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http://www.islamonline.net/Arabic/politics/2001/09/article29.shtml

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Joh Esposito: American Foreign Policy after 9/11: Challenges to Islam and the west.

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- Summary Report on Islamophobia in EU after 11 September 2001, European
Monitoring center on racism and Xenophobia, by C.Allen, J. Nielsen, Vienna, May 2002

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[17] Peter Mandaville: Transnational Muslim Polilics, Reimagining the Umma.
Routledge Research in transnationalism, London, 2001, PP. 114-118.

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Heba R. Ezzat Co-Citizenship: Bringing religion back, Paper Presented to:
International consultations in: Christians and Muslims in Dialogue and beyond
Convened by World church council, Geneva, October 2002.
- F. Petito, P. Hatzopoulos, Religion in International
Relations: The return from exile, Palgrave macmillan, 2003.

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[24] Peter Mandaville: op. cit, PP. 149-150.

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[27] Peter Mandaville: op. cit, chap. 2 + 3.

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[28] Dr. Zaki Babawi: introduction to, Dr Taha Jabir AL-Alwani, Towards a fiqh for
Minorities, Some Basic reflexions, (IIIT), London, Occasional papers No. 10, 2006.

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Peter Mandaville: op. cit Bernand Lewis: La situation des populations musulmanes
dans un rgime non-musulman: reflescions juridiques et historiques. (dans) Bernand
Lewis; Dominique Schnapper (eds) Musulmans En Europe. Actes Sud, Panis, 1992.

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[30] Tomaz Mastnak, Islam and the creation of European identity, University of west
minister Press, Center for the study of democracy, Research papers No. 4, 1994.

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- Lisa Kaul- Seidman, Jorgen S. Nielsen, Markus Vinzent: European Identity and
cultural pluralism: Judaism Christianity and Islam in European curricula Herbertquandt- stiftung, 2003.

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[37] Tareq Ramadam: Islam and Muslims in Europe: Fundamental issues (Part 1).
www.Islamonline.net/English/Europear Muslims/ Polilics/ 2006/ 04/ 02.

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[45] Fiqh Today: Muslims as minorities: 5th annual (UK) conference 21- 22, February
2004, University of Westminster, London, Organized by (IIIT) The Muslim college, Q
news Media, (Conference Booklet).

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www.Bouti.Com/bouti_monthly 15. htm.

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www.Islamonline.net/ Arabic/contemporary politics/2001/article.
Taha Gabir- AL-Alwani Towards Fiqh for minorities, Some basic Reflexions, :kjGC fG)
occasional papers Series No. 10, (IIIT) London- Washington 2003.

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http://www.islamonline.net/Arabic/contemporary/2004/01/article02d.shtml

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.]64[ "fBG H
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58

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.dG J dG

59

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[69] Bernard Lewis: op. cit, pp. 11-12, pp. 25- 26, pp. 29- 31, pp. 34- 39.

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[71] Dominique Schnapper, Commmumauts, minorits thniques ef citoyens
musulmans. (in) B. Lewis, Dominique Schnapper (eds) op, cit, pp 181-186).

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[72] Gerd Nonneman: Muslim communities in the new Europe, Themes and puzzles
(in) G. Nonneman, Tim Niblock., Bogdon Szajko wski (eds) Muslins communities in
New Europe, Ithaca, UK, 1996.

72

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[73] J.Nielsen, Muslims, Christians and loyalities in the Nation- State (in) J.Nielsen
(ed), Religion and Citizenship in Europe and the arab world, London 1992.

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[75] Steven Vertovec, Ceripeach: Introduction, Islam in Europe and the politics of
Religion and community (in) S. Vertoves, C. Peach (eds) Islam in Europe, Center for
Research in Ethnic Relations, University of war wick, 1997.

79

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[76] Peter Mandaville: op.cit, pp 114-118, pp 145-150.

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SGQdG ce ,2005 je ,2 OdG ,HhQhGC GQhGC ,dGdG WGbjdG eRGCh HhQhGC a djOGdG
.2005 ,IgdG eL ,HhQhCG
J. Nielsen: Islam in Europe in to the next millennium (in) S. Vertovec, C. peach (eds) op. cit.

:fG dG f LdG Y dP QKGCh HhQhGC a jdG Vh fJ Yh `


- Noelle Knox: Religion takes back seat in Western Europe. Us Today.
www.Ustoday.com/news/ world/2005-80/10europe-religion-cover.

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- Daniel Pipes, Muslim Europe, NewYork Sun, May 11, 2004.
US slams Europe in Muslim Integration, by Tresa Kuchler, eu
Observer, 4/6/2006: www euobserver. Com / 9 / 21327.

:dG dG S Y cf ]89[
Mohamed Mestiri, From The Fiqh of Minorities to The Fiqh of Citizenship: Challenges of
Conceptualization and Implementation; (in): Fiqh Today: Muslim as Minoreties Conference, op.cit.
Louy Safi: Muslim Minorities and Universal Worldview: The Role Muslim Social Societies in
Differentiating Universal from the Particular; (in): Ibid. Dilwar Hussain: The Need for A European
Fiqh and The Normalization of Islam in Europe; (in): Ibid. Muhammad Brich: Fiqh for Minorities
and Maqaid Al-Shariah; (in): Ibid. Ihsan Yilmaz: Micro-Mujtahids and Implementation of Fiqh AlAqlliyat; (in): Ibid. Dilwar Hussain: Europe and Islam: Mutual experiences and the future,
www.islamonline.net/english/europeanmuslims/arts/2006/1/29. Nabil Shabeeb: Muslims in Greater
Europe, www.islamonline.net/english/europeanmuslims/politics/2005/12/07 Farish A. Noor: What
is the victory of Islam? Towards a different understanding of the ummah and political success in the
contemporary world (in) Omid Safi (ed) progressive muslims 2003, one world- publication.

88

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- Reinventing Islam in Europe: a profile of Tariq Ramadam, Buy Rosemany Bechler.
www. Open democracy.net/ debates article 6-7-2004.

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- Islam In Europe: www. Tariqramadan.com/ anticle/ 27/9/2004.
- Democracy, Islam and the politics of belanging: Rosemary Bechler.
www. Open democracy.net. 2-3-2006.

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- Islam and Muslims in Europe: Fun damental issues
www. Islamonline. Net/ English/ European Maslmis/ politics/ 2006/04/02.

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- Alaa Bayoumi: Integrating European muslims: Europe's fearful Bid,
www.islamonline.net/english/europeanmuslims/politics/2005/12/06.

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www.ara_amnesty.org/web/web/nsf18/6/2006

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2001/9/11 e
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