steam system at
minimum operating cost using optimization. Visual MESA
also optimizes starting and stopping of individual spared
equipment, like turning on a motor and turning off a
turbine. Optimization is customized to your facility so
no infeasible or unsafe moves are recommended.
Visual MESA is used to predict how your steam system
will respond to a proposed change such as a new plant,
a process change, a shutdown or whatever YOUR facility
needs to understand.
Using Visual MESAs data validation techniques, you
can accurately account for steam use and track down
waste and inefficiencies where they exist.
Key features.
Visual MESA is an online, graphical, nonlinear model
of your entire steam and electric systems. Visual MESA
steam system models are easy to build and maintain.
Icons that represent each component of a steam system
are used to build or modify a model. These icons are con-
nected together on a series of hierarchical drawings that
allow the model to be easily used for monitoring, opti-
mization, performing what if cases and auditing and
accounting for steam production and use.
The component icons are object-oriented. For exam-
ple, a steam turbine icon contains all of the data that
describes its performance. The drawings and data are in
one database which makes the model easier to maintain.
Visual MESA is written in a graphical, object-ori-
ented environment for building and deploying real-
time systems.
Visual MESA uses MESA (MESA Co.), the most accu-
rate and reliable steam system modeling program. This
combination makes it possible to manage the entire
steam system of an industrial complex.
Economics. Typical savings of over $1.5 million per year
have been achieved through optimizing and eliminat-
ing waste in a 200 kbpd refinery. Savings from monitor-
ing and performing steam system studies are not included
in this estimate although they can result in significant
capital and cost reductions.
Commercial installations. Visual MESA is currently
installed online at 28 sites around the world including
11 oil refineries, 10 large combined refinery/chemical
sites, five chemical plants, one gas plant and one com-
bination air separation plant/cogeneration plant. The
MESA program, on which Visual MESA is based, has been
installed at over 200 sites in 90 companies worldwide
over the past 17 years.
Licensor. Nelson & Roseme, Inc., Walnut Creek,
California, tel: (925) 280-0327; e-mail:
gary.roseme@nelson-roseme.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Utilities
Applications. Rigorous integrated process plant utility
Design Simulation Analysis (DSA) and Operations Simu-
lation Analysis (OSA) systems have been developed and
implemented for refinery, olefin, styrene, caprolactam,
nylon, polyester fibers and pulp and paper mills process
plant daily energy conservation operations management
and plant operations control strategic support to daily
plant cost reduction applications.
They provide reduced unit energy consumption and
cost reduction through improved utilities and process
energy conservation operations and debottlenecking,
and utilities operating staff on-the-job training simulators
and DCS control for supply chain TQM cost reduction.
Strategy.
Energy information knowledge base development.
Utility (boilers, heaters, turbine compressors, steam lines)
and process energy users (reactors, heat exchangers,
pumps) design and full operating history and mainte-
nance data, and heating, oil, gas, and electricity costs
and unit consumption data, and operators expertise are
the utility information knowledge base.
Energy usage audit, conservation OSA model devel-
opment. Process plantwide and offsite utility energy
usage audits are conducted. These artificial intelligence
expert-based integrated systems rigorous models have
been developed out of the entire operating history.
These systems cover all the offsite utilities and process
unit energy users normal and emergency operations, the
full range feedstock compositions, operating load and sever-
ity change with average error below 1.5%: Features include:
Feedstock and fuel price simulation forecasts, pro-
curement, inventory, scheduling, blending and supply
chain strategic analysis
Process and utilities units energy usage auditing and
goal setting
Boiler and furnace optimum firing, improved high-
and medium-pressure steam utilization and maximize
condensate return
Reactors and recovery units energy usage improve-
ment and debottlenecking
Process startup, emergency shutdown and trou-
bleshooting
Process plant energy equipment preventive safety
and maintenance to maximize energy efficiency
Maximum product recovery at minimum energy and
waste
Process, utility, DCS and pollution control staff on-
the-job training.
The system is available on PCs for on/offline
CIM/APC/DCS.
Operation management implementation. Goal, mis-
sion and performance-oriented cross-departmental
energy OSA teams develop and implement daily deci-
sion simulators for process units and offsite boilers and
heaters fuel conservation and steam consumption to
maximize products yields and recovery at minimum
energy usage simultaneously with OSA-reactor yield frac-
tionation system operations improvement.
Economics. Up to 15-50% energy saved, or millions of
dollars saved in energy costs annually without hardware
retrofit.
Commercial installations. Five refinery, three olefin,
three caprolactam, two styrene, two polyolefin, 12 fibers
and pulp and paper mill systems have been applied. Over
200 energy conservation workshops have been offered to
plant managers, senior technical and operating staff.
References. All by Dr. Warren Huang, OSA:
Capitalize on LPG Feed Changes, April 1979, Oil &
Gas Journal, Improve naphtha cracker operations,
Improve process by OSA, Improve demethanizer
operation, Hydrocarbon Processing, February, May,
December 1980; Control of Cracking Furnace, US
patents 1981, 1982; Energy Conservation in Deetha-
nizing, OSA Saves Energy in C
2
Splitter Operations,
Oil & Gas Journal, June, September 1980; Energy and
Resource Conservation in Olefin Plant Design and Oper-
ation, World Congress Montreal, Tokyo, Karlsruhe,1982,
1986, 1991; Refinery, Petrochemical Process Improve-
ment, Debottleneck on PC, ISA Philadelphia,1989; Large
chemical plant conference, Antwerp, Belgium, 1992,
1995; INTER PEC CHINA 91, Beijing, 1991, 1995, AIChE,
Dallas, 1999; Supply chain strategy maximize oil, chem-
ical profits workshops, Singapore, April 2627, 2001.
Licensor. OSA Intl Operations Analysis, San Francisco,
California; Website: www.osawh.com; e-mail
wh3928@yahoo.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Value chain management
Application. The Value Chain Management solution
suite enables supply chain planning, execution and pro-
cess automation solutions to work in harmony. The solu-
tion overcomes supply chain complexity by making rele-
vant knowledge easily accessible for effective decisions.
It includes a suite of Internet-enabled supply chain man-
agement applications that dynamically model the sup-
ply chain, and improve profitability through measurable
cost reductions and optimization of operations. It deliv-
ers true collaboration with your suppliers and customers,
as well as their suppliers and customers.
Strategy. Integration of supply chain decisions with
those of suppliers, distributors and customers is a vital
step to building e-business capability. The Value Chain
Management solution architecture is designed to sup-
port an integrated e-business network. It takes you a
giant step closer to harnessing the power of the Inter-
net by supporting collaborative planning, Advanced
Available-to-Promise (ATP) capability and information
sharing with your trading partners. Use of XML technol-
ogy enables real-time messaging capability to allow col-
laborative decision-making with trading partners.
Economics. The Value Chain Management solution more
than pays for itself in the first year of use through
increased plant yields, lower inventories, enhanced cus-
tomer service and optimized production cycles. Addi-
tional savings are generated from reduced transporta-
tion, procurement and transition costs.
Commercial installations. Over 1,000 Business.FLEX
PKS licenses have been installed throughout the world,
including at refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants
and petrochemical complexes.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Vinyl chloride monomer
Application. ABBs advanced process control (APC) pack-
age combines use of conventional APC techniques and
multivariable, model-predictive controls (MVPC) for
improving vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plant prof-
itability.
Strategy. Conventional APC functions are configured
in standard DCS blocks for areas requiring fast response
times with minimum interactions. MVPC is used for appli-
cations with highly interactive processes, most constraint
control and reasonably long steady-state times. The over-
all application comprises:
VCM unit
Chlorine vaporizer superheat control
Furnace conversion, throughput maximization
and coil outlet temperature balancing
Product quality and loss control in the quench
tower, absorber/stripper and VCM product still
Steam minimization in the absorber/stripper and
VCM product still.
EDC unit:
Reactor feed cross limiting, ethylene vent con-
centration and feed maximization
Fractionation section product quality and energy
minimization.
OHC unit:
Reactor controls with HCL feed disturbance han-
dling and cost minimization.
Economics. Benefits studies shows a payback period of
612 months depending on product pricing and raw
material costs.
Commercial installations. The package has been fully
installed and commissioned for several units in one site.
Licensor. ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced Application Ser-
vices, Sugar Land, Texas; Website: www.abb.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Principal steps in balanced
vinyl chloride process
Oxychlorination
Air or O
2
C
2
H
4
H
2
O
Direct
chlorination
Ethylene
dichloride
purification
Vinyl
chloride
purification
Ethylene
dichloride
pyrolysis
Ethylene dichloride recycle
Heavy ends Vinyl
chloride
Light ends
CL
2
Vinyl chloride monomer
Application. Advanced process control (APC) and opti-
mization can provide large economic benefits for vinyl
chloride monomer (VCM) plants. They are ideal candi-
dates to benefit from: energy reduction, increased capac-
ity, optimization of yields and to provide valuable infor-
mation to operators and engineers to operate the plant
at optimum conditions. Model-based advanced control
enforces the optimum setpoints while respecting chang-
ing operating constraints. Applications normally include
the following plant sections:
Oxyhydrochlorination
Direct chlorination
EDC purification
EDC cracking furnaces
HCl and VCM purification.
Applications can be adapted to all reactor configura-
tions, including loop reactors, tubular reactors, packed
and fluidized beds, and to all furnace and distillation col-
umn configurations.
Control strategy. Reactors, furnaces and distillation
columns are controlled and locally optimized using Hon-
eywells multivariable Profit Controller. Profit Controller
is based on the Robust Multivariable Predictive Control
Technology (RMPCT) algorithm. This advanced algorithm
minimizes tuning requirements and maintains good con-
trol under changing conditions and model error. Model
identification is available in the Windows environment.
The following focuses on particular plant areas:
OxychlorinationControl solutions are designed to
improve stability and reduce the effect of disturbances
from varying HCl flow. Local optimization will reduce
operating costs by improving reactor conversion, and
reduce energy consumption and losses.
Direct chlorinationControl solutions are designed
to improve stability and minimize undesirable side reac-
tions. Local optimization minimizes ethylene loss to the
vent through effective reactor pressure control and excess
ethylene in the feed.
EDC purificationAdvanced control improves sta-
bility and fractionation in the columns. EDC loss in the
light ends column is minimized as well as heavy boiling
byproducts in the EDC that can cause excess coking in
the furnaces.
EDC cracking furnacesControl and optimization
on the cracking furnaces focuses on effective cracking
depth control while minimizing fuel gas and coking. By
using yield and coking models, such as those provided
by Technips EDC crack models, nonlinearities can be
accounted for in the controller models as well as cracking
depth and coking profiles can be controlled on a per -
pass basis.
HCl and VCM purificationControl and optimiza-
tion solutions focus on maintaining stability and improv-
ing fractionation thereby maintaining or improving VCM
product quality and recycled EDC and HCl.
Optimization. In addition to local optimization per-
formed by individual controllers, global optimization can
be achieved using Honeywells Profit Optimizer, a cost-
effective, dynamic optimization solution. Multiple Profit
Controllers can be dynamically coordinated by an upper
level Profit Optimizer, which also uses RMPCT algorithms.
Global optimization in VCM plants would focus on the
balance between furnace run lengths, EDC recycle costs
and cracking depth.
Economics. Typical improvements from advanced con-
trols and optimization in a VCM plant are: 36% increase
in VCM production, an 812% reduction in energy usage
and a 2030% increase in furnace run lengths. Typical
paybacks range from 9 to 18 months.
Commercial installations. Control solutions have been
implemented in six VCM plants.
Licensor. Honeywell Industry Solutions, Phoenix,
Arizona. Contact: Susan.Alden@Honeywell.com.
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Waste incinerator load
optimization
Application. IntellOpts waste incinerator load opti-
mization application uses the Gensym/G2 expert system
with a mixed integer optimizer to maximize loading of
multiple incinerators.
Strategy. To reduce the combinatorial problem to a fea-
sible size for real-time optimization, a G2-based expert sys-
tem application is used to infer the most preferable oper-
ating combinations from the existing process conditions.
These modes are then formulated as mixed integer opti-
mization problems with the following constraints:
Only one incinerator connection per vent flow
Only one incinerator connection per liquid waste
flow
Vent flowrates cannot be adjusted
Total vent flow per incinerator constraint
Total liquid flow per incinerator constraint
Specific waste component total loading constraint
Unit-specific liquid and vapor flow mixing
constraints
Total heat load per incinerator constraint
Incinerator stack emission constraints.
The mode offering the highest economic objective
function value is then selected for allocating the multiple
liquid and vapor streams into multiple incinerators.
Economics. Observable benefits are in waste through-
put handling capacity, which can also help production
of upstream units that are constrained by side-reaction
waste production. Benefits would depend on the num-
ber and types of waste streams and the number of incin-
erators.
Commercial installations. This application has been
installed at one site.
Licensor. Intelligent Optimization Group, Houston, Texas
(www.intellopt.com).
Advanced Process Control and Information Systems 2003
Multiple liquid and vapor waste flows
From process units From waste storage
Multiple waste incinerators
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Handbook - 2003
Emerson Process Management, an
Emerson business, is a global leader
in helping to automate production,
process and distribution in the
refining, oil and gas, chemical, pulp
and paper, power, food and
beverage, pharmaceutical and other
industries. Emerson is known
worldwide for its superior products
and technology combined with
industry-specific engineering,
consulting, product management,
and maintenance services.
Articles
Reducing operations &
maintenance costs with PlantWeb digital
plant architecture (September 2003)
Improving availability with PlantWeb digital plant
architecture (May 2003)
Diagnostics capabilities of FOUNDATION fieldbus
pressure transmitters (April 2003
The smart refinery: Economics
and technology (March 2003)
Fieldbus improves control and asset management
(January 2002)Handbook Entries
Adiponitrile
Alkylation
Amine treating
Ammonia
Catalytic reformer
Cracking furnace
Crude unit
Fractionator (vacuum distillation)
Hydrotreater
Olefins
Phenol
Plant information (equipment monitoring)
Plant optimization and information (refining)
Plant production management
Urea
Utilities
Articles
Directory Listing
Handbook Entries
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Handbook - 2003
Honeywell Industry Solutions is
part of Honeywells Automation
and Control Solutions group, a
global leader in providing product
and service solutions that improve
efficiency and profitability, support
regulatory compliance, and
maintain safe, comfortable
environments in homes, buildings
and industry. For more information
about Industry Solutions, access
http://www.acs.honeywell.com/.
Articles
Crude oil blend scheduling optimization: An
application with multimillion dollar benefits
- Part 1 (June 2003)
- Part 2 (July 2003)
Future trends in saf et y
instrumented systems (May 2003)
Advanced Control Methods
- Part 1: Purpose and characteristics
- Part 2: Optimizationmaximization or
minimization?
Handbook Entries
Alkylation
Ammonia
Blend management
Blending
Catalytic reformer
Delayed coker
FCCU
Fractionator (crude)
Fractionator (FCCU)
Fractionator (light products)
Hydrocracker
Hydrogen production
Oils movements
Olefins
Planning and scheduling
Plant operations management
Plant performance management
Plant production management
Polyethylene
Product quality management
Terephthalic acid
Value chain management
Vinyl chloride monomer
Articles
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Advanced Control and
Information Systems
Handbook - 2003
Invensys, a global leader in
production technology, works
closely with customers to increase
performance of production assets,
maximize return on investment in
production and data management
technologies and remove cost from
the supply chain. The Invensys
Production Management division
includes APV, Avantis, Eurotherm,
Foxboro, IMServ, SimSci-Esscor,
Triconex and Wonderware.
Articles
The validation of an on-line nuclear magnetic
resonance spectrometer for analysis of
naphthas and diesels (April 2003)
Integrated data reconciliation, process modeling
and performance monitoring online
Handbook Entries
Ammonia
Blending
Catalytic reformer
FCCU
Fractionator (crude)
Fractionator (NGL)
Oil movement management
Planning and scheduling (olefins)
Planning and scheduling (refining)
Plant information integration
Articles
Directory Listing
Handbook Entries
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Systems Articles
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Information Systems
Handbook - 2003
Contributor Index
ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced
Application Services
Adersa
AMI Consultants
Aspen Technology
Applied Manufacturing Technologies
C. F. Picou Associates
Curvaceous Software Limited
Emerson Process Management
GE Drives and Controls
Honeywell Industry Solutions
Industrial Evolution
Intelligent Optimization Group
Invensys Performance Solutions
Matrikon
Nelson & Roseme
Nexus Engineering
OSA Intl Operations Analysis
PAS
Resolution Integration Solutions
Soteica Ideas & Technology L.L.C.
Technip
Yokogawa Corporation of America
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ABB Inc., Simcon Advanced
Application Services
Alkylation
Blending
Catalytic reformer
Crude unit
Delayed coker
Energy management
Ethyl benzene/styrene monomer (EB/SM)
Ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol
FCCU
Gas plant
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Olefins
Oil movements and storage
Terephthalic acid
Vinyl chloride monomer
Sponsored by:
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Adersa
Chemical reactor
Platforming
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Handbook - 2003
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AMI Consultants
Plant optimization (refining)
Sponsored by:
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Applied Manufacturing
Technologies
Aromatics (automated plant testing)
Crude unit (model predictive control
productivity)
FCCU (model predictive control productivity)
Sponsored by:
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Aspen Technology
Alkylation
Ammonia
Blending
Blending (planning and scheduling)
Catalytic reformer
Crude unit
Cyclohexane
Delayed coker
FCCU/RCCU
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Linear alkyl benzene
Olefins
Online controller maintenance
Phenol
Planning and scheduling (planning)
Planning and scheduling (scheduling)
Plant information (event monitoring and
notification)
Plant information (yield accounting)
Plant information analysis
Plant information management
Plant performance management
Polymers
Process sequence manager
Steam methane reformer
Styrene
Sulfur complex
Utilities
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C. F. Picou Associates
Catalytic Reformer Octane
Cracking furnace
Delayed coker
Ethylene oxide
Fractionator (soft analyzer)
Lube oil plant
Plastics (product grade switch)
Polycarbonate monomers
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Curvaceous Software Limited
Plant information (alarm and quality
management)
Plant information analysis
Plant optimization
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Emerson Process Management
Adiponitrile
Alkylation
Amine treating
Ammonia
Catalytic reformer
Cracking furnace
Crude unit
Fractionator (vacuum distillation)
Hydrotreater
Olefins
Phenol
Plant information (equipment monitoring)
Plant optimization and information (refining)
Plant production management
Urea
Utilities
Sponsored by:
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GE Drives and Controls
Ammonia
Bisphenol A
Cogeneration plant
Methanol plant
NGL plant
Syngas generation plant
Sponsored by:
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Honeywell Industry Solutions
Alkylation
Ammonia
Blend management
Blending
Catalytic reformer
Delayed coker
FCCU
Fractionator (crude)
Fractionator (FCCU)
Fractionator (light products)
Hydrocracker
Hydrogen production
Oils movements
Olefins
Planning and scheduling
Plant operations management
Plant performance management
Plant production management
Polyethylene
Product quality management
Terephthalic acid
Value chain management
Vinyl chloride monomer
Sponsored by:
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Industrial Evolution
FCCU (catalyst monitoring)
Hydrotreating (catalyst monitoring)
Plant information (inbound chemical
management)
Plant information (outbound inventory
management)
Plant information (Solomon benchmarking)
Product tracking (homeland security)
Sponsored by:
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Article:
Collaboration across company boundaries
Shared inventory Management
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Intelligent Optimization Group
Acrylonitrile recovery
Delayed coker
LPG plant
PolyCarbonate plant
Terephthalic acid
Terephthalic acid dehydrator (fuzzy logic
controller)
Waste incinerator load optimization
Sponsored by:
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Invensys Performance Solutions
Ammonia
Blending
Catalytic reformer
FCCU
Fractionator (crude)
Fractionator (NGL)
Oil movement management
Planning and scheduling (olefins)
Planning and scheduling (refining)
Plant information integration
Sponsored by:
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Matrikon
Online controller maintenance: Regulatory
and MPC
Plant information (alarm and event
collection and analysis)
Plant information (online downtime
reporting)
Plant information (OPC data management)
Plant information (Web-based decision
support)
Sponsored by:
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Nelson & Roseme
Utilities
Sponsored by:
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Nexus Engineering
Plant information (reliability/operations
management system)
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OSA Intl Operations Analysis
FCCU/ROC/DCC
Fractionator
Hydrocracker/hydrotreater
Olefins
Plant information integration (ERP)
Plant operations management
Utilities
Sponsored by:
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PAS
Olefins
Plant information (critical condition
management)
Polymers
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Resolution Integration Solutions
Laboratory data entry and management
Plant information (batch/lot tracking)
Plant information (data reconciliation)
Plant information (key performance indicator
management)
Plant information (offsite data management)
Plant information (recipe management)
Plant information (target setting and
nonconformance monitoring)
Plant information (yield accounting)
Plant information integration
Sponsored by:
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Soteica Ideas & Technology
Oil movement management
Sponsored by:
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Technip
Blending
Crude mix quality identification
Environmental monitoring
Gasoline pool management
Heavy hydrocarbon stream identification
Middle distillate pool management
Olefins (inline laboratory)
Plant information (data reconciliation)
Plant information (mass balance)
Plant scheduling (refining)
Sponsored by:
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Yokogawa Corporation
of America
Alkylation
Ammonia
Catalytic reformer
Cracking furnace
Delayed coker
FCCU
Fractionator (heavy oil)
Fractionator (light products)
Hydrotreating
MTBE
Oil movements and blending
Olefins
Operational excellence solutions
Plant information management
Polyethylene
Sponsored by:
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Control & Instruments Directory
ABB Instrumentation
AMI Consultants
Belco Technologies Corp.
Emerson Process Management
Honeywell Industry Solutions
Intelligent Optimization Group
Invensys
Swagelok Company
Sponsored by:
Premier sponsors:
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ABB Instrumentation
125 Country Line Road
Warminster, PA 18974
USA
Phone: 215-674-6001
Fax: 215-674-6394
instrumentation@us.abb.com
www.abb.com/instrumentation
Description: ABB Instrumentation is a global leader building on the heritage of Fischer & Porter, Bailey, Hartmann &
Braun, Sensycon, TBI and Kent-Taylor. Wether you need to: measure flow, pressure or temperature; analyze; record;
control; actuate or position . . . ABB provides FOUNDATION Fieldbus, PROFIBUS & HART enabled instrumentation with
the added benefit of its Industrial IT enabled products.
Executives: Dave Barnes, VP Sales & Marketing
Dane Maisel, Sr VP & General Manager
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
AMI Consultants
4102 Tremont Ct.
Sugar Land, TX 77479
USA
Phone: 281-565-4745
Fax: 281-565-1196
info@amiconsultants.com
amiconsultants.com
Description: AMI Consultant provides PetroPlanSM software for Petroleum refinery planning and economics.
PetroPlan is an easy tool to accurately set up the whole refinery simulation using a truly user friendly graphic inter-
face. The companys customer base consists of operating and E&C companies as well as educational institutions with
installations at 30 sites.
Executives: Indira Patell, President
Vibhu Sharma, Marketing Director
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Belco Technologies Corp.
7 Entin Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054
USA
Phone: 973-884-4700
Fax: 973-884-4775
info@belcotech.com
www.belcotech.com
Description: World leader in the design supply and installation of system to reduce particulate, SO2, SO3 and NOX
from refinery applications such as FCC Regenerator off gas, Fluid Cokers, SRU Tail gas, refinery waste incinerators and
power generation. Most reliable and efficient systems available on the market.
Executives: Kevin R. Gilman, President
Nicholas Confuorto, Vice President
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
Emerson Process Management
8301 Cameron Rd
Austin, TX 78754
USA
Phone: 512-832-3235
Fax: 512-834-7600
info@emersonprocess.com
www.emersonprocess.com
Description: Emerson Process Management, an Emerson business, is a global leader in helping to automate produc-
tion, process and distribution in the refining, oil and gas, chemical, pulp and paper, power, food and beverage, phar-
maceutical and other industries. Emerson is known worldwide for its superior products and technology combined
with industry-specific engineering, consulting, product management, and maintenance services.
Executives: John Berra, President
U.S. Sales Offices:
AL, GA 770-495-3100
AL, LA, MS 504-887-8550
AK, OR, MT, NV, UT, WA, ID 425-487-9600
AZ, CA, NV, NM 877-827-8131
CA 510-846-9300
CN, NJ, NY 201-934-9200
FL 813-626-1126
MI 734-459-0040
IN, KY, OH 513-489-2500
ME, VT 508-339-5522
MN, SD, IL, IN, ND, WI 847-956-8020
MS, TN, KY, MS 901-386-5020
OH 440-248-9400
OK, IL, MO, KS 636-681-1500
OK, TX, NM 972-389-5700
PA, WV 724-746-3700
RI, MA, NY 518-664-6600
SC, NC 704-375-4464
SD, CO, MT, WY 303-799-9300
VA 804-858-5800
HI 808-487-7717
PA, MD, Delware 610-495-1835
SD, NE 515-753-5557
TX 281-240-2000
TX 409-842-5950
Canada Sales Offices:
Alberta, BC 403-207-0700
British Columbia 604-422-3700
Manitoba 204-633-9197
Ontario 905-629-0340
Quebec 514-697-9230
Saskatchewan 306-721-6925
International Offices:
Baar, Switzerland +41 (0) 41 768 6111
Bognor Regis, West Sussex, UK +44 (0) 1243 863121
Bron Cedex, France +33 (0) 4 72 15 98 00
Singapore +65 6777 8211
Wessling, Germany +49 (0) 8153 939-0
Measurement and Analytical Instruments
Pressure, temperature, level, and flow
measurement:
Brooks Instrument
Flow Computer Division
Daniel (gas or liquid measurement)
Micro Motion
Rosemount
Rosemount Nuclear Instruments
Saab Rosemount
Liquid analyzers:
Rosemount Analytical - Liquid Div.
Gas and combustion analyzers:
Rosemount Analytical - Gas Div.
Final Control Devices
Control valves and valve-related instrumentation:
Fisher
Baumann
Valve Automation Division
- Bettis
- Dantorque
- El-O-Matic
- FieldQ
- Hytork
- Shafer
Regulators:
Fisher
Fisher LP Gas Regulators
Systems and Software
Process management systems:
Process Systems
(formerly Fisher-Rosemount Systems)
- DeltaV
- PROVOX
- RS3
Power & Water Solutions
(formerly Westinghouse Process Control)
Process control, automation, and optimization
software:
EnTech
Process Systems (formerly Fisher-Rosemount Systems)
MDC Technology
Power & Water Solutions (formerly Westinghouse
Process Control)
Asset management, monitoring, maintenance, and
optimization software:
Asset Optimization
Mechanical equipment
Process equipment
Instruments and valves: AMS and HART 275
Automation Architecture:
PlantWeb digital plant architecture
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
Honeywell Industry Solutions
2500 W. Union Hills Drive
Phoenix, AZ 85027
USA
Phone: 602-313-5000
Fax: 602-313-4040
www.acs.honeywell.com
Description: Honeywell Industry Solutions is part of Honeywells Automation and Control Solutions group, a global
leader in providing product and service solutions that improve efficiency and profitability, support regulatory compli-
ance, and maintain safe, comfortable environments in homes, buildings and industry. For more information about
Industry Solutions, access http://www.acs.honeywell.com/.
Executives: David Cote, Chairman & CEO
Kevin Gilligan, President of ACS
Bo Anderson, Vice President
Ramon Baez, Vice President
Michael Bartschat, Vice President
Jack Bolick, President of System Solutions
Roger Fradin, President of Automation & Control Products
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
Intelligent Optimization Group
P.O. Box 79162
Houston, TX 77279
USA
Phone: 713-269-2340
Fax: 713-849-0455
info@intellopt.com
www.intellopt.com
Description: IntellOpt is an Advanced Automation Solutions company specializing in advanced process control, mul-
tivariable predictive control (MVPC), expert systems and neural nextworks for petrochemical, chemical and refining
processes. Our products include GMAXC, a multivariable controller offering MVPC technology at a commodity level
and Z-Way, a multivariable fuzzy logic controller, with several projects completed worldwide.
Executives: Ravi Jaisinghani, Pricipal
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
Invensys
33 Commercial Street
Foxboro, MA 02035
USA
Phone: 508-549-2424
Fax: 508-549-4999
www.invensys.com
Description: Invensys, a global leader in production technology, works closely with customers to increase perform-
ance of production assets, maximize return on investment in production and data management technologies and
remove cost from the supply chain. The Invensys Production Management division includes APV, Avantis, Eurotherm,
Foxboro, IMServ, SimSci-Esscor, Triconex and Wonderware.
Executives: Rick Haythornthwaite, CEO
Leo Quinn, COO
[Return to Control & Instruments Directory]
Swagelok Company
31400 Aurora Road
Solon, OH 44139-2764
USA
Phone: 440-349-5934
Fax: 440-349-5806
Robert.fleig@swagelok.com
www.swagelock.com
Description: Headquartered in Solon, Ohio, U.S.A., Swagelok Company is a major developer and manufacturer of
fluid system component technologies for the research, analytical instrumentation, process instrumentation, pharma-
ceutical, oil and gas, power, petrochemical and semiconductor industries. More than 25 Swagelok manufacturing,
research, technical support and distribution facilities support a global network of more than 200 independent, local
sales and service centers on six continents.
Executives: Bob Fleig, Industrial Market Communications Leader
Main Menu
Control & Information
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Directory
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Control & Information
Systems Articles
Advanced Control and
Information Systems
Handbook - 2003
Control & Information Systems Articles
Reducing operations & maintenance costs with
PlantWeb digital plant architecture (Emerson
September 2003)
Crude oil blend scheduling optimization: An
application with multimillion dollar benefits
(Honeywell)
Part 1 (June 2003)
Part 2 (July 2003)
Improving availability with PlantWeb digital plant
architecture (Emerson May 2003)
Future trends in safety instrumented systems
(Honeywell May 2003)
Diagnostics capabilities of FOUNDATION fieldbus
pressure transmitters (Emerson April 2003)
The validation of an on-line nuclear magnetic
resonance spectrometer for analysis of naphthas
and diesels (Invensys April 2003)
The smart refinery: Economics and technology
(Emerson March 2003)
Fieldbus improves control and asset management
(Emerson January 2002)
Advanced Control Methods (Honeywell)
Part 1: Purpose and characteristics
Part 2: Optimizationmaximization or
minimization?
Collaboration across company boundaries
Shared inventory management (Industrial Evolution)
Integrated data reconciliation, process modeling
and performance monitoring online (Invensys)
CONTRIBUTIONS NOT INCLUDED
Sponsored by:
Premier sponsors:
White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 1 PlantWeb








Reducing operations & maintenance costs
with PlantWeb

digital plant architecture




Whether youre trying to make the most of an ever-dwindling staff and budget,
or looking for even more ways to trim operations and maintenance costs,
Emersons PlantWeb

digital plant architecture has proven it can help.


PlantWebs predictive intelligence increases maintenance productivity by
detecting and diagnosing potential equipment problems before they grow
reducing the frequency, severity, and cost of repairs while enabling your team to
avoid unnecessary and unproductive tasks.
Its information integration and easy-to-use control and optimization capabilities
also increase productivity by enabling operators to expand their span of control
and run the process at the most economical operating points.


The challenge: Doing even more with even less

Industry consolidation and worldwide competition are putting todays
plants under intense financial pressure, and operations and maintenance
budgets are among the first to be cut. Fewer personnel working fewer
hours are expected to operate and maintain more equipment at lower
cost, while also delivering higher throughput, higher availability, and higher
profits with aging assets.

Its a trend that shows no sign of changing. Plants must therefore
increase the productivity of their existing maintenance and operations
teams, while continuing to look for ways to reduce costs even more.


Benchmarking
the opportunity
Fortunately, there are still opportunities for improvement in almost every
operation. Industry benchmarks can help you estimate the potential in
your own plant.

%RAV. One frequent benchmark of maintenance productivity is annual
maintenance cost as a percentage of replacement asset value (RAV). For
example, a plant spending $5,000,000 annually to maintain assets that
could be replaced for $100,000,000 has a 5% RAV.

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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 2 PlantWeb







The graph below shows typical as well as worst- and best-in-class
%RAV.
1
For a plant with $250,000,000 in assets to maintain, moving from
typical to best-in-class status could mean over $10,000,000 in annual
savings.

One benchmark of maintenance
productivity is annual spending as a
percentage of Replacement Asset
Value.



Of course, you still have to keep the plant running smoothly and safely.
The goal is to use your maintenance budget and personnel more
efficiently so you can spend less and maintain or even improve plant
performance.

Recent data shows that 86% of maintenance is reactive (too late) or
preventive (unnecessary).
2
In fact, typical maintenance practices for
reactive, preventive, and predictive maintenance have not changed in over
15 years.
1
This is primarily due to a lack of tools powerful enough to
fundamentally improve maintenance practices.

Span of control. For operations, one measure of productivity is the
number of loops each operator manages.

A typical plant might have 125 loops per operator, so managing 1500
loops would require 48 operators to staff four shifts. In a best-in-class
plant, on the other hand, each operator might handle 250 loops requiring
only 24 operators over the same number of shifts. At a fully burdened
cost of $80,000 per year for each operator, the savings would approach
$2,000,000 annually.

Even greater productivity and economic benefits are possible when
operators also have the tools and information to continuously optimize
energy use, feedstocks, and other economic factors for the loops they
control, as well as to reduce costs in related areas such as safety, health,
and environment; utilities; and waste and rework.

So why arent more plants getting these savings and productivity gains
today?


Emerson Process Management 2003. All rights reserved.

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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 3 PlantWeb







Misdirected maintenance

Too much of the work done by maintenance teams is unnecessary,
unproductive, or even counterproductive.

Unnecessary work. Over half of typical maintenance activities are
unnecessary. This includes routine equipment checks as well as
preventive maintenance on equipment that doesnt need it.
One analysis showed that 63% of all instrument work orders did not
result in corrective action, because there was nothing wrong with the
equipment.
A study of 230 valves scheduled for rebuilding during a shutdown
found than only 31% needed such extensive service.
Many plants re-calibrate transmitters before installation and then once
or twice a year after that, even when the original factory calibration is
more accurate and (for some transmitters) stable for 5-10 years.

Unproductive work. In a typical plant, the maintenance department
averages about 30% wrench time. The rest of the time theyre doing
data entry and retrieval, work-order reporting, and other paperwork. Best-
practices plants use automated tools to manage this information more
efficiently increasing wrench time to 50% or more.
3


Counterproductive work. Some maintenance actually reduces
equipment reliability. Problems can result from incorrect re-assembly,
incorrect tightening, misalignment, or other errors. In fact, as many as
70% of equipment failures happen shortly after initial installation or major
preventive maintenance.
1



Inefficient
maintenance strategies

Many of these problems could be reduced by adjusting the mix of
reactive, preventive, predictive, and proactive maintenance strategies
so workers can focus on doing the right things at the right time.

1. Reactive maintenance. Also described as fix it when it breaks, this
is the most basic maintenance strategy. Its major drawback is obvious:
the cost to repair (or replace) equipment thats run to failure is typically
much higher than if the problem were detected and fixed earlier not to
mention the cost of lost production during extended downtime.

2. Preventive maintenance. A preventive strategy assumes equipment
is relatively reliable until, after some period of time, it enters a wear-out
zone where failures increase. To postpone this wear-out, equipment is
serviced on a calendar- or run-time basis whether it needs it or not. On
average, this fix it just in case approach is about 30% less expensive
than reactive maintenance.
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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 4 PlantWeb







A preventive maintenance strategy
attempts to service equipment before it
enters an assumed wear-out zone--
but most equipment doesnt follow this
failure pattern.


However, determining when the wear-out zone might begin has
traditionally been an inexact science, relying on estimates and averages
rather than actual equipment condition. Because of this uncertainty,
preventive maintenance schedules are usually very conservative.

As a result, maintenance often takes place too soon, when theres
nothing wrong and service can actually create new problems. In fact,
about 30% of preventive maintenance effort is wasted, and another 30% is
actually harmful.
1


But theres an even bigger problem: only about 6% of equipment follows
a time-based wear-out pattern. For most other equipment over 90%
failures typically result from the cumulative effects of events or conditions
that can occur at any time.
1
That means schedule-based preventive
maintenance can also come too late, after the damage has begun.

Because its time-based instead of
condition-based, preventive
maintenance often takes place before
theres a problem, or after the damage
has grown.


3. Predictive maintenance. The third strategy overcomes these
drawbacks by constantly monitoring actual equipment condition and
using the information to predict when a problem is likely to occur. With
that insight, you can schedule maintenance for the equipment that needs it
and only what needs it before the problem affects process or
equipment performance. Thats a great way to improve maintenance
productivity, as well as reduce costs for repairs and unexpected downtime.

A best-practices plant uses predictive maintenance for most equipment
where condition-monitoring is practical, limiting reactive and preventive
strategies to equipment thats not process-critical and will cause little or no
collateral damage if run to failure.
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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 5 PlantWeb







Best-practices plants improve
productivity and reduce costs by
emphasizing a predictive maintenance
strategy.

Despite the benefits of predictive
maintenance, typical practices have
not changed in over 15 years.


4. Proactive maintenance. The next strategy is proactive maintenance,
which analyzes why performance is degrading and then corrects the
source of problems. The goal is not just to avoid a hard failure, but to
restore or even improve equipment performance.

For example, a valve failure might be caused by excess packing wear,
which in turn was caused by poor loop tuning that caused the valve to
cycle continuously. Retuning the loop will prevent further failures while
also improving process performance.

The best-practices plant of the future will actually spend more on
maintenance to include this proactive approach in their arsenal and
more than regain the investment in increased plant efficiency.


Overwhelmed operators Operators typically have extensive real-world knowledge of the plant
and the process. But instead of using this know-how to improve
operations, they spend much of their time and talent reacting to
unexpected situations a productivity drain that limits the number of
loops they can manage effectively.

This productivity problem often begins with instruments, valves, and
process equipment or entire loops that dont perform as they should,
requiring intense operator intervention to maintain control.

When something does go wrong, the flood of data and alarms that
operators have to deal with can make it harder for them to find and fix the
problem, or even obscure other process conditions and events that need
their attention. Better alarm and alert management is needed to ensure
that the right people get the right information at the right time to guide their
actions.

Some plants rely on abnormal situation management programs to provide
this guidance. But greater productivity gains are possible by focusing on
abnormal situation prevention using predictive maintenance and
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similar strategies to correct or avoid potential problems before they require
operator intervention.

Operators on the run Many facilities have remote areas ranging from tank farms and water and
waste treatment, to well heads, remote platforms, and pipelines. In the
ideal world operators can run remote areas from a central location. If a
remote area experiences a condition which requires a temporary onsite
operator, predictive intelligence and diagnostics should provide the
operator with all the information needed to have proper supplies,
equipment, and procedures on hand to address the situation.

If remote areas require onsite operators, operator span of control is
significantly reduced, and operations expense significantly increased.
The increase in cost includes the operator, but it also includes control
room space suitable for continuous operations and transportation costs to
potentially distant sites.

In addition to cost, transportation to and from the remote site may bring
the operator through potentially hazardous or remote areas effecting
personnel safety. Effective remote operations can reduce direct
operations cost, reduce capital cost for remote operating areas, reduce
logistics cost, and increase operator safety.

Missed opportunities for
economic optimization
Many of the factors that affect plant economics change frequently from
raw material costs to market demand for process outputs. In an ideal
world, operators would constantly adjust energy and feedstock sources,
product mix, equipment used, and other variables to optimize the
economic performance of the plant.

In the real world, however, operators seldom get any real-time feedback
on the economic effect of their actions. They could be unaware that
theyre losing millions of dollars by running the plant at sub-optimal
operating points.

Even if they have the information, they may not have the tools needed to
evaluate complex interactions between variables, or to determine the best
operating points before conditions change again.


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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 7 PlantWeb







A limited view Predictive maintenance, abnormal situation prevention, economic
optimization, and similar strategies offer clear productivity and cost
benefits. But predicting potential problems and the effect of changing
conditions requires a constant flow of real-time information not just
about the process, but also about the myriad pieces of equipment that
make it work.

Thats something traditional automation architectures cant easily provide.
The control system cant show you much more than the process variable
and any associated trends or alarms. Theres no way to monitor
equipment health, and thus no way to detect the early-warning signals of
potential problems.

For example, any analog instrument signal between 4 and 20 mA is
assumed to be good, when in fact there could be any number of problems.
The signal could have drifted, a sensor could be fouled, or a valve may be
sticking. Unless an experienced operator notices that something doesnt
look right, the problem could grow until it causes a process upset or
equipment failure.

Whats needed is a way to detect (or predict) such problems before they
increase operational and maintenance costs, and the tools to leverage
that information so you can do more with the resources you have or with
even less.

The answer: predictive intelligence
What makes PlantWeb
different from other
automation architectures?

It's engineered to efficiently
gather and manage a new we
of information including
equipment health and diagnostic
from a broad range of field
devices and other process
alth
s
equipment.
ess
other plant and business systems.

greater reliability and scalability.

tage of FOUNDATION
fieldbus.

s of projects across all
indust s.
ture and
isit
www.PlantWeb.com.

It provides not only proc
control, but also asset
optimization and integration with

It's networked, not centralized, for

It uses standards at every level of
the architecture including taking
full advan

It's the only digital plant
architecture with proven success
in thousand
rie

For more about the architec
what it can do for you, v

Emersons PlantWeb

digital plant architecture can meet these needs.


The architectures predictive intelligence boosts productivity for both
operations and maintenance by enabling you to
see whats happening in your process and your equipment,
detect and identify conditions that could lead to problems, and
deliver the right information to the right people at the right time
so they can take action to keep things running smoothly, efficiently, and
profitably.

A broader view. Digital technology makes it possible to access and use
new types of information that go far beyond the process-variable signals
available through traditional automation architectures. With PlantWeb,
both the breadth and depth of this information are unprecedented.

It starts with intelligent HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus instruments
including transmitters, analyzers, digital valve controllers, and other
devices that use onboard microprocessors and diagnostic software to
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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 8 PlantWeb







monitor their own health and performance, as well as the process, and
signal when theres a potential problem or maintenance is needed.

But PlantWeb doesnt stop with instruments and valves. It also captures
information on the condition of rotating equipment, such as motors and
pumps. And it monitors the performance and efficiency of a broad range
of plant equipment, from compressors and turbines to heat exchangers,
distillation columns, and boilers.

Information integration. PlantWeb uses communication standards like
HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, and OPC, as well as our AMS Suite of
integrated software, to make this information available in the control room,
the maintenance shop, or wherever else its needed for analysis and
action.

The equipment information is also integrated into PlantWebs DeltaV and
Ovation automation systems, which combine it with process data to
deliver accurate, reliable control and optimization, and to manage alarms
and alerts.

The power to predict and improve. With the ability to see whats
actually happening and about to happen in your process and
equipment, your team no longer has to spend as much of their time
reacting to unexpected events (caused by problems they didnt know
about), or trying to find and fix problems that may not even exist.

Instead, they can focus on more productive tasks, like heading off
problems they know are on the way, and finding new ways to reduce costs
and improve performance.

Lets take a closer look at some examples of how PlantWeb makes this
possible both for maintenance and for operations.


More productive
maintenance
PlantWebs predictive intelligence enables you to gain the benefits of
predictive and proactive maintenance across the thousands of pieces of
equipment in your operation from instruments and valves to
mechanical and process equipment.

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Instruments and valves. The proven reliability of PlantWebs Fisher
valves and Rosemount, Rosemount Analytical, and Micro Motion
transmitters reduces maintenance needs right from the start. But process
conditions and events can lead to problems in even the best equipment.
Thats when these devices built-in performance monitoring and
diagnostics help focus your maintenance efforts where theyre most
productive.

For example, transmitters can fail if the electronics are exposed to
excessive temperatures. But built-in temperature-monitoring and
alarming in PlantWeb instruments can alert you to the problem in time to
find and remedy the cause.

Similarly, the sensor fouling detection diagnostic in our pH transmitters
can trigger a maintenance request before fouling causes process
problems or even automatically initiate cleaning of the sensor.

And valve diagnostics can tell you (while the valve is still in service) if
conditions like seat wear, packing friction, or air-supply leakage are
approaching the point where maintenance is needed.

This valve diagnostic indicates that
friction will exceed the recommended
limit in one month enabling you to
schedule replacement of the valve
packing before process quality,
availability, or throughput is affected.



The ability to forecast service needs can reduce the need for a large in-
house spare-parts inventory. One PlantWeb user has reported cutting
valve and instrument parts inventories 70%, saving over $500,000.

Knowing exactly which devices need work, and what kind of work, also
lets maintenance technicians plan their work more efficiently taking
the right tools and parts into the field, for example.

Just as important, PlantWeb diagnostics can tell you which devices
dont need maintenance reducing unnecessary equipment checks,
shortening shutdowns, and avoiding the cost and risk of unneeded
preventive maintenance. Experience has shown that monitoring the
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performance and condition of critical valves with PlantWebs ValveLink
diagnostic software can reduce their maintenance costs by 50%.

The AMS Suite's Intelligent Device Manager software consolidates valve
and instrument information for easy access, as well as providing a robust
but user-friendly tool for many maintenance tasks from initial device
configuration through troubleshooting and recordkeeping.

For example, the software's remote monitoring and diagnostic
capabilities dramatically speed equipment checks. What might have been
a 25-minute check in the field becomes a 2-minute task done online from
the maintenance shop or control room without exposing workers to
hazardous environments.

Intelligent Device Manager software also helps cut instrument calibration
time almost in half, from an average of 47 to 25 minutes. And its
automatic documentation of maintenance tasks virtually eliminates the
manual data entry that eats up so much wrench time.

Combined with new work practices to reduce unproductive work, taking
full advantage of these tools over a broad spectrum of tasks can on
average reduce maintenance time 65% over traditional methods.

Mechanical equipment. Half of equipment failures that cause downtime
typically involve mechanical equipment such as pumps, motors,
compressors, and turbines. PlantWeb can help here, too.

The AMS Suite's proven Machinery Health Manager software combines
online monitoring information with data from a wide range of analytical
tools, so you can see which equipment will need service soon, and which
wont.

Bearing failure, for example, is a common problem with rotating
equipment. But PeakVue software can detect and identify the very high-
frequency noise associated with the earliest stages of bearing wear. You
get maximum warning of future problems, before increasing damage
significantly increases the cost (and possibly the time) for repairs.

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The Machinery Health Manager uses
vibration monitoring, IR thermography,
oil analysis, ultrasonics, and motor
diagnostics to give you a better view of
actual equipment condition.




Tools for laser alignment and equipment balancing also play an important
role in proactive maintenance of rotating equipment. Used to ensure that
shafts are coupled center-to-center and that vibration levels are low at
operating speeds and loads, they can substantially extend equipment life
and reduce maintenance costs.

Process equipment. Performance of larger process equipment such as
boilers, compressors, heat exchangers, and distillation towers often
degrades gradually. Repairs or overhauls can restore the lost efficiency,
but at the cost of lost production while the equipment is out of service.

PlantWeb helps you pinpoint the right time to service such equipment.
The AMS Suite's Equipment Performance Monitor uses thermodynamic
models to show you changes in equipment efficiency over time. It then
calculates the financial impact of these changes, so you can weigh the
cost of sub-optimal performance against the cost of shutting down for
maintenance.

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The Equipment Performance Monitor
alerts you to long-term changes in
equipment performance and their
economic impact.




You can also use Equipment Performance Monitor to measure
maintenance effectiveness, verifying that the equipment is again
delivering the needed performance or even comparing the economic
impact of different maintenance methods, such as in-place cleaning or
complete equipment overhaul.


Enabling operators
to do more

PlantWeb increases operator productivity by reducing the time
operators spend in reactive mode, scrambling to deal with unexpected
situations and problem loops that threaten process stability and safety.
With fewer abnormal situations and better tools and guidance for
dealing with those that do occur operators can manage more loops in
both local and remote locations, and focus on improving production.

Abnormal situation prevention and management. Much of the gain
comes from the maintenance improvements discussed above. Because
many potential problems can be predictively sensed (and the
maintenance team notified) before they affect process performance, they
never even hit the operators dashboard.

PlantWebs integration of equipment and process information helps keep
things running smoothly in situations like these. As our intelligent
FOUNDATION fieldbus instruments constantly check for problems, they use
what they learn to label the data they send as good, bad, or uncertain.
PlantWebs DeltaV and Ovation automation systems monitor this signal
status (something not every system can do) to constantly verify that the
data is valid for use in control algorithms. If its not, the systems can
automatically modify control actions as appropriate.

Operators can also easily check equipment condition to anticipate and
adjust for potential problems. The AMS Suite's Asset Portal provides an
integrated, high-level view of information from valves and instruments,
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rotating equipment, and process equipment in a single browser-based
interface. This access to predictive diagnostics and other asset data also
enables operators to determine when equipment health is (or, more likely,
isnt) causing process problems.

Asset Portal provides a consolidated
view of instrument and valve, rotating
equipment, and process equipment
health.




When process or equipment problems do occur, PlantWeb Alerts notify the
right people without flooding operators with nuisance alarms. This capability
relies on powerful software in Emerson field devices, AMS Suite software,
and DeltaV and Ovation systems to immediately analyze the incoming
information, categorize it by who should be told, prioritize it by severity and
time-criticality, and then not only tell the recipients whats wrong but also
advise them what to do about it in clear, everyday language.

With the advanced warning provided by predictive intelligence, combined
with effective information integration for both control and asset health
information, operators and maintenance personnel have more information
and more lead time to deal with potential problems. This reduces overall
operations and maintenance cost and may reduce or eliminate staffing
requirements at remote locations.

Simulation software such as DeltaV Simulate can also improve operator
efficiency by providing a safe but realistic environment where they can
practice dealing with both normal and abnormal process events.

Better control. PlantWeb also improves productivity by reducing
process variability, so operators dont have to spend time managing
problem loops manually.

This better control begins with the intelligent instruments and valves that
form the foundation of PlantWeb architecture. They include transmitters
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with fast dynamic response, digital valves that respond to signals of 1% or
less, and the worlds most accurate Coriolis flowmeters.

DeltaV and Ovation systems integrate equipment and process information
to add rock-solid regulatory and advanced control. And because
advanced controls such as Model Predictive Control are embedded in the
system controllers, theyre easier to configure and use, and have better
availability than traditional host-based systems.

When the problem is a poorly tuned loop, its easy to get back on track
with DeltaV Tune software, which uses uses patented relay oscillation
principles that minimize process disturbances and tuning time.
OvationTune, a system-wide tuning package, also smoothes out
variability by monitoring and adaptively tuning loops for optimal
performance.

(For more on how PlantWeb reduces variability, visit www.PlantWeb.com
and click the Quality link under Operational Benefits.)

Process optimization. As your operators shift their focus to improving
process performance, PlantWeb provides the tools that help them make it
happen.

AMS Real-Time Optimizer software identifies optimum setpoints to
achieve best performance without violating constraints. Like PlantWebs
other advanced controls, Real-Time Optimizer is an integral part of the
architecture, making implementation of optimum setpoints easy.

For power applications, SmartProcess plant optimization software
improves throughput and efficiencies by maximizing boiler performance,
improving heat rate, and minimizing steam temperature variations.

These applications allow operators to better optimize each loop or unit,
without violating interacting constraints that can cause process upsets or
downtime.


Extending the savings

Many of the PlantWeb capabilities that enhance maintenance and
operator productivity also help reduce other operational costs. Although
a full discussion of these other benefits is beyond the scope of this paper,
here are a few highlights:

Safety, health, and environment. With PlantWebs predictive
intelligence and information integration, you can:
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September 2003 Page 15 PlantWeb







Maintain mechanical integrity by detecting, predicting, and preventing
equipment failures or unsafe process conditions
Use remote monitoring to reduce personnel exposure to hazardous
environments.
Streamline regulatory compliance through automatic documentation
of maintenance and engineering activities.
Utilities. PlantWeb helps reduce energy use that can be a major
contributor to operating costs.
Tight, consistent control helps improve conversion of fuels to energy
by 6-10%.
Real-Time Optimizer and SmartProcess software can optimize the
mix of fuels and energy-producing assets.
Equipment Performance Monitor helps you identify when and where
maintenance will most reduce energy use.
Machinery Health Manager can alert you when corrective action is
needed to restore motor efficiency.

Waste and rework. Costs rise when you must reprocess or dispose of
off-spec product. PlantWeb can help here, too.
Predictive intelligence alerts you to conditions that lead to waste,
while superior control smoothes out variability so you meet specs
even at higher production rates.
DeltaV and Ovation can automate startups and grade changes,
bringing the process to full production faster.
Real-Time Optimizer can constantly find the best operating points
for minimizing waste and rework.

For more on each of these areas, see the Operational Benefits section of
www.PlantWeb.com.

Maximizing and sustaining
the gains

Gaining the full benefits of a new architecture means adopting new
technologies and work practices, but finding the time and resources to
make improvements can be challenging in todays short-staffed plants.
With Emerson you can maximize the gains and sustain them for
improved financial performance over the life of your plant.

Emerson makes it easy. Experience shows that customers gain the full
value from their technology investments by complementing these
technologies with PlantWeb Services. Whether youre using PlantWeb in
a new facility or adding it to your current operation, our expertise helps
ensure a successful implementation.
Emerson Process Management 2003. All rights reserved.

www.PlantWeb.com

White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 16 PlantWeb








Best-practices consultation. Emerson service experts will conduct
assessment and benchmarking program design so you know where your
plant is compared to goal and best practices.

Expert implementation. We will apply AMS Suite technology to your
plant needs. To help ensure the success of your project, our service
experts will define and document modified work practices, integrate real-
time process and equipment health information with your enterprise
applications, and provide education and certification for your plant
personnel.

We offer a full range of training at your location or ours, or in video, PC-,
and web-based courses to help your operations and maintenance staffs
come up to speed quickly. Courses include condition-monitoring and
predictive-maintenance techniques, as well as product-specific classes for
predictive maintenance across all assets.

Sustain the gain. If you choose, we can also provide PlantWeb-enabled
expert services to supplement your in-house resources. Emerson ongoing
services include monitoring and analysis, diagnostic services, and
program management to help ensure long-term results.


Real projects, real results

PlantWeb has proven its value in thousands of installations, in all
industries, and around the world. Users are seeing the benefits every day.
Here are just a few examples:

We are saving $300,000 in labor costs alone, and are running more
efficiently than ever. - Power plant
The diagnostics are fast and precise when identifying what is
generating a malfunction. - Electric service utility
Automated documentation of instrument tests saves us an average of
40%. - Pharmaceutical maker
The time it takes to troubleshoot problems has been reduced nearly
50%, and predictive diagnostics tell us when our valves are starting to
deteriorate so we can plan our maintenance activities instead of
reacting to process problems and failures. - Chemical producer
We used to go to the field, hook up to the device, and look to see what
was wrong. Now we can see immediately from the DeltaV what is
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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 17 PlantWeb







wrong with the instrument. What used to take 40 to 45 minutes now
takes 5 to 10 minutes. - Tank-farm operator
We have eliminated 25% of our maintenance time since PlantWeb
was installed two years ago. We have kept the same number of
people, but those people are now able to do other things to make our
plant more productive. - Food processor
We were able to keep the same number of personnel in spite of
doubling our size. - Regulated-waste treatment facility

For case histories and additional proofs of PlantWeb architectures
capabilities, visit www.PlantWeb.com and click on Customer Proven.


Taking the next steps

PlantWeb can help you meet the ever-increasing demand for lower costs
by increasing operations and maintenance productivity. But with such a
wide range of opportunities for improvement, how do you get started?

1. Decide where you want to go. What are your goals for operations
and maintenance cost? What are your goals for uptime? How do you
want your operators and maintenance departments to work together?
How would you like your plant to run? Establish your vision and goals,
and then get ready to achieve them.

2. Assess where you are. How have your costs changed over the last
two or three years? What is your maintenance budget as a percent of
replacement asset value (%RAV)? What is your current mix of
maintenance strategies? How many loops does each of your operators
manage? How do these figures compare to industry benchmarks?

3. Look for specific pain points or opportunities. Do some units or
equipment types have more problems than others especially unexpected
ones? Is equipment-health information from HART and fieldbus devices
available to operators and maintenance technicians? Do you have
automated maintenance management or process optimization tools? Are
they being used?

4. Plan the changes that offer the most benefit. Usually, this involves
greater use of predictive maintenance to avoid problems that affect both
maintenance and operations productivity. Consider changes in work
practices as well as technology, and be sure to involve management and
engineering as well as operations and maintenance teams in the planning
process.
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White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 18 PlantWeb








5. Work with your local Emerson team. Well help you identify which
PlantWeb technologies and related services will meet your goals, and how
we can put them to work for you. If you want, we can even help you with
the assessment and planning phases of this process, as well as providing
implementation services and ongoing support.

Emerson Process Management 2003. All rights reserved.

www.PlantWeb.com

White paper: Reducing Operations & Maintenance Costs
September 2003 Page 19 PlantWeb



Emerson Process Management
8301 Cameron Road
Austin, Texas 78754
T 1 (512) 834-7328
F 1 (512) 834-7600
www.EmersonProcess.com


References
1. Dennis Berlanger and Saxon Smith, MRG Inc., The Business Case
for Reliability, as published at www.reliabilityweb.com/rcm1.

2. Reliability magazine, 2002.

3. Richard L. Dunn, "Composite Maintenance Benchmark Metrics,"
Plant Engineering, January 1999.


Other resources

Reducing operations and maintenance costs is just one of the ways
PlantWeb architecture helps improve process and plant performance.
The PlantWeb web site offers a wealth of information including
additional white papers on reducing costs while also improving
process quality, throughput, and availability.
www.PlantWeb.com click on "Operational Benefits."

Emerson Process Managements free online learning environment,
PlantWeb University, offers several courses on improving
maintenance effectiveness. Additional courses on reducing
operations and maintenance costs by increasing productivity are in
development and will be available soon.
www.PlantWebUniversity.com

The AMS Work Processes Guide outlines maintenance-practice
changes to maximize the benefits outlined in this white paper.
www.emersonprocess.com/ams/solutions
click on "Saving Money" and then "AMS Work Processes Guide"







The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they are
not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which are available on request. We reserve the right to modify or improve the
designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.

PlantWeb, Fisher, Rosemount, Micro Motion, RBMware, e-fficiency, Ovation, SmartProcess, and DeltaV are marks of Emerson Process
Management. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.

030903

2003 Emerson Process Management. All rights reserved.

E
conomic and operability benefits associated with better crude
oil blend scheduling are numerous and significant. The various
crude oils that arrive at a refinery to be processed into the dif-
ferent refined products must be carefully handled and mixed before
they are charged to the atmospheric and vacuum distillation units or
pipestill. Many details are involved in optimizing scheduling of a
refinerys crude oil feedstocks from receipt to charging of the pipestills.
Every refinery that charges a mix of crude oils to a pipestill has a
crude oil blend scheduling optimization opportunity. Producing
and updating a schedule of when, where, what and how much crude
oil to blend can be difficult. Although crude oils are often planned,
purchased, procured and have a delivery schedule set long before
they arrive at the refinery, details of scheduling crude oil off-load-
ing, storing, blending and charging to meet pipestill feed quantity and
quality specifications must always be prepared based on current
information and very short-term anticipated requirements. How-
ever, the rewards for performing better crude oil blend scheduling opti-
mization can be substantial depending on complexity and uncer-
tainty of the particular crude oil blendshop** operation.
Crude oil blendshop scheduling has historically been carried out
using fit-for-purpose spreadsheets and simulators with most deci-
sions made manually. The user attempts to create a feasible schedule
that meets flowrate and inventory bounds, operating practices and
quality targets over a near-term horizon, typically 1 to 10 days (up to
30). Actual schedule length depends on the reliability or certainty
of the crude oil delivery quantities and timing, and the pipestill pro-
duction mode runs. Farther into the future, the input data become
more uncertain and the scheduling work is typically cut off.
The goal of production scheduling optimization is to automate
many of these manual decisions by taking advantage of recent
advances in computer power and mathematical programming codes
and solving techniques. The main advantages of this approach are that
many thousands of scheduling scenarios can be evaluated as part of
the optimization in comparison to perhaps only one schedule found
by a user, a substantial reduction in time required to generate better
schedules and the ability to incrementally rerun the optimization
when different what-if scenarios are required (i.e., evaluating dis-
tressed crude oil cargos).
The focus of this article is four-fold. First, we delineate the busi-
ness problem of crude oil blend scheduling using a simple but reveal-
ing motivating example. Second, we highlight the hard and soft ben-
efit areas of improved blend scheduling to whet the appetite for
the impending details. Third, we provide a description of the new
scheduling approach for crude oil blending including the theory,
explicit problem formulation and related aspects such as how to seg-
regate crude oils when there are not enough tanks for dedicated stor-
age. And fourth, we discuss key elements of the scheduling solution
to enlighten the reader on the nuances and the challenges of solv-
ing large combinatorial problems.
Before further discussion, it is important to highlight the differ-
ence between production planning and scheduling and to discuss
the underlying need for continuous improvement of the schedul-
ing function. There will always be a planning activity and a schedul-
ing activity. Together, they form a hierarchical decision-making
framework that is very much a part of the organizational structure of
every corporation.
Planning is forecast driven and typically aggregates resources such
as equipment, materials and time to model and solve the breadth of
the problem. Planning generates simplified activities or tasks con-
sistent with these aggregations. Scheduling is order driven and uses the
decomposed equipment, materials and time to model and solve the
depth of the problem. It should be appreciated that a great number
of planning decisions are made long before any scheduling decisions
are generated. This implies that good scheduling can only result
from good planning.
The subtlety between forecasts and orders must also be appreci-
ated. At the planning stage firm and reliable customer orders are
rarely available over any significant planning time horizon except
for wholesale agreements or contracts. Forecast or best-guess aggre-
gate demands and capabilities are used to optimize projections of
plant operations. Thus, the plans generated are used to set direc-
tions and not production orders. Scheduling on the other hand is
primarily based on orders. Orders are much more concrete both in
quantity and time and have the highest reliability for the immediate
future. Scheduling generates detailed tasks and activities to meet the
immediate orders and scheduling is typically updated whenever sig-
nificant changes to the order or plant capabilities occur.
There is always a requirement to continuously improve schedul-
ing utility. The underlying driving force for this is related to the
PROCESS/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON SPECI ALREPORT
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JUNE 2003
I
47
Crude oil blend scheduling
optimization: an application with
multimillion dollar benefits Part 1
The abilit y t o schedule t he crude oil blendshop more ef f ect ively
provides subst ant ial downst ream benef it s
J. D. KELLY* and J. L. MANN, Honeywell Industry Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
.

.
notion of innovation in industry. Three known innovations are out-
lined by Norman et al.
1
The first is the manufacture of replaceable or
interchangeable parts that comprise the bill-of-materials of any given
product. The second is to produce many products within a single
facility and is sometimes referred to as product diversification. And
the third innovation, the one being implemented today in industry,
is production for final demand or demand-driven production (DDP).
This is the prevailing concept that we should only produce product
that satisfies actual product demand (demand orders). Speculative or
provisional production must be inventoried and, hence, can be con-
sidered to be inefficient and potentially risky because a real cus-
tomers purchase order is not secured. Many popular production
paradigms such as just-in-time (JIT), Kanban, tach time, single
minute change of a die (SMED), theory-of-constraints (TOC), etc.,
are all examples of striving toward the goal of DDP. The schedul-
ing optimization solution presented in this article is a critical step
in the on-going struggle to improve efficiency and profitability of
an oil refinery or petrochemical plant with respect to the DDP inno-
vation.
Blendshop example. Marine-access blendshops are usually char-
acterized by having a set of storage or receiving tanks and a set of
feed or charging tanks with either a continuous- or batch-type blend
header in the middle. Pipeline-access blendshops often only have
receiving tanks because settling of the unloaded crude oil for free
water removal after a marine-vessel has unloaded is not required.
Fig. 1 shows a small blendshop problem with one pipeline, two
receiving tanks, one transferline (or batch-type blend header), two
charging tanks and one pipestill. Tank inventory capacities and
names are shown inside the tank objects and flowrate capacities of the
semicontinuous equipment are shown above the
pipeline, transferline and pipeline objects. The
bold arrows in the figure indicate the flow or
movement variables for the blendshop schedul-
ing problem. Connections between equipment
are typically material based in the sense that only
certain crude oils or mixtures are allowed to flow
between a source and destination. These material
based connections permit use of crude oil segre-
gations or pooling by directing certain crude oils
to be stored into specific tanks. Segregations are
useful when controllable equipment or move-
ments can be used to prepare a blend recipe or
formulation to be specified for charging the
pipestill.
2
Segregations are useful to reduce prob-
lem complexity by reducing the number of deci-
sions to be made in terms of where crude oils should be stored. In our
example we do not impose any batch recipe such as a 50:50 blend for
flow out of each segregation. That is, we do not impose a 50% vol-
ume fraction from the light crude oil pool (TK1) and a 50% fraction
from the heavy crude oil pool (TK2). We have omitted this detail so
as not to detract from the main focus of the article.
Table 1 provides the information on crude oil receipts for four
different types of crude oils that are segregated into light and heavy
crude oil pools (i.e., crude oils #3 and #4 are light and #1 and #2
are heavy). The start and end times are in hours from the start-of-
schedule which is set at the zero hour; the end-of-schedule is on the
240th hr (10 days). Crude oil mixture liftings from the charging
tanks to the pipestill are continuously set at 5 Kbbl/hr and the
pipestills fuels production mode is unchanged over the scheduling
horizon. This defines the crude oil mixture demand schedule.
Fig. 1 also describes various operating rules that must be respected
for the blendshop for it to operate as a crude oil blendshop (more
details on these and others are given in Part 2). For this blendshop we
only allow one flow out of or in to the pipeline and transferline at a
time. Also, the tanks must be in standing-gage operation where there
can be only flow in or out at a time but not both. A generalization of
standing gage is the mixing-delay restriction. It imposes a time
delay after the last flow into a tank has finished before a movement
out is allowed. The receiving tanks have a 9-hr delay and the charg-
ing tanks a 3-hr delay.
The last logic constraint for this example is that all flows are semi-
continuous or disjunctive. This means that a flowrate must either
be zero or lie between lower and upper bounds.
Table 2 displays a subset of the assay information for the four
crude oils being stored and delivery into the blendshop. Only three
cuts are included: whole crude oil, kerosene and heavy gas oil. Blend-
ing of the cuts and assigned properties are based on volume or weight
depending on the property. Blending numbers or indices would be
used for those properties that blend nonlinearly such as Reid vapor
pressure (Rvp) and viscosity. Synergistic and antagonistic nonlinear
blending such as evidenced for octane are not considered further for
the crude oil blendshop problem.
Table 3 displays the minimum, target and maximum quality
specifications for the mix of crude oils required by the fuels operat-
ing mode. For this example we do not concern ourselves with bounds
on the quality variables though the scheduling optimizer can be con-
figured to respect these bounds over the scheduling horizon. The
target values are those typically found in the planning optimizer.
Table 4 completes the required information for the blendshop by
SPECI ALREPORT PROCESS/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
48
I
JUNE 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
TABLE 1. Crude oil receipt or supply orders over
scheduling horizon (cycle dat a).
Crude St art t ime End t ime Valid
Oil # (hr) (hr) Flowrat e Durat ion Flow dest inat ion
1 8 1 0 10 00
1 16 17 0 10 00
7 16 0 10 00
4 5 0 10 00 1
1 0 0 10 00 1
4 1 141 0 10 00 1
TK1
TK2
TK3
TK4
Receiving t anks
Charging t anks
Transf erline Pipeline
Pipest ill




220 Kbbl
100 Kbbl
0 16



5
,

,


1



Cut s
This blendshop problem involves one pipeline, t wo receiving t anks, t wo charging
t anks and one pipest ill.
FI G. 1.
providing the opening tank inventories and crude oil compositions
in each tank.
The information provided for the example characterizes a simple
yet typical crude oil blendshop scheduling optimization problem.
It has been deliberately organized into two main data themes: model
and cycle. Model data are generally static and do not change within
the scheduling time horizon. They define the material/flow/capac-
ity network, desired operating logic and crude oil assay information
and mixture quality specifications. Cycle data define the dynamic
data that can change every time the next schedule is made such as tank
opening inventories and compositions, supply, demand and main-
tenance orders, and any actual or logged movements. The problems
model and cycle data can be further segmented into what we call
the quantity, logic and quality aspects of the problem and will be dis-
cussed in Part 2.
Use of the word cycle is taken from the well-known hierarchical
planning and scheduling philosophy of Bitran and Hax
3
who advo-
cate a rolling-horizon framework or scheduling cycle to mitigate
uncertainty due to such effects as order reliability, measurement inac-
curacies and execution errors. For more recent details see S. C. Graves
in the Handbook of Applied Optimization, 2002.
4
Pot ent ial benef it s. Of course it makes sense to pursue only
those aspects of a solution to a problem that have value. Before we
describe how we formulate and solve the crude oil blend schedul-
ing optimization problem it seems prudent to analyze why we would
want to solve it. This leads into the discussion of expected benefits.
Three major types of disturbances arguably affect a refinery at
any time during its production or operation: crude oil mixture qual-
ity variability, ambient temperature changes and unreliable or faulty
equipment. Processing equipment malfunctions can cause serious
production outages and safety concerns, and are normally mitigated
by sound maintenance practices. Seasonal and diurnal ambient tem-
perature swings also disturb stability of operations and are mitigated
by providing increased cooling or heating capability and improving
controls.
The molecules from each crude oil receipt are eventually pro-
cessed at every unit within a refinery. Variation in crude oil mixture
quality charged to the pipestill is perhaps the single most influen-
tial disturbance to a refinery. It is the foremost reason why reducing
variability around the many quality targets by blending crude oils
is of tremendous importance.
Crude oil blendshop scheduling optimization is a relatively inex-
pensive and timely way to seriously improve performance of almost
any refinery. Five benefit areas are all aided by applying better blend
scheduling:
Reducing quantity and quality target variabilityAs men-
tioned, reducing quality target variance should be at the top of the list
for refinery improvements. Deviations from quality targets should be
minimized to charge the pipestill with a steady mixture of crude oil.
Steadier quality crude oil mixtures charging the pipestills will also
translate into steadier operations for downstream production units.
It also makes good sense to run pipestills with a constant flowrate
for as long as possible. An example of an improved quality target or
key planning proxy is shown in Fig. 2.
Improving the ability to generate more than just feasible
schedulesFor those blendshops that are tightly resource con-
strained due to previous cost-cutting initiatives, it may be arduous to
generate a feasible schedule for the immediate future. For these blend-
shops it is valuable to have an automated scheduling application
generate in seconds what would take a human scheduler hours to
construct. Multiple better-than-feasible or what we call optimized
schedules may be presented that meet the production goals for selec-
PROCESS/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON SPECI ALREPORT
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JUNE 2003
I
49
TABLE 2. Crude oil assay inf ormat ion (model dat a).
Cut / propert y Crude oil #1 Crude oil #2 Crude oil #3 Crude oil #4

0.870 0.87 0.856 0.851
,
. 6 8.71 10.44 .60
7.0 4 .0 1.0 7.0
,
.16 .75 10.17 .51

0.864 0.878 0.85 0.84
,
1.8 0.77 1.67 1. 8
TABLE 3. Fuels product ion mode cut /propert y
specif icat ions (model dat a).
Cut / propert y M inimum Target M aximum
0.86

0.8


1.508
TABLE 4. Crude oil opening invent ories and
composit ions (cycle dat a).
Tank I nvent ory Crude oil #1 Crude oil #2 Crude oil #3 Crude oil #4
1 100 0 0 100 0
100 0 0 0
50 100 0 0 0
4 100 50 0 50 0

Qualit y variabilit y was reduced wit h aut omat ed crude oil
blend scheduling.
FI G. 2.
tion by the scheduler. The effect of not being able to generate feasi-
ble schedules means that either the supply scenario must be changed
by distressing crude oil deliveries or demand must be altered by
decreasing or increasing the flowrate of crude oil mixtures charging
the pipestill. Unfortunately, both of these alternatives are undesir-
able for various reasons.
Rapid acceptance and inserting spot supply and demand
opportunitiesTypically, a refinery will be some mix of contract
(wholesale, nondiscretionary, strategic or base) versus spot (retail,
discretionary, tactical or incremental) crude oil purchases. Faster and
better ability for a refinery to assess whether a particular spot crude
oil purchase will result in a feasible operation the better the refinery
can capitalize on short-term market opportunities.
Consistency of schedulesA common problem in production
scheduling is that usually only one skilled scheduler can schedule a
refinerys crude oil blendshop effectively. When the main scheduling
individual is sick or on vacation it is very difficult to backfill with
another appropriately trained scheduler. Hence, if this occurs, sched-
ules generated by the two individuals can be widely different to the
point where unfortunately schedules generated by the relief may
actually be infeasible. Using an automated scheduling tool alleviates
some of these issues since schedules are made to satisfy the same
business logic and reflecting the same constraints and limitations.
Production schedule visibility throughout the refinery
Finally, given the use of Internet technologies, it should be standard
now and in the future to disseminate the official schedules online
so that managers, operators and engineers can all view the same pro-
duction program for the next several days or weeks. Although this can
be easily accomplished with spreadsheets and simulators, it is not
always possible with these solutions to look out into the future many
days or weeks and show the longer-term schedules to those who can
take advantage of greater look-ahead.
If we take for the purpose of discussion a medium-sized 100,000
bpd refinery, or equivalently 35,000,000 bpy with a 350-day yr pro-
duction schedule, it is possible to make a list of some of the expected
benefits and their value. Here we only detail the tangible benefits.
However, a range of intangible benefits can translate into significant
value. Each benefit cited is incremental over what would be achiev-
able using spreadsheets or simulators.
Quality target variability improvement such as whole crude
oil sulfur: $2,000,000/yr. This number was estimated from the ben-
efits identified when a similar application for crude oil blend schedul-
ing was developed and applied by the first author to a sweet crude oil
processing 100,000 bpd refinery. The benefits were captured at the
planning feedstock selection activity level because the proxy con-
straint on bulk crude oil sulfur was raised from 0.55 to 0.85 %wt sul-
fur over a three-month period (Fig. 2). This resulted in a cheaper
slate of crude oils being purchased while still being able to meet the
quality specifications for all of the finished products refined and
blended.
Reduced chemical injection: $100,000/yr. Further and unex-
pected savings on corrosion control chemicals were also observed
for the refinery over a one-year period due to the fact that less inhibitor
needed to be added given the improved regulation of crude oil bulk
sulfur concentration.
Distressed sale of crude oils from the refinery: 5-incidents/yr
$1.30/bbl 50,000 bbl = $325,000/yr. Here we assume that five
times in one year the refinery needs to distress a 50,000 bbl batch of
crude oil at a loss, in terms of lost netback production (opportunity)
and loss in selling price of $1.30 per bbl. This means that the refin-
ery lost the opportunity to process the crude oil and make netback
$1.00/bbl and sold the crude oil batch at a loss of $0.30/bbl.
Pipeline penalty charge for changes in sequence or timing:
3 incidences/yr $25,000/incidence = $75,000/yr. A penalty of
$25,000 per incidence is realized for altering the start or end time of
a batch of crude oil before it can be received at the refinery.
Spot opportunity for crude oil trades: 5 opportunities/year
50,000 bbl $1.00 net margin/bbl = $250,000/yr. There are five
extra opportunities per year to run batches of 50,000 bbl at a netback
or net margin of $1.00/bbl due to better crude oil blendshop schedul-
ing.
Reduced working capital (decommissioning of a crude oil
tank): 50,000 bbl cycle stock $20/bbl 10% cost of capital/yr =
$100,000/yr. This is a result of sustaining a long-term reduction of
safety or cycle stocks of reserve crude oil in the crude oil blendshop.
Total savings: $2,000,000 $100,000 $325,000 $75,000
$250,000 $100,000 = $2,850,000/yr! These hypothetical and
somewhat anecdotal benefit calculations translate into over two-
and-a-half million dollars worth of the potential savings to the refin-
ery profit and loss that would not have been achieved with manual
scheduling alone. It must be emphasized that this number only pro-
vides a benchmark or yardstick to Pareto, at least qualitatively, the
priorities in terms of choosing between other possible and compet-
ing capital investment projects at the refinery. From the perspective
of overall crude oil costs of the refinery over one year, this $2.85 mil-
lion in savings is less than 0.41% of the total feedstock cost (i.e.,
$2,850,000 / (35,000,000 bbl) / ($20/bbl) 100 = 0.407%).
Formulat ing problem logist ics and qualit y det ails.
Modeling the crude oil blendshop is the cornerstone of being able to
capture the potential benefits outlined. Although the modeling must
ultimately reside as a collection of complex mathematical expres-
sions relating variables and constraints to offer some level of opti-
mization, we supply a qualitative description of the model only. We
do this so as not to detract from the general understanding of the
overall problem and reasons for solving it. Some of the more spe-
cific details around the mathematical modeling of the crude oil
blendshop scheduling optimization problem can be found in Lee
et al.,
5
Shah
6
and Jia et al.
7
At the core of our formulation is the hierarchical

decomposi-
tion of the problem into logistics and quality subproblems. The logis-
tics subproblem is very similar to the supply chain logistics problem
except that our logistics problem has less spatial scope. It considers only
the crude oil blendshop (inside the production chain) and not the
entire supply chain but has more of an in-depth operational view of
the crude oil handling and blending. The logistics subproblem only
considers the quantity and logic variables and constraints of the prob-
lem and ignores the other quality variables and constraints. The qual-
ity subproblem is solved after the logistics subproblem whereby the
logic variables are fixed from the logistics solution and the quantity
and quality variables are adjusted to respect both the quantity and
quality bounds and constraints. The quality optimizer is very simi-
lar to commercially available oil refinery and petrochemical plan-
ning software formulations which are used to select the crude oils, for
example, that will be processed at the refinery.
The reason for the logistics and quality subproblem decompo-
sition is three-fold. First, commercially available optimization soft-
SPECI ALREPORT PROCESS/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
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JUNE 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING


.
ware, optimization theory and computer horsepower have not pro-
gressed to the point where we could solve a full-blown simultane-
ous quantity, logic and quality crude oil blendshop scheduling prob-
lem in reasonable time. Second, theory tells us that if you cannot
find a feasible solution to the logistics subproblem then you will not
be able to find a feasible solution to the quality subproblem. Hence,
the decomposition provides a very useful problem-solving aid because
if the logistics subproblem is infeasible for whatever reason (i.e., bad
input data, overly aggressive production plans, etc.) then there is no
use spending time solving the quality subproblem until something has
changed in terms of the quantity and logic aspects of the problem.
However, even if the logistics subproblem is feasible there is no guar-
antee that the quality subproblem is feasible. Third, theory also tells
us that if the logistics subproblem is globally optimal (i.e., the very best
solution has been found) and the quality subproblem is feasible then
we have found the global optimum for the overall problem. Hence,
our decomposition provides a very powerful structure given that it is
easier to check for quality feasibility than quality global optimality after
the best logistics solution has been found. Unfortunately if the qual-
ity subproblem is infeasible then there must be a mechanism to send
back special constraints to the logistics subproblem to force it away
from those regions of the search space that are known to cause qual-
ity infeasibilities.
We find that this break down of the overall problem into two
subproblems is in fact very intuitive for the scheduling users who
are using spreadsheets, especially the aspects of the quantity and
quality. The logic details are known by the users but rarely included
in formulating their spreadsheets due to the discrete nature (i.e.,
requires some search mechanism and/or trial-and-error). Logic aspects
are usually resolved ad hoc after a quantity-quality solution has been
circumscribed, but only for the immediate near term of the schedule.
There could also be further decomposition within each of the
logistics or quality subproblems. For example, in the logistics sub-
problem it is possible to decompose the scheduling into assignment
and sequencing stages. The assignment stage can be solved relatively
easily to optimality by assigning orders or jobs to equipment and
ignoring the equipment job sequencing. The assignment decisions
are then fixed and the sequencing stage is solved. If a feasible sequenc-
ing solution can be found then the overall logistics subproblem is
feasible. If the lower-level sequencing is infeasible then extra con-
straints are added to the assignment stage problem to guide the
higher-level solution away from those assignments that are known to
cause problems for the sequencing.
8
A strong parallel to the logistics and quality decomposition is
found in discrete parts manufacturing refined by the Japanese. That
is the decomposition of JIT, Kanban, SMED, TOC, etc., with the sta-
tistical quality control philosophies of W. E. Deming and S. Taguchi.
A clear separation between the two is brought together in the end to
guide the manufacturing machine to produce quality products effi-
ciently, effectively and punctually.
Finally, formulating crude oil blend scheduling optimization is in
the class of production scheduling known as a closedshop.

Defini-
tion of a closedshop, and its counter-part an openshop, can be found
in the review paper by Graves.
9
In an openshop all production orders
are by customer request and no inventory is necessarily stocked. In
a closedshop all customer requests are serviced from inventory and a
production activity is generally a result of inventory replenishment
decisions. These definitions really state that closedshops involve
quantity variables and inventory balances whereas openshops typically
dont. Closedshops are generally associated with lot-sizing problems
(requiring a flow path or network to be defined) and almost always
are formulated using some form of scheduling horizon segmenta-
tion into time periods. Even when continuous-time closedshop for-
mulations are used (see Jia et al.)
7
the number of time-event points
is required as an input. Segmenting the time horizon is necessary to
perform inventory or material balances. Solving the industrial-scale
closedshop problem has been attempted by first determining lot,
batch or blend sizes and then making the assignment, sequencing
and timing decisions (or logic decisions) using an openshop frame-
work. However, this decomposition has been met with limited suc-
cess. A unique formulation of the logistics subproblem is to model and
solve the blendshop as a closedshop explicitly by including both
quantity and logic decisions simultaneously in one optimization.
LITERATURE CITED
1
Norman, A., K. Mahmood and M. Chowdhury, The need for a paradigm for
innovation, http://www.eco.utexas.edu/homepages/faculty/Norman/long/
InnParadigm.html, Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin,
August, 1999.
2
Kelly, J. D. and J. F. Forbes., Structured approach to storage allocation for
improved process controllability, AIChE Journal, 44, 8, 1998.
3
Bitran, G. R. and A. C. Hax, On the design of hierarchical production plan-
ning, Decision Science, 8, 28, 1977.
4
Pardalos, P. M., and M. G. C.Resende, (editors), Handbook of Applied
Optimization, Oxford University Press, London, U.K., 2002.
5
Lee, H., J. M. Pinto, I. E. Grossmann and S. Park, Mixed-integer linear pro-
gramming model for refinery short-term scheduling of the crude oil unload-
ing with inventory management, Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research,
35, 5, 16301641, 1996.
6
Shah, N., Mathematical programming techniques for crude oil scheduling,
Computers & Chemical Engineering, 20, Suppl. B, S1227S1232, 1996.
7
Jia, Z., M. Ierapetritou and J. D. Kelly, Refinery short-term scheduling using
continuous-time formulationcrude oil operations, Industrial Engineering
Chemistry Research, February 2002.
8
Jain, V., and I. E. Grossmann, Algorithms for hybrid MILP/CP models for a
class of optimization problems, INFORMS Journal of Computing, 13,
258276, 2001.
9
Graves, S. C., A review of production scheduling, Operations Research, 29, 4,
646675, 1981.
Coming next month: Part 2 will describe more of the details involved
in optimizing refinery feedstock scheduling.
PROCESS/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON SPECI ALREPORT
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JUNE 2003
I
53

.
J. D. Kelly is a chemical engineer and has a masters degree
in advanced process control from M cM aster University. He has
worked as an advanced control engineer at both Shell Canada
and Imperial Oil including implementing real-time optimization programsand tac-
tical planning and scheduling solutions in their refineries. M r. Kelly has installed
plant-wide data reconciliation packages in several oil refineries around the world
and he haswritten many academic publicationson the subject. He isnow a solu-
tions architect for advanced planning and scheduling at Honeywell Industry
Solutionsin Toronto, Canada.
J. L. Mann isa chemical engineer with a bachelor of applied
science degree from the Universityof Toronto. He hasworked as
a design engineer and as a simulation engineer at Imperial Oil,
including developing refinery-wide simulation tools to support planning and
scheduling activities. M r. M ann hasworked on a number of plant information sys-
tem projects with a focus on integrating plant data collection systems to plant-
wide yield accounting systems. He now is a business architect for Honeywell
Industry Solutionsin Toronto, Canada.
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
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JULY 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
T
o facilitate more specific information on the formulation we
must first talk about the problem variables. These can be
classed into continuous and combinatorial variables. Con-
tinuous variables are the quantity and quality variables, and the
combinatorial variables are the logic or discrete variables. There are
also auxiliary or intermediate variables such as startup (and shut-
down or switchover) and flow times yield variables that are used to
support solving both the logistics and quality subproblems. Bounds
and constraints associated with these variables follow.
Quantity details (hydraulic capacities). There are essen-
tially three types of hydraulically related quantity bounds: flowrate,
flow and inventory. Each of these has continuous variables asso-
ciated with them in both the logistics and quality optimizer for-
mulations. All inventory variables are related to the flows through
the material balances on each piece of equipment.
Flowrate bounds are capacity bounds associated with a move-
ments process and transfer-type equipment such as pipestills,
headers, line segments, pumps, valves, etc. They specify how much
material can flow within a certain amount time through the piece
of equipment and are defined by an upper and lower bounds.
Flow bounds specify a quantity of material that can be trans-
ferred from one piece of equipment to another. They extend the
flowrate bound to fully describe a supply or demand order. Know-
ing the rate and the quantity determines the duration. Both flow
and flowrate bounds are associated with a connection between a
source and destination piece of equipment and ultimately relate to
the underlying limiting or shared transfer-type piece of equip-
ment that moves the material from the source to the destination.
Inventory bounds are capacity bounds for inventory-type
equipment such as spheres, tanks or drums. They specify how
much material can be stored in a piece of equipment and are
defined by an upper and lower bound.
Logic det ails (operat ing rules). Fourteen different kinds
of logic constraints are typical of a crude oil blendshop opera-
tion. This list is not exhaustive but is a very reasonable starting
point. As mentioned, to model these constraints we need to have
logic variables or combinatorial variables. These are also referred
to as 0-1 or binary variables and are associated specifically with a
flow between source and destination equipment. Zero indicates
the flow is inactive and one implies the flow is active and must be
between its lower and upper flow bounds. We also have two other
logic variables to indicate when a flow route has been started up
(time it is made active) or has been shut down (time it is been
made inactive); these variables are also used to model transition
or switchovers.
Semicontinuous (SC) constraints represent a flow that can be
zero or between a lower or upper bound. Without SC constraints
the logistics problem would become a linear program and not a
mixed-integer linear program.
Standing gage (SG) constraints enforce the practice for tanks
where there can be flow in or out but not both at the same time
(mutually exclusive). SG constraints are useful to decouple the
production chain from the supply chain upon receipt of a crude oil
delivery for example, and to enable tank level differences to be
used as a cross check for custody transfer meters.
Mixing delay (MD) constraints restrict flow out of a tank
until a certain amount of time has past after the last flow in. A
tank must have SG constraints set for mixing delay to be used.
The MD constraints are useful to allow separating ballast-free
water after a marine vessel unload.
One flow in (OFI) constraints prevent more than one flow
into a piece of equipment at a time. OFI constraints are useful to
model cases where a pipestill can only be fed from one tank at a
time for example.
One flow out (OFO) constraints prevent more than one flow
out of a piece of equipment at a time. OFO constraints are useful
to model cases where a pipeline can only discharge to one tank
at a time.
Contiguous order fulfillment (COF) constraints define a
flow to be fixed quantity and fixed rate over specified start and
end times. They are typical of pipeline receipt and delivery orders.
In these cases the flowrate is equal to the quantity divided by the
difference between the end and start times. These order fulfill-
ment types are such that there is a contiguous or consecutive flow
between the order start and end time (i.e., an uninterrupted or
non-preemptive flow).
Noncontiguous order fulfillment (NOF) constraints define
order fulfillment to be the opposite of the COFs. Arrival and
Crude oil blend scheduling
optimization: an application with
multimillion dollar benefits Part 2
The abilit y t o schedule t he crude oil blendshop more ef f ect ively
provides subst ant ial downst ream benef it s
J. D. KELLY* and J. L. MANN, Honeywell Industry Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
.
departure dates are specified for supply orders and release and due
dates are specified for lifting orders. The NOFs are defined with
a specified order quantity such that between the arrival and depar-
ture date or release and due date, the cumulative quantity of mate-
rial that has flowed from the pipeline or to the pipestill equals
that specified by the order. This implies that there can be non-
contiguous or nonconsecutive flows from or to a piece of equip-
ment (i.e., an interruptible or preemptive flow). Arrival and depar-
ture dates are useful for handling marine vessel unloading when
arrival due to inclement weather conditions causes higher than
normal uncertainty levels. Release and due dates are useful for
specifying pipestill production mode orders because the planning
solutions will typically say how much crude oil to process within
a particular time horizon with the detailed flow scheduling to be
determined by the scheduling optimization program.
Lower up-time (LUT) constraints are identical to minimum
production run length-type constraints. They are used to specify
a minimum time a particular movement needs to be up or active
before shutting down or becoming inactive.
Upper up-time (UUT) constraints are used to specify a max-
imum contiguous time a movement can be up before it is required
to be shut down.
Equal flow (EF) constraints force the same flow value for a col-
lection of time periods where the movement is contiguously or
consecutively active. Either a lower or upper up-time must be
specified before the equal-flow constraints will be added for that
particular source-destination pair.
Switch-over-when-empty (SWE) constraints indicate a move-
ment cannot switch over or shut down until tank inventory is less
than some specified threshold. This is useful when a charge or
feed tank must be near empty before it can be shut down or before
another tank can be used to charge the pipestill.
Switch-over-when-full (SWF) constraints are very similar to
the SWE constraint where a movement cannot be shut down until
the tank is full. This is useful for receiving or storage tanks when
being fed from a pipeline because it tries to fill a tank before mov-
ing on to another one if the volume or quantity of the delivery
order is greater than the available ullage.
Startup opening (SUO) bounds are applied to a particular
startup variable for a movement and are used to restrict the time
of day when that movement can be started up. For example, it
may be useful to only have a switchover to a different tank of
crude oils feeding a pipestill during the day shift (between 8:00 a.m.
and 4:00 p.m.).
Shutdown opening (SDO) bounds are similar to the SUO
except that they tell the logistics optimizer when a possible move-
ment shutdown can occur.
Qualit y det ails (propert y specif icat ions). The inten-
sive properties of the crude oil mixtures charging the refinery must
be carefully regulated for the pipestill to meet the downstream
quality stipulations or specifications when operated in a particu-
lar production mode. These qualities are associated with the tem-
perature cutpoints or cuts of the different hydrocarbon streams
being separated by the pipestill and must be modeled as continu-
ous variables in the quality optimizer formulation. Quality bal-
ances or equations must be associated with each quality through-
out the entire blendshop where we model tanks as perfectly mixed
vessels. The quality balances force the subproblem to be nonlin-
ear due to the product of quantity (flow and inventory) times
quality. Quality splitter equations model the situation of multiple
simultaneous flows out of equipment to ensure that each outlet
stream has the same quality as all of the other outlet streams. Fol-
lowing is a somewhat complete list of the many streams produced
by the pipestill or atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit with
typical properties that could be typically assigned or measured for
the pipestill output streams.
Wet or saturated gas cut/properties include both the vol-
ume and weight yields of the pure components methane, ethane,
propane, iso- and normal-butane, specific gravity, etc.
Light and heavy straight-run naphtha cut/properties include
both the volume and weight yields, paraffins, olefins, naphthenes
and aromatics (PONA), Rvp, octane, specific gravity, sulfur, etc.
Jet fuel and kerosene cut/properties include both the vol-
ume and weight yields, cloud point, freeze point, pour point, spe-
cific gravity, sulfur, etc.
Diesels and middle distillates cut/properties include both the
volume and weight yields, cloud point, flash point, pour point, spe-
cific gravity, sulfur, viscosity, etc.
Heavy distillates cut/properties include both the volume and
weight yields, basic nitrogen, metals (nickel, vanadium, iron),
refractive index, specific gravity, sulfur (total and reactive), vis-
cosity, etc.
Light and heavy vacuum gas oils cut/properties include
both the volume and weight yields, base oils, basic nitrogen, met-
als (nickel, vanadium and iron), refractive index, specific gravity,
sulfur (total and reactive), viscosity, etc.
Vacuum residue or pitch cut/properties include both the
volume and weight yields, asphaltenes, base oils, carbon number,
metals (nickel, vanadium and iron), penetration, specific gravity,
sulfur (total and reactive), viscosity, etc.
Logistics and quality objective function details. Now
that we have enumerated the variables and constraints of the two
subproblems it is important to talk about the driving force for
optimization. This underlying forcing function is the objective
function that is continuously being maximized during the course
of the logistics and quality searches over the entire scheduling
horizon (start-to-end of schedule). Both the logistics and quality
objective functions are separated into three terms.
The first term is profit defined as revenue of crude oil mixtures
minus the feedstock costs of the delivered crude oils and any inven-
tory holding or carrying costs for both types of tanks. The profit
function is identical to both the logistics and quality subprob-
lems although the quality profit term can be extended to include
individual revenue generated from the cut yield flows. The sec-
ond term is required to maximize performance. Performance for the
logistics subproblem is defined so as to minimize the number of
active movements and the number of movement startups and
shutdowns (i.e., transitions or switchovers). Another term in the
performance category is to minimize deviation of any tank inven-
tory from a closing inventory target specified by the user. This is
also used in the quality subproblem but is extended to include
deviations from user-specified quality targets on the crude oil
compositions and cut properties. Ad hoc performance weights
are usually used for each performance type and can be tuned based
on the priority level dictated by the scheduling user.
The third term is very important when solving real-world prob-
lems. Not all input data required to solve for optimized sched-
ules is good or free of gross errors (see Kelly
10
for a list of possible
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JULY 2003
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I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
sources of error). Therefore, we must always anticipate that some
infeasibilities may occur before the data have been optimized and
carefully cross-checked for validity. In light of this, all quantity,
logic and quality constraints have artificial or penalty variables
associated with them. Each penalty variable is weighted and min-
imized in the objective function so that the most important busi-
ness practices at a site are respected when they cant all be met. If
the problem data are free of gross errors or flaws (as some people
refer to them) then the penalty variables will be driven to zero by
the optimizer meaning all business requirements are satisfied. The
penalties are also known in the planning domain as infeasibility
breakers or safety valves.
Ultimately, the scheduling optimization objective function is
used to balance the three costs of manufacturing: cost of renew-
able and nonrenewable resources (i.e., materials, equipment, labor,
utilities, chemicals, etc.), inventory (i.e., it costs money to store
materials and equipment) and transitions (i.e., startups, shutdowns,
changeovers, switchovers, sequencing, etc.).
Typical planning optimization systems only
include the resource and inventory costs and
do not model transition costs. The major rea-
son is due to the mathematical intractability
of solving simultaneously for quantity, logic
and quality given todays state of optimization
technology. Consequently, transition costs are
excluded from the planning models and only
quantity and quality details are formulated,
except for minor logic details concerning cargo
or batch size increments for feedstock avail-
ability. Because transition costs are relegated
to the scheduling layer, all planning solutions
are overoptimized. This implies that all plan
versus schedule or plan versus actual analysis will have inherent
biases or offsets even if measurement, model, solution and exe-
cution errors are negligible
10
and strongly suggests that these
biases be interpreted carefully.
Time modeling. Both planning and scheduling involve time
considerations. There are principally two types of time model-
ing. The first and most used and studied is time discretization
into predefined fixed duration time periods but not necessarily
of equal duration over the scheduling horizon. All activities are
defined to start and end at the time period boundaries and are
piece-wise continuous over the time period duration.
The second time model is the most elegant and is that of con-
tinuous-time modeling whereby activity start and end times are
included explicitly as optimization variables. An example of con-
tinuous-time formulation of the crude oil blend scheduling opti-
mization can be found in Jia et al.
7
Continuous-time models also
have the notion of time periods except that these have variable
durations determined by the optimizer.
The recognized disadvantage of discrete-time formulations are
that they require a large number of time periods to model the
smallest duration activities, however, continuous-time modeling
enables each piece of equipment to have its own timetable. This
removes the need to artificially synchronize all equipment to be on
the same timetable and thus reduces the number of logic or binary
variables. There are nonetheless advantages of discrete time in
that it scales well when long time horizons are required for what-
if studies because larger time period durations can be used and it
can handle easily time-varying quantity bounds and out-of-ser-
vice orders. With continuous-time formulations, time-varying
tank inventory bounds, for example, require extra binary vari-
ables to be generated for the optimizer to assign which time period
the tank inventory capacity change is to take place even though we
know explicitly the event time of the change. Therefore, for the
immediate future, discrete-time formulations seem to have value
over continuous-time formulations given the previous discussion,
yet in the end both discrete- and continuous-time formulations
should be available to the scheduling user.
One final note on time models, the popular distinction now
between production planning models and production schedul-
ing models, with underlying structures of the lot-sizing problem,
is through the notion of big buckets and small buckets to discretize
time. This can be found in Belvaux and Wolsey
11
who also have
LOTSIZELIB, a library of diverse lot-sizing problems. The fun-
damental difference between big and small buckets, where big
buckets are used typically to model planning problems, is that big
buckets are those in which several materials can
be produced on a convergent-flow-path

piece
of equipment, such as a blend header, during a
single time period. Small buckets are typically
used to model scheduling problems where only
one material can be produced on a single piece
of equipment at a time (single-use or unary
resource logic constraints). Small time buckets
are used to model startups, switchovers and
shutdowns as is the case in our formulation of
the crude oil blend scheduling optimization
problem.
Segregat ing crude oils int o t anks. A
salient aspect of crude oil handling and blending is that of segre-
gating crude oils into specific tanks. Segregation is used is to sep-
arate disparate crude oil types into different tanks to maintain the
flexibility or controllability to blend to specific cut property val-
ues (i.e., specification blending as opposed to recipe blending).
The first requirement of crude oil segregation is to understand
the key cut property constraints.
From a degrees-of-freedom analysis, the number of key con-
straints must be less than or equal to the number of tanks used
to blend the crude oil mixtures (i.e., typically the number of receiv-
ing tanks). For example, in the example where there are two receiv-
ing tanks, at most two cut properties can be controlled at any
given time. Since there is a supply order of 5 Kbbl/hr this reduces
the number of degrees-of-freedom by one and hence, only one
cut property at any time can be controlled. Once the key cut prop-
erties have been identified then the crude oils should be separated
according to the level of each in the crude oil. All in all, effective
segregation can be difficult to figure out but can be automated
following the control and optimization techniques found in Kelly.
2
Usually very simple isolation rules are applied based on crude oil
bulk sulfur or density levels. Another relevant reason segregation
is used is to reduce complexity of the logistics subproblem. When
we preassign specific crude oils into tanks the number of choices
where an individual crude oil receipt can be stored is circum-
scribed by the segregation. In our scheduling formulation we han-
74
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JULY 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON


. ,
.
I Typical planning
optimization systems
only include the
resource and
inventory costs and
do not model
transition costs.
dle segregations by pruning the available connections between
pipelines and receiving tanks. For instance, in the example with two
receiving tanks and two segregations, light and heavy crude oils,
only light crude oils 3 and 4 are allowed in TK1 and only heavy
crude oils 1 and 2 are allowed in TK2. Hence, of the possible
eight crude oil-based connections (two tanks times four crude
oils) only four are allowed.
Continuous and batch blending. When most people think
of blending in the process industries they envision simultaneous
mixing of the blend constituents or components in some mixer or
blend header. This is known as continuous blending. When we
are solving the logistics subproblem, a fixed recipe or bill-of-mate-
rials is required that relates the blend volume size to the fractions
of each component material feeding the blend header. This is
known as recipe blending. In the quality subproblem, specifica-
tion blending is performed whereby the recipe is determined based
on the property specifications of the blended product. Continu-
ous blending is relatively straightforward to model because at
every time period we impose either the recipe constraints in the
logistics optimizer or the quality constraints in the quality opti-
mizer. However, in the quality optimizer, specification blending
makes the problem nonlinear.
Batch blending can be considered as the opposite to continu-
ous blending similar to batch distillation or separation. Batch
blending mixes the required components sequentially in a desti-
nation tank with the components typically being fed one after
the other. Both recipe and specification blending are achievable
using batch blending similar to the continuous blending. Yet
instead of the blending constraints being set-up for each time
period, batch blending requires the constraints to be specified
over a time window made up of two or more time periods so that
the component additions are the equations cumulatively. In our
example we employ batch blending at the transferline with the
restriction that components can flow into the transferline one at
a time. The time window we use for our example is arbitrarily
chosen at 20 hr.
It is also important to mention that components included in the
blending equations are not the individual crude oils

but the
crude oil segregations or mixtures. For instance in our example, the
two blending components are light and heavy crude oils.
Last of all, if we could solve the overall problem simultane-
ously for quantity, logic and quality then we would not have to con-
cern ourselves with the side issues of segregating crude oils into the
receiving tanks and specifying a nominal recipe for the blend head-
ers. These aspects would be dealt with effectively by the single
optimizer and it would determine where to put the crude oils
upon delivery and how much of each crude oil mixture from each
receiving tank should be set to through the blend header. The
only other effect that would preclude us from achieving almost
perfect crude oil blend scheduling optimization would be the
type, sequence and amount of each crude oil supply order and
potentially the production run schedule on the pipestills. Unfor-
tunately simultaneous quantity, logic and quality solutions are
not attainable given the present state of optimization technology
and, hence, puts the onus on the scheduling user to properly con-
figure the system to help overcome the solver limitations and to go
on to generate better-than-spreadsheet or simulator-type schedules.
Solving t he problem f or logist ics and qualit y. Since
both the logistics and the quality subproblems have been care-
fully formulated as mathematical programs, solving them using
commercially available optimization codes is our next step to
achieve better crude oil blend scheduling optimization. From the
perspective of finding optimized solutions, we can class all solutions
coming out of both the logistics and the quality optimizers as
infeasible, feasible, approximate (locally optimal) and globally opti-
mal, given that both subproblems are known to be nonconvex.

Infeasible solutions do not satisfy all of the problem constraints, fea-


sible solutions do satisfy all of the constraints, approximate solu-
tion are feasible and are deemed to be of reasonable worth (best
within some neighborhood) and globally optimal solutions are
the best overall. For our purposes we concern ourselves with
approximate solutions given that running the optimization searches
to find the global optimum may take a very long time (i.e., more
time than we are willing to wait for an answer).
Before we begin our discussion on solvers, an essential proce-
dure known as roll-forward is required to determine tank opening
inventories and compositions at start-of-schedule (SoS).
Rolling t he inf ormat ion f orward t o st art -of -sched-
ule using simulat ion. As mentioned previously, advanced
planning and scheduling solutions are used within a rolling hori-
zon construct to mitigate inherent effects of uncertainty in the
exogenous information of the problem. This is a best-practice
policy introduced by Bitran and Hax
3
as part of their hierarchical
planning and scheduling approach (see also Clark and Clark
12
for
a recent application to the lot-sizing problem). In the context of
crude oil blend scheduling optimization the business problem of
roll-forward is two fold and is typically carried out every business
work day on a daily cycle except of course for weekends. The first
operation of roll-forward, using prior opening information and
actual movement data, is to predict current or baseline (e.g., 7:00
am) tank inventory data. This is checked to ensure measured data
for tank inventories are consistent to what is simulated by the
scheduling tool. If there is a discrepancy between the measure-
ments and simulated values then it is up to the scheduling user
to resolve the differences by cross-checking with other information.
The second aspect of roll-forward is to predict changes from
baseline to SoS to arrive at the initial conditions for the next
scheduling optimization. This is also a simulation-type function,
which uses in-progress and any future movements that are or will
be occurring between the baseline and SoS. Any movement activ-
ities that cross the baseline or SoS are truncated and the move-
ment quantity is prorated so that only the amount within the
time frame in question is used in the simulation.
Two types of simulation technology can be used to solve the roll-
forward function: the sequential modular approach (SMA) or the
simultaneous equation approach (SEA). The SMA is sometimes
referred to as the closed-formapproach found in process simulators.
It requires external knowledge of the material flow path and sim-
ulates each piece of equipment individually, which can be some-
what complex when anywhere to anywhere-type of blendshop
networks exist. The main disadvantage of SMA is that it does not
handle reverse-, recycle- or recirculating-type flows well and requires
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JULY 2003
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75
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON

.

,

.
.
an iteration loop to converge when they are present. It has the
advantage of being able to handle discontinuous and complex
nonlinear functions to model difficult reaction kinetics and fluid
mechanics. The SEA is sometimes referred to as the open form
approach found in process optimizers. It has the disadvantage that
all nonlinear equations must be continuous and once differen-
tiable but has the advantage of being able to handle the reversal-
type flows easily. The SEA requires the topology to be an implicit
part of the model to allow for easy handling of anywhere to any-
where-type of blendshop networks. For our scheduling application
we use the SEA. Specifically, the SEA is well suited to crude oil
blendshop simulations because we blend or mix linearly by either
volume or weight.
Logist ics solving met hods. Although there is a paucity of
literature documenting the quantity and logic formulation of con-
tinuous/semicontinuous (CSC)-type processes, there is, however,
a remarkable amount of literature on the techniques being used to
formulate batch/semi-batch (BSB) type pro-
cesses both in the operations research (OR)
literature and in the chemical engineering
journals on process synthesis engineering.
That said, the underlying mathematical pro-
gramming theory used to aid in formulat-
ing the crude oil blendshop problem was
mostly found in the OR literature
13, 14, 15
and relates to the classic problem formula-
tions of the fixed-charge network flow, lot
scheduling and facility location problems.
At the core of the logistics optimization is
use of the branch-and-bound (B&B) search heuristic using linear pro-
gramming (LP) as the underlying sub-optimization method; this
is also commonly referred to as mixed-integer linear programming
(MILP). It is well known and can be found in many textbooks.
B&B is an exact search method in that if given enough time it
would arrive at the global optimum. The B&B begins by solving an
LP with all of the binary variables relaxed to lie between zero and one.
Then the search begins to successively fix binary variables to either
zero or one based on elaborate variable selection criteria and solving
an LP for each newly bounded binary variable. After each LP, which
are called the B&B nodes, another selection criterion is required to
chose which node will be branched on next. The B&B will termi-
nate, kill or fathom a branch of the search tree for two reasons. The
first happens when a node along the branch is recognized to be
infeasible. The second is called value dominance and happens when
the nodes objective function value is less than the value of the
incumbent integer-feasible solution for maximization problems.
The incumbent integer-feasible solution is the last solution found
that has all binary variables at the extremes of either zero or one.
Consequently there is no sense continuing a search on a branch
that is infeasible and it does not seem beneficial to follow a branch
that is not as good as the current integer-feasible solution found so
far. This technique can have other flavors to the search such as
breadth first and depth first with backtracking and more details can
be found in standard textbooks on integer programming. More-
over, other enhancements to the B&B search include cutting planes,
special ordered sets and variable prioritization which in general can
speed the search to find good integer-feasible solutions.
Unfortunately even with the most efficient formulation, clever-
est B&B search and fastest LP code, finding good integer-feasible
or approximate solutions can be very time consuming. Hence,
we must be somewhat more pragmatic from the perspective of
the quality of the logistics solutions that can be found in reason-
able time. To help speed the search, a myriad of heuristics have
been the focus of much research in both OR and artificial intelli-
gence (AI). These are referred to as primal and meta-heuristics.
Primal heuristics use results of the LP solutions and successively
round and fix binary variables to either zero or one. Examples are
the pivot-and-complement,
13
relax-and-fix,
15
dive-and-fix,
15
smooth-and-dive
16
and chronological decomposition.
17
Meta-
heuristics use a metaphor usually found in nature to devise a search
strategy that exploits a particular nuance of the natural mecha-
nism. Examples include the genetic algorithm, tabu search, scat-
ter search, simulated annealing, ant colony optimization and
squeaky wheel optimization.
Many other heuristics or approximation algorithms can be
found in the OR and AI literature and are basically separated into
two categories: greedy search and local search. Greedy searches are
typically used to find quickly integer-feasi-
ble solutions in some greedy fashion with a
myopic view of the search space. Greedy
searches tend to exploit some detail of the
problem to enable some fixing of the binary
variables. Local searches are basically a refine-
ment on top of greedy searches to try and
find better solutions, essentially using a trial-
and-error approach, in the neighborhood
of the greedy search solutions. An interest-
ing example of local search applied to the
lot-sequencing can be found in Clark.
18
All
in all, most relatively successful heuristics for practical size prob-
lems require some form of a B&B search with backtracking and will
typically embed a commercial B&B code in the algorithm.
Quality solving method. Solving for the quality variables of the
problem is carried out using well-established successive linear pro-
gramming (SLP). SLP technology is the cornerstone of all solving
methods found in oil refinery and petrochemical large-scale plan-
ning systems. An example SLP algorithm can be found in Palacios-
Gomez et al.
19
which in spirit is used by many of the SLP solvers
today. Success of SLP as the method of choice for solving industrial-
size planning and scheduling arises from it use of the LP. As LP tech-
nology improves SLP technology improves because the major itera-
tions of the SLP are simply the LP solutions. Although SLPs are well
documented to be more suitable for mildly nonlinear problems with
either none or only a few degrees-of-freedom at the optimum (i.e.,
otherwise known as superbasic variables), the maturity of LP tech-
nology plays a major role in the SLP success over other nonlinear
solvers such as successive quadratic programming or conjugate-gra-
dient methods for example.
One of the biggest advantages is the use of presolve.
14
Presolve
is applied before any LP is solved and can dramatically reduce LP
matrix size (i.e., fewer rows and columns) through clever tight-
ening, consistency and probing techniques, and can remove eas-
ily vacuous and redundant constraints and variables; presolve is
also used in the MILP solutions. While the other nonlinear solvers
could also take advantage of presolve, these nonlinear solvers often
do not employ third-party commercial LP codes that have many
man-years of development implementing incredibly efficient and
fast presolving techniques. A second advantage is the use of inte-
76
I
JULY 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
I Solving for the quality
variables of the problem
is carried out using well-
established successive
linear programming
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JULY 2003
I
77
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
rior-point and simplex (both dual and primal) LP solving meth-
ods where needed in the SLP algorithm. Since commercial LP
codes offer both interior-point and simplex methods, the SLP
program can be tailored to use the appropriate LP method at each
step. Nonlinear solving codes usually use only one solving tech-
nique. For example, for large problems it is appropriate to solve the
initial LP using interior-point then any subsequent LP resolves
use the dual-simplex; this is also true for MILP problems.
Need for the SLP formulation is of course borne out by the
product of quantity times quality or a flow times a cut/yield for
instance. When blending is performed linearly either by volume
or weight, in the absence of any antagonistic or synergistic effects
requiring nonlinear blend laws, this makes the problem both bilin-
ear, trilinear and quadlinear. Its trilinear because of the flow times
cut/yield times cut/property and quadlinear because of the density
property required when performing the weight balances. Unfor-
tunately this makes the problem nonconvex as mentioned, and
to solve it to global optimality necessitates use of global opti-
mization techniques found in Adya et al.
20
To solve to global opti-
mality requires a spatial B&B search similar to the MILP B&B
search except that the branching variables are continuous and not
binary. In our case they would be the flow and quality variables.
Due to the fact that global optimization is very slow and no com-
mercial software is available, we claim only to search for locally
optimal or approximate quality subproblem solutions.
A side benefit to solving for the logistics subproblem first in
series, then solving for the quality subproblem, is the actuality that
the SLP solves faster than if we were to solve for the qualities first
(as in the planning systems that solve for quantity and quality).
The reason is that the logistics solution provides us with an excel-
lent starting position or local neighborhood for the flows and inven-
tories. This aids the SLP where it is well known that all nonlinear
programs do better when better initial guesses are provided.
Example results. Fig. 3 shows one penalty-free logistics solu-
tion with a 10-day time horizon. The blue horizontal bars are the
supply and demand orders. The yellow bars are flow out of the equip-
ment and the green bars represent flow into the equipment. The
trend lines superimposed on the tank equipment show the inven-
tory profiles that are within the limits of their respective upper and
lower bounds. The major ticks on the x-axis are strategically spaced
at a distance of 20 hr and the minor ticks are positioned at every 5 hr.
The y-axis shows the renewable equipment resources starting from
the pipeline at the top down to the pipestill displayed at the bot-
tom. If either quantity or logic penalties were encountered they
would be shown as red bars between the flow to and from bars for each
equipment. It is clear that because there are no penalties there were
no logic constraints (standing gage, mixing delay, minimum up-
time, etc.) violated and all inventory and flow bounds were simul-
taneously respected without incident, i.e., this schedule satisfies
100% of the business practices and needs over the entire horizon.
As can be seen in the figure we have satisfied all of the six supply
orders for the pipeline (PL1) and segregations are properly main-
tained in that only those crude oils that belong to a segregation can
fill a storage tank (TK1 and TK2). Flows from TK1 and TK2 to the
transferline (TL1) comply with the 3-hr minimum run length as well
as the 9-hr mixing delay specification. To observe mixing delay on
tanks count the number of hours from the end of a green in-flow bar
to the start of the first out-flow yellow bar. The long run lengths
for flows from each of the two feed tanks (TK3 and TK4) charging
the pipestill (PS1) also comply with the 19-hr up-time minimum
constraint and 3-hr mixing delay. All standing gage restrictions were
also obeyed since no green and yellow bars overlap for TK1, TK2,
TK3 and TK4. The demand order of continuously charging 5
Kbbl/hr or 120 Kbpd to PS1 was additionally met.
This logistics solution took approximately 60 seconds to gen-
erate on a 1-gigaHz PC which involved solving an MILP. No spe-
cial heuristics except for the default settings in the B&B search
were used. Table 5 illustrates the power of presolve. The number
of inequalities or rows is reduced by 58% and the number of con-
tinuous variables or columns is even more dramatically reduced by
77%. The number of nonzeros in the constraint matrix is corre-
spondingly reduced by 61%. Thus, matrix density has increased
or conversely, sparsity has in fact decreasedit has become less
sparse after presolve.
The logistics solution was then used as input to the quality opti-
mizer where the same 1-hr time period and 240-hr time horizon were
used to generate the quality time profiles. The quality solver took
approximately two seconds to solve. In this case study, only an LP is
required to solve the quality optimization given that no flows were
0
1
4

1

1
1
0 40 60 80 100 1 0
Time, hr
E
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t
140 160 180 00 0 40
This Gant t chart shows one penalt y-f ree logist ics solut ion
wit h a 10-day t ime horizon.
FI G. 3.
0
0.850
0.855
0.860
0.865
0.870
0.875
0.880
0 40 60 80 100 1 0
Time, hr
W
h
o
l
e

c
r
u
d
e

o
i
l

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

g
r
a
v
i
t
y
140 160 180 00 0 40
Trend of whole crude oil specif ic gravit y cut propert y. FI G. 4.
78
I
JULY 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
adjustable and hence, no nonlinearities present; the lower and upper
flowrate bounds are equal. Figs. 4 to 6 trend the profiles of whole
crude oil/specific gravity, kerosene/pour point and heavy gas oil/sul-
fur cut/properties respectively for only those flows leaving the charg-
ing tanks and entering the pipestill; we do not show any internal flow
or tank qualities. The black line is the actual trace of the cut/property
and the blue line is the planning proxy target found in Table 3.
For the whole crude oil/specific gravity we observe a step-type
function that is due to the business practice of preparing mixes of
crude oils in the feed tanks and then charging that mix from one
tank at a time, emptying each tank before swinging to the other.
The result is an approximate 19-hr run length given the feed tank
capacity and pipestill charge rate. The approximately 0.011 maximum
excursion from the proxy would be improved by using a 50:50 recipe
on the transferline. The 50:50 recipe is driven simply by the fact
that the light and heavy crude oil segregations for whole crude oil spe-
cific gravities would mix to 0.862 if there were also 50:50 mixes in the
receiving tanks of each appropriate crude oil. Unfortunately, this
recipe would cause undue variation in the other two qualities. Because
there are only two receiving tanks and three qualities, and total flow
to the pipestill to potentially respect, at most we could only reason-
ably control two of the variables. Since throughput is rarely sacri-
ficed for overall refinery stability and profitability, only one quality
could potentially be controlled. The other two qualities would dis-
play an offset from target (i.e., only one quality can possess reset or
integral action in the context of control theory).
The kerosene/pour point trend does not show any obvious cycle
or periodicity as seen in Fig. 4 and there is a large excursion from
target between hr 60 and 80 when crude oil #2 is delivered at hr 7,
with a pour point of 42, starts to percolate through the blendshop
to the pipestill. If it were the most important quality bottleneck,
there would be four avenues to reduce this variability. The most
powerful effect is to change the delivery schedule of crude oils to
better manage the pour point quality. This is not always possible
nor is it an option unless sufficient lead time is available to the crude
oil traders and procurers. The second avenue would be to focus on
a segregation recipe that would better control the pour point to the
planning or operational target, although as mentioned this would
be at the expense of the other two qualities. The third approach
would be to alter the segregation policy. The current policy is based
on the whole crude oil/specific gravity whereby crude oils #1 and
#2 are deemed to be heavy and crude oils #3 and #4 are deemed to
be light. If for example kerosene/pour point is the quality of most
importance then it would seem prudent to segregate crude oils #2 and
#3 together as a low pour segregation and crude oils #1 and #4 as a high
pour segregation. This type of analysis can be found in more detail in
Kelly and Forbes.
2
The fourth avenue along the lines of changing the segregations is
to add a third or even fourth receiving tank. This would be an expen-
sive alternative but may provide a level of flexibility and controllability
well worth the investment. For instance, if a third tank is added then
instead of only being able to control theoretically without offset one
quality, we would now be able to control two qualities. With four
tanks we would be able to control without offset all three qualities.
The somewhat intangible benefit of controlling more qualities implies
that the downstream processes will have less disturbances to battle. A
more tangible benefit quantifiable by the planning optimizer would
be the ability to ride closer and closer to the real refinery constraints
or quality bottlenecks as shown in Fig. 2.
Finally, we show the quality profile for the heavy gas oil/sulfur.
An interesting consequence of this trend is the periodicity or cycle
of the variation (i.e., up-down-up using the blue line as the datum).
It appears to be in the range of 100 hr for this set of cycle data. This
means that from a production standpoint, the heavy gas oil inter-
mediate tankage must have sufficient capacity to store 100 hr
worth of heavy gas oil production. The reasoning behind this is that
given the relatively uncontrollable quality variation, due to the
inherent delivery schedule disturbances and limitations in the
blendshop, we need up and down or positive and negative varia-
tion around the planning target over some time frame to acquire
reasonably on-specification quality in the intermediate tanks. The
best alternative of course is to have constant or steady quality (i.e.,
the blue line) since shipment or blending of the intermediate can
0
4
40
8
6
4

0
8
6
0 40 60 80 100 1 0
Time, hr
K
e
r
o
s
e
n
e

p
o
u
r
p
o
i
n
t
140 160 180 00 0 40
Trend of crude oil kerosene pour point specif ic gravit y. FI G. 5.
0
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.
1.4
1.6
1.8
.0
0 40 60 80 100 1 0
Time, hr
H
e
a
v
y

g
a
s
o
i
l

s
u
l
f
u
r
140 160 180 00 0 40
Trend of heavy gas oil sulf ur cut propert y. FI G. 6.
TABLE 5. Logist ics opt imizat ion problem st at ist ics.
# Rows # Columns # Non zeros # 0 1 Variables # SOS1
16 1 0 5 7 611 1500 540
6814 7651 0745 1500 540
be performed at any time during production and there will be
less likelihood of off- or over-specification product.
The next best thing is to have as short a perturbation cycle as
possible. And for this example, it would seem that qualitatively
we should have larger capacity intermediate tanks for kerosene/pour
point than the heavy gas oil/sulfur due to the irregular nature of the
pour point trend. This ultimately implies that the more a given cut
varies in quality variation the more tankage is required to buffer it
so that it is more consistent for blending or as charge to a down-
stream process unit. Minimal tankage will cause sharp swings in
quality forcing controls to react to the upsets.
It should be emphasized that scheduling is an important deci-
sion-making tool not just to create pro-forma operational sched-
ules but to also help answer tactical business questions such as
can we run feasibly by trading cargoes and delaying a crude oil
delivery of Arabian light by two days or can we accept another
crude oil delivery three days from now of Arabian heavy to fill
out our fluidized catalytic cracking unit? In the same way plan-
ning system users have more than just one planning model such as
for facilities, budgetary, feedstock selection and operation, so can
many different types of scheduling models be employed to answer
these questions timely and accurately. HP
LITERATURE CITED
7
Jia, Z., M. Ierapetritou and J. D. Kelly, Refinery short-term scheduling
using continuous-time formulationcrude oil operations, Industrial
Engineering Chemistry Research, February 2002.
8
Jain, V., and I. E. Grossmann, Algorithms for hybrid MILP/CP models for
a class of optimization problems, INFORMS Journal of Computing, 13,
258276, 2001.
9
Graves, S. C., A review of production scheduling, Operations Research, 29,
4, 646675, 1981.
10
Kelly, J. D., The necessity of data reconciliation: some practical issues,
NPRA Computer Conference, Chicago, Illinois, November 2000.
11
Belvaux, G. and L. A. Wolsey, Lot-sizing problems: modeling issues and a
specialized branch-and-cut system bc-prod, CORE Discussion Paper
DP9848, Universite Catholique de Louvain, February, 1998.
12
Clark, A. R. and S. J. Clark, Rolling-horizon lot-sizing when setup times are
sequence-dependent, International Journal of Production Research, 38, 10,
22872308, 2000.
13
Nemhauser, G. and L. A. Wolsey, Integer and Combinatorial Optimization,
John Wiley, New York, 1988.
14
Williams, H. P., Model Building in Mathematical Programming, 3rd Edition,
John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
15
Wolsey, L. A., Integer Programming, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998.
16
Kelly, J. D., Smooth-and-dive accelerator: a pre-milp primal heuristic
applied to production scheduling problems, Computers & Chemical
Engineering, 27, 827832, 2003.
17
Kelly, J.D., Chronological decomposition heuristic for scheduling: a divide
& conquer method, AIChE Journal, 48, 29952999, 2002.
18
Clark, A. R., A local search approach to lot sequencing and sizing, IFIP
WG5.7 Special Interest Group on Advanced Technologies in Production Planning
and Control, Florence, Italy, February 2000.
19
Palacios-Gomez, F., L. Ladson and M. Enquist, Nonlinear optimization by
successive linear programming, Management Science, 28, 10, 1106, 1120,
1982.
20
Adya, N., M. Tawarmalani and N V. Sahinidis, A Lagrangian approach to
the pooling problem, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 38, 5, 19561972, 1999.
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JULY 2003
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79
I NSTRUM ENTATI ON/ PLANT OPTI M I ZATI ON
End Part 2. See Hydrocarbon Processing June 2003 for Part 1.
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Improving availability
with PlantWeb

digital plant architecture



PlantWeb digital automation architecture improves process availability by using
predictive intelligence to help you detect and avoid causes of equipment failure
that can lead to unplanned downtime. It also helps you improve control and
maintenance, for shorter, less-frequent planned downtime and faster startups
after shutdowns.


The challenge: Reducing downtime

Many plants operate below their maximum profit potential, often because
of inadequate process availability.

Availability is simply a way to quantify how much of the time your process
is up and running as it should be:
Actual production time
% Availability =
Possible production time
The higher the availability, the more you can produce and the greater
your return on assets.

The enemy of availability is downtime. The greatest loss comes from
unplanned downtime or outages caused by equipment failure or process
upset. In such situations, you often have to find what caused the problem
before you can fix it. Extensive repairs or cleanup can also delay your
return to production.

But even planned downtime, such as for routine maintenance and
repairs during scheduled shutdowns, eats into production time --
especially if it comes too often or lasts too long. The same is true of
longer-than-necessary startups after a shutdown or grade change.


Causes not always obvious

Sometimes its easy to point to the immediate cause of downtime. A
pump failed. A key measurement was lost. The process exceeded
safety constraints. A scheduled shutdown took too long.

But what led to these situations? Answers typically fall into three
categories:

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Equipment problems. Over time, even the best equipment can fail
because of wear or damage causes that can be hard to detect before its
too late. Whats surprising is that many failures also occur early in the
equipment life cycle, often because of improper installation, calibration, or
startup.

Operations problems. Process conditions and events trigger many
outages, either directly or by causing equipment failures.
1
These
operations-related failure sources include
! Constraint violations
! Interruptions in feed, fuel, steam, or power
! Coking, fouling, freezing, plugging
! Corrosion or tube leaks
! Process transitions
! Operator errors

Maintenance problems. Basing maintenance programs on the calendar
or run-time rather than actual equipment condition can mean shutting
down the process (or extending a shutdown) for work that may not be
necessary. When there is a problem, finding the cause can be a lengthy
process. And maintenance actions themselves can result in equipment
contamination, misalignment, and other errors that lead to premature
failure and more downtime.

What if you could minimize these sources of downtime in your operation?


Higher availability =
higher profit
Even the best plants have some downtime. What makes them the best
is keeping availability as high as possible.

In fact, when major operational drivers such as productivity, feedstock
costs, fuel or energy costs, emissions compliance, and waste disposal
costs are taken into account, availability is the factor that differs most
between the worst- and best-performing plants. That difference covers a
span from as low as 72% availability to as high as 95%.
2



Across industries, best- and worst-
performing plants have significantly
different levels of availability.
2

Quartile
Process Type Worst 3
rd
2
nd
Best
Continuous < 78% 78 - 84% 85 -91% > 91%
Batch < 72% 72 - 80% 81 -91% > 90%
Chemical, Refining, Power < 85% 85 - 90% 91 -95% > 95%
Paper < 83% 83 - 86% 87 -94% > 94%


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If your plant is capacity-limited, higher availability lets you boost output to
meet demand -- without investing additional capital in production facilities.
Thats a sure-fire way to increase profit and ROI.

Consider a typical plant that generates $500 million per year in revenue at
85% availability. Each incremental hour of production is worth
approximately $67,000. If variable costs are 60% of total cost, almost
$27,000 of that added revenue is operating profit. In this case, increasing
availability from 85% to 90% (reducing downtime by 438 hours per year)
would boost annual profit by more than $11.7 million.

If your production is market-limited, on the other hand, higher availability
can enable you to use fewer assets to meet existing demand. For
example, output levels that previously required five production units might
be met with only four reducing operations and maintenance costs,
allowing you to use your most efficient units to meet demand, and freeing
the other unit to make other products.

Keeping those units up and running also means fewer efficiency-robbing
outages, reducing costs for fuel or energy, materials, and scrap or rework.
Youll also gain the flexibility to expand production quickly when higher
demand levels require it.

Finally, with higher availability, you wont have to maintain as much
excess production capacity to allow for downtime. One worldwide
refiner has estimated that 10% of their capital is in place to compensate
for unscheduled downtime.

But if the benefits are so great, why hasnt every plant already maximized
availability?

The information situation:
Too little, too late

The best way to increase availability is to detect and correct potential
problems before they cause downtime. The problem is that early
warning signs of these problems can be hard to spot especially if youre
limited to the information available through traditional automation
architectures.

A traditional control system cant show you much more than the process
variable and any associated alarms or trends. You dont know whats
happening in the equipment itself. If an instruments signal falls within the
expected range, for example, its assumed to be working properly.

But such assumptions can be risky. The signal could have drifted. A
sensor may be reading the pressure in a plugged impulse line rather than
the process. A control valve may not be responding properly. Unless an
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experienced operator notices that something doesnt look right, the
problem may continue until the equipment fails or the process exceeds
constraints causing unexpected downtime.


Stuck with the
wrong strategy
Without a clear view of actual equipment condition, plants are largely
limited to reactive and preventive maintenance strategies.

Reactive maintenance -- also known as run to failure or fix it when it
breaks -- obviously runs the risk of unplanned downtime when equipment
fails. The time and cost to repair (or replace) failed equipment can also be
much higher than if problems were detected and fixed earlier.

Calendar or run-time based preventive maintenance (fix it just in case)
can reduce the risk of unplanned downtime, but servicing equipment that
doesnt need it yet increases the length and frequency of planned
shutdowns as well as the risk of maintenance-induced problems.

A typical plant caught in the reactive/preventive maintenance cycle may
have plant availability as low as 70-75%, with annual maintenance costs
that can exceed 15% of asset replacement value.
3


Contrast these approaches with a predictive maintenance strategy that
constantly monitors equipment condition and uses the information to
predict when a problem is likely to occur. With that insight you can
schedule service when it will have the least impact on availability, such as
during a planned shutdown but before the equipment fails or causes a
process upset.

A best-practices plant uses predictive maintenance for most equipment
where condition-monitoring is practical, limiting reactive and preventive
strategies to equipment thats not process-critical and will cause little or no
collateral damage if run to failure. Such a plant can have availability as
high as 95% and annual maintenance costs below 2% of asset
replacement value.
3


Before that can happen, however, you need a way to access and monitor
equipment information so you can detect potential problems in time.


The answer: Predictive intelligence

With its PlantWeb digital plant architecture, Emerson Process
Management offers technology and services that enable you to see whats
happening in your equipment and process, identify conditions that lead to
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downtime, deliver the information wherever its needed, and take action to
maximize availability. We call this predictive intelligence.

Providing new insights. Digital technology makes it possible to access
and use new types of information that go far beyond the PV signals
available through traditional automation architectures. With PlantWeb
architecture, both the breadth and depth of this information are
unprecedented.

It starts with intelligent HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus instruments
including transmitters, analyzers, and digital valve controllers that use
on-board microprocessors and diagnostic software to monitor their own
health and performance, as well as the process, and signal when theres a
problem or maintenance is needed.

But PlantWeb doesnt stop there. It also captures information on the
condition of rotating equipment such as motors and pumps -- from shaft
speed and vibration to temperature and lubricant condition -- and uses the
data to identify machine-health problems such as misalignment,
imbalance, gear defects, and bearing faults.

Other tools provide insights on the performance and efficiency of process
equipment like heat exchangers, compressors, turbines, distillation
columns, and boilers.

Integrating information. PlantWeb uses communication standards like
HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, and OPC, as well as integrated software
applications, to make this new wealth of process and equipment
information available wherever its needed for analysis and action all
within the same architecture.

For example, RBMware

software consolidates machinery information and


trend data for faster, easier troubleshooting and maintenance of rotating
equipment. AMS software provides similar functions for field devices like
valves, transmitters, and analyzers.

To make problem detection even easier, PlantWeb integrates many types
of equipment information in a single browser-based Asset Portal thats
accessible by anyone who needs it including technicians in the
maintenance shop, operators in the control room, or other personnel and
applications throughout the plant and business.

What makes PlantWeb
different from other
automation architectures?

! It's engineered to efficiently
gather and manage a new wealth
of information including
equipment health and diagnostics
from intelligent HART and
FOUNDATION fieldbus devices, as
well as a broad range of other
process equipment.

! It provides not only process
control, but also asset
optimization and integration with
other plant and business systems.

! It's networked, not centralized, for
greater reliability and scalability.

! It uses standards at every level of
the architecture -- including taking
full advantage of FOUNDATION
fieldbus.

! It's the only digital plant
architecture with proven success
in thousands of projects.

For more about the architecture and
what it can do for you, visit
www.PlantWeb.com.
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The Asset Portal provides an
integrated view of health and status
information from multiple types of
instruments and equipment.



When potential problems arise, targeted online alerts help ensure that the
right people get the right information right away but other users arent
bothered by nuisance alarms. PlantWeb can also send synchronized
alerts to applications such as operations historians and maintenance
systems, making it easier to establish a cause-and-effect relationship
between process events and equipment conditions.

Our DeltaV and Ovation automation systems also use digital
intelligence to provide rock-solid process control as well as ensuring
operators and others get the information they need reducing risks of
process- and operator-induced downtime.

Maximizing the advantage. In addition, Emerson offers a full range of
services -- from monitoring, troubleshooting, maintenance, and repair to
technical training and equipment optimization -- to help you take full
advantage of PlantWebs capabilities and sustain the improvements over
the life of your plant.

PlantWeb architecture helps reduce
both planned and unplanned
downtime, so you can keep your
process up and running at its best.


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In short, PlantWeb architectures predictive intelligence reaches into the
field, monitors and predicts the performance of plant assets, and
integrates the information into the architecture to help you
! Reduce unplanned downtime
! Extend the period between planned downtimes
! Shorten the length of planned downtime
! Speed startup after downtime

Lets take a closer look at each of these four ways PlantWeb improves
availability.


Reducing
unplanned downtime
PlantWeb helps detect conditions that can lead to equipment failure or a
process excursion -- before youre faced with an unexpected shutdown.

For instruments using FOUNDATION fieldbus technology, this capability
starts with automatically labeling the devices signal status as good, bad,
or uncertain, so youll know when the device needs attention, and have
early warning that an invalid measurement may be threatening process
stability. The DeltaV and Ovation systems use this early warning to avoid
controlling off bad data and can automatically make adjustments to keep
the process running smoothly.

But instrument signal status is just part of the picture. PlantWebs full set
of online and offline tools enables monitoring, diagnostics, and notification
of problems for a wide range of HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus
instruments and other process equipment.

Bearing failure, for example, is a common problem with rotating
equipment. But our PeakVue software can detect and identify the very
high-frequency noise associated with the earliest stages of bearing wear.
You get maximum warning of future problems, before increasing damage
significantly increases the cost (and possibly time) for repairs.

In pressure transmitters, impulse-line plugging can block the instrument
from reading actual process pressure. Instead, it reads the pressure in
the plugged line leaving you and your control system blind and at risk
of a process trip if the actual pressure changes beyond whats allowable.
PlantWeb uses special diagnostics in the transmitter to detect plugged
impulse lines and immediately alert you to the problem.

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With a plugged line diagnostic based
on statistical process monitoring,
PlantWeb detects conditions that can
lead to equipment failure or a process
upset.



Freezing can cause similar problems. If heat-tracing fails, for example,
liquid can freeze in the impulse lines or even in the cell of a transmitter,
where it can cause bursting. Monitoring sensor temperature and alarming
on low temperatures, a standard capability in many of our transmitters,
can help eliminate this type of failure.

Plugging isnt just an instrument problem. One of the most frequent
causes of failure in control-valve actuators is loss of air. A diagnostic
similar to that used to detect plugged impulse lines in transmitters enables
Emerson digital valve controllers to detect a plugged air supply to the
actuator -- and head off a process upset when the valve cant respond as
its supposed to.

PlantWebs monitoring and diagnostics capabilities also enable you to
predict potential problems in larger process equipment.

For example, if a heat exchanger fouls to the point where there is
insufficient flow to run the process, the unit will shut down. Even
temporary fouling can cause a loss of capacity that can lead to process
disturbances and a resulting trip.

Our e-fficiency

web-based monitoring detects and reports performance


deviations and loss of efficiency in heat exchangers (as well as
compressors, turbines, and other process equipment). It provides a clear
trend of performance, so you can see when the unit will have insufficient
capacity to run the process in time to schedule maintenance before
conditions deteriorate far enough to cause a shutdown.

PlantWeb diagnostics have also shown their ability to detect conditions
leading to a catalyst circulation upset in a fluidized catalytic cracker (FCC)
unit 30 minutes in advance. The total loss from such an upset, including
repairs and downtime, can approach $8 million.
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e-fficiency

provides a clear view of


performance trends so you can see
problems developing before they
result in unexpected downtime.



Some unplanned downtime results not from equipment failure, but from
instruments and systems that cant measure and control the process
adequately or reliably enough to keep it running smoothly within
constraints.

PlantWeb can help here, too. Emerson measurement instruments,
analyzers, valves, and valve controllers have a well-earned reputation for
accuracy and reliability and PlantWebs diagnostic capabilities make it
easier than ever to keep them at their best. Our DeltaV and Ovation
automation systems add powerful but easy-to-use regulatory and
advanced control, and offer multilayer redundancy for in-depth protection
from system failures. With many of Emersons FOUNDATION fieldbus
instruments, you also get the option of using control in the field to further
distribute control functions or provide backup for system-based control.

The Model Predictive Control technology in DeltaV Predict software not
only helps maintain smooth control in applications with excessive dead
time, constraints, and loop-to-loop interactions. It also models sequences
of process events to detect when current conditions indicate a problem is
coming. And autotuning in the Ovation and DeltaV systems helps
eliminate tuning problems that can cause plant upsets and trips.

The DeltaV system can notify operators, maintenance personnel, and
others as appropriate when human intervention is required to correct
problems before they cause unexpected downtime. This capability, called
PlantWeb Alerts, relies on powerful software in Emerson field devices,
AMS, and DeltaV to immediately analyze the incoming information,
categorize it by who should be told, prioritize it by severity and time-
criticality, and then not only tell the recipients whats wrong but also advise
what to do about it.
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Extending the period
between planned
downtimes
Even if equipment problems dont cause unexpected outages, dealing
with them can force you to schedule maintenance shutdowns so
frequently that availability suffers.

One way PlantWeb architecture extends the time between scheduled
shutdowns is by helping you detect and avoid conditions that can shorten
equipment life.

A common cause of premature transmitter failure, for example, is
exposure to excessive temperatures. A 10 degree C increase in steady-
state temperature can reduce the life of electronics by half. But
PlantWebs temperature-monitoring and alarming capabilities can alert
you to the problem in time to find and remedy the cause.

Excess vibration can shorten the life of rotating equipment. In a plant that
was experiencing premature failures in the motor and gear train to a
pump, PlantWebs vibration monitoring tools revealed a resonant coupling
between the motor, the gearbox, the pump, and the mountings. This
caused very high vibration levels at certain turning speeds. With this
insight, the startup procedure was modified to bring the equipment through
the critical speed range very quickly substantially eliminating the
premature failures.

Process variability is an often-unrecognized factor in shortening
equipment life, especially for control valves: The more often the valve has
to move to compensate for process variation, the more wear on its trim
and other components. The precise control provided by our instruments,
valves, and automation systems minimizes this problem.

PlantWeb can also help avoid installation- or maintenance-induced
problems that cause equipment to fail prematurely.

For example, improper installation of pumps, motors, and related
equipment can result in shaft misalignment and imbalance that reduces
equipment life by as much as a factor of 10. Emerson tools and services
for laser alignment and equipment balancing help ensure that shafts are
coupled center-to-center, and that vibration levels are low at operating
speeds and loads.

Rotating-equipment life can also be shortened by wear that begins with
improper cleaning or other contamination during maintenance. Our wear-
particle analysis of lubricating oil can detect the type of wear and the exact
location so you can head off premature failures.

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RBMware trivector analysis combines
multiple information types to help
pinpoint equipment-life-shortening
conditions such as bearing wear.




Shortening the length of
planned downtime
As PlantWeb enables you to shift your emphasis from reactive and
preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance, one of the benefits
will be shorter planned shutdowns. Thats because with PlantWebs
predictive intelligence youll know in advance which equipment needs
attention and which doesnt, so you can avoid doing unnecessary work
that would prolong the downtime.

For example, control valves are often serviced or rebuilt as part of
preventive-maintenance programs during scheduled shutdowns. But one
study by Emerson across multiple industries showed that almost 70% of
valves pulled for rebuilding didnt actually need it.

Knowing each valves actual condition
enables you to identify the ones that
need extensive work during a
shutdown and which dont.




Chart based on sample of 230
valves scheduled for overhaul.

With PlantWeb valve diagnostics, you can check each valves
performance to determine if wear, stiction, or other conditions call for
maintenance at the next scheduled opportunity or if you can leave that
valve alone this time and get the process back online that much sooner.

Diagnostics can identify not only which equipment needs work, but also
the nature of the problem. Knowing in advance whether a valves poor
performance is caused by trim wear or by too-tight packing, for example,
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shortens troubleshooting time in the field as well as enabling you to plan
work more efficiently and have appropriate parts on hand when scheduled
downtime begins.

AMS software also helps shorten scheduled downtime by streamlining
tasks such as instrument calibration. And its automatic documentation
capabilities reduce the time your technicians spend on data entry and
other paperwork.

Finally, Emerson can provide a broad range of services to help speed
turnarounds as well as ongoing maintenance from performing remote or
onsite diagnostics, to carrying out repairs and maintenance, to training
your staff on how to make the most of new technologies and work
practices.


Speeding startup
after downtime
After a shutdown, PlantWeb can help bring your process back to full
production as quickly as safety and plant constraints allow. This not only
increases total availability, but also reduces the energy, fuel, material,
and scrap or rework costs of starting up and lining out the process
which can be twice as high per hour as shutdown costs. The same
benefits apply to grade changes.

The DeltaV and Ovation automation systems deliver these gains by
automating the startup sequence. They smoothly bring the process and
equipment to the appropriate state for each step in the sequence, then
automatically move to the next step without the delays that can result
when operators control the startup sequence manually.

Automatic logic minimizes human error
and helps ensure a smooth startup.



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Automating startup can also eliminate human errors that can cause
equipment damage and downtime. In effect, its like having your best and
most experienced operator running the startup -- every time.


Real projects, real results


Better process availability is one of the reasons users have chosen
PlantWeb architecture for thousands of automation projects. In plants,
mills, refineries, and other operations around the globe, its helping keep
processes up and running with less unplanned downtime, shorter and
less-frequent planned downtime, and faster startup after shutdowns and
grade changes.

Here are just a few examples:

! If we had major breakdowns in the past, we had to shut the whole
plant down. With this new system, weve got a window on whats
actually happening in the plant and we now feel we can get to
problems before they are breakdowns.
- Brewing company, Australia

! Without AMS software, maintenance would have shut down the
process for four or five hours to replace a valve that was in perfectly
good working condition. The cost would have been more than just for
the replacement valve and the crews time. It would have included
several thousand dollars per hour of lost production time.
- Chemical processor, U.S.A.

! After installing Ovation we significantly increased plant availability by
decreasing steam temperature variation. This reduced scheduled
plant outages from tube leaks.
- Utility, U.S.A.

! [PlantWeb] allows us to come closer every day to our sought-after
100% availability. Because the system is so integrated into our
process, we sometimes forget what an impressive amount of work it is
doing for us.
- Solvent producer, France

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! We immediately eliminated downtime losses. And we calculate
payback on the system, based on previous downtime, at 1.8 years -- a
rather quick return on our capital expenditure.
- Paper maker, U.S.A.

For additional case histories and proofs of PlantWeb architectures
capabilities, visit www.PlantWeb.com and click on Customer Proven.


Taking the next steps

As you can see, PlantWeb architecture clearly helps increase availability.
And the benefits are significant. But how do you get started?

Begin by assessing where you are. How many potential production hours
per year do you currently lose in downtime, both planned and unplanned?
What are your primary sources of downtime? (An Emerson availability
audit can help here.) What is your current mix of reactive, preventive, and
predictive maintenance? To what extent are you using diagnostics and
equipment monitoring? How do your maintenance costs stack up to
industry benchmarks, or to similar operations in your own company?

Next, determine where you want to go. Are you currently market-limited or
capacity-limited? Whats the value of an incremental hour of production?
Which units in your operation are likely candidates for improvement? How
much would you gain by increasing their availability to best-in-class
levels? Who in your organization would support or sponsor a project to
make that happen?

Then work with your local Emerson team to identify which PlantWeb
technologies and related services can have the greatest impact on your
operations availability, and how we can put them to work for you.

If youd like, we can even help you with the assessment and goal-setting
portions of this process, including developing the business case for
increased availability.


References 1. George Birchfield, Olefin Plant Reliability, Aspentech.
2. Fluor Global Services Benchmark Study NA, AP, EU, 1996.
3. Dennis Berlanger and Saxon Smith, MRG business case for reliability, as
published at http://www.reliabilityweb.com/rcm1.


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May 2003 Page 15 PlantWeb



Emerson Process Management
8301 Cameron Road
Austin, Texas 78754
T 1 (512) 834-7328
F 1 (512) 834-7600
www.EmersonProcess.com

2003 Emerson Process Management. All rights reserved.


Other resources

! Improving availability is just one of the ways PlantWeb helps improve
process and plant performance. It can also help increase throughput
and quality, as well as reducing cost for operations and maintenance;
safety, health, and environmental compliance; energy and other
utilities; and waste and rework.
www.PlantWeb.com/Operational_Benefits

! Availability is also a major factor in Overall Equipment Effectiveness,
a structured metric for process performance. Emerson Process
Managements free online learning environment, PlantWeb
University, offers a 5-course introduction to OEE.
www.PlantWebUniversity.com






















The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they are
not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which are available on request. We reserve the right to modify or improve the
designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.

PlantWeb, RBMware, e-fficiency, Ovation, and DeltaV are marks of Emerson Process Management. All other marks are the property of their
respective owners.

030430




1
Future Trends in Safety Instrumented Systems


The process industry has always been faced with the difficult task of determining the required
integrity of safeguarding systems. In spite of the application of a wide variety of safeguarding
measures, many accidents in the process industries still happen. Experiences gained from these
accidents have led to the application of a variety of technical and non-technical layers of
protection, such as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS).

The central role of the safety-PLC forces companies to decide on the logic solver integrity class
(e.g. SIL 3) taking into account the current risk levels to be reduced by the SIS, as well as future
higher risk levels. This article describes the future expectations with regards to the requirements
and application of dedicated safety-PLCs. It addresses issues such as the (un) acceptability to use
a SIL 2 rated logic solver instead of SIL 3, and the (un) acceptability to use a single system both
for control and process safeguarding functions.

1 Current developments of SIS standards
Safety Instrumented Functions
Standards like IEC 61508, IEC 61511, and ANSI/ISA S84.01 concentrate on the functional safety
of the SIS. All combined instrumentation, devices, and equipment that are required to fulfill an
intended safeguarding function are considered to be part of the SIS. As the collection of safety
instrumentation normally includes more than one safeguarding function (e.g. protect against over-
pressure, temperature protection, back flow protection, etc.), the SIS could be defined as the
collection of all safety-related sensing elements, logic solvers and actuators.

On the other hand, the SIS could be considered as separate for each safeguarding function, and
would comprise only the devices to protect the Equipment Under Control (EUC) against one single
hazardous situation. Consequently, the process installation would be comprised of a number of
safety-instrumented systems. As particular devices such as safety-related PLCs and shut-off
valves normally deal with more than one Safety Instrumented Function (SIF), this article uses the
first definition; the SIS is comprised of all safety-related devices of the process installation.

Figure 1 illustrates the definition of a SIS and the SIFs that will be executed; specifically a SIF
that protects the process temperature and causes a shut-off valve to close in case of an out-of-
control process temperature. Other SIFs that are performed by this example SIS are level
protection and back-flow protection.

SAFETY INSTRUMENTED FUNCTION SAFETY INSTRUMENTED FUNCTION
Logic Solver
(PLC)
Temperature
transmitter
Temperature
transmitter
Level switch
Flow
transmitter
Shut-off
valve
Solenoi d
Globe
valve
Solenoi d
Pump





2
Figure 1 Safety Instrumented System with multiple SIFs

Distribution of the SIL requirements
Based on the hazard and risk assessment, the safety requirements are defined and rated according
to the needed SIL for each function to be realized by the safeguarding instrumentation. Figure 2
shows an actual SIL requirements distribution based on 392 analyzed SIFs from 16 different sites
of various companies, which can be considered as reasonably representative for the process
industry.

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
- a SIL 1 SIL 2 SIL 3 SIL 4

Figure 2 SIL requirements distribution based on 392 analyzed SIFs.
It can be seen that 18% of all SIFs are required to meet SIL 3 or higher. Based on an average of
50 SIFs per safety PLC, approximately 9 SIFs will have to meet SIL 3 or higher. The probability
that such a safety PLC does not contain any SIL 3 rated SIFs is negligible. Therefore, the need for
SIL 3 rated safety PLCs as logic solver is substantially high and will form the majority of market
demands.

Layers Of Protection
Figure 3 shows the concept of layers of protection and the compositions of the different types of
SIS as defined in part 1 of IEC 61511. A distinction exists between the Basic Process Control
System (BPCS) and the SIS as part of the Prevention and Mitigation layers. The primary objective
of a BPCS is to optimize process conditions to maximize production capacity and quality. SISs
are primarily applied to prevent hazardous events from occurring (Prevention layer), and
mitigation of the consequences of a hazardous event (Mitigation layer). The motivation for this
distinction is due to the fact that a BPCS does not necessarily have to contribute to the risk
reduction and sometimes might even pose a potential risk itself.





3
Basic Process Control Systems
Monitoring Systems (process alarms)
Operator Supervision
PREVENTION
Mechanical Protection System
Process Alarms
Operator Supervision
Safety Instrumented Control Systems
Safety Instrumented Prevention Systems
MITIGATION
Mechanical Mitigation Systems
Safety Instrumented Control Systems
Safety Instrumented Mitigation Systems
PLANT EMERGENCY RESPONSE
COMMUNITYEMERGENCYRESPONSE
Process Design Process Design Process Design

Figure 3 IEC 61511 - Independent Layers Of Protection the onion model.
The importance of the principle of having independent layers of protection is emphasized by the
requirements specified by the latest standards on SISs. IEC 61508 part 1 clearly requires that the
EUC control system shall be separate and independent from the E/E/PE safety-related systems,
other technology safety-related systems and external risk reduction facilities.

2 Technical evaluation of SIL requirements on safety PLCs
The role of the safety PLC as central unit
Figure 4 shows a typical application of a safety PLC performing a large number of functions and
with a combination of safety functions with different SILs. Although most functions only require
a SIL 1 or SIL 2, the remaining SIL 3 required functions will result in the application of a SIL 3
certified common central part of the logic solver. For this reason most end-users have specified the
SIL 3 requirement for the safety PLC into their technical specs.

Safety
PLC
SIL 3
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
Safety
Sensors
SIL 1
Safety
Sensors
SIL 2
Safety
Sensors
SIL 3
Safety
Actuators
SIL 1
Safety
Actuators
SIL 2
Safety
Actuators
SIL 3

Figure 4 A SIL 3 certified safety PLC as central unit.





4
Increasing SIL requirements on the safety PLC
Accumulated risks
The safety PLC as central logic solver normally handles a large number of SIFs, so the risks of
out-of-control process parameters have common elements that aim to reduce those risks. Because
state-of-the-art risk analysis techniques do not consider the probability and degree of overlapping
risks in detail, it is not always clear which elements should comply with a higher SIL and which
should not. Experts responsible for the hazard and risk analysis often decide to increase the safety
integrity requirements of the central safety PLC unit.

For instance, assume a number of SIFs each protecting against individual hazardous
situations/events. Each SIF has its own remaining/residual risk that has been made
acceptable/tolerable by ensuring that the target SIL is achieved. For the complete unit/plant, these
residual risks should be added together to arrive at the total remaining risk associated with those
hazardous events that the SIFs are protecting against. This total remaining risk is still slightly
high.

An efficient way to improve the overall remaining risk is to improve the parts that are common to
many SIF's. These are often final elements that are operated by a number of SIF's (e.g. close fuel
gas to furnace) and in almost all SIF's it is the logic solver. Hence a SIL 3 logic solver is
commonly selected, even if there are only a number of SIL1 and SIL2 functions. Because there are
usually relatively few SIL3 functions, the logic solver is normally not required to meet SIL 4
requirements.

Reducing spurious process trips
Increased safety requirements on a system also can have a positive effect on the availability of that
system. To comply with higher safety requirements in combination with hardware fault tolerance,
it is necessary to have a higher safe failure fraction, which in programmable systems is achieved
through self-diagnostics. In combination with redundancy the results of the diagnostics also can be
used to increase the availability.

In addition to the accumulated risks, the shared probability of the occurrence of undesired spurious
process trips due to safe failure of the PLC system is a common argument to increase the
reliability of the system by increasing its Diagnostic Coverage (DC). Obviously, any tangible
safety system will always have a probability of physical failure. However, this failure occurrence
does not necessarily have to result in a process trip at the moment that due to the internal system
diagnostics this failure is observed. A detected failure can be isolated and repaired within a
predefined acceptable timeframe. It is clear that the DC factor importantly determines the added
value to asset management and process uptime. This argument also forces companies to apply a
SIL 3 safety PLC instead of a lower DC characterized SIL 2 system.

Considerations on various BPCS and SIS configurations
Increasing automation in the process industry is leading companies to ask for integration of various
functionalities into one system. Advantages include easier to use systems, integrated exchange of
information between the basic control system part and safety system part, and a cheaper solution
due to the application of a single system. The next paragraphs describe the implications for three
basic configurations concerning the process control and process safeguarding functionalities and
the ability to achieve SIL requirements.





5
Configuration 1
The traditional solution applied in the process industry for the configuration of safety and control
systems is a fully separate, thus no shared devices, control system (BPSC) and safety system (SIS)
(Figure 5).

SS CC
SS CC
Control System
Safety System

Figure 5. Full separation between the control system and the safety system.
Although questions often arise whether it would be appropriate and acceptable to share information
of the devices, making use of single field instruments or even a single control and safety system, it
is not done and the configuration of Figure 5 normally prevails. Not surprisingly, it is this design
that is fully supported by the onion model and required by most SIS related standards.

Configuration 2
Figure 6 illustrates the implementation of both control and safety functions into one single
controller. At the moment that a SIL 3 requirement is applicable to the safety functions, the
complete control system has to comply with these SIL 3 requirements, including its maintenance
and operating procedures. Its essential weakness is that both functionalities will fail in case of
central system failure. The control and safeguarding layers are not independent. In that case IEC
61511 requires that it is demonstrated that the overall resulting hazard rate is still acceptable or at
least tolerable.

SS CC
SS CC
Safety & control system
Safety functions
Control functions

Figure 6. Fully integrated control functions and safety function into one system.
Since many SIFs also protect against the failure of the control system (including sensors and final
elements), complete independency often has to be applied to achieve an acceptable hazard rate.
Not surprisingly, the onion concept is enforcing this principle.

The utilization of a single logic system both for safeguarding and control functions will only be
acceptable in very specific situations where the demand rate on the safety functions is independent
from failure of the control logic. Standards on SISs largely exclude the option to apply this
concept. For clarity reasons, one of the current maintenance activities on IEC 61508 is to sharpen
this requirement.





6
3 Market perception
Growing complexity
The following trends are currently observed in the process industry:
Increasingly complex industrial processes
Greater need for production capacity and flexibility
Increasing numbers of people and organizations
Higher circulation of employers and employees
Greater use of information and communication
High cost of an unwanted spurious process trip
Significant consequences if process gets out of control.

These trends mean that the requirements on the applied SIS are not expected to become less, but
will mostly result in a predefined high SIL requirement. Companies that tend to apply a SIL 2
rated system will have to be fully aware of the consequences and probabilities in case something
goes wrong, and will have to be absolutely certain that the above mentioned aspects are fully
evaluated before a lower SIL rated safety system is selected.

Increasing safety awareness and requirements on environmental protection
Due to a changing perception of society towards safety of people and protection of the
environment, attention is focusing on protective and preventive measures. One characteristic is the
application of state-of-the-art safety instrumentation. For the railroad industries generally a SIL
4 is required, whereas for the process industries, it is SIL 3. Concerning applications in the
machinery industry, the majority of protective instrumentation is rated at SIL 2.

As society is increasingly un-prepared to accept risks, the trend is towards SIL 3 rated safety
PLCs. Where a lower SIL might be considered acceptable, the preference will be to continue to
apply SIL 3 systems because of the priority to prevent hazardous situations from occurrence rather
than mitigate the events by other risk reduction measures. It is also for this reason that safety
PLCs will play a more important role.

4 Conclusion
Although the expectation that more reliable process control systems will enter the market, a clear
need for dedicated safety PLCs will remain. The adoption of the onion model emphasizes the
importance of differentiation between process control systems and the dedicated SIS.

State-of-the-art technology will set the trend towards a continued application of best-in-class safety
PLCs. As safety of people and the protection of the environment become more important,
companies will stay away from the acceptance of less safe and less reliable or lower integrity
protection systems.

The majority of todays corporate standards and technical requirement specifications on SISs
demand a SIL 3 certified rated safety PLC, often combined with requirements for independent
safety certification. The fact that a significant amount of SIL 3 functions to be fulfilled by the
PLC, in combination with the anticipated probability that SIL 3 functions might be required in
future, prompts the industry for this system requirement.

It is therefore concluded that the market demand for dedicated SIL 1 or SIL 2 certified safety
PLCs is expected to be small compared to the SIL 3 certified rated safety systems market.




7
Article written by Dr. Bert Knegtering, Honeywell Safety Management Systems, The Netherlands,
and Jan Wiegerinck, Shell Global Solutions, The Netherlands.

Originally published in the Honeywell IS Journal, May 2003, Issue 11.
O
ver the past two years, the ExxonMobil Research and
Engineering group tested the self-diagnostic capabilities
of pressure transmitters with FOUNDATION fieldbus (FF)
capability installed on a refinery FCC unit. This project involved
conducting a series of tests on the ability of the devices to diagnose
plugged impulse lines.
A typical purged instrument detail for a pressure transmitter
in service on an FCC unit where catalyst is present is shown in
Fig. 1. Three types of problems associated with the pressure trans-
mitters and purge systems on an FCC unit, and with the FCC
process itself, can be detected with the diagnostic capabilities of
fieldbus pressure transmitters:
1. Loss of a reliable signal due to a plugged pressure tap caused
by catalyst restricting the outlet
2. Plugged restriction orifice or filter, resulting in diminished
purge flow and possible loss in the signal sensitivity (can lead to
problem 1)
3. Circulation problems caused by stick-slip flow condition
in the FCC unit.
In addition to identifying process-related problems, the diag-
nostics capabilities of fieldbus pressure transmitters should be
able to help identify conditions related to plugged impulse lines
before they cause operational upsets.
Economic impact of predict ive diagnost ics. Advanced
diagnostics technologies should help avoid unexpected process shut-
downs during refinery operation. The blockage in pressure transmit-
ters impulse lines is notorious in refinery applications, as well as many
other chemical and gas applications. Though a well-experienced oper-
ator might have a feel for impulse line blockage during normal oper-
ations, it is usually well after the fact. When the impulse lines are
plugged, the control system will not be getting an accurate pressure
reading [pressure sensor will be reading the trapped pressure between
the sensor and where the blockage is in the impulse line(s)].
Impulse line blockage can be very costly. Depending on refin-
ery capacity, a process shutdown due to an impulse line blockage
during FCC unit operation could cost as much as $1 million per
day if the unit is completely shut down. Further, it might take
M AI NTENANCE AND RELI ABI LI TY SPECI ALREPORT
Diagnostics capabilities of
FOUNDATION fieldbus pressure
transmitters
Test s in an FCC unit showed bot h inst rument and
process problems could be det ect ed
R. SZANYI and M. RATERMAN, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Florham Park,
New Jersey, and E. ERYUREK, Emerson Process Management, Austin, Texas
PT
1
RO
Filt er
Typical purge det ail
Typical purge det ail of a pressure t ransmit t er on an FCC
unit .
FI G. 1.
Pi RO
Typical aerat ion det ail
one of f our @ each elv.
Ring header
St andpipe
I mpulse lines
Purge f low
Typical det ail of f our aerat ion point s f ed by a common
header.
FI G. 2.
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING APRIL 2003
I
53
up to seven days to restart the FCC unit. The FCC unit has a
large impact on profits. Early detection of possible upsets, espe-
cially if shutdowns are avoided, can significantly enhance refin-
ery profits.
With the potential economic impact in mind, ExxonMobil
decided to put these new advanced diagnostics technologies to
test and see where and how they might help avoid refinery pro-
duction outages. ExxonMobil believes these results will be ben-
eficial to the entire oil and gas business.
Test inst rument inst allat ion. The operational FCC unit
selected as the field test site is equipped with 18 levels of aera-
tion taps on the regenerated catalyst standpipe. Fig. 2 displays a
typical detail of four aeration points fed by a common ring header.
Several ring headers are, in turn, connected to a single flow con-
troller that controls total flow to the group. The restriction orifice
then sets aeration flow to each point on the standpipe within a
grouping. There are three flow controllers for the 18 different
aeration levels forming three groups.
The upper 17 aeration levels have been equipped with pressure
transmitters to aid in diagnosing flow instability problems and to
help optimize the aeration distribution. These instruments are
not used in any unit control or emergency shutdown system,
which is the reason they were chosen for this study. The instru-
ments are generally connected to the location occupied by the
pressure indicator in Fig. 2.
Comparing Fig. 1 to Fig. 2, it is apparent that the arrange-
ments are functionally the same. Gas flows associated with aera-
tion requirements are in general much larger than those associated
with instrument purge, so typically a filter is not required.
Problem t heory. Line plugging has long been an issue for
flow and level measurements in many process applications. Pro-
cesses with dense materials such as crude oil or those in colder
climates are particularly susceptible to impulse line plugging.
In a typical process, impulse line length could vary from 1 ft to
more than 10 ft. Although recent close-coupled designs are intended
to eliminate this problem, industry standards or the process con-
ditions require impulse lines for flow and level measurements.
When pressure transmitter impulse lines are blocked, operators
and the control system can no longer rely on the measurement
since only the trapped pressure level between the sensor and the
point of blockage is being measured and not the actual process
pressure. Fig. 3 depicts differential pressure transmitter blockage.
Although problems 1 and 2, listed in the beginning of this
article, may seem similar, the first involves standpipe pressure
tap blockage, not pressure transmitter impulse line plugging.
The third problem is a process problem, and is essentially a
function of catalyst circulation rate, standpipe and the fluidiza-
tion properties. Under normal conditions, gas is entrained into
the standpipe and travels downward between the catalyst parti-
cles (emulsion phase) as bubbles (Fig. 4). These bubbles are com-
pressed as they travel downward, forming smaller bubbles. In
addition, they will merge to form larger bubbles, which can sub-
sequently break apart. This leads to pressure fluctuations or noise
within the standpipe.
Under certain conditions (low circulation or poor catalyst flu-
idization properties), the catalyst will over-deaerate as the bubbles
travel down the standpipe. The compression effect will then cause
the bubbles to disappear. When this happens, pressure buildup
along the standpipe length is no longer smooth but becomes
erratic. Under severe conditions, the catalyst will bridge across
the standpipe, momentarily stopping and then breaking loose
again. This sudden stopping and starting of the catalyst flow is
generally referred to as stick-slip flow. It produces a very notice-
able chugging noise, with pressure fluctuations that become less
random but more severe (Fig. 5). If left uncorrected, this condi-
tion can result in severe damage to the standpipe system, partic-
ularly at expansion joints.
Normally, noise from the standpipe should be white noise
with no distinguishable pattern as a result of the random size and
population of gas bubbles in the standpipe. When the catalyst
bridges, the noise becomes more regular. Noise at the bridg-
ing condition shows up as large pressure fluctuations to the pres-
sure transmitters generally in use today. Detecting this condition
before it becomes serious has been a costly challenge.
One goal of this field test, was to determine if the Statistical
Process Monitoring diagnostic capabilities of FF pressure trans-
SPECI ALREPORT M AI NTENANCE AND RELI ABI LI TY
54
I
APRIL 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
Blockage
When pressure t ransmit t er impulse lines are blocked, t he
measurement becomes quest ionable.
FI G. 3.
Aerat ion
St andpipe
Time
Bubble size Pressure
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Under normal condit ions, gas is ent rained int o t he
st andpipe and t ravels downward bet ween t he cat alyst
part icles as bubbles.
FI G. 4.
mitters could detect noise anomalies in the standpipe early enough
to allow the operators to prevent the bridging condition.
Diagnost ics t echnologies of pressure t ransmit t ers
wit h FOUNDATION f ieldbus capabilit y.
Plugged impulse line detection. Plugged impulse line detec-
tion technology is based on an advanced pattern recognition tech-
nology with built-in intelligence to be aware of the environmen-
tal conditions of the pressure and differential pressure transmitters
widely used in the process industries. Basically, the pattern recog-
nition algorithm embedded in the pressure transmitters receives the
sensor updates (update frequency varies among sensor manufac-
turers). The faster the response time, the more information can be
captured about the process noise. This becomes important espe-
cially for differential pressure applications to differentiate a sin-
gle-leg plugged condition from both legs being plugged.
In general, the measurement signal contains fluctuations
superimposed on the average value of the pressure or differential
pressure of the process, called process noise or signature. These
fluctuations are induced by the flow and are a function of the geo-
metric and physical properties of the system. The time domain
signatures (i.e., variance and correlation) of these fluctuations
do not change as long as the overall system behavior stays the
same (i.e., steady-state process). In addition, these signatures
are not affected significantly by small changes in the average
value of the flow variables. This offers an advantage in identify-
ing and isolating line plugging, which is part of the underlying
pattern recognition technology developed to solve the problem
of line plugging.
When the lines between the process and the sensor start to
clog through fouling and buildup on the impulse tubing inner
surfacesor loose particles in the main flow getting trapped in
the impulse linestime and frequency domain signatures of the
fluctuations start to change from their normal states. The clog-
ging decreases or increases the effect of damping on the pressure
noise of the main flow signal. As the impulse lines get clogged,
measurement noise levels change. Fig. 6 displays the noise con-
ditions of sensor outputs during normal, one line plugged and
both lines plugged conditions.
Some fieldbus pressure transmitters have this diagnostics tech-
nology as part of their Advanced Diagnostics Block (ADB). Fig.
7 displays the ADB block diagram, where various function blocks
such as Transducer Block (TB), Resource Block (RB) and others
are displayed.
Operational details of plugged impulse line detection tech-
nology can be summarized into two distinct sections once it is
properly configured, which is simply selecting a few parameters.
First is the learning phase. The algorithm first observes its envi-
ronment, such as the process noise levels and temperature con-
ditions. (These conditions could significantly differ from an FCC
unit application in a refinery to simple drum level measurement.)
At the end of this phase, the algorithm establishes the basic sig-
nature for that pressure transmitter as it is used in that process. It
establishes various parameters that represent process behavior
and keeps them in its memory to be used during the monitor-
ing phase. The learning phase also has a verification phase, so
that repeatability of the process behavior is established.
Second is the monitoring phase, where the algorithm periodi-
cally monitors the process and looks for changes in process sig-
nature. Once a change in process conditions is detected and ver-
ified, the pressure transmitter sets its alert bit to inform the
operator and/or maintenance personnel, since the plugging could
cause a major process upset. Fig. 8 shows a display of the fieldbus
pressure transmitter status.
St at ist ical process monit oring. The second diagnostics
feature of the fieldbus pressure transmitters is a generic process
anomaly detection tool called Statistical Process Monitoring (SPM).
Many process anomalies can be analyzed and correctly diagnosed
by an expert eye or by an expert system where necessary process
expertise and possible conditions and a rule-base are present.
Traditionally, fault detection has been part of the control sys-
tem where analysis is done using data collected by process histo-
rians. There are various reasons for this implementation choice.
Most importantly, the field devices could not handle the tasks
required of fault detection methodologies. This is mainly due to
the limited firmware capability of the older technologies. However,
with the help of advanced silicon technology and digital fieldbus
technologies, todays smart transmitters are capable of providing
more information regarding the process and its conditions in
addition to their traditional process variable information.
Process anomalies can be grouped into five categories. These
M AI NTENANCE AND RELI ABI LI TY SPECI ALREPORT
Aerat ion
Cat alyst
bridge
and void
St andpipe
Time
Bubble size Pressure
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
St ick-slip f low produces a not iceable chugging noise wit h
pressure f luct uat ions t hat become less random but more
severe.
FI G. 5.
One line rugged Lines are OK
1.8 0
1.81
1.818
1.817
1.816
1.815
1.814
1.81
1.81
1.811
1.810
0 4 8 1 16 0 18 6 10
Time, min
P
V
,

V
14
Bot h lines
plugged
Sensor out put during normal and plugged impulse line
condit ions.
FI G. 6.
are common for all sensor types and processes: pressure, tem-
perature, flow, level and others. Using advanced pattern recog-
nition and statistical analysis methods, fieldbus transmitters and
smart valves can now detect drift, bias, noise, spike and stuck
behaviors of each process where:
Drift: sensor/process output changes gradually
Bias: sensor/process output shows a level change
Noise: dynamic variation in the sensor/process output is
increased
Spike: sensor/process output is momentarily very high or low
Stuck: dynamic variation in the sensor/process output is
decreased.
Fig. 9 illustrates these anomalies along with normal behavior.
The approach and key features of the developed local anomaly
detection technology that make it applicable to a broad range of
industrial processes are:
No redundancy in the measurement system is assumed
No mathematical model of the process is necessary
No mathematical model of the sensor is required.
Field t est result s.
Test condition 1: Plugged impulse line detection. Unit test-
ing was broken into two days. On day one, the plugged tap and
loss of purge scenarios were tested (problems 1 and 2). On day
two, the circulation problem was tested. Prior to starting the test,
each instrument was calibrated to establish new baseline values for
the diagnostics analysis, and both plugged line diagnostics and
SPM features of the transmitters were initialized to learn the pro-
cess and establish the base-line process patterns.
To test the built-in impulse line blockage diagnostics feature
of the fieldbus pressure transmitter, root valves of the installa-
tion were used to create impulse line blockage.
The fieldbus pressure transmitter successfully detected every
test scenario.
Test condition 2: Loss of purge flow detection. This was
tested by closing the purge source valve. (It was expected that
either the built-in impulse line plugging detection feature or the
statistical data collected at the fieldbus transmitter via SPM would
provide sufficient data to observe the blocking.) Test results indi-
cated that both diagnostics features were successfully indicating
the loss of flow condition.
Test condition 3: Circulation problems within FCC unit.
The internal diagnostic technology of the fieldbus pressure trans-
mitter tested, namely SPM technology, continuously samples the
process signal from the sensor at high frequencies and performs
SPECI ALREPORT M AI NTENANCE AND RELI ABI LI TY
58
I
APRIL 2003 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
Normal Drif t Spike
St uck
Noise
Bias
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
.0
.5
100.0
100.5
101.0
101.5
10 .0
Time
Process anomalies can be cat egorized int o f ive dist inct
classes: drif t , bias, noise, spike and st uck.
FI G. 9.
0
5 5 1 6
00
0




64 66 68 610 61
1

4
5
S
T
D

o
f

n
o
i
s
e
/
m
e
a
n
6
7
8

10
Dat a gat hered over a t wo-week period
Hist orian and SPM dat a collect ed f rom t he t ransmit t er
during a cat alyst upset .
FI G. 10 .
Device
hardware
Sensor
hardware
Device
hardware
RB
ADB
TB
Device
Diagnostics
Loop
Diagnostics
Object
Dictionary
Statistical
Process
Monitoring
AI
PID
Function
Blocks
Sensor
hardware
Advanced diagnost ic block of t he f ieldbus t ransmit t er FI G. 7.
Display of f ieldbus pressure t ransmit t er st at us. FI G. 8.
M AI NTENANCE AND RELI ABI LI TY SPECI ALREPORT
59
additional calculations on it. The transmitter calculates the mean
value of the signal and how that changes with time. It also calcu-
lates the standard deviation in the noise from the process signal.
The standard deviation calculation should allow us to detect a
change in the white noise characteristic long before transition into
stick-slip flow. This will allow operations to take corrective actions
before circulation problems develop.
Fig. 10 displays the data collected with the historian as well as
the fieldbus pressure transmitters ADB for a period of two weeks
during which a catalyst upset occurred. Fig. 11 highlights the data
collected from the transmitter, where the upset during the oper-
ation was detected 30 minutes in advance. It was expected at the
beginning of the test period that this type of data from the field-
bus pressure transmitter would indicate such process upsets in
advance so that necessary measures could be taken to avoid process
shutdowns. The next stages of the research program will integrate
this type of data with operational procedures to improve the oper-
ators ability to respond to catalyst upsets. HP
Ron Szanyi isthe section head of
ExxonM obil Research & Engineering
Instruments & Control Proj ects
Secti on i n the Plant Automati on & Computi ng
Division. He has been with ExxonM obil for 22 years.
M r. Szanyi is a member of the Fieldbus Foundation
Board of Directors and past chairman of the API
Subcommittee on Instruments & Control Systems. He
isbased in Fairfax, Virginia.
Mike Rat erman ishead of the ProcessTechnology
Section for Imperial Oil LTDsEngineering ServicesCanada
Group in Toronto. Hisgroup isresponsible for providing
process techni cal support to all of IO Ls refi neri es i n
Canada. Prior to hiscurrent assignment, M r. Raterman
lead the equi pment health moni tori ng development
effort of Exxon-M obil Research and Engineering in Fair-
fax Virginia. He hasover 25 yearsof experience in fluid
catalytic cracking with ExxonM obil, M obil and Gulf Oil,
and holdsan M S in chemical engineering from the Uni-
versityof Pittsburgh.
Evren Eryurek isthe director of
PlantWeb technology, responsible
for developi ng and coordi nati ng
technologies for PlantWeb across Emerson Process
M anagement divisions. He is a member of the
PlantWeb Leadership team and the leader of the
PlantWeb Diagnostics Council. M r. Eryurek has 15
issued patents and over 20 pending patent applica-
tions. He is a senior member of ISA and resides in
M inneapolis, M innesota.
0
5 5 1 6
00
00








0 .

64 66 68 610 61
1

4
5
S
T
D

o
f

n
o
i
s
e
/
m
e
a
n
6
7
8

10
Dat a gat hered over a t wo-week period
The t ransmit t er diagnost ic dat a det ect ed t he cat alyst
upset 30 min. in advance.
FI G. 11.
THE VALIDATION OF AN ON-LINE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE SPECTROMETER FOR ANALYSIS OF
NAPHTHAS AND DIESELS
Paul A. Barnard Chuck Gerlovich Roger Moore
Senior Research Scientist Principal Engineer Principal Chemist
Equistar Chemicals, LP. Lyondell Chemical Co. Equistar Chemicals, LP
1515 Miller Cut-Off Rd 2502 Sheldon Road 8280 Sheldon Road
LaPorte, TX 77571 Channelview, TX 77111 Channelview, TX 77530
KEYWORDS
NMR, Online, Naphtha, Diesel, Condensate, Distillation, PINA
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the efforts to commission and validate an online Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Spectrometer [NMR] for the analysis of heavy feedstock to a cracking plant. Reference will be made to
ASTM D3764 Standard Practice for Validation for Process Stream Analyzers (1). Results from
laboratory analyses of standards and plant samples will be presented.
INTRODUCTION
The cracking of heavy feedstock to produce olefins and other downstream derivatives can be optimized
by controlling many plant parameters such as Coil Outlet Temperatures, Hydrocarbon to Steam Ratio,
Flow Rates, Pressures, etc. These parameters can be varied based on kinetic and thermodynamic models
to increase the quantities of the more economically preferred products. Several commercial software
packages are available to the plant to assess all input information and tune the furnace cracking
conditions to afford these optimal conditions. One important piece of information for the optimizing
software is the exact make up of the furnace feedstock. Plants that crack gases such as ethane, propane,
and butane can effectively analyze their feedstock and furnace effluent by gas chromatography. The
products of such plants are not complicated and would not benefit from optimizing programs. However,
heavier feedstock such as Natural Gasoline, Naphtha, Condensates, and Diesels can have a widely
variable composition, and as such the furnace yields can vary in their components and concentrations.
This is even more the case if the plant receives many different types of feedstock from the spot market
and local refineries. The cracker facility at Corpus Christi, TX installed an NMR (2) in 2002 for
feedstock analysis to provide detailed information to the Spyro / RT-Opt plant optimization package
(3).
Copyright 2003 by ISA - The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society ~ http://www.isa.org
Presented at the 48
th
Analysis Division Symposium ~ 27 April - 1 May 2003 ~ Calgary, AB, Canada
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
This project sought bids that would provide as a minimum the following information.
Normal Paraffins: C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12+, and total
Isoparaffins: C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12+, and total
Naphthenes: C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12+, and total
Aromatics: C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12+, and total
D86 Distillation: Initial Boiling Point [IBP], T10, T50, T90, and End Boiling Point [EBP].
D2887 Simulated Distillation: Initial Boiling Point [IBP], T10, T50, T90, and End Boiling Point
[EBP].
% Hydrogen
Specific Gravity
HARDWARE
LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
The lab experiments were carried out on an Agilent (HP) 6890 with split inlet and flame ionization
detector. The column used is a 50m x 0.20mm id crosslinked methyl siloxane 0.5um film thickness (HP
PONA). The method is based on ASTM Method D6733, Standard Test Method for Determination of
Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 50-Meter Capillary High Resolution Gas
Chromatography. Software from the Institut Francais Du Petrole (IFP) called Carburane was used to
identify components in the GC analysis and to produce the detailed hydrocarbon report.
In addition to the above, an HP 5973 GC/Mass Spectrometer system was used to verify peak
identification. The system consists of an HP 6890 GC with split inlet and HP5973 mass spectrometer
featuring a hyperbolic quadrupole mass filter. Software from SINTEF Applied Chemistry in Oslo,
Norway called SI-PIONA is used to help identify peaks using a combination of two libraries, a library of
mass spectra and a retention library. The GC column used for this application is a 100m x 0.25mm id
crosslinked methyl siloxane with a 0.5um film thickness (Chrompak CP-SIL PONA CB).
Hydrogen content was measured on a Bruker MiniSpec benchtop NMR. D86 was run on standard lab
distillation equipment.
ANALYZER HARDWARE
Two process headers were tapped, and an insulated dual tubing bundle run about 200 feet to an
existing analyzer house. The sample conditioning cabinet which is located on the outside wall of the
house consists of manually activated block and bleed valves, coolers with temperature switches, stream
switching valves, flow control, fast speed loops, and a manual sample collection point. A switch was
built into the programmable logic controller [PLC] logic to allow the stream switching to be halted while
a sample was collected, to ensure the timestamp and stream of the sample could be correctly labeled.
The analyzer itself has dual 3-way block valves to provide a constant by-pass while the measurement is
made on a static sample. The analyzer is contained in a free standing Class 1 Div 2 stainless steel
enclosure with a built in air conditioner for the on-board electronics and computer. The sample
measurement probe is isolated in a temperature controlled box within the enclosure. A remote PC in the
analyzer control room is linked by PC AnyWhere / Ethernet for viewing all diagnostics and results.
Separate Modbus connections link direct to the Distributed Control System [DCS] for plant use. The
sample return point was close to the analyzer house, just downstream of the cracking furnaces, with
magnetically coupled pumps to provide the required by-pass flow rate. However, the start-up of the
NMR was delayed when the pumps were found to be undersized and constantly decoupling. A review
of the situation caused a relocation of the return point to a lower pressure process entry upstream of the
furnaces (albeit a longer tubing run), thus negating the need for the pumps. This also increased the
economic value of the feedstock in the fast speed loop (60 gallons per hour).
VALIDATION
COMMERCIAL VALIDATION LIMITS
Based on careful examination of the lab paraffins, isoparaffins, naphthenes, and aromatics [PINA]
repeatability, and ASTM methods D86 (4) and D2887 (5), a set of validation limits for the PINA and
distillation parameters was finalized. These limits could theoretically be equated to the analyzer
reproducibility in that the results from the analyzer and the lab for the same sample should not exceed
these limits in more than 1 case in 20 (95 % confidence limit). The limits are shown in Table I.
TABLE I. COMMERCIAL VALIDATION LIMITS FOR PINA AND DISTILLATION
PARAMETERS.
Parameter
Validation
Limits [wt%]
n-hexane 0.80
n-nonane 0.20
Total n-paraffins 1.00
i-hexane 1.00
i-nonane 0.40
Total i-paraffins 0.60
cyclohexane 0.20
C9-naphthene 0.30
Total naphthenes 0.50
Benzene 0.20
C9-aromatics 0.20
Total Aromatics 0.30
D86 [IBP, T10, T50, T90, EBP] 14
o
F
D2887 [IBP, T10, T50, T90, EBP] 9
o
F
Density 0.003 g/ml
LAB VALIDATION
The modeling process for the online NMR relies exclusively on the lab results of plant samples.
Therefore it is imperative that the lab analyses are as accurate and precise as possible. The first step in
the validation of the Online Analyzer is therefore to accredit the lab. To this end a gravimetric standard
(6) was purchased and analyzed on six non consecutive days. This exercise essentially establishes the
precision statement (7) for the applicable test method since the lab test is not routine. The components
and results for the standard are shown in Table II.
TABLE II. COMPONENTS IN LABORATORY GRAVIMETRIC STANDARD.
Certified Measured Certified Measured
Component [wt %]
Average
[wt%]
%
RSD
[n=6] Component [wt %]
Average
[wt%]
%
RSD
[n=6]
n-pentane 2.354 2.18 1.06 benzene 2.359 2.31 1.22
n-hexane 2.374 2.33 0.51 toluene 2.465 2.42 0.81
n-heptane 2.399 2.38 0.14 ethylbenzene 2.420 2.42 0.43
n-octane 2.367 2.38 0.16 p-xylene 3.300 3.28 0.53
n-nonane 2.389 2.43 0.34 propylbenzene 2.354 2.37 0.21
n-decane 2.394 2.44 0.51 cumene 1.833 1.84 0.20
n-undecane 2.367 2.47 0.67 3-ethyltoluene 1.910 1.92 0.26
n-dodecane 2.394 2.35 0.64
1,2,4-
trimethylbenzene 1.751 1.79 0.25
isopentane 1.888 1.74 1.03
1,3,5-
trimethylbenzene 1.439 1.46 0.26
2-methylpentane 1.675 1.62 0.42 n-butylbenzene 2.407 2.45 0.43
3-methylpentane 1.738 1.70 0.39 isobutylbenzene 2.214 2.26 0.33
2,2-dimethylbutane 1.572 1.52 0.44
1,2,4,5-
tetramethylbenzene 1.245 1.23 0.55
2,3-dimethylpentane 2.843 2.82 0.16 n-pentylbenzene 2.399 2.45 0.61
2,4-dimethylpentane 1.790 3.68 0.28 1-pentene 2.213 1.99 1.31
2,2,4-trimethylpentane 2.231 4.62 0.18 1-hexene 2.399 2.29 0.66
cyclohexane 2.367 2.32 0.42
2,3,3-trimethyl-1-
butene 1.073 1.03 0.20
methylcyclohexane 2.367 2.36 0.22 1-octene 2.399 2.34 0.11
ethylcyclohexane 2.399 2.40 0.22 2-methyl-1-heptene 1.310 1.29 0.14
propylcyclohexane 2.367 2.40 0.28 1-nonene 2.379 2.38 0.33
n-butylcyclohexane 2.347 2.40 0.45 1-decene 2.379 2.37 0.52
n-pentylcyclohexane 2.379 2.45 0.61 1-undecene 2.420 2.50 0.70
decalin total 1.959 1.99 0.50 dodecene 2.379 2.32 0.67
The % relative standard deviations are all extremely low, showing the excellent repeatability of the
chromatographic method. Although this gravimetric standard had many of the components that are
expected to be found in a naphtha or condensate, the proportions of those constituents are not similar.
Therefore a plant sample was also analyzed on six non consecutive days, and the variance compared to
the gravimetric standard by the F-Test (8-10) to determine if a significant difference existed between
analyzing standards and plant samples by the analytical method. The results for the plant samples and
the corresponding F-Test values are shown in Table III.
TABLE III. RELATIVE STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND F-TEST RESULTS FOR TWO
PLANT SAMPLES
Critical F = 5.05 for a limited Reference Set


Naphtha
Average
% RSD
[n=6]
F
result
Condensate
Average
% RSD
[n=6]
F
result

n-c4 1.27 0.70 3.91 0.85
n-c5 10.95 0.60 8.08 9.37 0.55 5.05
n-c6 7.81 0.35 5.19 7.27 0.39 5.88
n-c7 5.05 0.08 1.42 6.03 0.28 24.92
n-c8 4.25 0.31 11.95 4.42 0.35 16.00
n-c9 3.92 0.40 3.63 3.07 0.51 3.57
n-c10 1.85 0.49 1.93 2.13 0.70 1.44
n-c11 0.13 0.55 544.47 1.42 0.81 2.09
n-c12+ 2.36 0.92 2.06
Total n-paraffins 35.24 0.18 7.50 40.08 0.26 20.65
I-c4 0.09 5.96 0.72 1.12
I-c5 5.78 0.64 4.19 6.68 0.59 4.80
I-c6 7.53 0.41 2.55 6.39 0.41 1.84
I-c7 4.78 0.11 6.64 6.21 0.28 1.64
I-c8 5.07 0.23 2.02 6.33 0.33 6.57
I-c9 4.95 0.66 4.25 0.31
I-c10 3.49 0.45 3.74 1.02
I-c11 0.50 0.74 1.67 0.88
I-c12+ 2.35 2.80
Total I-paraffins 32.19 0.08 4.56 38.34 0.14 1.01
cyclopentane 0.66 0.45 0.28 0.62
me-cyclopentane 2.00 0.29 0.67 0.43
cyclohexane 1.71 0.21 7.37 1.36 0.38 3.58
methylcyclohexane 3.35 0.12 1.79 2.59 0.29 2.09
Other c7-Nap 2.13 0.14 1.19 0.29
c8-Nap 5.66 0.62 42.69 2.02 0.92 12.21
c9-Nap 5.56 0.34 7.69 2.45 0.49 3.24
c10-Nap 1.93 0.93 1.06 1.26 1.84 1.59
c11-Nap 0.30 6.39 1.70 0.87 8.38 23.89
c12+Nap 0.84 11.37
Total Naphthenes 23.30 0.24 2.33 13.54 0.97 13.20
Benzene 1.30 0.29 53.71 2.34 0.40 9.09
Toluene 1.25 0.17 87.46 1.00 0.30 42.95
Ethylbenzene 0.33 0.39 68.55 0.13 0.43 367.22
Xylenes 2.28 0.36 4.38 1.01 0.41 17.50
c9-Arom 3.16 0.47 2.01 1.13 1.35 1.94
c10-Arom
c11-Arom 0.52 4.30
c12+Arom 0.95 1.70 1.71 2.99
Total Aromatics 9.27 0.33 3.49 7.84 0.67 1.17
The components of the gravimetric standard have been relabeled to fit the descriptions required for the
online NMR. The critical F value for a limited reference set [five degrees of freedom] is 5.05 and many
of the test parameters pass this test. For those parameters that do not pass the F-Test, if an assignable
cause can be found, then no corrective actions need be taken. This was the case for all parameters that
failed the F-test (e.g. very low concentrations that result in high standard deviations), and the method
was therefore deemed suitable. An examination of the % relative standard deviations [RSD] for all
components shows very low values, except for the higher carbon numbers where integration starts to get
difficult. Based on these test results, the lab was considered more than adequate in its ability to provide
high quality data for input to the modeling process.
ANALYZER VALIDATION
ASTM Method D3764 was cited by the analyzer vendor as the vehicle to be used in the commercial
validation process of the analyzer. D3764 describes the steps to be taken to compare lab results with
analyzer results, and the statistical methods employed to decide if the two results are significantly
different or not. It was found that this method could only be used as a guide for the actual process
finally agreed to by the customer and the vendor. Section 4 of ASTM D3764 refers to two procedures
that can be used in the validation process. The Reference Sample Procedure involves a laboratory
calibrated sample that is introduced into the analyzer and results compared. The Line Sample Procedure
involves withdrawal of samples from the analyzer system, with subsequent comparison of a lab result
with the result of the analyzer at the time of sampling. The constraints of time and distance forced the
latter procedure onto the validation process.
RESULTS
Existing models developed at existing NMR users for PINA and D86 were installed on the analyzer after
all initial hardware situations were corrected. The modeling was done by PLS (11). D2887 models
were developed with new plant data since these had not been previously established. The process of
collecting lab data for incorporation into the training set began by catching samples in stainless steel
cylinders, and synchronizing the timestamp with the NMR measurement. The samples were shipped in
the cylinders from the plant in Corpus Christi, TX to the testing lab in Channelview, TX. Early data
showed that the existing models would require input from the new installation to improve the
predictions. This is illustrated in Table 4.
TABLE 4. FIRST RESULTS FROM OLD AND NEW MODELS.
Model Sample Total Total
Number n-c6 n-c9
n-
paraffins i-c6 i-c9 i-paraffins
Ver1 651 17.12 -0.01 43.16 15.82 -0.68 32.47
Ver1 652 18.57 0.00 45.40 16.09 -0.87 31.32
Ver1 663 18.73 -0.03 46.11 15.84 -1.04 30.74
Ver1 667 14.85 -0.16 41.46 14.23 -0.81 32.54
Ver1 670 18.81 0.69 45.36 15.52 0.08 32.84
Ver2 656 7.55 1.85 35.79 10.57 2.27 36.36
Ver2 661 7.42 1.57 35.22 9.75 2.82 35.32
Ver2 662 7.60 2.10 34.97 10.50 1.95 37.05
Ver2 669 6.97 1.64 34.01 9.96 2.39 37.48

Model Sample cyclo Total Total
Number hexane C9-Nap Napthenes Benzene C9-Arom Aromatics
Ver1 651 4.35 0.57 14.52 2.64 -0.45 5.16
Ver1 652 4.60 0.44 13.60 2.59 -0.31 4.68
Ver1 663 4.71 0.47 13.05 2.48 -0.20 4.32
Ver1 667 5.70 0.95 16.48 2.64 -0.14 5.26
Ver1 670 3.56 1.10 12.20 2.27 0.00 4.91
Ver2 656 2.16 2.05 17.66 2.82 1.05 9.70
Ver2 661 2.20 2.46 17.19 2.57 1.34 9.89
Ver2 662 1.75 1.84 15.35 2.98 0.90 10.16
Ver2 669 1.68 2.30 14.95 2.66 1.22 9.83
Results from model Version 1 did not accurately predict the validation parameters, but the addition of
results from the samples caught at the new facility into the training set improved the results markedly.
The first set of models for the D2887 and D86 were installed after about 3 months of data collection,
comprising approximately 60 samples. The results for T50 and T90 were found to be the most robust.
This is not surprising, since the feedstock mixture of heavy and light materials caused wide variation in
the initial boiling points [IBP] and end boiling point [EBP]. D86 apparatus cannot handle heavy tails
very well, and the GC SimDist D2887 method was set up for diesels. The transition from a light
condensate to a diesel is captured very well by the NMR distillation predictions, and they match the lab
results quite closely as seen in Figure 1. Trend lines from the NMR for density, total i-paraffins, and
total aromatics are also shown in Figure 2.
CONCLUSION
An NMR was successfully installed at the Equistar Corpus Christi plant and is being used to characterize
naphthas, condensates, and diesels. The predictions are being used in conjunction with a Whole Plant
Optimization software package to run the furnaces to produce higher yields of more economically
favorable hydrocarbons. The financial impact of the analyzer has not yet been established but is
expected to be > $1 million / year.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
All of the work described in this paper was a team effort within the company, but particular
acknowledgement must be made to the following individuals.
Mr. Tripp Howse the analyzer tech who fastidiously collects samples and maintains the system.
Mr. Bill Bradbury the Project Manager
Messrs. Mike Chaney, Gary Colwell, Jim Wu, Tom Kelley, and Tom Ferguson for valuable discussion.
SimDist D2887 T50
50
200
350
500
650
800
10/19/02 10/22/02 10/25/02 10/28/02 10/31/02
D
e
g
r
e
e
s

F
a
r
e
n
h
e
i
t
NMR T50 Stm 1 Lab D2887 T50
FIGURE 1. SIMULATED DISTILLATION T50 PREDICTIONS FEEDSTOCK TRANSITION.
PINA Gas Oil Header
0
15
30
45
60
10/21/02 10/24/02 10/27/02 10/30/02
W
t

%
0.3
0.6
0.9
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

g
/
m
l
Density
i-paraffins
aromatics
FIGURE 2. PREDICTIONS FOR TOTAL AROMATICS, ISOPARAFFINS, AND DENSITY.
REFERENCES

1. ASTM D764-92 Standard Practice for Validation of Process Stream Analyzers,
American Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken, PA.

2. The NMR installed is a 60MHz Model NMRB, Style C Magnetic Resonance
Analyzer by The Foxboro Company, Foxboro, MA, a division of Invensys.
Application modeling was provided by Process NMR Associates, LLC, of Danbury,
Conn.

3. SPYRO Version 6 kinetic Scheme 9306 by North American Pyrotec, San Dimas,
CA, a division of KTI. RT-Opt by AspenTech, Houston, TX.

4. ASTM D86-00a Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at
Atmospheric Pressure

5. ASTM D2887-02 Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of
Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography

6. Gravimetric Standard

7. ASTM D3764 Section 3.1.12. This gravimetric standard can also be described as
the Reference Sample , section 3.1.14.

8. The F-test is used to determine if there is a significant difference between two test
methods. It is essentially a ratio of the variances of the two methods. See ASTM
D3764 section 9.

9. Christian, Gary D Chapter 4 Data Handling, Analytical Chemistry, 3rd Ed.,
Wiley and Sons, New York page 72.

10. Potts, Lawrence W Chapter 2 Errors in Chemical Analysis, Quantitative Analysis
Theory and Practice, 1st Ed., Harper and Row, New York. Page 75.

11. Grams AI Version 7 with PLS/IQ by Galactic Industries, Salem, NH.











AM-03-19





THE SMART REFINERY:
ECONOMICS AND TECHNOLOGY




by



Douglas C. White
Emerson Process Management
Houston. Texas



Presented at the

NPRA
2003 Annual Meeting
March 23 - 25, 2003
San Antonio, Texas





1
AM-03-19



THE SMART REFINERY:
ECONOMICS AND TECHNOLOGY

Douglas C. White
Emerson Process Management
Houston, Texas


Abstract
Advances in sensors, automation, and information technology have significantly
changed the way refineries operate. High performance computing in physically small
devices and high speed communication technology developments have been the
foundation for many of these advances. Advanced analytical and optimization methods
based on this infrastructure can simultaneously lower costs, increase profitability and
improve customer service across the supply chain. The collective changes are
sometimes characterized as constituting smart refining." They allow the refinery staff
to better analyze the past, assess the current state, and predict future behavior under
alternative scenarios. In this paper, we survey the recent history of these developments
and look at likely future trends. Economic benefits achieved through implementation of
this technology are explained and a framework for understanding them presented. The
issues that have slowed adoption and implementation are also discussed.
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Introduction
What is a smart refinery? We are all aware of the extraordinary developments that
are occurring in the computer and communication area. It seems that almost every day
there is another report of the continuing decrease in the cost and size of computing
elements and the continuing increase in the availability of communication bandwidth.
Advances in software and mathematical analysis have built on these developments to
significantly increase our ability to model and optimize refining activities. Many new
developments in process sensor and measurement devices have also appeared.
These developments have led to new methods and procedures for operating production
facilities. The new procedures utilize more comprehensive and frequent measurements
of the current state of the refinery, increased use of models and other analytical
techniques to compare what the refinery is currently producing against what is expected
and to understand the differences, earlier detection of anomalous conditions, and tools
to plan future operation with increased confidence. While we may be aware of these
developments as individual advances, their cumulative and combinatorial aspects are
perhaps less well recognized. This paper will discuss how the combination of these
technologies has led to an evolutionary change in the way refineries can operate. This
change is to decisions and actions based primarily on the best available prediction of
expected future conditions rather than reactions principally triggered by what has just
happened. This shift in focus is the defining characteristic of "smart refining."

The second related subject of this paper concerns the expected economic benefits
from investments in this area. The link between technology developments and
improved economic results including increased productivity is not always apparent.
Many unsupportable claims on potential benefits are made. Correspondingly, there are
many technology developments that are believed to be beneficial but it is not clear how
to translate this belief into realistic monetary values.
Incentives for Change
Why do we need to consider these new technologies for use in refineries? What
refinery problems are they solving that can't be solved more economically by other
means? In answering this question, three major incentive areas are reviewed below
financial, safety and environmental issues, and workforce demographics.
Financial
Looking at overall financial performance, the five year average return on invested
capital for the US refining industry for the period 1996 to 2001 has been approximately
9.5% (3) which is at or below the cost of capital for the industry with 2002 results
generally lower. Individual refining companies have varied widely with five year
averages that range from negative to 14% (15). Clearly there are individual differences
in financial performance and competitive pressures force the industry to pursue all
avenues for improvement.
Operational excellence is the goal of most refineries and this excellence has many
components. Among these components are some key objectives that have a direct and
significant impact on the financial performance of the site. These include:
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

3
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Produce the highest valued product mix possible
Maximize production from existing equipment
Maximize equipments on stream operating (service) factor
Continually reduce costs and pursue operational efficiencies
Keep inventories as low as possible
Minimize Health, Safety and Environmental incidents

where the last objective implicitly recognizes the reality that HSE issues can often be
governing.

Where are the opportunities for operational improvement?

Energy Energy costs remain the largest single cost component in the refineries
after crude purchases. For the 1996 to 2001 period, they averaged approximately 8%
of the value of crude purchases and about 30% of all operating costs for the overall US
refining industry (3). There are many opportunities for energy savings in the average
refinery that remain unpursued.
Reliability Lost production due to unscheduled shutdowns or slowdowns of refinery
equipment and process units remains an ongoing problem with average losses in
potential capacity of 3 to 7%.
Maintenance Maintenance costs are the third largest cost component after crude
and energy at 10% to 20% of the operating costs but often the maintenance action is
provided too early when not required and sometimes (regrettably) too late.
Inventory Large inventories of crude, intermediates, and products are
characteristic of many refineries. Excessive inventory increases working capital and
reduces the return on invested capital.

The components of smart refining provide some of the most cost effective
investments available to achieve the operational excellence objectives listed above.
Safety and Environmental Issues
The safety and environmental performance of the refining industry is widely viewed
by the public as unsatisfactory. Analysis of the cause of recent accidents and incidents
indicate that many factors including design, change control, and operational issues
contributed to the incidents (1,2). However, reviewing the incidents and potential
amelioration indicate that improved measurements and real time analysis/ detection
might have prevented or at least substantially reduced the damage from approximately
25% to 50% of these accidents.
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Environmental emissions from refineries continue to be a major problem. Although
the US Chemical Process Industires (CPI), reduced its emissions by 56.3% from 1989
to 1999 while increasing production by 33.3% (5), it still remains the largest single US
manufacturing industry source of undesirable emissions (6). Industry along the Texas
Gulf Coast, which is the worlds largest single concentration of CPI sites, is under
government mandates to reduce NOx emissions by a full 80% by 2007 (13). Obtaining
the latter goal and continuing the reduction will require many changes in refinery design
and operation. Improved measurements, modeling, analysis, and control are critical to
the goal of reducing emissions.
Demographics
The demographics of process refinery operators in North America are changing.
With industry downsizing there was very limited hiring in the 80s and 90s. As a result,
75+% of the operators in the CPI are expected to retire in the next 10 to 15 years (13).
Clearly, the average operator experience level will drop as a result. In addition, the
demands for enhanced analytical skills in the operator's job are increasing. A partial
solution to this problem is again to use refinery measurements, modeling and analytical
techniques to automate routine decision processes or at least provide the information to
make the decision process more efficient.

The general conclusion from the comments above is that there is a significant need
for improved operation in the refining industry and that smart automation technology
can be a significant contributor to the improved operation.
Prediction Versus Reaction
What is meant by decisions based on intelligent prediction rather than reaction?
The concept can perhaps best be understood in the context of the normal decision
process in the refinery as presented in figure 1 below. We measure a condition in the
refinery or detect a change of state, analyze the data to potentially spot an anomaly,
predict the effect of alternative action scenarios, decide which scenario to implement,
and then actually implement the scenarios. After this, the cycle repeats. Examples of
decisions made in this framework include what products to produce and when to
produce them, decisions on the resources required for production including feedstocks
and manpower and decisions on when to perform maintenance on a particular item of
equipment.
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Figure 1. Refinery Decision Cycle

What are the characteristics of the steps in this process?
Measure
Modern refineries produce a lot of data. It is not unusual for a large refinery site to
have 100,000 distinct measurements. If these measurements are scanned once a
minute, ten gigabytes a week of data will be produced. However, the data is natively of
poor quality. Instrument readings drift and noise corrupts the measurements. Even
when the actual measurements are good, the statistical properties are not the data is
cross-correlated and serially auto-correlated. It is often hard to detect changes or
trends.
Analyze
Analyze in this context is obtaining the best possible estimate of the current
performance of the system (refinery) and its history. Generally this means processing
the raw data through some kind of a model to obtain a performance indicator, perhaps
of an individual piece of equipment or of the overall refinery or site. This performance
indicator is then compared against a standard. The standard could be the normal, new
or clean performance of the equipment; it could be the financial budget for the refinery;
or it could be environmental or design limits. The model could be simply our memory of
how things behaved previously or it could be a formal mathematical formulation. Key
issues with analysis are to detect under (or over) performance and precursors of
abnormal events.
Measure
Analyze
Predict
Decide
Implement
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Predict
The next step in the decision process is to project into the future the expected
behavior of the system based on the information available. In some cases, this is done
by simply extrapolating future behavior to be the same as current or to expect future
behavior to follow the same pattern the system has exhibited in the past under similar
conditions. In more complicated situations, we can use an estimate of the current state,
a model of the system, and assumptions about the disturbances or effects that the
system will experience. Repeating from the paragraph above, analysis refers to
obtaining the best possible estimate of the current and past state of the system while
prediction refers to obtaining the best possible projection of future behavior.
Decide
Ultimately it is necessary to make a decision about the action to take in the future
including no new action and no change in condition. Normally this is done by
evaluating a set of feasible alternative decision sequences and then choosing one that
maximizes or minimizes a combined set of objectives within the imposed set of
constraints with this evaluation and choice done within the time available.
Implementation
Implementation is the actual execution of the scenario chosen. It involves all of the
activities required to make some change occur including most particularly inducing
individuals in the refinery to perform or not perform an action. Without implementation,
measurement, analysis and prediction are just an exercise.

The decision steps mentioned above are obviously not new and in fact have been
followed in refineries for many years before computers and networks had any major
impact. Those charged with decisions did the best they could at obtaining information
on the state of the refinery, on estimating its current performance and predicting what
would happen with various decision scenarios. However, the uncertainty levels were
very high and most decisions were not analytically based.

How do we move towards "smart" operation? We can improve the overall decision
process by:

Knowing better what the refinery is doing now this implies more accurate
measurements with less delay and more frequent measurements of previously
difficult to measure conditions.
Comparing better what the refinery is doing against what it is expected to do and
understanding the differences this leads to model based analysis and
techniques which promote comprehension of the information
Predicting better the effect of alternate decisions in the future

Some examples from different operational areas may make this clearer.
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Predictive Control Example
The first is from the control field. Consider the evolution from the PID controller to
advanced controllers utilizing multivariable predictive constraint control (MPCC)
algorithms. A standard PID loop is shown below:


Figure 2 Standard PID Loop

The controller senses the current measurement of the controlled variable, compares
it with the desired setpoint to calculate an error, and then takes corrective action based
on the parameter settings of the controller. It reacts to the current measurement.
Contrast this with the action of an MPCC algorithm in Figure 3 following.

For MPCC, there is a formal mathematical model relating the response of the
controlled variable to changes in the manipulated variable. This then allows the control
algorithm to use the history and current values of manipulated and controlled variable
moves to predict the behavior of the plant in the future and to take action based on this
prediction. The controller predicts if a controlled variable is likely, in the time period of
the prediction horizon, to deviate from its specification or violate a plant limit. Control
action can then be taken to correct the condition before there is ever an actual deviation
or violation detected. The implementation part of the decision process is done
automatically via closed loop control. Moreover, we can combine the models for
multiple controlled and manipulated variables into one controller that explicitly
recognizes the interaction between them as shown in Figure 4 below. The result is
significantly improved control performance. Reductions in standard deviation of 30 to
70% over standard PID control are routinely reported with MPCC implementation and
payout period of a few months for investments in this technology are often reported.

PID
Algorithm
to make
Error zero
Plant
Current measured
value for single
controlled variable
Setpoint
Error
Move
single
manipulated
variable
+
-
Control Moves Based on Current
Measurement
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Figure 3 Predictive Control Modeling





Figure 4 - Multivariable Predictive Constraint Control
Uses Information from
The Past
To Predict The Future
Past Present Future
Time
Controlled Variable
Manipulated Variable
Modeled
Relationship
Plant
Multivariable
Predictive
Constraint
Controller
Multiple
Setpoints
Multiple
measurements
of controlled
variables
Multiple manipulated
variable moves
based on predicted
plant behaviour
Multiple
Constraints
Measured
Disturbances
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Predictive Maintenance Example
The second example, from reference 18, concerns plant maintenance. There are
several approaches to maintenance in the plant. One is to wait until the equipment
breaks and then react to fix it if it is really important. Many plants still operate in this
mode. The second, known as preventative maintenance, uses average times to failure
for equipment and schedules maintenance before the expected failure time. However,
equipment can vary widely in actual performance. Predictive maintenance attempts to
find techniques to determine more precisely if equipment is underperforming or about to
fail. With the continuing improvement in computing and communication capabilities,
predictive maintenance can be based on actual device performance data, obtained and
analyzed in near real time. The overall objective is to catch potential equipment
problems early which leads to less expensive repairs and less downtime. Conversely,
we want to avoid shutting expensive equipment down unnecessarily. Figure 5,
following, illustrates the concept. Detecting anomalies early and deciding what they
imply with respect to the equipment is the goal. For example, the vibration patterns of
rotating equipment vary with deterioration of the equipment and can be used as
predictors of failure. In operation, data from the process and the equipment is validated
and brought to performance models. These calculate the performance and correct it to
standard conditions. With economic information, the cost of poor performance is also
calculated. This can be used for predictions of unscheduled removal (or replacement)
of part(s), disruption of service, or delays of capacity. Maintenance based on this
approach has been shown to reduce unscheduled maintenance costs by as much as
20 to 30% while simultaneously improving equipment reliability.


Figure 5 Predictive Maintenance
Acquire and
Validate Data
Analyze
Performance
Predict
Degraded
Operation
Take
Corrective
Action
Design
Information
Maintenance
History
Process Data
Temperature
Pressure
Flow
Load
Operating
Mode
Validated Data
Standardized Performance
Economics
Cost/ Benefits for Cleaning
Impending Failures
Proritized Maintenance
Work Orders
Asset Failure Probability
Equipment
Diagnostics Maintenance Decisions Based on
Future Predictions
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Predictive Product Demand Forecasting Example
The staff at every refinery needs to make a decision on the quantity of each product
to produce in the next production period and this decision is based partially on a
forecast of market demand. It is also recognized that the forecast will always have
uncertainty due to market fluctuations, production interruptions and transportation
issues. The response to this uncertainty is to have substantial product inventories that
ensure actual demands seldom go unmet. In fact, many refineries even today set their
schedules in large measure to produce to inventory, i.e. there is a target inventory of
each product and when the actual amount falls below this amount, they react and
produce more to fill the tanks back to the desired levels. Other elements of the supply
chain, i.e. production, the terminals, and the retail outlets all contain more stocks of
feed and product inventory. These inventories tend to be controlled locally and set
based on problem avoidance at the individual site. The result is excessive inventory in
the supply chain that consumes unneeded working capital. Modern product demand
forecasting systems utilize sophisticated modeling of expected demand based upon
extensive analysis of historical records and correlations with demand triggers, i.e.
expected weather patterns. These are combined with real time information about the
current total state of inventory across the supply chain as shown in the figure below to
predict demand and set production targets (14). Analytical analysis of the projected risk
of not meeting demand compared with the cost of inventory can then be made. One oil
company reported a substantial increase in profitability largely attributed to
implementation of this technology (20).
Figure 6 Predictive Product Demand Forecasting
Production Refinery Supply and
Distribution
Realtime
Information
Analytical
Forecasting
and
Planning
Production Based on
Future Prediction of
Demand
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Enabling Technologies
What are the enabling technologies that permit refineries to move from reacting to
predicting? There are certainly dozens and perhaps even hundreds of new
developments that could be discussed. In the sections below, the ones that the author
views as having the most important impact on operations are presented and referenced
to their specific decision cycle position as shown in figure 7 below. Since space limits
how much functionality can be covered in this document, some references are provided
on sources for more information. The emphasis again is on the cumulative and
combined effect of these developments to support the smart refinery operation.

Figure 7 Enabling Technologies

Measure
Smart Field Devices One of the most dramatic technology developments has been
in the general area of smart field devices. As microprocessors have shrunk, they have
been incorporated directly into basic refinery equipment. In the instrumentation area,
this has included transmitters, valves, and primary measurement devises including
process analyzers. These devices have become in essence small data servers. A
basic transmitter a few years ago would send one 4-20 ma signal back to the control
system as an indication of the measured value. Today, a modern transmitter sends
back multiple readings plus at least six different alarm conditions. A standard electric
motor that previously had no real time measurements now has as many as fifteen
sensors providing temperatures, flux, run times, etc. that are available for recording and
diagnosis. Modern valves now calculate and retain in local data history a current valve
signature of pressure versus stem travel, compare it with the signature when the valve
was installed, and provide diagnostic information or alarming on the difference. An
example is shown below in Figure 8 of a valve that is clearly malfunctioning and is
reporting this malfunctioning in real time. In addition to normal measurements, cheap
Measure
Analyze
Predict
Decide
Implement
Smart Field
Devices
Digital Plant
Networks
Data
Mining
Model
Based
Performance
Realtime
Simulation
Optimization
Expert
Systems
Comprehensive
Plant Databases
Analytics
Predictive
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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sensors allowing thermal photographic and audiometric data monitoring on major
equipment are being routinely used. The data transfer is not just from the devices to
the central database. Configuration and calibration information is entered remotely and
executed without the necessity for local activation.



Figure 8 Typical Smart Device

Analytical procedures that could only be performed in laboratories a few years ago
are now migrating to field devices. Examples include NIR (Near Infra-Red) and NMR
(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses.

Digital Plant Networks Supporting the increases in local measurement and
analytical capability has been a change from analog based communication for field
instrumentation to digital bus structures. This produces a corresponding increase in
communication bandwidth of several orders of magnitude and permits much more
diagnostic information to be carried to the data system. Open standards for these
buses have encouraged interoperability among devices from multiple manufacturers.
Connectivity between the plant instrumentation network, the control network, and the
plant IT network has also evolved into a reliable backbone for plant systems. This
infrastructure is required to support the other applications that analyze and use the
data. The continuing evolution in remote access through developments in the Internet
is well known and will not be repeated here. What perhaps is less well known is the
penetration of wireless communication into the refinery environment. Remote sensors
are being installed without wires on refinery equipment where there is no need for two
way communication and absolute reliability is not as important.
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Comprehensive Plant Databases - Although there have been plant databases for
many years, the continued evolution in their functionality has maintained their
importance as the basic infrastructure or enabler for other applications. Previously they
were primarily aimed at storage of realtime process data and related calculations for
historical records and trending. Today there is a much larger set of information that
must be maintained for realtime access. This includes equipment purchase, spare
parts and cost information; mechanical, electrical, P&I, and process drawings; initial and
current configuration information along with an audit trail of the changes; maintenance
records; safety procedures; MSDS sheets; etc. All of the diagnostic information
reported by the smart devices above must be captured. Product analyses, blend
recipes, and other production specifications are also accumulated. Objects stored in
the database are not just numbers and text but also pictures, spectral analyses, links to
other data sources, etc. Once the data is in the database, techniques to permit efficient
retrieval of this information are a key to determining the state of the refinery. When
something goes wrong in the plant, the primary objective is fixing the problem as soon
as possible. It is usually necessary to gather information about the problem area
drawings, spec sheets, process conditions, maintenance history, etc. Without a
comprehensive database, this data gathering often takes more time than solving the
problem after all the data is assembled. Developing a common and adequate user
interface for these systems is a specific challenge. Generally, the interfaces are icon
based with some views keying off graphic process layouts that permit all information to
be retrieved by moving a pointer to the desired piece of equipment.
Analyze
To reiterate, analysis techniques are intended to determine the best possible
estimate of the current and historical state of the plant. The new developments in the
measurement area plus the general increase in computer capabilities generally mean
much more data is available more than one can hope to process manually. Part of
the response to this increase in data is an increase in automated analysis which takes
several forms.

Data Mining The real time data available from the refineries presents special
challenges. As mentioned earlier, it is usually corrupted by noise and non-independent,
i.e. both auto-correlated and cross-correlated. In addition, there is a lot of data - our
ability to gather data has far outstripped our ability to analyze it. This problem is not
unique to the process industries. One perhaps lesser known statistic is that the
capacity of digital data storage worldwide has doubled every nine months for at least a
decade, which is a rate twice that of Moores law on semiconductor densities (4).
However, if correlations in the data relating to production variables can be found or if
precursors to failure can be identified, the potential benefits are large. Data mining is
derived from traditional types of statistical analysis but is focused on processing large
databases to find undetected patterns and associations. The first level tools include a
number of special linear statistical techniques such as PCA and PLS (reference 9).
These tools should always be the first to be used for analysis since they have well
developed statistical properties that other approaches do not have. When these are
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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not sufficient, a large number of more general tools has been developed to provide
more general pattern recognition, including relations between events and determine
how attributes are linked (7). Again, the major issue is the poor underlying statistical
quality of process data that makes techniques useful in other fields less useful in
analyzing process data.

Associated with data mining is the whole issue of visualization of large databases.
Pattern recognition is significantly improved if the data can be visually displayed in a
form which accentuates patterns and correlations that may exist.

Model Based Performance Monitoring To mange something you generally have to
measure it. For plant performance this normally implies using the data in some sort of
model to calculate performance measures, often called KPIs (Key Performance
Indicators). These performance measures are used to compare actual against plan or
actual against original condition. An example is the calculation of specific energy
consumption, i.e. energy consumed per unit of feed or product. To accurately assess
unit operation, this calculated value has to be corrected for the current feed and product
types and distribution, for the current production rate, and for the run time since the last
equipment maintenance. This correction can only be done via a model of process
operation. Data validation and reconciliation procedures must be used to bring the
input data to the standard required by the performance analysis. With the corrected
KPIs, actual operation versus plan can be accurately assessed and deviations noted.

Important questions that can then be answered include:
What is the true maximum capacity of our equipment? Today? If it was clean? If
it was new?
What really stopped us from making our production targets last month?
How do we accurately and consistently compare performance across all of our
sites?
How do we make sure everybody is looking at the same set of numbers?

Virtual analyzers or soft sensors are a special case of model based performance
monitoring and involve the use of common process measurements (temperatures,
pressures, flows, etc.) to infer a difficult to measure property using an empirical or semi-
empirical model. This is, unfortunately, one of the development areas where the claims
have outpaced reality by a large measure. However, progress has continued and there
are a number of actual installations where real value is obtained (12). Three key
limitations that are not always recognized are:

The estimate is only good within the data region used to train the model.
Unsteady state process conditions with a steady state model will not generally
yield acceptable results since the time constants in the process will normally be
different for different measurements.
Non causal models can estimate current conditions but cannot be used to
predict future behavior.
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Predict
Predictive analytics
Predictive analytics is the general name for developing the best possible estimate of
the future behavior of the system of interest based upon a model and an estimate of the
current state. It includes a variety of techniques. In the predictive control example
above, it is the model between the manipulated and controlled variables. In the
maintenance example, it is the model relating deterioration in performance to potential
failure. In the supply chain example, it is the demand forecasting model. Note that the
control model is deterministic, i.e. there is a specific set of outputs calculated for each
set of inputs; the supply chain forecast model will be statistically based a range of
outputs is calculated, and the maintenance model is event driven. These are the
general types of predictions models of interest to the process industries. Most
prediction model building approaches are application specific at this time. One overall
key issue in model development is the necessity to use independent not dependent
variables as the basis for prediction.
Decide
As mentioned earlier, a key to good decisions is efficient evaluation of the full range
of potential solutions. Clearly, the improved modeling and computational capabilities
has resulted in a significant improvement in the refinery staffs ability to evaluate
alternatives. For example, if there was a production problem in one of a number of
process units, the normal reaction in the past was to correct the problem by following
the response pattern of previous similar outages. This was done not necessarily
because the staff believed that it was the optimal response, but rather because the time
available to respond and the available information did not support any other response.
Today, it is normally possible to analyze multiple possible responses and choose one
that reflects current actual demands and availabilities.

Optimization Optimization is the general technique of determining the best set of
actions within the constraints imposed that maximize or minimize the specific result
desired. Most developments in refinery logistics planning, operations scheduling, and
advanced control algorithms are, in reality, developments in applied constrained
optimization. As optimization algorithms have become more computationally efficient
and as computer processing speeds have increased, we are able to model systems in
more detail with more independent variables and still complete the required optimization
calculations fast enough for the answers to be useful. For advanced control the
required execution time may be seconds or even milli-seconds. In scheduling,
execution times of a few minutes are acceptable while for planning even an hour may
be satisfactory. Naturally the models and numbers of variables will be different. Linear
programming problems, which use the most computationally efficient algorithms, are
now routinely able to solve problems with as many as seven million constraint equations
(10). Mixed integer optimization algorithms, which have applicability to scheduling and
other problems, have similarly increased capabilities. The recent history of all of these
applications is the use of more complex and hopefully more realistic models that exploit
the rapid advance in computing power to permit solution in a reasonable time period.

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Real Time Simulation The increased use of real time simulation as a tool for
learning about complex systems such as a refinery is one of the most significant of the
ongoing developments. This is most valuable in situations with very low tolerance for
error or with very infrequent occurrences. Normal examples include training refinery
operators to deal with emergency situations or with refinery start-up and shut-down.
The key improvement obtained is a faster and safer response to these types of
situations. An interesting development is the adoption of 3D virtual refinery
representations for this safety training. However, the use of simulation is not limited to
operator training. In fact, one of the biggest areas of increased use for this technology
is in overall business simulation, particularly in the logistics area.

Expert Systems Another technology where the hype has significantly outpaced
reality has been in the use of expert system technology to assist in decision making,
most particularly as operator guidance systems. Much has been proposed but few
actual systems have been implemented and even fewer have stayed in use for multiple
years. The modeling of actual decisions has proven to be more difficult in practice than
anticipated. However, of perhaps more importance has been the difficulty in
maintaining the expert systems current as situations in the refinery change. However,
there remains a real need for such systems, particularly in the general area of abnormal
event detection, diagnosis, and prevention. See reference 16 for recent academic work
and reference 7 for some industrial comments.
Economic Benefits
There are many sources of benefits for the technologies discussed above. Smart
field devices and plant digital networks are often justified on the basis of reduced capital
costs versus alternate required investments and/ or reduced maintenance
requirements. These can be quantified based on experience with similar installations
and can be substantial. Advanced controls and real time optimization also have
developed methodologies for benefit analysis (17).

However, many of the developments in smart refining involve more, better and
faster measurements of process and equipment conditions and use of models to
analyze the data. How do we estimate the value of these developments or of a
database? Sometimes these economic benefits are calculated by multiplying a small
potential percentage improvement in production performance times a large number
such as product value and claiming that the result is plausibly the expected benefit.
The causal map between the technology implementation and the improvement in
production performance is not really specified. A close review of the claims shows,
however, that many developments are each claiming to achieve the same
improvement. The concept of diminishing returns seems absent. One source of
confusion in evaluating the benefits is that only the action, the implementation, actually
creates business profit or loss. How then, can we estimate the value of the improved
information permitting a better decision and implementation of a superior strategy?

Assume that we have determined the "optimum" operating policy for the refinery and
this generates an expected economic profit as shown in the figure below. Any estimate
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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that we have of the current best operating policy has some uncertainty that is
represented by the confidence limits around the operating line. Moreover, as we project
the optimum operating policy into the future, the expected confidence limits increase
and the increase is proportional to the distance into the future we project the optimum
policy. This uncertainty is reflected back into the present and creates uncertainty about
what the current best policy is. In other words, we now have most of the information to
tell us how we should have operated last week but we don't know precisely how to
operate today since it depends on events that will happen in the future.

Figure 9 Prediction versus analysis/ estimation

How can we improve the accuracy of the prediction of the future which permits us to
decide better how to operate today? In general, it will be enhanced by having more
accurate models, having a better estimate of the current state, and having more
information about future disturbances. The decision is improved by increasing the set
of feasible sequences considered, by better projection of the implication of the
decisions into the future including risk factors, and by the factors mentioned earlier of
better knowledge of the current state and more frequent evaluations. In simple terms,
the earlier a problem is detected, the easier it is to solve.

Further, many of the technology developments can be categorized by their reduction
in the expected error limits on estimates of current performance and predictions of
future system behavior shown previously in Figure 9. The cumulative effect of these
developments over the past thirty years has been a steady reduction in the uncertainty
Profit
$/ Hr
Projected
Maximum
Profit
Scenario
Present Past Future
Time
Confidence
Limits
Analysis Prediction
Actual
Optimum Decision Uncertainty
Increases with Distance Forward from
Current Time
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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of the planning projections as illustrated in figure 10 below. In simple terms, we are
able to predict better and hence make better decisions. In mathematical terms, this
corresponds to tightening the confidence limits around the projection into the future.


Figure 10 Variance Evolution



Example
One of the most important process units in a refinery is the Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Unit. It operates by contacting a fluidized stream of hot granular catalyst with a
vaporized hydrocarbon feed in the reactor which induces a reaction to convert the feed
into a variety of lower molecular, weight higher valued products. The catalyst is
separated from the hydrocarbon and sent to a catalyst regenerator where the heavy
reaction byproducts, "coke," are burned off the catalyst so that it can be reused.
Supporting the process operation is a hydraulic circuit of catalyst as it passes through
the reactor and regenerator. This hydraulic circuit generally operates with a relatively
low pressure gradient with some major valves, called slide valves, controlling the flow.
To ensure that hot hydrocarbons don't enter the regenerator, the pressure drop across
the regenerated catalyst slide valve is monitored. An upset condition, where
hydrocarbons do enter the regenerator, is called a "reversal" and is both dangerous and
expensive to correct. As a result, if a low pressure drop is detected across the valve
indicating that hydrocarbon might be about to flow in the wrong direction, the unit is
Effect of Smart Plant
Developments is to Reduce
Uncertainty
Present Past Future
Time
Normal
Variance
of
Analysis/
Prediction
1970
1990
Today
Analysis
Prediction
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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automatically shut down. Restarting the unit after a shutdown is expensive and the lost
production from the unplanned shutdown is also an economic loss. Avoiding
unnecessary shutdowns while maintaining safe operation is therefore a challenge. With
the circulating granular catalyst, small particles, catalyst "fines," are produced.
Occasionally these fines can plug the leads to the pressure drop transmitter, simulating
a low pressure drop and causing an unnecessary shutdown.

Figure 11 below shows how a modern smart transmitter with automatic detection of
a plugged transfer line can be used to correct this problem. The standard deviation of
the current measured signal is calculated and compared with the values when it was
first installed. If there is a significant reduction in the standard deviation, it is an
indication of the possibility of plugging. The alert is sent to the operator who can
investigate and avoid an unnecessary shutdown without any loss of safety. One major
refining group estimated that installation of this technology across their group of refinery
FCCU's would save at least $1 million per year in shutdown/ startup costs and $3
million per year in lost production operating margin.


Figure 11 Detection of Plugged Lines

Example - Using Device
Intelligence to Predict Failure
The Transmitter
Monitor Detects
Process
Conditions
Impulse Lines Plug
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
1.81
1.811
1.812
1.813
1.814
1.815
1.816
1.817
1.818
1.819
1.82
Time (min)
P
V

(
V
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
1.81
1.811
1.812
1.813
1.814
1.815
1.816
1.817
1.818
1.819
1.82
Time (min)
P
V

(
V
)
Alarm Condition
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Outstanding Issues
Clearly there have been many new developments in the smart refining arena and
many successful technology adoptions. However, there are numerous practical issues
that have delayed further implementation. While technology is part of the equation, it is
clear that the primary issue concerns individuals and organizations. The authors
experience is that the technology generally works if not totally, at least partially.
However, many new technology implementations fail on the human issues involved.
Individuals and organizations are highly resistant to change. If you introduce new
technology but don't change the business processes to take advantage of it, obviously
the business benefits will be reduced. How to make individuals feel comfortable with the
new technology and how to fit the new decision models into an organizations existing
decision and power structure are the primary open questions. While these questions
may seem outside the normal range of enquiry for technologists, their answers may
continue to limit the rate of progress.

It is also important to retain a sense of proportion with regard to technology.
Improving refining productivity and efficiency is the goal, not technology development.
Quick approximate answers to the right question are more important than elegant
answers to the wrong one or precise answers to the right question delivered long after
the issue has passed.
Conclusion
Dramatic changes in computer and communication capabilities are occurring and
will continue to have a very large impact on refinery production. The trends in
manufacturing financial incentives, health, safety and environmental issues, and
refinery operating demographics are driving many of the potential uses. Significant
benefits can be obtained by taking advantages of these opportunities. Companies that
are the quickest to take advantage of these opportunities will benefit the most.

In other industries, developments are ongoing and perhaps illustrate the path
forward. The appliance division of a major manufacturer has already announced sale
of refrigerators, washers, and other appliances that receive instructions and report over
the web. It will not be too long until your doorbell rings and the repairman says, "I
received a request from your refrigerator to come and replace the drive belt.

Can process equipment be far behind?
The Smart Refinery: Economics and Technology

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Acknowledgement: This paper is partially based on an earlier one presented by the
author at FOCAPO 2003 (19)
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2. Duguid, Ian, Take this Safety Database to Heart, Chemical Engineering, July, 2001; pp.80 84
3. Energy Information Agency, Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers, 2001, available
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4. Fayyad, U. and R. Uthurusamy (ed); Evolving Data Mining into Solutions for Insights and following
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Week, April 25, 2002.
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8. Harold, D. (2001) Merging Mom's Perceptive Power with Technology Creates Startling Results;
Control Engineering, April, 2001
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Statistical Process Control System; Presented Interkama; Hanover, Germany; 1999
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together?" NPRA 2000 Annual Meeting; Paper AM-00-44.
15. The Forbes Platinum List, Forbes, January, 2003 p.120
16. Venkatasubramanian, V.; Abnormal Event Management in Complex Process Plants: Challenges
and Opportunities in Intelligent Supervisory Control; Proceedings FOCAPO 2003, pp 117 ff
17. White, D.C, Online Optimization: what, where and estimating ROI; Hydrocarbon Processing; Vol.
76(6); June, 1997; pp.43 51
18. White, D.C. Increased Refinery Productivity through Online Performance Monitoring; Hydrocarbon
Processing, June, 2002
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Lauderdale, FL; (2003)
20. Wortham, B., Drilling for Every Drop of Value, CIO Magazine, June, 2002

HYDROCARBON PROCESSING / JANUARY 2002
M
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J. D. Smart, Emerson Process Management, Singapore
W
ith the enabling technology of FOUNDATION field-
bus, intelligent field devices are able to go far beyond
providing an accurate process variable. Information
generated by smart field instrumentation in hydrocarbon
processing plants can significantly improve production effi-
ciencies, enable open field-based control architecture, drive
cost-saving asset management solutions and enhance enter-
prise-wide information technology systems.
Since development of intelligent field instrumentation more
than 10 years ago, growth and utilization of the capabilities and
data available from these devices have been limited, largely by
widespread proprietary digital communication standards. The
introduction of device communication technologies and stan-
dardssuch as FOUNDATION fieldbusis now enhancing the
value of information delivered from field devices throughout
process industry facilities.
This enabling technol-
ogy is based on open, con-
tinuous communication of
information between other
intelligent field devices and
application-specific hosts
such as process automation
and asset management sys-
tems. Openness of the archi-
tecture protects the interests
of the end user, but it also
provides manufacturers
access to a larger number of
potential customers without
being locked out by propri-
etary protocols.
This trend toward inter-
operabilityreplacing different vendors products easily and
effectivelyencourages field device suppliers to find new ways
to add value to their products. Efficient use of device data is
the basis for a revolution that is expanding the role of intelli-
gent field devices to meet the business needs and marketplace
challenges of the hydrocarbon processing industry.
A new model. The field device revolution is centered on
reducing process variable uncertainty and enhancing device
functionality and diagnostics while providing more integrated
solutions around the desired process measurement. Fig. 1
illustrates the relationship between these four key areas of intel-
ligent field device development.
To fully utilize functionality and diagnostics improve-
ments in a field device, new emphasis must be placed on
reducing process variable uncertainty. There is no sense in hav-
ing an instrument capable of performing complex calculations,
such as dynamically compensated mass flow in a differential
pressure transmitter, if the calculation is based on an inaccu-
rate process variable.
Reductions in process variable uncertainty go beyond
general improvements in accuracy. They encompass:
Minimizing all sources of measurement error under
actual field conditions
Improving device stability to ensure desired perfor-
mance is maintained over extended periods and changing field
conditions
Reducing response time to generate a representative
process variable signal.
By minimizing process variable uncertainty in this fash-
ion, manufacturers are able to
use the base sensor mea-
surement as a platform to
develop functionality and
diagnostics capabilities that
further enhance process per-
formance, reliability and
availability.
Added functionality sim-
ply means getting the trans-
mitter to do more. A wide
range of functionality
enhancements can be
achieved from highly accu-
rate and reliable sensor sig-
nals. The Fieldbus Founda-
tion already defines some 30
discrete and continuous func-
tion blocks that can be used for various control activities
including PID control. This does not, however, prevent man-
ufacturers from generating even more advanced functional-
ity. Multivariable technology, for example, increases the
number and type of measurements that can be achieved
with a single field device.
The role of the microprocessor in intelligent field devices
can also be expanded to incorporate complex computations
and data management. More advanced functionality can
include scalable field device designs that allow the end user
to match a devices performance to the requirements of the
application and easily upgrade it to changing requirements
in the future. Recent release of mass flowmeter electronic sets
Fieldbus improves control
and asset management
Substantial benefits are realized from increased diagnostics and process data
Fig. 1. The new model shows the relationship between four key areas of
intelligent device development.
Reprinted from: Jan. 2002 issue, pgs 55-57. Used with permission.
that allow users to select and
upgrade performance level,
number of process variables and
desired diagnostics is one of the
first examples of scalability.
With a field device network,
device data are more readily
available for analysis and inter-
pretation to help support cost-
effective predictive and preven-
tive maintenance programs.
Internal diagnostics can encom-
pass more detailed analysis at an
electronic board and component
level to identify intermittent or potential failures before they
impact the device reliability. The diagnostics role can even be
extended to include external components associated with a mea-
surement point such as temperature sensors and impulse lines.
With reduced process variable uncertainty comes the abil-
ity to expand the diagnostics capability of the field device into
the process. Research shows that what was once considered sen-
sor noise is actually an indicator of conditions that exist within
the process. By analyzing specific characteristics and trends in
noise, field devices can identify and signal potential problems
with process variability or other physical assets (pumps, valves,
etc.) in a control loop.
To help ensure that desired performance, functionality and
diagnostics within critical measurement and control loops are
realized under field conditions, device manufacturers are pro-
viding a more integrated approach to applying the technology.
Easy-to-use application and engineering software, integration
of critical measurement point components, and development of
new best practice installation designs and procedures are
offered to ensure measurement integrity. Taking a more inte-
grated approach to the entire measurement point helps simplify
the application engineering process, delivers a more cost-effec-
tive packaging of components and expands the manufacturers
responsibility to include the entire measurement point. This is
a significant step by vendors toward assuring measurement
point reliability versus just assuming field device reliability.
Stepping into reality. When viewing a model, it is always
interesting to assess it against whats happening in the real
world. Surprisingly enough, intelligent field device develop-
ments based on the model proposed in this article are well
underway. The best instrument manufacturers recognize the need
to reduce process variable uncertainty and already publish total
performance and stability specifications for various field
devices. Resulting improvements in pressure and temperature
transmitters have demonstrated 3% to 4% reductions in process
variability and up to 80% reductions in field device calibrations.
Improvements in control valve technology and addition of dig-
ital valve controllers (DVCs) have resulted in 10% increases in
throughput, with over a twofold improvement in controllabil-
ity performance.
Functionality enhancements are also prevalent within currently
available intelligent field devices. The added functionality in dig-
ital control valve positioners means they can be field calibrated
within five minutes compared to previous methods that required
one to three hours. It is even possible for a pressure regulator to
indicate flow in applications that would normally use flow
recorders. Appearance of more and more multivariable devices
for industrial processes attests to the ability of manufacturers to
add functionality once they have confidence in the process vari-
ability of