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B GIO DC V O TO I HC NNG

Cng trnh c hon thnh ti I HC NNG

V THANH DNG

Ngi hng dn khoa hc: PGS. TS. L Vn Sn

Phn bin 1: TS. Nguyn Tn Khi

XY DNG H THNG GIM ST CHT LNG MNG TRN C S GIAO THC ICMP V SNMP
Phn bin 2: GS.TS. Nguyn Thanh Thy

Chuyn ngnh: KHOA HC MY TNH M s: 60.48.01 Lun vn c bo v trc Hi ng chm Lun vn tt nghip thc s k thut hp ti i hc Nng vo ngy 15 thng 10 nm 2011 TM TT LUN VN THC S K THUT

C th tm hiu lun vn ti: - Trung tm Thng tin - Hc liu, i hc Nng Nng - Nm 2011 - Trung tm Hc liu, i hc Nng.

M U 1. L do chn ti Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca cc gii php cng ngh h tng mng truyn thng, hng lot cc yu cu mi c t ra i vi cc vn khai thc v trin khai h thng trong mi trng mng thc tin. Bi ton qun l gim st cht lng mng vin thng lun l mi quan tm hng u v l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht cn gii quyt ca cc nh khai thc mng vin thng. Ty thuc vo cc gii php cng ngh v cc ng dng trin khai m cc nh khai thc la chn v xy dng cc h thng qun l gim st cht lng mng thch hp nng cao hiu qu vn hnh v khai thc mng. V vy, cc gii php qun l gim st cht lng mng lun l mt bi ton mang tnh ng v st vi cng ngh mng li. Hin ti, mt s cng trnh tin hc nghin cu v a ra nhng m hnh kh thi km theo cc gii php thc hin vic qun tr mng TCP/IP nh: HP Open-View Network Node Manager, Salawinds, Ciscoworks Network Connectivity Monitor. Tuy vy, cc vn quan trng ca vic gim st mng trn nn Topology vn cn i hi phi tip tc hon thin nh : i vi cc thit b hot ng tng thp hn cng cn c gim st. Lu cc thng tin v thit b (qun l v ti sn) ti xy dng h thng gim st cht lng mng trn c s giao thc ICMP v SNMP. Chng trnh c xy dng v ng dng s gip cho tt c cc VNPT tnh thnh thc hin gim st cht

lng mng cho tt c cc khch hng s dng dch v mng VPN v t bit khch hng huyn min ni c a hnh kh khn nh cc tnh Qung Nam, KonTum, k Lt, k Nng qua ngi qun tr mng c th pht hin v x l nhanh chng cc s c nng cao c cht lng mng cho khch hng, ti c ngha thc tin cao. 2. Mc tiu v nhim v nghin cu Mc tiu: Tm hiu quy trnh hot trong ng h thng mng IP Core, Man-E t Dslam n IP Core MPLS. Nghin cu cc giao thc nh tuyn trong mng VNPT Tm hiu v SQL Server , ngn ng lp trnh VB.NET Nhim v: Tm hiu v giao thc TCP/IP, h thng giao thc ICMP v SNMP Qun l mng trn mi trng Java. Phn tch, nh gi ra gii php ti mng VNPT v cc Route Core T1600, PE 7750, ERX 1410 Nghin cu, ng dng v SQL Server , ngn ng lp trnh VB.NETtrong qu trnh xy dng h thng gim st cht lng mng.

Xy dng chng trnh Demo hng n s dng ti VTN v VNPT Qung nam v cc nh cung cp dch v mng khc. nh gi kt qu theo yu cu. 3. i tng v phm vi nghin cu i tng: - Kho st h thng mng truyn dn Man-E ca VNPT thc t ti VTN3 v VNPT Qung Nam. - Phn tch Route khch hng n mng IP Core MPLS. Phm vi: Thit b mng Man-e ca VNPT tnh v thit b mng u cui ca khch hng VPN B Ti chnh (Kho bc nh nc tnh Qung nam). 4. D kin kt qu t c * Hiu r v b giao thc s dng nh tuyn trn mng. o Nm vng v cc ngn ng lp trnh SQL Server, ngn ng lp

c ti n v do tit kim c hng trm triu ng so vi vic trin khai mt h thng gim st c lp. o Vic gim st lu lng ch ng trong vic iu chuyn

lu lng cho ph hp vi tng loi dch v, tng khch hng cng l li cam kt m bo cht lng v thng hiu ca nh cung cp dch v i vi khch hng. 5. Phng php nghin cu * T liu: Tng hp cc ti liu lin quan n cng ngh mng. - Phn tch: Giao thc chun trong h TCP/IP nh SNMP, ICMP v k thut DNS, xc nh a ch Broadcast, Subnet, ca TCP - Thc nghim: Xy dng phn mm gim st cht lng mng ti VTN3 v VNPT tnh Qung nam. 6. ngha khoa hc v thc tin ca ti - V mt l thuyt, ti nghin cu gip hiu r hn v l thuyt TCP/IP v cc ngn ng lp trnh SQL Server , ngn ng lp trnh VB.NET. - V mt thc tin, xy dng mt chng trnh nh p ng c nhu cu h thng xc nh Topology mng v tr gip vic gim st cc mng TCP/IP. 7. B cc lun vn Bo co ca lun vn c c t chc thnh ba chng chnh. Chng 1: Nhng vn c bn v gim st cht lng mng Chng 2: H thng giao thc qun l mng ICMP v SNMP Chng 3: Xy dng h thng gim st cht lng mng

trnh VB.NET... o Nghin cu, so snh, nh gi so vi cc chng trnh xy

dng (m ngun m). o Xy dng ng dng, hng ti phc v cho cc qu trnh gim

st, x l cht lng mng ti VTN3 v VNPT tnh Qung nam. * Hiu qu kinh t x hi: o Phn mm to c tnh ch ng cho n v trong vic theo di

v iu chuyn lu lng mng kp thi m bo cht lng dch v mnh cung cp. Phn mm trin khai tch hp trn h thng cc Client v Server hin

CHNG 1 NHNG VN C BN V GIM ST CHT LNG MNG 1.1 CC YU CU CHUNG CA QUN L MNG 1.2 CC PHNG PHP K THUT QUN L MNG Kin trc h thng qun l mng rt phc tp v ch yu ph thuc vo kin trc h thng mng, khng c mt lut hoc mt k thut c th no c coi l bt buc i vi cc h thng mng. Mt s hng tip cn c ch ra di y: 1.2.1 Qun l hin Nu h thng qun l c khi to v qun l bi con ngi, phng php qun l mng ny c gi l qun l hin. Ngi qun l s khi to qu trnh v thc hin qun l trong sut thi gian qun l, c th c mt s chc nng t ng h tr cho cng tc qun l ca ngi iu hnh h thng nhng vn c coi l phng php qun l hin. Mt u im ca phng php qun l hin l khng cn thit phi thit k chi tit cc chc nng qun l trong giai on thit k h thng, cc vn thc t s c ngi iu hnh ra quyt nh tu thuc vo cc mc tiu v iu kin c th trong qu trnh khai thc. Nh vy, tin trnh thit k h thng s gim bt phc tp v thi gian. Qun l hin hu dng trong vic gii quyt cc vn khng mong mun xy ra trong qu trnh hot ng thc t ca h thng, ng thi yu cu cc gii php tt nht c a ra t pha ngi iu hnh. Qun l hin rt ph hp vi chc nng

qun l li. 1.2.2 Qun l n Khi h thng t khi to v iu hnh, phng php qun l ny c gi l qun l n, tt c cc chc nng qun l c thc hin bi cc module phn cng v phn mm mt cch t ng. S khc bit vi phng php qun l hin l phng php thi hnh. V mt nguyn tc, hon ton c th thc hin hai phng php qun l trong cng mt h thng. Vi cc h thng thng minh v h thng chuyn gia h tr cho phng php qun l n, ranh gii gia hai phng php qun l c thu hp li. Mt s vn li cn phi c gii quyt bng c hai phng php ng thi trong c qu trnh pht hin v sa li. 1.2.3 Qun l tp trung Trong tip cn ny ch c mt thit b qun l thu nhn cc thng tin v iu khin ton b cc thc th mng, v d cc thng tin lin quan ti cc ng dng c lu tr ti mt h thng qun l n nh ch ra trn hnh 1.4 di y. Cc chc nng qun l c thc hin bi manager, kh nng ca h thng ph thuc rt ln vo mc thng minh ca manager. Kin trc ny thng c s dng rt nhiu trong mng hin nay, nht l vi cc m hnh doanh nghip c h tng mng ring v c trung tm qun tr mng.

cc chc nng c s. Bng cch qun l phn tn ti cc trm lm vic trn ton mng, cng tc qun l mng tng tin cy v hiu nng h thng trong khi gi truyn thng v tnh ton gim xung. Tt c cc h thng u thc hin cng mt kiu chc nng c s v tng ng nhau.

Hnh 1.1 M hnh qun l tp trung 1.2.4 Qun l phn cp Trong tip cn ny, h thng c chia thnh cc vng tu theo nhim v qun l to ra mt h thng phn cp qun l. Trung tm x l t ti gc ca cy phn cp, v cc h thng phn tn c t ti cc nhnh ca cy. H thng x l trung tm truy nhp ti tt c cc h thng nhnh v ch ra cc nhim v phn tn ca nhnh. Kin trc phn cp s dng khi nim qun l ca qun l v qun l theo vng. Mi mt qun l vng chu trch nhim qun l trong chnh vng v khng lin quan ti cc vng khc. 1.2.5 Qun l phn tn H thng qun l phn tn cn gi l h thng qun l ngang cp v khng c h thng trung tm. Cc manager a chc nng chu trnh nhim trn tng vng mng v trao i thng tin ti cc h thng qun l khc qua cc giao thc ngang cp. Cc thit b qun l b sung vo h thng phi c sn sng a ra cc quyt nh cho Phng php qun l hybrid c xy dng trn nguyn tc t hp ca kin trc phn tn v kin trc phn cp. Kin trc ny rt thng dng v thng gn vi tn trng vi kin trc mng. M hnh phng php qun l hybrid c ch ra trn hnh sau. Kin trc qun l mng hybrid s dng phng php qun l gm c qun l trn tng vng v qun l cc qun l MOM (Manage Of Manager). Da trn cu hnh phn cp v cc qun l vng khng ch chu trch nhim qun l cho chnh vng m cn Hnh 1.2 M hnh qun l phn tn 1.2.6 Phng php qun l hybrid

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cho cc vng khc. Tip cn c c tnh mm do v cung cp cc chc nng tt nht cho mi trng c tnh bin ng. 1.2.7 Qun l hng i tng Qun l hng i tng c xut bi t chc tiu chun quc t ISO (International Organization for Standardization) v y ban thc thi k thut Internet IETF ( Internat Engineering Task Force). Mc tiu ca qun l hng i tng tp trung vo gii quyt cc vn c bit trong qun l ti nguyn phn tn nhm to ra mt h thng qun l mng m chung i vi cc ngun ti nguyn. Trong m hnh thng tin, thut ng i tng qun l c s dng nhm tru tng ho cc ngun ti nguyn vt l v logic b qun l. Vic truy nhp n cc ngun ti nguyn b qun l phi thng qua cc i tng qun l. 1.2.8 Qun l tch hp Tip cn qun l tch hp da trn t hp ca qun l phn cp, phn tn v qun l hng i tng bng cch p dng kin trc CORBA (Common Object Request Brocken Archictecture). Kin trc CORBA gi thit cc tp i tng phn mm c phn tn trong cc thc th c kh nng t iu khin v kt hp vi nhau gii quyt cc li trong h thng. Cc i tng ny c x l qua cc ngn ng hng i tng nh Smalltalk, C++ hoc JAVA. Tp i tng phn mm truyn thng vi nhau thng qua cc cng ngh phn tn nh CORBA hoc OLE.

1.3 CC M HNH QUN L MNG TIU CHUN 1.3.1 M hnh qun l h thng m OSI CHNG 2 H THNG GIAO THC QUN L MNG SNMP V ICMP 2.1 Giao thc qun tr mng SNMP SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): l giao thc c s dng rt ph bin gim st v iu khin thit b mng nh switch, router, bridge... S dng trong cc h qun tr nh Unix, Windows, Printers, Modem racks, power supplies v cc thit b khc. Vi nhng vn phng nh ch c vi thit b mng v t tp trung mt ni th c l chng ta khng thy c li ch ca SNMP. Nhng vi cc h thng mng ln, thit b phn tn nhiu ni v bn cn phi ngi mt ch m c th qun l tt c thit b mi thy c li ch ca SNMP. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 cung cp phn mm SNMP agent c th lm vic vi phn mm qun l SNMP t nh cung cp th 3 nhm gim st cc trng thi ca thit b qun l v cc ng dng. 2.1.1. Gii thiu giao thc SNMP. Giao thc SNMP l giao thc c th trng chp nhn trong thi gian rt ngn. iu l s chng minh tt nht cho u im ca n. Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP gip ngi qun tr xc nh v sa cha cc vn trong TCP/IP internet. Ngi qun l thc thi SNMP client trn my tnh cc b ca h, my tnh PC chng hn v s dng client lin lc vi mt hoc nhiu SNMP server no thc thi trn my tnh xa (thng l cc

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gateway). SNMP s dng m hnh fetch-store, trong mi server duy tr mt tp hp cc bin khi nim cha cc s liu thng k n gin, nh l m s packet nhn c, cng nh cc bin phc tp tng ng vi cc cu trc d liu TCP/IP, nh l RARP cache v cc bng nh tuyn IP. Giao thc SNMP nm tng ng dng n lm d dng vic trao i thng tin gia cc thit b mng. N hot ng da trn tng UDP ca giao thc IP. V tp lnh, giao thc SNMP ch c 5 lnh c bn trao i thng tin gia trm qun l v cc agent l: Get-Request, Get-Next-Request, Set- Request, GetResponse v Trap. y chnh l mt u im ca SNMP, do cu trc n gin nn d ci t

2.1.2 B phn qun l (manager) B phn qun l l mt chng trnh vn hnh trn mt hoc nhiu my tnh trm. Ty thuc vo cu hnh, mi b phn qun l c th c dng qun l mt mng con, hoc nhiu b phn qun l c th c dng qun l cng mt mng con hay mt mng chung. Tng tc thc s gia mt ngi s dng cui v b phn qun l c duy tr qua vic s dng mt hoc nhiu chng trnh ng dng m, cng vi b phn qun l, bin mt bng phn cng thnh Trm qun l mng. Ngy nay, trong thi k cc chng trnh giao din ngi s dng ha, hu ht nhng chng trnh ng dng cung cp mi trng ca s ch v click chut, thc hin lin vn hnh vi b phn qun l to ra nhng bn ha v biu cung cp nhng tng kt hot ng ca mng di dng thy c.

Hnh 2.1 Lu giao thc SNMP

Hnh 2.2 Mi quan h gia cc thnh phn SNMP

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hnh ca thit b. Thng tin ny c th bao gm vic thit lp chuyn 2.1.3 Agent Thit b chu s qun l l mt nt mng h tr giao thc SNMP v thuc v mng b qun l. Thit b c nhim v thu thp thng tin qun l v lu tr phc v cho h thng qun l mng. Nhng thit b chu s qun l, i khi c gi nhng phn t mng, c th l nhng b nh tuyn v my ch truy nhp-Access Server, nhng switch v nhng bridge, nhng hub, my tnh hay l nhng my in trong mng. mch phn cng, nhng gi tr khc nhau lu tr trong cc bng ghi nh d liu, b h s hoc cc trng thng tin trong h s lu tr cc file v nhng bin hoc thnh phn d liu tng t. 2.1.5 M hnh giao thc SNMP SNMP s dng cc dch v chuyn ti d liu c cung cp bi cc giao thc UDP/IP. Mt ng dng ca Manager phi nhn dng c Agent cn thng tin vi n. Mt ng dng ca Agent c nhn dng bi a ch IP ca n v mt cng UDP. Mt ng dng Manager ng gi yu cu SNMP trong mt UDP/IP, UDP/IP cha m nhn dng cng ngun, a ch IP ch v m nhn dng cng UDP ca n. Khung UDP s c gi i thng qua thc th IP ti h thng c qun l, ti khung UDP s c phn phi bi thc th UDP ti Agent. Tng t cc bn tin TRAP phi c nhn dng bi cc Manager. Cc bn tin s dng a ch IP v m nhn dng cng UDP ca Manager SNMP. 2.2 CC C TNH GIAO THC SNMPv2 V SNMPv3 2.2.1 Cc c tnh c bn ca giao thc SNMPV2 2.2.2 Cc c tnh c bn ca giao thc SNMPv3 2.2.3 Nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc SNMPv3 2.3 NG DNG THC TIN CA GIAO THC SNMPv3 Hnh 2.3 Mng c qun l theo SNMP 2.1.4 C s thng tin qun l - MIB Mi thit b chu s qun l c th c cu hnh, trng thi v thng tin thng k rt a dng, nh ngha chc nng v kh nng vn 2.3.1. Mt s vn thc tin qun l mng Chuyn cc d liu qun l vo m lnh S tng trng ca MIB phc tp trong trin khai

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2.3.2 Qun l mng MPLS vi SNMPv3 i tng qun l trong mng MPLS Thc t qun l mng MPLS qua SNMP 2.4 GIAO THC ICMP CHNG 3 XY DNG H THNG GIM ST CHT LNG MNG 3.1 XY DNG H THNG GIM ST Trong h thng mng IP, cc thit b mng c s dng xuyn sut. vic theo di v x l kp thi cc trng thi s c ca thit b l v cng cn thit. hin ti mi nh sn xut iu pht trin cc phn mm nh Salawinds, ciscoworks Network Connectivity Monitor . im yu l mi sn phm c mt phn mm qun l, iu ny gy kh khn trong vic theo di hin trng mng mt cch tng qut. Mi phn mm c th phc v cho mt hay nhiu h iu hnh v c nhiu phin bn vi nhng u v nhc im khc nhau, c th s dng cu hnh trn thit b phn cng h tr giao thc SNMP nh Router, Pix, Modem Do , la chn mt phn mm cho ph hp cho tng mng rt kh khn. Sau thi gian nghin cu ti xy dng mt phn mm gim st cht lng mng IP trn cc mng nh: mng Core VTN3, mng Man-e ca VNPT cc tnh thnh, mng LAN, t bit mng VPN trn a bn tnh Qung nam. Vi vic s dng cng c Visual Studio 2008, ngn ng lp trnh VB.NET, c s d liu SQL server xy dng phn mm ny..

3.1.1 Thit k c s d liu 3.1.2 Bng d liu ca h thng 3.1.3 Gii thut gim st mng theo 1 ln qut vi thi gian qut c th thay i

Hnh 2.4 Gii thut gim st mng mt ln qut

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3.2 KT QU MINH HA C th ni vi bt c mt mng no th vic giao tip vi mng bn ngoi u phi thng qua mt thit b chnh l Router, Swich. Vi phn mm ny ngi qun tr mng c th thc hin gim st tt c cc Route, Switch trong mng Man-E, mng MegaWan, mng LAN... mt cch d dng. Trn y l s dng phn mm gim st cht lng mng thun tin trong vic khai thc, x l tt c cc knh VPN bng nhng thao tc nhanh chng trn giao din phn mm nh Ping, Trace, Browse IP,Telnet, TFTP

o o o o o o o o o o

Trng thi a ch IP Time (thi gian) Packet Tx Packet loss TTL (thi gian sng ca knh) M t ca knh a ch Web Uername Password.

Hin nay cc knh VPN B Ti chnh, cc ngn hng thng mi trn a bn tnh Qung nam vi trm knh VPN gm: Kho bc, Chi cc thu, Hi quan cc huyn th. Khi cn kim tra ton b mng knh B Ti chnh trn a bn tnh, ngi qun tr mng ch cn vi thao tc nhp chut trn phn mm l c th quan st tng th ton b mng ca B Ti chnh. T ta c th bit knh no hot ng knh no khng hot ng, cht lng ca tng knh v c bin php theo di, x l.

Hnh 3.1 Phn mm gim st cht lng mng Trn giao din ta c th quan st mt cch tng th chi tit ca tng knh

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M320 HNI

M320 IP core M320 NG network HCM

Hnh 3.4 Thm tn Node mi vo c s d liu 3.3.2 Chi tit d liu cc knh lu (Th List) Cng c ny h tr nhanh vic a ra cc thng tin y ca mt a ch IP v cc thng tin khc, sau ta c th b xung v chnh sa. Hnh 3.2 S gim st knh MegaWan B Ti chnh tnh Qung nam 3.3.1 Lu cc thng tin cn thit vo c s d (Th Add) Tn Node a ch IP a ch Web Username Password Ghi ch ( cc thng tin nh: tc , m ti sn, seri) Tm kim c s d liu (CSDL) MIB. N ly thng tin nhanh chng trn mt MIB hoc mt i tng ring ; n c th l mt tn hoc l mt ID , a ch IP m c lu trc . 3.3.3 Tm kim nhanh (Th Search) Cng c ny h tr nhanh vic tm kim c s d liu (CSDL) MIB. N ly thng tin nhanh chng trn mt MIB hoc mt i tng ring ; n c th l mt tn, a ch IP hoc l mt ID m c lu trc . 3.3.4 PING (Th Ping)

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PING ( Packet Internet Groper ) l mt cng c cho mng my tnh s dng giao thc mng TCP/IP gip chng ta kim tra xem c th kt ni ti mt route hoc mt my ch c th no hay khng. 3.3.5 Trace (Th trace) Tracert cho php bn xc nh cc gi nh hng lu chuyn trong ton b mng ti host c th theo yu cu ca bn. Tracert hot ng bng cch tng thm gi tr "thi gian sng" (TTL) cho tng gi lin tip c gi i. Khi mt gi i qua mt host, host ny s gim TTL i mt gi tr v tip tc gi n sang host k tip. Khi mt gi c TTL n c host cn ti, host s loi b gi v gi thng bo thi gian ICMP qu hn. 3.3.6 Telnet (Th telnet)

thun tin cho ngi qun tr mng quy hoch IP, vic tnh ton IP v chia subnet rt quan trng. V vy phn mm cn c tool tnh ton IP, chia subnet, gip thun tin trong vic qun l mng. 3.3.9 Option (Th Option) Ta c th ci t thi gian qut v thi gian timeout ca vic ping n mt node, cng nh thi gian ly cht lng trong history.

Telnet l mt chng trnh terminal u cui. N thng dng login vo mt my ch hoc mt Router, Switch no trong mng, xem hoc thay i cu hnh khi c nhu cu. 3.3.7 History (Th history)

Vic gim st cht lng ca mt node cn phi c thi gian di, v vic lu li thng tin mt gi rt quan trng, v vy cn phi c th History lu li thng tin mt gi ca node. Khi c s thay i trng thi th phn mm s lu vo d liu v m s ln qut, nh vy ta s bit c s ln mt v mt bao nhiu gi trong khong thi gian no . 3.3.8 Ip Caclurator (Th Ip Caclurator)

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN Kt Lun Sau mt thi gian thc hin, ti hon thnh lun vn v t c mt s kt qu nht nh. Trong lun vn ny, ti c gng trnh by nhng kin thc c bn v gim st cht lng mng IP, h thng giao thc ICMP v SNMP. Lun vn tp trung ch yu vo vn : Xy dng h thng gim st cht lng mng TCP/IP trn c s cc giao thc ICMP v SNMP v bc u ng dng thnh cng m hnh ny Trung tm vin thng khu vc 3 v cc VNPT tnh thnh, thc hin gim st cht lng mng cho cc khch hng s dng dch v VPN m mnh cung cp v t bit khch hng cc huyn min ni c a hnh kh khn nh tnh Qung Nam, KonTum, k Lt, k Nng Nh c kh nng ny m cc nh qun tr mng kim sot s thay i v cc kt ni trn mng, cho php kp thi pht hin cc s c, cc li k thut, cc on b tht c chai, Bit chnh xc nhng v tr gy li m ngi qun tr mng c th can thip kp thi, trnh nhng tn tht ln hn din ra. Kt qu t c: hon thnh lun vn vi cc ni dung nu trn. Hng pht trin Hon thnh lun vn vi kt qu t c tng i theo yu cu ca ti a ra. Tuy nhin trong qu trnh thc hin ti, ti nhn thy vn cn nhiu vn lin quan cn c tm hiu nghin

cu. Ti xin a ra mt s vn cn tm hiu v nghin cu pht trin ti nh sau: - Vic xy dng h thng qun l cho nhng thit b mng hin nay v trong tng lai ngy cng gp nhiu kh khn (vi vic pht trin thit b ca nhng cng ngh mi nh MPLS hay Ethernet Gigabit l vic thm vo hoc k tha cc NE lp 2). - S liu hin th dng biu cha c xy dng.

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